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An illustrated monthly magazine devoted to the interests of teach- 
ers of geography in Elementary, Secondary, and Normal 
Schools. Successor to the Journal oif School 
Geography, Vol. V, and the Bulletin 
of the American Bureau of 
Geography, Vol. n 


Professor of Geography ^ Teachers College^ Columbia University^ New York City 


Frofessor of Geography^ State Normal School, iVinona^ Minnesota 




Room 560* 160 Adams St.. Cbiaico, IlHnoU 

tun 1 1 Mardi 19, IMS. »t Cbkactt, HI., m weoad-clMS nttn. udcr Art of Coaffim af lUnh S, 18Tt 



An lilttstrat^d Magasin9 D9Vot9d to tht inffsts of T^achtrs of C^ographp in 
EUm9ntarw» Smcondary, and fiormat Schools 

Successor to tYke Journal of School Geography^ Vol. V., and the Bulletin of the 
American Bureau of Geography^ VoL II. 



Professor of Geography .^ Teachers College^ Columbia University^ New York City, 


Professor of Geography^ State Normal School^ Winona^ Minnesota. 


CYRUS C. ADAMS Geographical Editor, N. Y. Sun 

OTIS W. CALDWELL . Professor of Botany, Stale Normal Sc/iool, Charleston, J II. 
JAMES F. CHAMBERLAIN, Prof of Geography, State Normal School, Los Angeles, Cal. 
HENRY C. COWLES . . . Associate in Botany, University of Chicago, Chicago, III. 
WILLIAM M. DAVIS. Professor of Geology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
N. M. FENNEMAN . . Professor of Geology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, H'^is. 
J. PAUL GOODE, Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Chicago, Chicago, III. 
GEORGE B. HOLLISTER, Hydrographer, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
M. S. W. JEFFlS.KSO'ii, Professor of Geography, State Normal School, Ypsilanti,Mich. 
EMORY R. JOHNSON, Asst. Prof of Transportation and Commerce, Univ. of Penna, 
EDW. D. JONES, Asst. Prof of Commerce and Industry, Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor 
VERNON L. KELLOGG, Prof of Entomology, Leland Stanford Jr. Univ., Palo Alto, Cal. 

CHARLES F. KING Master of Dearborn Sclu>ol, Boston, Mass. 

S. J. Maclean, Asst. Prof, of Economics, Leland Stanford Jr. Univ., Palo Alto, Cal. 
FOREST RAY MOULTON, Assistant Professor of Astronomy, University of Chicago 

JACQUES W. RED WAY Author, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

ELLEN C. SEMPLE Writer in Anthropogeography, Louisville, Ky. 

FREDERICK STARR, Associate Prof of Anthropology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, III. 
RALPH S. TARR, I^ofessor of Physical Geography, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

SPENCER TROTTER Professor of Biology, Swarthmore College, Pa. 

ROBERT Dec. WARD . . Assistant Professor of Climatology, Harvard University 


A. J. HERBERTSON, Lecturer in Regional Geography, Oxford University, England 

• JOHN A. DRESSER Prince Albert School, St. Henry de Montreal, Quebec 


• • • 

*••$!. 50 a Year in Advance Single Copies, 20 cents 

Pric9 in all foreign countries in the Universal Postal Union, $1.90 {10 numbers), postpaid 

• ; On sale with E. McGegan, Outlook Tower, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to 


Room 560, x6o Adams Street, Chicago, 111., or Winona, Minn. 

Copyright, 1904, by E. M. Lehnerts. 




Wind Effects Mark S. W. Jefferson 3 

A Scheme of Geography William M. Davis 20 

Geographical Notes: Some Facts About Panama, 32 — The Ship 
Canals of the World, 34— Dalney, The Township, 38 — ^The Bag- 
dad Railway and German Commerce in Asia Mmor, 41 — A Plan 
Which Interested a Geography Class, 42 — Addition to the List 
of Geographical Societies of America, 44 — Current Articles on 
Commerce and Industry, 44. 

Geographical Queries 47 

Editorial: Signs of the Times, 51. 

Reviews: Field and Laboratory Exercises in Physical Geography. 
Chamberlain (C. B. K.), 83. 

Recent Publications 53 

News Notes 54 


The Geography Course in the Chicago Normal School. 

Part I Frank W. Darling and Elizabeth Smith 55 

Map Making and Map Reading Robert Marshall Brown 65 

Inductive Method of Teaching Change of Seasons. . . .R. S. Holway 75 

MEDii«VAL Trade and Trade Routes C. Raymond Beazley 79 

Geographical Notes: The Production of Sugar in the Hawaiian 
Islands, 89 — The World's Maritime Statistics, 90 — Area, Popu- 
lation, and Density of Population of the South American 
Republics. 90 — Manufacture of Ice in Palestine, 90 — Raising 
Crops in the Far North, 91 — Standard Time in South Africa, 91 
— Manufacture of Perfumes in Grasse, 92 — Destruction of 
Cork Forests in Italy, 92 — Current Articles on Commerce and 
Industry, 93. 

Geographical Queries 94 

Editorial: Geography Teaching in Normal and Training Schools, 95. 
Reviews: The Geography of Commerce, Trotter, (E. D. J.), 97 — 
Elementary Geography, King, (L. W. H.), 97. 

Recent Publications q8 

News Notes 100 


The Republic of Panama Col. G. E. Church loi 

Transportation. Part I John Thorn HoldswortH 112 

Authors are personally responsible for opinions and statements expressed 
in the JOURNAL, 




The Geography Course in the Chicago Normal School. 

Part II Frank W. Darling and Elizabeth Smith 122 

Geographical Notes: Controlling Sand Dunes in the United 
States and Europe, 131 — Climate of San Francisco, 134 — Cur- 
rent Articles on Commerce and Industry, 136. 

Geographical Queries 137 

Editorial: The Geographic Congress and the School Teacher, 138. 

Recent Publications 139 

News Notes 140 


The Motions of the Earth. Part I Forest R. Moulton 145 

Transportation. Part II John Thorn Holdsworth 150 

The Course in Geography in the State Normal School at 

Salem, Mass William Charles Moore 163 

Geographical Notes: Plans for Home Geography Study, 179 — 
The Effective Teacher of Geography, 182 — The Eastern Shore 
of Virginia. 184 — An Interesting Atmosoheric Phenomenon, 
185 — Standard Times, 186 — The English Mile Compared with 
Otner European Measures, 187 — Decisions of the L . S. Board 
on Geographical Names; Approved January 6. 1904, 187 — 
From Paris to Pekin by Rail, 188 — Snow Cr>'stals. 188. 

Editorial: Is Geography Receiving Sufficient Attention in Ele- 
mentary Schools? i8g. 

Reviews: Commercial Geography, Redway (E. D. J). 191. 

News Notes *. ' 192 


Summer Courses in Geography Edward M. Lehnerts 193 

The Delta of the Mississippi Francis E. Lloyd 204 

The Motions of the Earth. Part II Forest R. Moulton. ... 213 

The Functions of Geography in the Elementary School: A Study 

in Educational Values William Chandler Bagley 222 

Geographical Notes: Wind-Blown Trees. 27,7, — Our Proportion 

of the World. 234 — Primary' Geography, 234 — Current Articles 

on Commerce and Industry, 235. 
Editorial: Geography for Teachers During the Coming Stmimer, 237. 
Reviews: New Physical Geographv, Tarr (W. R. C), 238 — A 

Laboratorv Manual for Phvsical (geography. Darling (C. B. K.), 

239 — The Yellowstone National Park. Chittenden (R. E. D.), 

Recent Publications 240 


The Geographic Importance of the Louisiana Purchase 243 

Albert Perry Brigham 

The Surface and Climate of the Louisiana Purchase. A'. //. Darton 251 

Explorations Within the Louisiana Purchase \. C. Howland 261 



Present Industries Within the Louisiana Purchase 270 

Spencer Trotter 
The Value and Development of Irrigation in the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Tract George B. HoUister 278 

Geographic Influences in the Development of St. Louis 290 

Ellen Churchill Sent pie 

Denver, the Queen City of the Plains C. E. Chadsey 300 

Geographical Xotes: Area and Population of States and Terri- 
tories within the Louisiana Purchase. 304 — Rank of Principal 
Manufactures in the Several Louisiana Purchase States. 1900, 
304 — Agriculture in the Louisiana Purchase. 305 — Grazing in 
the Louisiana Purchase Territory', 1900. 305 — Localization of 
Industries in the Louisiana Purchase, 305 — Bibliography of the 
Purchase, 305 — Current Articles on Commerce and Industry', 
Editorial: The Louisiana Purchase, 307. 

Recent Publications 308 

News Notes 309 


The First American Geography Clifton Johnson 311 

The School Excursion and the School Museum as Aids in the 

Teaching of Geography I). (\ Ridgeley 322 

The Human Response to the Physical Environment. .J. Paul Goode 333 
Geographical Notes: ''Sensible Temperatures," 343 — Public 
Schools in Russia, 348 — Cost of Construction of the Trans- 
Siberian Railway, 348 — Advisable Omissions from the Elemen- 
tary Curriculum, 349 — Current Articles on Commerce and 
Industry, 349 — Economic Importance of the Coffee Industry, 
351 — The Climate of the Argentine Republic, 352 — Map Draw- 
ing in Histor\', 353 — Commercial Japan in igo4, 354. 
Editorial: The Emphasis of Details in School Geography, 354. 
Reviews: Geology. Chamberlin and Salisbury, Vol. I. (J. P. G.), 
356 — The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. James, 356. 

Recent Publications 357 

News Notes 358 


Geography and History in the United States 359 

Albert Perry Brigham 

Emphasis Upon Anthropo-Geography in Schools 366 

Ellen Churchill Sentplc 

Practical Work in School Geography R. H. Whitbcck 374 

Physical Geography in High Schools Mary I. Piatt 379 

Geographical Notes: State Geography — Cause and Effect — 
Search Questions, 387 — The Geographical Field in Indiana, 
389 — Cotton Cultivation, 392 — The Winter of 1903-04 in the 
Great Lakes Region, 393 — Bermuda, 393 — Poultry and Eggs, 





Editorial: Clubs of Geography Teachers, 400. 

Reviews: Commercial Gcograohy of the World Outside the 

British Isles. Herbertson (R. E. A.), 401— The Land of Little 

Rain. Austin (R. E. D.), 402. 
Recent Publications 402 


Excursions in College Geography William Harmon Norton 40^ 

Response to Surroundings — A Geographic Principle 409 

R. H. Whitbeck 

Transportation, Part III John Thorn Holdsworth 413 

What a Child Should Gain From Geography R. P. Ireland 421 

What the Child Should Know of Geography at the End of His 

Grade Course Amos W. Farnham 424 

Geographical Notes: Geographic Features of Alaska, 427 — A 
Great Tunnel, 432 — British India, 433 — The Practical Use of 
the Globe in Teaching Geography, 436 — First Lessons in Geog- 
raphy, 440 — Acclimatization of the White Race in the Tropics, 
443 — Forests and Climate in Texas, 444. 
Editorial: Home Geography, 445. 
Review: North America, 446. 


Final Results in the Study of Geography. . . Jacques W. Redway 447 
Results of an Elementary Course in Geography Philip Emerson '50 

Foundational Experiences Arthur P. Irving 454 

What Should (tRaduates from Elementary Schools Know About 

Geography Isaac O. Winslow 458 

Commercial Importance of Continents George D. Hubbard 462 

Later Geographies Clifton Johnson 467 

Geographical Notes: Trade and Commerce in Persia, 486. 
Editorial: What a Child Should Gain from His School Course 

in Geography, 487. 
Reviews: Handl){>ok of Commercial Geography. Chisholm (Geo. 

G.), 487— Stories of Discovery. Hale (Edward E.), 488. 
News Notes 488 


Agriculture, A Text-book of the 
Physics of, F. H. King (review), 

Agriculture in the Louisiana Pur- 
chase (note), 305 
Agriculture, New Elementary, for 

Rural and Graded Schools (review). 

Alaska, Geographic Features of 

(note), 427 
Anthropo-Geographv in Schools, 

Emphasis Upon, Ellen C. Seniple, 

Argentine Republic, The Climate 

of the (note), 352 
Around the World in the Sloop Spray, 

Capt. J. Slocum (review), 309 
Asia Minor, The Bagdad Railway 

and German Commerce in (note), 

Atmospheric Phenomenon, An In- 
teresting (note), 185 
Austin, Mary, The Land of Little 

Rain (review), 99, 402 

Bagdad Railway and German 
Commerce in Asia Minor (note), 


Baglev, William Chandler, The 
Functions of Geography in the 
Elementary School, 222 

Beazley, C. Raymond, Mediceval 
Trade and Trade Routes, 79 

Bermuda (note), 393 

Bibliography of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase (note), 305 

Blair, Emma H., and Robertson 
James A., Tlw Philippine Islands 
(review), 99, 139, 240 

Brigham, a. p.. Geographic Impor- 
tance of the Louisiana Purchase, 
The, 243 

Brigham, Albert P., Geography and 
History in the United States, 359 

Brown, Robert M. (note), 192 • 

Brown, Robert Marshall, Map Mak- 
ing and Map Reading, 65 

Bulletin of tne American Geograph- 
ical Society (note), 144 

Caribbean ami Across Panama, 
Around the, Nicholas (review), 54 

Carpenter's Geographical Reader: A us- 
tralia. Our Colonies, and Other 
Islands of the Sea, F. G. Carpenter, 


Chadsey, C. E., Denver — The Queen 
City of the Plains, 300 

Chamberlain, James F., Field and 
Laboratory Exercises in Physical 
Geography (review), 53 

Chamberlin, Thomas C., and Salis- 
bury, Rollin D., Geology (review), 
308, 356 

Chisholm, George G., Handbook of 
Commercial Geography (review), 
98, 487 

Chittknuen, Hiram M., The Yellow- 
stone National Park (review), 99, 

Church, Col. G. E., The Rei)ublic of 
Panama, 101 

Climate, Forests and, in Texas 
(note), 444 

Climate of San Francisco (note), 


Climate, The, of the Argentme Re- 
j)ublie (note), 352 

Climate, The Surface and, of the 
Louisiana Purchase, Darton, 251 

Coffee Industry, Economic Im- 
portance of (note), 351 

Commerce and Industry, Current 
Articles on, 44, 93, 136, 235,306, 

Commerce in Asia Minor and the 
Bagdad Railway, German (note), 


Commerce, Trade and, in Persia 
(note), 486 

Commercial Geography, Handbook of, 
Chisholm (review), 98, 487 

Commercial Geography of the World 
Outside the British Isles, Herbert- 
son (review), 401 

Commercial Importance of Conti- 
nents, Hubbard. 462 

Cork Forests in Italy, Destruction 
of (note), 92 

Cornell Summer School of Geog- 
raphy, The (note), 358 



Cotton Cultivation (note), 392 

Course in Geography in the State 
Normal School at Salem, Mass., 
Moore, 163 

Course of Geography in the Chi- 
cago Normal School, The, Darling 
and Smith, 55, 122 

Courses in Geography, Summer, 

Crops in the Far North, Raising 

(note), 91 

Cumberland Road, The, Hulbert (re- 
view), 130 

Current Articles on Commerce 
and Industry, 44, 93, 136, 235, 306, 

Dalny, The Township (note), 38 

Darling, Frank W., A Laboratory 
Manual for Physical Geography 
(review), 139, 239 

Darling, Frank W., and Smith, 
Elizabeth, The Geographv Course 
in the Chicago Normal Scliool, 55, 

Darton, N. H., The Surface and Cli- 
mate of the Louisiana Purchase, 


Davis, William M., A Scheme of 
Geography, 20 

Decimal System, The (note), 489 

Delta of the Mississippi, The, 
Lloyd, 204 

Denver — The Queen City of the 
Plains, Chadsey, 300 

Descriptive Chemistry, Newell (re- 
view), 99 

Descriptive Geography from Original 
Sources: Australia and Occanica, 
Herbertson and Herbertson (re- 
views), 54 

Discovery, Stories of, Hale (review), 

Dopp, Katharine E., The Tree-Dwell- 
ers (review), 139 

Dubois and Kergomard, Precis de 
Geographie Economique (review), 

Early Western Travels, 1 748-1846, 

(review), 308, 402 
Earth, The Motions of the, Moulton, 

Editorials, 51, 95, 138, 189, 237, 

307. 354, 400, 445, 487 
Eggs, Poultry and (note), 395 
Elementary Curriculum, Advisa- 
ble Omissions from the (note), 349 

Elementary Geography, King (re- 
view), 54 

Emerson, Philip, Results of an Ele- 
mentary Course in Geography, 450 

English Mile Compared with Other 
European Measures, The (note), 

Excursion and the School Mu- 
seum as Aids in the Teaching of 
Geography, The School, Ridgeley, 

Excursions in College Geogra- 
phy, Norton, 403 

Explorations within the Louisiana 
Purchase, Rowland, 261 

Farnham, a. W., What a Child 

Should Know of Geography at the 

End of His Grade Course, 424 
Field and Laboratory Exercises in 

Physical Geography, Chamberlain 

(review), 53 
Final Results in the Study of 

Geography, Redway, 447 
First American Geography, The, 

Johnson, 311 
Forests and Climate in Texas 

(note), 444 
Foundational Experiences, Irving, 


Geographen-Kalender (review), 357 
Geographic Congress, The Eighth 

International (note), 140, 309 
Geographic Congress and the 

School Teacher, The (editorial), 

Geographic Importance of the 

Louisiana Purchase, The, Brigham, 


Geographic Influences in the De- 
velopment of St. Louis, Semple, 

Geographic Names; Approved Jan- 
uary 6, 1904, Decisions of the 
U. S. Board on (note), 187 

Geographic Names, Rules for 
(note), 488 

Geographic Principle — Response 
to Surroundings, Whitbeck, 409 

Geographical Field in Indiana, 
The (note), 389 

Geographical Societies of Amer- 
ica, Addition to the List of (note), 

Geographies, Later, Johnson, 467 
Geography and History in the 

United States, Brigham, 359 



Geography, Excursions in College, 

Norton, 403 
Geography, Final Results in the 

Study of, Red way, 447 
Geography, First Lessons in (note), 

Geography for Teachers During the 

Coming Summer (editorial), 237 
Geography in the Elementary 

School. The Functions of, Bagley, 

Geography, Primary (note), 234 
Geography, Results of an Elemen- 
tary Course in, Emerson, 450 
Geography, State (note), 387 
Geography, Summer Courses in, 

Geography, The First American, 

Johnson, 311 
Geography, The Cornell Summer 

School of (note), 358 
Geography Teaching in Normal and 

Training Schools (editorial), 95 
Geography, What a Child Should 

Gain from, Ireland, 421 
Geography, What a Child Should 

Know of, at the End of His Grade 

Course, Famham, 424 
Geography, What Should Graduates 

from Elementary Schools Know 

About, Winslow, 458 
Geography Course in the Chicago 

Normal School, The, Darling and 

Smith, 51;, 122 
Geology, Chambcrlin, Thomas C, 

and Salisbury, RoUin D. (review), 

3o«. 356 

Glacial Period, The Cause 0} the, True 
(review), gg 

Globe, The Practical Use of the, in 
Teaching Geograj>hy (note), 436 

(jRAZIng in the Louisiana Purchase 
Territory (note), 305 

Great Lakes Region, The Winter 
of 1903-04 in the (note), 393 

Goode, J. Paul, The Human Re- 
sponse to the Physical Environ- 
ment, 333 

Hale, E. E., Stories of Di scolder y 

(review). 488 
Hatfield, H. R., Editor. Lectures on 

Contftterce (review), 308 
Hawaiian Islands, Production of 

Sugar in the (note), 89 
Herbertson, a. J., Commercial 

Geography of the World Outside the 

British Isles (review), 401 

Herbertson, A. J. and F. D., De- 
scriptiiw Geography from Original 
Sources: Australia and Oceanica 
(review), 54 

High Schools, Physical Geography 
in, Piatt, 379 

History, A Brief, of Rocky Mountain 
Exploration, with EspecicU Refer- 
ence to the Expedition of Lewis and 
Clark, Thwaites (review), 357 

History, Geography and, in the 
United States, Brighara, 359 

History, Map Drawing in (note), 


Hitchcock, Ripley, The Louisiana 
Purchase (review), 309 

Holds WORTH, John Thorn, Trans- 
portation, 112, 150, 413 

HoLLiSTER, G. B., The Value and De- 
velopment of Irrigation in Louisi- 
ana Purchase Tract, 278 

HoLWAY, R. S., Inductive Method of 
Teaching Change of Seasons, 75 

Home Geography (editorial), 445 

Home Geography Study, Plans for 
(note), 179 

Howland, a. C, Explorations with- 
in the Louisiana Purchase, 261 

Hubbard, George D., Commercial 
Importance of Continents, 462 

HuLBERT, Archer B., The Cumber- 
land Road (review), 139 

HuLBERT, Archer Butler, Waterways 
of Western Expansion (review), 53 

Human Response to the Physical 
Environment, The, J. Paul Goode, 

Ice in Palestine, Manufacture of 
(note), 90 

India, British (note), 433 

Indiana, The Geographical Field in 
(note), 389 

Indians of the Painted Desert Region, 
James (review), 54, 356 

Inductive Method of Teaching 
Change of Seasons, Holway, 75 

Industries in the Louisiana Pur- 
chase, Localization of (note), 


International Congress of Geog- 
raphy, Educational Papers of the 
(note), 192 

International Geographic Con- 
gress, Washington, 1904, Eighth 
(note), 140, 309 

IrrELAND, R. P., What a Child Should 
Gain from Geography, 421 


Irrigation, The Value and Develop- 
ment of, in Loiiisiana Purchase 
Tract, HoUister, 278 

Irving, A. P., Foundational Experi- 
ences, 454 

Italy, Destruction of Cork Forests 
in (note), 92 

James, George Wharton, Indians of 
the Painted Desert Region (review), 

54. 356 
Japan, Commercial, in 1904 (note), 


Jefferson, Mark S. W., Wind Ef- 
fects, 3 

Johnson, Clifton, Later Geographies, 

Johnson, Clifton, The First Ameri- 
can Geography, 311 

Johnson, William Henry, Pioneer 
Spaniards in North America (re- 
view), 98 

King, Charles F., Elementary Geogra- 
phy (review), 97 

King, F. H., A Text-Hook of the Phys- 
ics of Agriculture (review). 309 

Land of Little Rain, The, Austin 
(review), 99, 402 

Later Geographies, Johnson, 467 

Lectures on Commerce, edited by Hat- 
field (review), 308 

Lloyd, Francis E., The Delta of the 
Mississip[)i, 204 

Louisiana Purchase, The, Ripley 
Hitchcock (review), 309 

Louisiana Purchase, Agriculture 
in (note), 305 

Louisiana Purchase, Area and Pop- 
ulation of the States in the (note) , 


Louisiana Purchase, Bibliography 
of (note), 305 

Louisiana Purchase, Explorations 
within the, Howland, 261 

Louisiana Purchase, Localization 
of Industries in the (note), 305 

Louisiana Purchase, Present In- 
dustries within the, Trotter, 270 

Louisiana Purchase, The Geo- 
graphic Importance of the, Brig- 
ham, 243 

Louisiana Purchase, The Surface 
and Climate of the, Darton, 251 

Louisiana Purchase States, Rank 
of Principal Manufactures in the 
Several (note), 304 

Louisiana Purchase Territory, 
Grazing in the (note), 305 

Louisiana Purchase Tract, The 
Value and Development of Irriga- 
tion in, Hollister, 278 

MacClintock, Samuel, The Philip- 
pines (review), 99 
McFee, Inez N., Outlines in United 

States Geography (review), 402 
M c M u R R Y , Charles A., Special 

Method in Geography (review), 53 
Mann, C. E., Manual of Geography 

and Language (review), 98 
Manual of Geography and Language, 

Mann (review), 98 
Manufactures in the Several 

Louisiana Purchase States, 

Rank of Principal (note), 304 
Map Drawing in History (note), 353 
Map Making and Map Reading, 

Brown, 65 
Maps, Introduction of the Fractional 

Scale on (note), 489 
Maritime Statistics, The World's 

(note), 90 
MEDiiBVAL Trade and Trade 

Routes, Beazley, 79 
Method in Geography, Special, Mc- 

Murry (review), 53 
Moore, William Charles, The Course 

in Geography in the State Normal 

School at Salem. Mass., 163 
Motions of the Earth, The, Moul- 

ton, 145, 213 
Moulton, Forest R., The Motions of 

the Earth, 145, 213 
Museum, The School Excursion and 

the School, as Aids in the Teaching 

of Geography, Ridgeley, 322 

National Educational Associa- 
tion in 1904, Meeting of (note), 

54, 144 . J , 

Nicholas, Francis C, Around the 
Caribbean and Across Panama 
(review), 54 

North America, Russell (review^, 358, 

North Pole, A New Trial for the 
(note), 100 

Norton, W. H., Excursions in Col- 
lege Geography, 403 

Outlines in United States Goegraphy, 
McFee (review), 402 



Panama, Some Facts About (note), 

Panama, The New Republic of 

(note), 54 
Panama, The Republic of, Church, 


Papers on Geography at the Na- 
tional Educational Association 
(note), 310 

Paris to Peking by Rail, From 
(note), 188 

Perfumes in Grasse, Manufacture 
of (note), 92 

Persia, Trade and Commerce in 
(note), 486 

Philippine Islands, The, Blair and 
Robertson (reviews), qq, 139, 240 

Philippiftes, The, MacClintock (re- 
view), 9Q 

Photographs, Publication of (note), 

Physical Environment, The 
Human Response to the, (joode, 

Physical Geography, A Laboratory 
Manual j or. Darling (review), 139, 


Physical Geography, Field and Labo- 
ratory Exercises in. Chamberlain 
(review), 53 

Physical Geography in High 
Schools, Piatt, 379 

Physical Geography, Xew, Ralph S. 
Tarr (review), 99, 238 

Platt, Mar>' I., Physical Geography 
in High Schools, 379 

Plan Which Interested a Geog- 
raphy Class, A (note). 42 

Poultry and Eggs (note), 395 

Practical Work in School Geog- 
raphy, Whitbeck, 374 , 

Precis de Geographic Ecotu^ntique, 
Dubois and Kergomard (review), 

Present Industries within the 
Louisiana Purchase, Trotter, 270 

Questions, Search (note), 387 

Redway, Jacques W., Commercial 

Geograpfty (review), 191 
Redway, J. W., Final Results in the 

Study of Geography, 447 
Republic of Panama, The, Church, 


Republic of Panama, The New 
(note), 54 

Results of An Elementary 
Course in Geography, Emerson, 


Ridgeley, D. C. (note), 192 

RiDGELEY, D. C, The School Excur- 
sion and the School Museum as 
aids in the Teaching of Geography, 

Robertson, James H., and Blair. 
Emma H., The Philippine Islands 
(review), 99, 139, 240 

Russell, I. C, North America 
(review), ^58, 446 

Russia, Public Schools in (note), 

St. Louis, Geographic Influences in 

the Development of, Semple, 290 
Salisbury, RoUin D., and Chamber- 

lin. Thomas C, Geology (review), 

308, 356 
Sand Dunes in the U. S. and Europe, 

Controlling (note), 131 
Scheme of Geography, A, Davis, 

School Geography, Practical Work 

in. Whitbeck, 374 
Schools, Emphasis upon Anthropo- 

Gcography m, Semple, 366 
Schools, Public, in Russia, (note) 

Sea of Azov, The (note), 192 
Semple, Ellen C, Emphasis upon 

Anthroi)o-Geography in Schools, 

Semple, Ellen C. Geographic Influ- 
ences in the Development of St. 

Louis, 290 
Sensible Temperatures (note), 343 
Ship Canals of the World (note), 34 
Signs of the Times (editorial), 51 
Slocum, Capt. J., Around the World 

in the Sloop Spray (review), 309 
Smith, Elizabeth, and Darling, Frank 

W., The Geography Course in the 

Chicago Normal Schools, 55, 122 
Snow Crystals (note), 188 
South American Republics, Area, 

Population, and Density of (note), 

Spaniards in North America, Pioneer, 

Johnson (review), 98 
Standard Time in South Africa 

(note), 91 
Standard Times (note), 186, 490 
State Geography (note), 387 
Sugar in the Hawaiian Islands, 

The Production of (note), 89 

— . . — ^ raiiT 

I ■.■■\- •.■<»tT' '.T- •ipiinn'^ ' 

■/-. ■ --1- Till n "ait 

' ... .. . i i- • j*»'r irn.* 31 = 

. ,/ ■ ' „ /. . f ... o< -r'-.'v^T •''" **' 

# . . , / , . /i /,. . •'. y . :; ■ r / .-.-^ : Hts^«2^- 
. . '.. I i', J 
I I'ii I'l'/jH^rli'.'r] rji'Jht *3XK*'. 

■. . M Mill! Ml. Statistics. The 

\ \,i//.'ff.f/ l'iirk\ The, 

X \. a. iwl, u u« V'* ^^\ «)<». 240 

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United States, The Appalachian Barrier, the Great Lakes and American Commerce, 
the Civil War, and Mines and Mountain Life. Closing chapters deal with the unity 
and diversity of American life, and with physiography as affecting American destiny. 

An opinion from JAMES F. CHAMBERLAIN, Teacher of 
Geography, State formal School, Los Angeles, Cat, 

I consider Brigham's ''Geographic Influences tn American History*' 
a very strong hook. It will be of great value to all teachers of history because 
it shows clearly the vital influence which geographic environment exerts upon 
the history of a people. It will be very helpful to teachers of geography 
because it brings out the very core of the subject. 

GINN & COMPANY. Publishers 

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Summer Courses in Geography, 

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siana Purchase, The, Darton, 251 

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Winter of 1903-04, The, in the 
Great Lakes Region (note), 393 

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Outside the British Isles, Herbert- 
son (review), 401 

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World's Maritime Statistics, The 
(note) ,'90 

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History in the, Brigham,"359 

and Yclioicstonc Xational Park, The, 
Chittenden (review), 99, 240 

■/f New Boofc Which Correlates Geography and History 

Geographic loflveoces io Inericaii IlistoiT 

By Albert Perry Bri(;ham, Professor of Gto/oj^y in Colgate University. 
Cloth. 366 pages. Illustrated. List price, $1.35. 

IN this new book Professor Brigham has presented vividly and clearly those physio- 
graphic features of America which have been important in guiding the unfolding 
of our industrial and national life. The arrangement is mainly geographicaL 
Among the themes receivMng special treatment are: The Eastern Gateway of the 
United States, The Appalachian Barrier, the Great Lakes and American Commerce, 
the Civil War, and Mines and Mountain Life. Closing chapters deal with the unity 
and diversity of American life, and with physiography as affecting American destiny. 

An opinion from JAMES F. CHAMBERLAIN, Teacher of 
Geography, State formal School, Los Angeles, CaU 

I consider Brigham' s ** Geographic Influences tn American History** 
a very strong book. It will be of great value to all teachers of history because 
it shows clearly the vital influence which geographic environment exerts upon 
the history of a people. It will be very helpful to teachers of geography 
because it brings out the very core of the subject. 

GINN & COMPANY. Publishers 

Boston New York Chicago London San Francisco Atlanta Dallas Columbus 



The Journal of Geography is an Illustrated Monthly Magazine devoted to the interests 
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Home Geography 



Vol. III. JANUARY, 1904 No. i 


ProfeMor of Geography, State Normal College, Ypnilanti, Mich. 

THE. following study is the outcome of attempts to improve the 
teaching of cHmates by basing climatic features more and 
more on weather or other concrete phenomena. We may 
regard climate as ideal and weather as concrete, just as spheres are 
ideal and balls are concrete. In teaching geometry, a good deal 
of difficulty arises from lack of specific effort on the teacher's part to 
help the beginner's mind to the ideal and abstract conceptions dealt 
with. And climate, as taught in many schools, amounts to little 
more than words to be memorized, because of utter lack of grounding 
in the real. The facts of the weather arc real, concrete, and observable 
everywhere. If these facts are observed and studied, the features 
may be learned that characterize our climat(». The drawing of infer- 
ences from the facts, however, involves mental processes in which 
the beginner needs training. The reasoning ])rocess should carry 
conviction. How often we hear a young thinker say, ''Yes; I see that; 
but it does not seem as if it could be so." Familiarity with the induc- 
tive method is needed to give faith in it, and there is especial need 
of ever}^ possible test of the results. For this reason it is desirable 
to come to our conclusions by as many roads as we can find. 

Supposing it is desired to get the student to believe in our westerly 
winds as an important climatic feature. We may work along three 

1. Observe the weather vane and after some months find which 
wind has blown oftenest. 

2. Study the weather map and make out on it the procession of 
highs and lows to eastward. 

3. Look at the trees that have grown exposed to the force of the 
winds for indication of thrust in one direction rather than in others. 

Copyrights igo4, by E. M. Lehnerts 

r -.-rfrt'sj. ffaiatttj, hH^kiiff ursl. 



Of the two pictures given, the first is a yellow birch in the Belknap 
Mountains in New Hampshire. The trunk is a little inclined to the 
west, owing to the common gravitative creep of the soil downhill, 
but the growth of the branches suggests a strong eastward movement 
of the air, although there was no wind at the time of the exposure. 
The whole tree makes one think of the hill as a wind-swept height. 
Such trees are not infrequently represented from mountains.* One 
thinks of westerly storms as driving; these trees out of shape. So of 

Fig. 3. Laurel, Central Park. Havana, looking west. 

the windward side of the volcanic Caribbees, Hill says, ''The trade 
^ind sweeps them with such ferocity that the vegetation all bends 
in a cringing position towards the land.^t 

The laurel of the second view stands over the road from Cabanas 
fortress. There is no especial reason for speaking of violent winds 
here. The tree is near sea level, though exposed to the trade winds 
heightened in the daytime by the heating of the land. The "ferocity" 
of the trades, in Mr. Hill's language, is suggested rather by the striking 
effect than by the winds themselves. The trades are strong rather 
than violent. From this same point, by the entrance to Havana harbor, 
an avenue called the Prado leads off a little west of south, and down 

* Chun, Atis den Tiejen des Weltmeers, p. 160. The pines near Cape Town, 
t Hill, Cuba, Porto Rico, etc.. p. 328. 


this again are seen many notable examples of the tnie-.sided growth 
of the vegetal iuD. This is well shown in the laurels and franihoyaiies 
of the Central I'ark at the end of the Tratlo. lli^ure 3 is typieaK 

But continuity of direction in even rnnderate winds leaves reeord 
as definite and unnnstakalde as niountain storms. Our prevalent 
westerly wlruls are recorded in the <::rowth of tht^ uiap!f*s from New 
England to MichijLran. When the tree is in leaf tlie restdt is a tnie- 
sided growth, weJl displayed in Figure 4, while in the twi*! the effeet 
is still clearer, as in tlte al>solutely typical cxa tuple froni Ypsilanti. 
Figure 5. 

About Y|)silaTdi the white poplar points its branches in unison 
down the wirul, as does a fine exanii>le of the same tree in the Boston 
Public Gardc'u. figure 6 is a poplar at Ypsilanti, 

The distinction between ef^ustant and (UfvahiU wiuds ( riters largely 
intcj the difTereure la'tvveen liie climates of the trades ami westerly 
wind l>elts. which l>cHwe(4i them urcupy the greater portion of the 
earth. In the traifps arc clear skies, even teni[>enrtures, -And winds 
always in the same <|Uarter. rising and falling with some swinii in 


Fk;. o. White poplar, YpsiUimi. lookiufi north. 

direction at the .shore; in the westerlies, spells of fine and spells of 
stormy weather, with winds veering and backing through all the points of 
the compass. To teach this pro])erly, we must begin with the westerlies 
about us. But the westerlies are only an average, only an excess of 
one wind direction over others, and a difficulty for beginners lies at 
this point. 

Suppose that we have gathered observations like those of the 
accompanying table, the percentages of the whole year that the wind 
is in each direction, at Detroit, for instance. 

l)rR.\TioN OF Each Wind Direction in Percentages of 
THE Whole Year 































San Francisco 











Dodge City 










Key West 










Santiago, Cuba 











Santo Domingo 











San Juan, P. R. 





















12^ 9 79 11 1 




That is, for 59 |>er cent of the tiine the wind at Detrfnt is either 
ill the NW, W, or S\V. Yet a faet tlnit always looks very large to a 
beginner is that the wind is NE a.s often as NW, and oftener than it 
is west. Morenver 50 per rent is only a little nKure than half the 
time. If ho has access to the other numbers, he may find some 
r(?assurance in the data for Boston and San Francisco, but he will l>e 
certain to seize on Dotl^^^e City as giviiijtc the whole case away. Here 
is a place in the latitntle of the westerlies with more east winds than 
west! All that this means is that concrete details have a reality thai 

Fig. 7, i choatiUi paltu^ tii .':n,iuiu t ru. 

■i".' !huTSl. 

is not possessed in like degree by the conclusions drawn from them. 
If, however, we can now coTiHrm these eonchisions in any way, we 
shall strengthen the reasoning ]>r<»cess. A map of the United States 
on whicli are laid dr»wn the average directions of all the wintls at all 
places adds defi nit en ess here. But as the effects of an excess of one 
\\4nd direction are al^sfthilel}* real ami definite^ the evi<lence of the 
trees that have been inHuejiced by it in their growth is of the 
greatest value in teaching. 

Spells of cyclonic and anti-cyclonic weather shoulii be watched 
as they go by, with the help f>f the daily weather map, though they 
have not for the beginner so nuich reality. 

That iempirav zouv is a niisiK>mer for the 1>e]t of westerly winds 
has long been known. Probably there is nothing characterizes these 
regions so sharply as their wiiuis. i>revailing westerly, but interrupted 
by winds from all other ct^mpass jioints in succession. Nrjthing will 


give a better notion of trade-wind weather than an absence of these 
fluctuations. Figures such as those for Curat/ao and Barbados in the 
table may be contrasted with the figures for Boston or Detroit to get 
this idea. It is easier to grasp the average conditions in the trades 
since they occur daily. The other points for w^hich wind directions 
are given in the table, however, have their average less distinct. Local 
influences such as the direction of the coast line are plainly influential 
here. What approach to these facts could be more real than such 
pictures as Figure 7? 

Where sea and land breezes alternate, the excess in strength of the 
sea breeze comes out well in the growth of trees along shore. In some 
way, it is desirable to get the picture of these effects into the pupil's 
mind. A need for an explanation will then arise. 

All this is antipodal to the method by which climates were taught 
first, and the weather never reached in teaching it all. As a result, 
the ideal thing, climate, existed in our minds as a lot of disconnected 
phrases that burdened the memory and left no more definite conceptions 
than that the Nile rose in summer or winter — one did not certainly 
remember which. The naming our zone Temperale seems only to 
rest on the climatic conception of our average temperature, some 60°, 
which sounds mild and temperate. Yet the actual weather could 
hardly be less temperate, ranging through temperatures from 100° 
to - 40°. Nowadays we like to look for vigor and bracing for deeds 
in these immoderate ranges. It is in the belt of westerlies, with weather 
in spells, that civilization is taking the greatest strides in history, and 
there it seems Hkely to make others. 

Civilization began in Babylonia and Egypt, in the belt that on 
sea is characterized by trade winds. It failed there, to try again in 
Mediterranean countries, on the border of the trade and w^esterly 
belts. There, too, a few centuries of progress ended in the shock with 
barbarism and collapse. With the revival of learning came men who 
accomplished things in the belt of westerlies, and there has been 
more of human progress in a few hundred years than in all the long past 
of the race. 

Spain, the land that lay across the border of the belts, lingered in 
power into the daw^ning of the new epoch. The trade winds bore 
Columbus to America almost irresistibly, when once his mind w^as 
made up to go. Clear skies with fair and balmy winds accompanied 
him all across the Atlantic. There was no obstacle to his progress 
but the fear of the great unknown ocean that opened out wider and 


wi/Jer Vjf'forf thfrn day after flay. Down the coa^^t of Africa to the 
Canaries and Cajje N'erde. and thence straight acrtiss to the Antilles, 
the unfailing brer-ze* wafted horde> of Spanish conc|uistadores to Mexico 
and Feni- The return was less easy, but any Spanianl who could buy 
a ve«i«el and get together a crew Ijecame at once a sea captain and 
made his way to the new world of gold and opportunities. 

A little farther north, where the English lived, other winds blew. 
The Englishman that cn^.seii the Atlantic did so in the face of \iolent 
gales. Onlys^'amen dare<l re|>eat the trip. Presently, when the In\in- 
cible Armada apfx-ared in the English Channel, and the English came 
out in their trim seafaring ships, snug and stanch and well-handled, 
as the Spanish shifts were not and could not Ix*. the wind had only to 
rise to destroy Spain's pretense at naval power forever. The English 
had beffu to the lx*st of schools of seamanship. The Spanish had lived 
by a tranquil s<'a. with all this schooling omitteil. In Asia, India has 
given promise, but a lK»tter fulfillment seems reserveil for Japan, and, 
perhafw, China, in the westerlies. In the new world, too, all the early 
hopes were founded on the trade-wind countries in the West Indies. 
Mexico, and Peru. To-f lay's fulfillment is all beyond in the westerly 
belt, here in our country, in Chile, and the Argentine Republic, as in 
South Africa, New Zealand, and southern Australia. 

The typical wind effect is not an inclination of the trunk. The 
willow often has its trunk inclined to the east and its western branches 
fairly over the base of the tree. But this may be in some part due to 
the softness of the wet ground that this tree affects, which may yield 
somewhat to the force of the wind pulling on the roots. On the St. 
Clair Flats, Michigan, the delta of the St. Clair River, willows have 
been planted along the l)anks of the United States ship canal, and here 
and there about the buildings along the banks of natural channels. 
These willows, by their wind effect, enable the traveler to follow the 
windings of the canal as readily as a compass in hand. The electric 
road from Port Huron to Detroit, on the land just to the west of the 
St. Clair River and Lake, touches at the town of Algonac on the Flats 
and then, to continue to Detroit, has to make a long detour to west 
and north. During a first trip over the line, while the motor rendered 
the compass useless, the growth of the I^ombardy poplars along the 
roadside seemed unintelligible. Upon examining a map, however, it 
became clear that they all showed an admirable wind effect to NE. 
The Lombardy poplar often grows erect in the wind. 

In orchards, too, the trunks are usually inclined when the ground 


I I 

beneath is cultivated, so that in the Michigan Fruit Belt it is the cus- 
tom to set out the trees with a lean to the southwest, that they may 
be straightened by the wind. Here again it is possible that the cul- 
tivation softens the ground so as to allow the inclination in question. 

Fig. 8, Willow, Ypsilanti, looking south. 

No trees in groves show really typical wind effects, since the outer 
trees protect those within. In dense forest growth this causes light 
effects to acquire especial importance. The outer trees develop 
strongly in every direction away from the center, and those within 
reach up vertically for the light, pruning away the lower branches by 
failing to nourish them and their leaves. The best trees to examine 
are those that have grown in isolated fields, or in open order along 
roadsides. The typical effect is a bending or inclining of the Uvigs 
to leeward, and for this reason the best season for these studies is after 
the fall of the leaf. When trees are leaved out the main effect is a 
one-sidedness of the top. Not every tree standing alone has grown 
alone. Southern Ontario has many single trees, elms, and others. 




along the line of tht* Michigan Central Railn^ad, which seem exce|> 
tionally regular in growth. Their naturally pruned trunks and the 
abiindaut .stunips about, however, indicate that these trees grew in a 
wood ami were protected from the wind. Mo8t trees that grow in the 
open brancli frojii near the ground up, and by this they may l>e known. 
The residts of this infidification of free growtli are in<iividual with 
each kinil of tree. Cotton woods in the country about Ypsilanti seem 
to grow uninfluenced by the wind, however exposed their situation. 
Figure 9 is a fair example. Yet all the cottonwoods in the Boston 
Public (la nien, though less exposed to the wind than many of the trees 
at Ypstlanti, incline their branches off distinctly to the east. In the 
West Indies the royal palm stands vertical and columnar, though in 
this case, strangely enough^ the newest leaf, rolled into a tight cane 
at the summit of the tree, leans slightly against the wind, as if some 
force that availed to keep the trunk nprigVit against the wind-thmst, 
bent this lender shoot over backward. In tlie picture, Figure 10, the 


^ #» 

Fig. 0. Cottotituood at wesi t-uJ ,' ( 'ro::s >fr.,.' brjd)^i\ Ypsihfiti, htokirin north. 

leaves are actually driven to one side by the trade \viml which is blowing, 
and the new leaf or penacho of each tree is incUned to the northeast, 
from which direction the wind was blowing. This w^as found to be 
an almost invariable ni!e with thousands of these trees examined this 





Fig. 10, Royal palms near Cardenas, Cuba, looking northwest. 

summer in Cuba. While the oottonwood, at least about Ypsilanti, is 
thus resistant to wind effects, its cousin, the white i)oplar, shows them 
in a high degree. Indeed, while a careful observer has no difficulty 
in distinguishing the two trees, a novice would ask no better guide 
than the degree in which they yield to the influence of the wind. 

In the poplar, curves are strongly developed. On the east side of 
the tree, the branches form curves concave to the ground. On the 
west, vertical lines would cut not a few branches in two points w^th 
the curve between concave to the east, so strongly are they bent to 
leeward as they grow\ (See Figure 6.) In this case it is a branch 
effect rather than a twig effect, while the individuality of the poplar 
comes out in the curve. The Ypsilanti poplars show these forms, 
even when poorly exposed to the wind, and reference has already been 
made to the one in the Boston Public Garden. 

The maple succeeds better in rearing its greater branches vertically 
into the air. There is a djstinct curving here, too, in the more slender 
branches, but much less in degree. The maple runs to slender and hair- 
like twigs, and the development of the twigs is almost horizontal on 
the east side of the tree and vertical on the west, as if they had been 
combed upward on one side and outward on the other. (See Figure 5 
and the tailpiece.) Maples give excellent wind effects everywhere 
that I have observed them. If there are any about Dodge City, Kansas, 
it would be of interest to know how they grow. 

Elms, too, are available for observation through a wide stretch 

Fio. II, Elm. sQUtliiL'ist cornef of Boston Cc^mmmi looking north across BoylstQn Street. 

of this country. The elm branches grow longer to eastward than to 
wTstwardy whieli enables the slender ends to hang nearer the groivnd 
on the east. The trunk stands almost in%'ariably to west of the mid 
tree-top. A fine example stands near the oKl burial ground on Boston 
Common, The twig effect on the elm is not unlike that of the maple, 
but the greater length of the pendulous end twigs takes away the 
appearance of combing upward on the w-est side. The tips of the 
lower limbs on both sides hang directly dtnvnward, but toward the 




top of the tree tlie efTects are alniost identical with those observeil mi 
the maple. The crown of the elm, however, is flat. The Boston elm 
was photographed in September while still in leaf. Figure 12 is an 
example in twig, A pliotograph of the same tree from the west is 
quite symmetrical. 

Fu> I?. Ehn at YfisHnnti. lookinf! h<tt//i. 

The oak and the hickory show the same excess in h^nglh of eastern 
over western branrhes, and the eastern ones also nsnally spring out 
more nearly horizontally. This appears very well in Figures 13 and 
14, wliieh arc tyi>icaL Orcasiunally the oak shows a curving of its 
branches, but the type is stilT, crooking a little on either side of straight 
lines. The hickory brancli is excessively crnf>ked. Another crooked 
Vjranched tree is the sycamore, or buttonw(»od, as shown in the tail- 
piece. Hut the crooks of the s^^amore are rather in the smaller twigs. 
and the twigs are more of the combed type, as in the maple, having a 
considerable approach to parallelism, while the twigs of the hickory 
present a mere tangle. The \vind effect on the liiekory is thus a matter 
of one-sided ness, dependent on length of branch. In the sycamore 
it is equally evident in the ilirection of the twigs. 

The bhick walnut also usually shows a greater development of top 
to leeward. A tulip tree east of the soldiers* monument in Boston 

this sort by standing in the middle of a .street that ruri8 north and 
south and looking along the street. It will be found in this eomitry 
that tlie meeting of the branc^hes overhead is well to east of the middle 
of the road. The Charles Street mall of Boston Common offers a 
trood ilhiytration. The Ceiba or silk cotton tree is regarded In* the 
Cubans as their national tree. It gri»ws alone in the plains, with 
trunk rhbiii naked a considerable height to tfie thick top whieh is 
always strongly developed to leeward. 

Our pines and spruees comtnonly grow in woods or clusters and so 
are little atifected by tlie winds. Even in the Now Hampshire fulls 
only excejitioiial examjvles were found. Creole pines may be seen 
planted in ttie gar<lens about Havana showing admirable effects. The 
arbor vitaes (thuyas) in the garden at Cardenas all lean to westward. 
But tliis garden is a new one, cornnnMUorating with its monument the 
dead of the recent war. So the trees have probably been planted 
within the last four or hve years, and may have l»een simply pushed 
to one side before the roots got a firm hold on the grouinL It is curious 
that the wind-thrust on these trees has Iteen from the east, as in all 
cases near the shore at Cartlenas, while the northeast side of each tree 
has a blighted look, as if the l:>ranehes f>n that side had been killed by 
some storm from the northeast. S^nnething of this IjUghted hiok may be 
seen in the picture. 

In fact J both east and northeast winds prevail in northern Cuba. 
From an examination of the records of the United States Weather 




Bureau at Havana for the years 1900, 1901, and 1902, it appears that 
the wind is in the east fifteen hours a day and in the northeast the 
rest of the time. This is true summer and winter. The seasonal 
differences are slight. But it appears that the greatest force is during 
the time that the northeast wind is blowing, so that five or six more 
miles of wind go by during the briefer period. It is from 11 a. m. to 
7 p. M. that the Brisa blows, when the sun has heated up the ground. 
It is, therefore, to be regarded as a true sea breeze. Occasionally a 
land breeze springs up during the night. At other times it merely 
falls off in velocity and settles back into the east. The following 
table gives the data for every other hour: 

Average Wind Direction and Velocity at Havana, 
1900, 1901, \ND 1902 

a. m. p. m. 

Time 13579 11 135 79 11 

Direction E E E E E NE NE NE NE NE E E 

Miles per hour 7.7 7.3 7.2 7.4 10.1 13.2 15.1 16.6 15.5 12.6 10.3 8.9 

Fig. 17. White birch on the west slope of Baldfacc, Gilford. 

looking, north-northwest. 

The east wind has an average velocity of 8.4 miles an hour; the 
northeast, 14.6. The vegetation suggests the northeast winds for 
most points between Havana and Cardenas, but shore places at Cardenas 
and Matanzas indicate easterly winds. Such studies may afford a 


method of determining prevalent winds in regions meteorologically 

Light effects on tree growth are of much interest in connection with 
these wind studies. Trees tend to grow strongly toward the light. A 
singular example of an elm on the flood plain of the Huron, south of 
Ypsilanti, i^dth a strong top growth to the northwest, was found to 
have alongside it the stump of a cut-away mate that had prevented 
it from developing to eastward. But more has been attributed to 
light effect than observation warrants. White poplars may be found 
close to the west of a house, but growing strongly toward it. Such 
observations as have l>een made seem to justify the statement that 
light usually has less effect on trees fairly exposed to the wind than 
the wind does. When they work in opposite directions the light 
effect is masked by that of the wind. It is not certain that the direct 
sunlight has more influence on tree growth than the diffuseil light of 
the sky. If it were, east and west rows of trees should have a greater 
development to the south. Is this observed? 

An interesting persistence of wind effect is seen in Figure 17. Appar- 
ently hillside creep has caused the trunk to lean downhill, as the earth 
yielded beneath it. As there was free exposure to Hght and wind the 
twigs have continued to grow over to eastward. There is no sign of 
a stump or branch lost from the east side. 

I ])eheve school teachers who are willing to go out-of-<.ioors will 
find value in observations like these. 

r -I- 



I*rofe»9or of Geology. Harvard Unireraity, Cambridge, Mom. 

THERE is a certain profit in looking forward to the time when 
the Earth and its inhabitants shall have been so well studied 
that if all then known about them were put in print, the volumes 
thus formed would include the whole content of geography. The 
material there gathered might be arranged follo\\ing either one of two 

♦ Reprinted by permission of the author from The Geographical Journal, October, 


plans. According to one plan, everything about a certain country 
would be brought together; this would make a treatise on regional 
geography. According to the other plan, all things of the same kind 
would be brought together; this would constitute a treatise on sys- 
tematic geography. Under either plan, convenience would be served 
by adopting some reasonable scheme that might be invented for the 
arrangement of the parts into which the subject might be divided. 
Under regional geography, for example, the arrangement might be 
according to the continents and their political subdivisions. Under 
systematic geography, the arrangement might follow the usual order 
of globe, atmosphere, oceans, lands, inhabitants. Under each plan, 
use would be made of the other as a secondary guide. All the items 
under Mexico in a regional treatise should follow a systematic order 
of presentation; while all examples of a certain kind of lakes in a sys- 
tematic treatise should follow a regional order of presentation. 

A complete geographical treatise, regional or systematic, would 
be inconveniently bulky. Abbreviated editions would be in demand, 
and they might be abbreviated in several ways. In one way, unim- 
portant or inconspicuous items would be omitted, and important or 
conspicuous items retained, wherever or whatever they might be. Tn 
another way, remote items might be omitted and home items retained. 
In a third way, difficult items would be omitted and elementary items 
retained. Thus hand books and school books would be developed. 

There can be little doubt that the abbreviated or simplified editions 
would gain in value with the approach to completeness of the treatises 
on which they were based, as well as with the competence of their 
authors. A hundred years ago the best geographies were necessarily 
silent concerning the then extensive unexplored parts of the world. 
To-day the best geographies contain a much larger body of information 
than their predecessors, but they are still silent concerning many of 
the more advanced problems of geography. A hundred years hence 
there may be still much to learn, but great progress will by that time 
have been made in the more philosophical phases of geography, to 
which attention is not yet sufficiently directed. It is with the object 
of calling attention to some of these phases that this note is written. 

The direction in which geographical progress is to be made in the 
next hundred years may perhaps be forecast from the direction of 
progress in the last hundred. Geography used to be a ''study of the 
Earth and its inhabitants." Items were brought together in great 
number; they were described more or less empirically; but there was 


no sufficient effort made to explain and to correlate them. Correlation 
was greatly promoted by Ritter and his followers. Geography then 
became, not simply a study of independent' items, but a study of the 
Earth and its inhabitants in their mutual relations. With the advance 
of science in general, the description of geographical items became 
more and more explanatory; but progress in the larger problems of 
correlation was retarded for half a century by the prevalence of a 
teleological philosophy, and until this was replaced by the doctrine 
of evolution, the modern phase of geography could not be reached. 

In its present modern phase, geography is essentially concerned 
with the rational correlation of the items that fall under its two parts: 
on the one hand, the items of inorganic conditions that constitute the 
physical environment of living forms ; and on the other hand, the items 
of organic response made by living forms to their environment. The 
first of these two parts is commonly called physical geography. In 
the United States this term is coming to be condensed into physiog- 
raphy.* The second part has no name; it includes certain phases of 
political and commercial geography, and it goes much further than 
either, because it is concerned with all forms of life instead of only 
with man and what is useful to him. It will here be called ontography; 
the main root of the word corresponding to that of paleontology, and 
the termination agreeing with that of physiography and of geography. 

Thus understood, geography is concerned with the combination of 
physiography and ontography; that is, with the correlation between 
inorganic environment and organic response. Individual items, such 
as the course of an ocean current, the path of a valley, the area of a 
forest, the population of a village, fall under the physiographic or the 
ontographic division of tlie subject, and must there be studied as 
carefully and rationally as possible ; but they will fail to attain a truly 
geographic quality as long as they are treated independently, instead 
of being brought into proper correlation with their fellows. The 
physiographic items, regarded as elements of controlling environment, 
must be associated in thorough-going geographical work with the 
ontographic responses that they have evoked. The ontographic items, 
regarded as responses to environing conditions, must be associated 
with the physiographic controls by which they have been governed. 
The course of a current will affect the distribution of living forms or 

* Thus employed, physiography is not directly concerned with astronomy and 
geology, or with physics and chemistry, as it has come to be, unfortunately, in my 
opinion, in England. 



the lines of navigation; the path of a valley will determine the location 
of roads and villages; the area of a forest is the response to latid form, 
chmate, and soil ; the population of a village depends on many environ- 
ing factors. 

No full measure of geographical treatment will be reached by the 
student who restricts his work either to the inorganic or to the organic 
half of the subject. Those who wish to train themselves to be fully 
equipped geographers should gain not only the capacity, but also the 

habit of giving due attention to ontography and physiography com- 
bined. The best geographical works to-day clearly enough exhibit 
the beginning of this double consideration of their subject, but they 
usually fall short of carrying the treatment thoroughly and uniformly 
over all aspects of the subject, and they commonly fail to show that 
their plan of treatment has been adopted in accordance with a suffi- 
ciently comprehensive view of geography as a whole. It is still usual 
in the best modem books to find many facts described as if they were 
lonesome, individual occurrences, instead of members of a recognized 
class, and to find their description closed before they have been sys- 
tematically correlated with their responses or their controls. 

The quality of geography, as a whole, may be presented and empha- 
sized by a simple graphic device that experience has shown to have 
some value. Imagine the four frameworks, E, A, 0, L, Figure 1, to 


stand in a vertical plane over the line EL, and to contain compartments 
for all the topics of systematic physiography under the larger headings 
of the Earth as a globe, tfie atmosphere, the oceans, and the lands. 
The compartments may be taken to represent types, with respect to 
which actual examples arc classified. It may be briefly pointed out, 
although it is not intended to delay here in explaining all the practical 
value of this part of the device, that the observer is greatly aided in 
his work if he carries mentally into his field of study a well-arranged 
framework on which the types that embody the results of all previous 
investigations are carefully defined and arranged; for there can be no 
question that the habitual treatment of every observed physiographic 
item as far as possible as a member of a known class, is a most practical 
and serviceable aid in field observation and record. The framework 
must not be imagined to represent a rigid and unchangeable scheme; 
it should be elastic and adjustable, constantly modified in response 
to accepted suggestions for improvement as investigation progresses. 

Physiography is, to-day, relatively well developed; and the classi- 
fication of its parts representablo in a framework is fairly well advanced, 
although, for that matter, there is yet by no means so general an 
agreement among physiographers, with respect to the systematic sub- 
division and arrangement of the items with which they have to deal, 
as there is among botanists and zoologists with respect to the syste- 
matic classification of plants and animals. Some physiographers, for 
example, treat rivers and oceans in one division apart from the lands; 
others treat oceans and coasts together, before the lands have been 
studied; but both these plans are fortunately unusual. Ontography, 
on the other hand, has hardly any recognized scheme of treatment; 
it has still to be systematically studied. The framework on the 
farther side of Figure 2, by which a classification of organic responses 
is here roughly indicated, must therefore be taken for the present as 
suggesting what may yet be done ratlier than as representing what 
has already })cen done in this direction. 

Even the limits of ontography are not yet agreed upon, and in 
considering with historians, zoologists, and botanists how far this 
division of geography may be reasonably extended, it is sometimes 
the case that one encounters certain indications of jealousy and accu- 
sations of trespass. Here, however, as in other sciences, it is not so 
much the object studied as the relation in which it is studied that 
determines its place in a scientific classification. The same object 
may be studied in its varied relations under several different sciences. 



Surely history, zoology, and botany make use of geographical items 
so often that there can be httle ground of just complaint if geography 
finds occasion to examine facts that are comm.only associated with 
these other divisions of knowledge. 

The most reasonable method of determining the limits of ontography 
seems to be the following: Select certain examples of undoubtedly 
ontographic facts, and then, under the principle of continuity, follow 
the lead of the classes to which these facts belong as far as they can 
be traced; otherwise the limits must be arbitrary or conventional. 
Thus there will be found certain facts that are indisputably and cen- 
trally ontographic, while others are peripheral, and are more or less 
shared with other sciences; but in the latter case, all the sciences 
concerned are equally trespassers. These abstract considerations may 
be illustrated to advantage by some concrete examples. 

The location of a village at the head of a bay on the sea-coast must 
be considered by every one to be a geographic item, and, according to 
ihe plan here presented, it will fall under the ontographic half of the 
subject. In old-fashioned geography, such an item would have been 
empirically stated, without explanation of its meaning; in more 
modem geography, it would be rationally described as an example of 
a class of responses in which man\s way of doing things is determined 
by his physiographic surroundings. Need having arisen of interchange 
between land and sea (this itself being an important ontographic matter), 
the coast line gains importance because it separates two kinds of 
activities; and protected points on the shore line, such as bay heads, 
become of exceptional importance, because here the interchange 
between the two kinds of activities can be effected with the least 
difficulty. Now, the essential quality of this item is that certain 
organic inhabitants of the Earth have found it to their advantage to 
be guided in certain actions by the conditions of their inorganic environ- 
ment. Hence, under the principle of continuity, every other item in 
which an organism is thus guided to act in certain ways is also of an 
essentially ontographic quality. Tt matters not whether the organism 
is man, animal, or plant, whether the action is conscious or unconscious, 
whether it is of great or little importance; the essential feature is that 
the item must involve a response or reaction of organism to environ- 
ment. It is only by adopting an arbitrary limit for ontography, and 
hence also for geography, that anj-'thing narrower than this broad 
definition can be regarded as indicating its field. 

The whole content of ontography, thus broadly defined, is not 


known, because its field has not yet been carefully examined; but 
enough is already known to show that the subject is of great and 
varied interest. It may be reviewed in two ways: All kinds of itenois 
found in the physiographic framework may be examined as to their 
responses in the organic world; or all kinds of organisms may be exam- 
ined to see how far their structures, actions, and distribution are 
responses to physiographic controls. For example, in response to the 
important physiographic control of gravity, one finds the development 
of dorsal and ventral structures in many animals ; those which escape 
this control are the minute organisms that are wafted about in the 
atmosphere, and the jelly-like organisms that float indifferently in 
one attitude or another in water. Again, one finds many details of 
bony structure and muscular arrangement adapted to support the 
body against the pull of its weight. The habit of building walls ver- 
tical, and of grading railroads nearly horizontal come under the 
same control. Even language is affected indirectly, as in such adjec- 
tives as grave and upright, in their figurative meanings. On the other 
hand, one finds in the growth of trees the responses to many controls — 
to gravity and the search for ground water in the growth of the roots; 
to gravity and the search for light and air in the growth of the stem; 
to form of land surface and depth and character of soil, as well as to 
various elements of climate in the determination of distribution. 

It is evident that in most cases the responses above mentioned are 
not the result of the immediate adjustment of organism to environ- 
ment, but of a gradual adjustment through long periods of past time, 
perpetuated through inheritance, provided the controlling conditions 
and need of adjustment still persist. The use of oxygen in respiration, 
universal in all plants and animals, is a case in point. This habit 
must be taken as indicating the presence of free oxygen in the ocean 
(dissolved) or in the atmosphere since the earliest geological periods 
from which fossils are preserved; the habit persists because the need 
and the opportunity still endure. The fur of many land mammals 
is a response to chmatic controls; but in the marine mammals, that 
are in all probability descended from fur-bearing ancestors, the fur is 
replaced by blubber. Examples of more immediate adjustment are 
chiefly found in actions, as when horses and cattle on the western 
semi-arid plains of the United States wear paths from pasturing uplands 
to watering-places in the valleys, and yet here, as before, habit formed 
through long inheritance is the mainspring of action. 

The classification employed in the ontographic framework may, 




in view of what has now been said, be imagined to follow either one of 
two plans. In one plan, all the responses to one kind of control are 
gathered in a single compartment, and there would be as many onto- 
graphic as physiographic compartments; this plan is followed in Figure 
2. In the other plan, each compartment would correspond to a kind 
of organism, and there would be as many compartments as might be 
needed to contain the subdivisions of the vegetable and animal king- 
doms. Whichever plan is adopted, there can be little doubt that when 


3*5 si 

riG. 2. 

ontography is as well developed as physiography, geography will be 
greatly advanced. That stage of the development of our subject may 
be represented in Figure 3, in which the correlation of physiographic 
and ontographic items is indicated by lines that stretch across from 
one framework to the other, the first of the above-mentioned two plans 
for ontographic classification being here again illustrated. The con- 
scious recognition and discussion of the correlations thus indicated 
graphically by the cross-lines is indispensable for the full development 
of modern geography. 

It should be noted in passing, but for the present only in the 
briefest manner, that there are innumerable correlations to be found 
also among the items of each framework, considered alone. For exam- 
ple, London markets are to-day supplied with meat products from 




Argentina and Australia, where herds of cattle and flocks of sheep find 
cheap pasture on broad plains fit for few other uses than grazing: 
these are correlations among items on the ontographic framew^ork. 
On the other hand, the cliffs of Cornwall result from the interaction 
of waves driven by winds excited by sunshine and of currents involved 
in tides excited by lunar attraction, on the rocky structures exposed 

FIG. 3. 

along the present coast line by crustal movements. Again, in a 
maturely dissected region, such as the Piedmont belt of North Carolina, 
one may recognize the wonderfully delicate interdependence of hillside 
slopes, soil creep, stream wash, and river work that is involved in the 
thoroughly organized condition of the drainage systems there estab- 
lished. Both these examples exhibit correlations of items on the physi- 
ographic framework. None of those correlations are, however, shown 
in the diagrams, for fear of too great a confusion of lines. With this 
digression, we may return to the consideration of Figure 3. 

Imagine now a vertical piano, MN, parallel to the planes of the two 


frameworks and midway between them. This new plane will be 
intersected by all the cross-lines of correlation, and the summary of 
all the points of intersection may be taken to exhibit the whole content 
of systematic geography. The plane may be shifted towards one of 
the other frameworks, if it is desired to give greater emphasis to one 
or to the other part of geography, but the well-balanced geographer 
will doubtless prefer to hold a plane midway in a position as here 
indicated. In case the biological classification of ontographic items 
were adopted, the lines of correlation would not be parallel; a group 
of lines would radiate from each kind of physiographic control in the 
framework to all of its ontographic responses, and various lines from 
numerous kinds of controls would be focused on the kind of organism 
in the further framework that responded to them. 

It was stated above that this graphic device has been found by 
experience to have some value in indicating the compound nature 
of geography, as it is here defined, and in illustrating the relation of 
its parts. It has a further value, namely, an aid in the practical 
analysis of a geographer's work. If, in the course of exploration or other 
study, an item of physiographic nature is found, the geographer must 
at once seek to place it in its proper relation to all other physiographic 
items, and to discover all the ontographic responses that it has excited. 
If an ontographic item is discovered, its physiographic controls must 
be sought for. The correlations between the two must be studied out. 

This may seem so simple, so manifest, that it is hardly worth the 
saying; yet if any standard work on geography is examined and ana- 
lyzed, it will be found far from complete in the sense of completeness 
here indicated. The work undoubtedly will give, more or less explicitly, 
many examples of correlation betw^een controlling environment and 
responding organism, and it will thus confirm more or less clearly the 
compound nature of geography here exposed; but it will be only by 
way of rare exception that both phases of the subject are systemat- 
ically presented, and that the correlations between them are consciously 
and completely analyzed. Exploration, in so far as matters of occur- 
rence and location are concerned, has now been w^ell advanced; explo- 
ration, in so far as thorough analysis of cause and effect, is concerned, 
still affords plentiful opportunity for the investigator. There can be 
little question that studious observation and thorough record will be 
greatly aided when some such method of analysis as is here indicated 
shall have become familiar and habitual. 

A few illustrations may be given to exhibit the breadth of geography, 


when it is expanded by the due consideration of its many parts. One 
is taken from an account of the oasis of Suf, in the Algerian Sahara, 
by Brunhes of Freiburg. This obser\'er points out a relation between 
the sandy surface of the oasis and the character of the people, as follows: 
Every walking animal leaves its track in the sand, and from this follows 
an extraordinary skill on the part of the natives in tracking men and 
beasts; individual footprints can be recognized and followed through 
a confusion of crossing trails, where the untrained eye of a European 
would be unable to distinguish one track from another. As a result, 
theft is said to be less common in the sandy Suf than in the stony oases; 
the thief is so surely tracked and found that thie^dng is. unprofitable. 

Another example is furnished by Lug^on of Lausanne, who describes 
the relation between villages and alluvial fans in the higher valleys 
of the Alps. The fans offer the best sites for occupation ; nearly every 
fan has its own village, each with its own organization, and the distri- 
bution of villages depends closely upon the distribution of fans. As 
most of the fans are of small area, most of the villages must be of small 
size. An earher writer has instanced the development of these small 
village communities as illustrating the innate spirit of independence 
in the Swiss people; But Lug(5on points out that small communities 
necessarily result from the small fans, and then aptly inquires whether 
the spirit of independence is not more probably a consequence than a 
cause of the subdivision of village communities. 

Instances of this sort might be given in great number. Baku, the 
petroleum port on the arid shores of the Caspian, has rapidly grown 
to a population of something like one hundred fifty thousand souls in 
consequence of the discovery and exploitation of rock oil near by. 
So large a population needs an abundant water-supply, not easily to 
be had in a region of so dr>^ a climate as that of western Asia. Water 
could be brought at a considerable expense from a river over fifty miles 
away, but capitalists hesitate to undertake the construction of so long 
an aqueduct for a city whose population will mostly move away when 
the oil-wells give out; hence, at present, the local supply from wells of 
unsatisfactory quality is supplemented by distillation from the brackish 
Caspian, oil fuel being very cheap, and an ingenious system of boiling 
and condensation producing four pounds of distilled water for one 
pound of fuel. Nowhere else in the world is a distillery nm on so large 
a scale and w'th so temperate an object ! And who shall say that Baku's 
rapid growth and uncertain life, as well as its peculiar water-supply, 
are not ontographic items? 


It is not intended to assert that all the examples of cause and con- 
sequence that might be given are established beyond dispute, but 
rather that they show the importance of making a thorough collection, 
a careful analysis, and a systematic classification of all such examples 
in order to carry forward the development of geography and to discover 
its entire content. Evidently errors may be made in speculations of 
this kind; for example, it does not seem safe to follow the statement 
of a famous geographer to the effect that the (supposed) taciturnity 
of the American Indian resulted from the darkness of the forest in 
which he lived. It is on the careful analysis of abundant observations, 
rather than on the refusal to speculate as to cause and consequence, 
that geography will thrive. 

It is desirable that geography should be presented, even to beginners, 
as a subject involving the correlation of physiographic and ontographic 
items. When the globular form of the Earth is taught, that is the time 
to point out how largely the modern development of commerce results 
from the nearly level form that a globe alone possesses. When the 
size of the Earth is taught, that is the time for telling about the effects 
of its size in isolating savage races, and thus producing differences of 
language and customs, as well as for showing how greatly modern means 
of transportation and communication have overcome the earlier effects 
of isolation. With the form and rotation of the Earth there should be 
immediately associated the modern habit of laying out the boundaries 
of unsurv^eyed territories, as in North America, Australia, and Africa, 
along the meridians and parallels; and so on through the whole subject. 
Thus the young student may be thoroughly infected with the idea of 
correlation, and from such an introduction to geography he may more 
probably contribute afterwards to its advancement than if he has been 
taught in the old-fashioned empirical way, or in the more modern 
method of imperfectly developed correlation. 

The most important steps towards the fuller development of geog- 
raphy, therefore, seem to be: First, the formation of the habit of looking 
for correlations of physiographic and ontographic items; and, second, 
the development of a well-considered classification of all items, physio- 
graphic and ontographic, so that all may be considered in reference to 
their fellows. 



Some Facts About Panama. — The commerce of Panama amounts 
to about three million dollars per annum; its population to about three 
hundred thousand, and its area to 31,571 square miles, or nearly equal 
to that of the State of Indiana. These figures are the latest available 
data on commerce, population, and area. Those of commerce are from 
the reports of the United States consuls at Panama and Colon, which 
have just been received, and not yet published; those of population are 
based upon the latest official estimate, which shows the population in 
1881, and was based upon the census of 1871 ; while the figures of area 
are from accepted geographical authorities and are those of the area of 
the "Department of Panama" of the Colombian Repubhc. The prin- 
cipal ports are Panama, on the Pacific coast, and Colon, on the Atlantic 
side, and these ports are visited annually by more than one thousand 
vessels, which land over one million tons of merchandise and nearly 
one hundred thousand passengers, chiefly for transfer over the Panama 
Railway, forty-seven miles in length, connecting the Pacific port of 
Panama with the Atlantic port of Colon. 

Colon, or Aspinwall, as it is sometimes called, has a population of 
about three thousand persons. The city of Panama has a population 
of about twenty-five thousand. It was founded in 1519, burned in 
1671, and rebuilt in 1673, while Colon is of much more recent date, 
having been founded in 1855. 

The population, which, as already indicated, amounts in number 
to about three hundred thousand, is composed of various elements — 
Spanish, Indian, Negro, and a limited number of persons from the 
European countries and the United States, especially those engaged in 
commerce and transportation, and the operation of the Panama railway. 
A considerable number of the population is composed of persons 
brought to the isthmus as laborers for the construction of the canal, 
and of their descendants. Since the abohtion of slavery in Jamaica^ 
a considerable number of blacks and mulattoes have settled on the 
isthmus as small dealers and farmers, and in some villages on the 
Atlantic side they are said to be in the majority, and, as a result, the 
English language is much in use, especially on the Atlantic side. Some 
of the native population have retained their customs, speech, and 
physical type, especially those in the western part of the province, and 


claim to be descendants of the natives found in that section by the 
Spaniards when they discovered and conquered the country. 

Of the commerce of Panama, the United States supplies a larger 
share than any other country. The importations at the port of Colon 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1903, as shown by the report of 
the United States consul, amounted to $952,684, of which $614,179 
was from the United States, $119,086 from France, $118,322 from 
England, $76,386 from Germany. The figures of the fiscal year 1903 
show a considerable increase from those of 1902, in which the value of 
the imports at Colon were $776,345. Of the $614,179 imports from 
the United States at Colon in 1903, $200,744 was dry goods, $189,333 
provisions, $59,890 coal, $38,642 lumber, $32,900 kerosene, $30,400 
liquors, and $31,940 hardware. The value of the importations from 
the United States in 1903 exceeded those of 1902 by about one hundred 
sixty thousand dollars. The exports to the United States from Colon 
in 1903 amounted to $173,370, of which $75,432 was bananas, $54,960 
cocoanuts, $12,472 turtle shells, $9,400 ivory nuts, $6,460 hides, and 
$5,924 coffee. 

From the port of Panama the exports to the United States in the 
fiscal year 1903 amounted to $193,342, of which $56,767 was hides, 
$49,974 india rubber, $27,805 cocobolo nuts, $16,598 ivory nuts, 
$13,372 deerskins, and $6,908 coffee. The consul at Panama states 
that the imported articles come mostly from England, Germany, France, 
Italy, and the United States, but gives no statistics of the imports. 

Panama is connected with San Francisco by a weekly steamer 
schedule operated by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and with 
Valparaiso by a weekly steamer schedule operated by the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company and South American Steamship Company. Two 
passenger and two freight trains leave Panama daily for Colon, and 
Colon daily for Panama. The time for passenger trains over the forty- 
seven miles of railway is three hours. 

From Panama there is one cable line north to American ports, 
and one to the south. The actual time consumed in communicating 
with the United States, and receiving an answer, is stated by the consul 
to be usually about four hours. There are also cable lines from Colon 
to the United States and Europe. 

The money of the country is silver, the rate of exchange having 
averaged during the past year about 150 per cent. — Bureau of Statistics, 
Department of Commerce and Labor. 


The Ship Canals of the World. — The ship canals of the world are 
nine in number, as follows: 

(1) The Suez Canal, begun in 1859 and completed in 1869. 

(2) The Kronstadt and St. Petersburg Canal, begun in 1877 and 
completed in 1890. 

(3) The Corinth Canal, begun in 1884 and completed in 1893. 

(4) The Manchester Ship Canal, completed in 1894. 

(5) The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, connecting the Baltic and North 
Seas, completed in 1895. 

(6) The Elbe and Trave Canal, connecting the North Sea and 
Baltic, opened in 1900. 

(7) The Welland Canal, connecting Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. 
(8 and 9) The two canals, United States and Canadian, respectively,. 

connecting Lake Superior with Lake Huron. 


The Suez Canal is usually considered the most important example 
of ship canals, though the number of vessels passing through it annu- 
ally does not equal that passing through the canals connecting Lake 
Superior with the chain of great lakes at the south. In length, how- 
ever, it exceeds any of the other great ship canals, its total length 
being ninety miles, of which about two-thirds is through shallow lakes. 
The material excavated was usually sand, though in some cases strata 
of sohd rock, from two to three feet in tliickness, were encountered. 
The total excavation was about 80,000,000 cubic yards under the 
original plan, which gave a depth of twenty-five feet. In 1895, the 
canal was so enlarged as to give a depth of thirty-one feet, a width 
at the bottom of 108 feet, and at the surface of 420 feet. The original 
cost was $95,000,000, and for the canal in its present form slightly in 
excess of $100,000,000. The number of vessels passing through the 
canal in 1870 was 486, with a gross tonnage of 654,915 tons; in 1875, 
1,494 vessels, gross tonnage, 2,940,708 tons; in 1880, 2,026 vessels, 
gross tonnage, 4,344,519 tons; in 1890, 3,389 vessels, gross tonnage, 
9,749,129 tons; in 1895, 3,434 vessels, gross tonnage, 11,833,637 tons; 
and in 1900, 3,441 vessels, with a gross tonnage of 13,699,237 tons. 
The revenue of the canal is apparently large in proportion to its 
cost, the Statesman's Yearbook for 1901 gi\ing the net profits of 1899 
at 54,153,660 francs, and the total amount distributed among the 
shareholders 51,538,028 francs, or about 10 per cent of the estimated 
cost of $100,000,000. 


The canal is without locks, being at the sea level the entire distance. 
The length of time occupied in passing through the canal averages 
about eighteen hours. By the use of electric Hghts throughout the 
entire length of the canal, passages are made at night with nearly 
equal faciUty to that of the day. The tolls charged are 9 francs per 
ton net register, "Danube measurement/' which amounts to slightly 
more than $2 per ton United States net measurement. Steam vessels 
passing through the canal are propelled by their own power. 


The canal connecting the Bay of Kronstadt with St. Petersburg is 
described as a work of great strategic and commercial importance to 
Russia. The canal and sailing course in the Bay of Kronstadt are 
about sixteen miles long, the canal proper being about six miles and 
the bay channel about ten miles, and they together extend from Kron- 
stadt, on the Gulf of Finland, to St. Petersburg. The canal was opened 
in 1890 with a navigable depth of 20i feet, the original depth having 
been about nine feet ; the width ranges from 220 to 350 feet. The total 
cost is estimated at about $10,000,000. 


The next of the great ship canals connecting bodies of salt water, 
in the order of date of construction, is the Corinth Canal, which connects 
the Gulf of Corinth with the Gulf of /Egina. The canal reduces the 
distance from Adriatic ports about 175 miles and from Mediterranean 
ports about 100 miles. Its length is about four miles, a part of which 
was cut through granitic soft rock and the remainder through soil. 
There are no locks, as is also the case in both the Suez and Kronstadt 
Canals already described. The width of the canal is seventy-two feet 
at bottom and the depth 26J feet. The work was begun in 1884 and 
completed in 1893 at a cost of about $5,000,000. The average tolls 
are 18 cents per ton and 20 cents per passenger. 


The Manchester Ship Canal, which connects Manchester, England, 
with the Mersey River, Liverpool, and the Atlantic Ocean, was opened 
for traffic January 1, 1894. The length of the canal is 35^ miles, the 
total rise from the \vater level to Manchester being sixty feet, which 
is divided between four sets of locks, giving an average to each of fifteen 
feet. The minimum width is 120 feet at the bottom and averages 175 
feet at the water level, though in places the width is extended to 230 feet. 


The minimum depth is twenty-six feet, and the time required for navi- 
gating the canal, from five to eight hours. The total amount of excava- 
tion in the canal and docks was about 45,000,000 cubic yards, of 
which about one-fourth was sandstone rock. The lock gates are operated 
by hydraulic power; railways and bridges crossing the route of the 
canal have been raised to give a height of seventy-five feet to vessels 
traversing the canal, and an ordinary canal, whose route it crosses, is 
carried across by a springing aqueduct composed of an iron caisson 
resting upon a pivot pier. The total cost of the canal is given at 
$75,000,000. The revenue in 1901, according to the Statesman's 
Yearbook, was £621,128, and the working expenses, £483,267. For 
the half year ending June 30, 1900, the canal yielded £16,488 toward 
paying the £112,500 of interest which the city of Manchester has to 
pay on the capital invested in the enterprise. The freight-paying tolls 
on the canal amounted to 1,487.841 tons in the half year, an increase 
of 12 per cent over that of the corresponding period of the preceding 


Two canals connect the Baltic and North Seas through Germany, 
the first, known as the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, having been completed 
in 1895 and constructed largely for military and naval purposes, but 
proving also of great value to general mercantile traffic. Work upon 
the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal was begun in 1887, and completed, as above 
indicated, in 1895. The length of the canal is sixty-one miles, the 
terminus in the Baltic Sea being at the harbor of Kiel. The depth 
is 29i feet, the width at the bottom seventy-two feet, and the minimum 
width at the surface 190 feet. The route lies chiefly through marshes 
and shallow lakes, and along river valleys. The total excavation 
amounted to about 100,000,000 cubic yards, and the cost to about 
$40,000,000. The number of vessels passing through the canal in 1900 
was 21,571, with a tonnage of 4,282,258, and the dues collected 
amounted to 2,133,155 marks. 


Three ship canals intended to give continuous passage to vessels 
from the head of Lake Superior to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence 
River are the Welland Canal originally constructed in 1833 and en- 
larged in 1871 and 1900; the St. Marys Falls Canal at Sault Ste. 
Marie, Mich., opened in 1855 and enlarged in 1881 and 1896, and the 
Canadian Canal at St. Marys River, opened in 1895. In point of 


importance, measured at least by their present use, the canals at the 
St. Marys River by far surpass that of the Welland Canal, the number 
of vessels passing through the canals at the St. Marys River being eight 
times as great as the number passing through the Welland, and the 
tonnage of the former nearly forty times as great as that of the latter. 
One of the important products of the Lake Superior region, iron ore, 
is chiefly used in the section contiguous to Lake Erie, ^nd a large 
proportion of the grain coming from Lake Superior passes from Buffalo 
to the Atlantic coast by way of the Erie Canal and railroads centering 
at Buffalo. The most important article in the westward shipments 
through the Sault Ste. Marie canals, coal, originates in the territorv 
contiguous to TiSke Erie. These conditions largely account for the 
fact that the number and tonnage of vessels passing the St. Marys 
River canals so greatly exceed those of the Welland Canal. 

The Welland Canal. — The Welland Canal connects Lake Ontario 
and Lake Erie on the Canadian side of the river. It was constructed 
in 1833 and enlarged in 1871 and again in 1900. The length of the 
canal is twenty-seven miles, the number of locks twenty-five, the total 
rise of lockage 327 feet, and the total cost about $25,000,000. The 
annual collection of tolls on freight, passengers, and vessels averages 
about $225,000 and the canal is open on an average about two hundred 
and forty days in a year. 

The Satdt Ste. Marie Canals. — The canals of Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., 
and Ontario, are located adjacent to the falls of the St. Marys River, 
which connects I^ake Superior with l^ake Huron, and lower or raise 
vessels from one level to the other, a height of seventeen to twenty feet. 
The canal belonging to the United States was begun in 1853 by the 
State of Michigan, and opened in 1855, ^the length of the canal being 
5,674 feet, and provided with two tandem locks, each being 350 feet 
in length and seventy feet wide, and allowing passage of vessels drawing 
twelve feet, the original cost being $1,000,000. The United States 
Government, by consent of the State, began in 1870 to enlarge the 
canal, and by 1881 had increased its length to 1.6 miles, its width to 
an average of 160 feet, and its depth to sixteen feet; also had built a 
single lock 515 feet long and eight}'^ feet wide, with a depth of seventeen 
feet on the sills, which was located 100 feet south of the State locks. 
The State relinquished all control of the canal in March, 1882. In 1887 
the State locks were torn down and replaced by a single lock 800 feet 
long, 100 feet wide, and a depth of twenty-two feet of water on the 
sills. This lock was put in commission in 1896. The canal was also 


deepened to twenty-five feet. The Canadian canal, IJ miles long, 150 
feet wide, and twenty-two feet deep, with lock 900 feet long, sixty 
feet wide, with twenty-two feet on the miter sills, was built on the 
north side of the river during the years 1888 to 1895. The number of 
vessels passing through the United States^canal in 1902 was 17,588, and 
through the Canadian canal 4,204. In 1900 the number of vessels 
passing through the United States canal was 16,144, and through the 
Canadian canal 3,003, showing an increase of 1,200 in the number of 
vessels passing through the Canadian canal, 'and a slight decrease in the 
number through the United States canal, the increase in the number 
passing through the Canadian canal having been due to the development 
of the Michipocoten district. The tonnage passing through the United 
States canal in 1902 was: Registered tonnage, 27,408,021 tons; in 1901, 
22,222,334 tons, against 20,136,782 in the year 1900; the freight tonnage 
in 1901 was 25,026,522 tons, against 23,251,539 tons in 1900. The 
Canadian canal shows: Registered tonnage in 1902, 4,547,561; in 1901, 
2,404,642 tons, against 2,160,490 in 1900. A marked contrast between 
the business of the St. Marys Falls and Welland Canals is found in a 
comparison of their figures for a term of years. The number of vessels 
passing through the Welland Canal in 1873 was 6,425, and in 1899, 
2,202, a reduction of more than one-half in the number of vessels. The 
number of vessels passing through the St. Marys Falls Canal in 1873 was 
2,517, and in 1902, through the American and Canadian canals, 22,659. 
— Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. 

Dalny, The Township. — The township of Dalny comprises an area 
of 75 square versts (21,000 acres), and during the current year it is pro- 
posed to purchase an additional tract of 25 square versts (7,000 acres) 
on the northwest of the township. 

The lands forming the townshij) of Dalny were purchased in 1899 
by the Chinese Eastern Railway Company from the local inhabitants 
at a price fixed by a committee of appraisers. On these grounds were 
formerly several small Chinese villages, the inhabitants of which were 
principally devoted to agriculture and fishing. 

The city of Dalny is picturesquely situated in an extensive valley 
which slopes gently down to the deep and wTll-protected bay of Talien- 
wan,and is surrounded on three sides by a range of hills rising to a height 
of 800 feet. It is divided into three parts — The Administration City, 
the European and Commercial City, and the Chinese City. 

Administration City. — The Administration City borders on the harbor 


and bay and is 108 acres in extent. All space in the administration 
quarter is reserved for the use of the Chinese Eastern Railway Company 
and its officials. In this section are the residences and offices of the 
governor and other officials of the railway company. There are over 
200 buildings erected, besides a large area of temporary structures for 
minor employes and workmen. 

Among the principal buildings are one hundred and twelve handsome 
brick and stone residences, the Administration Building, the port office, 
the seagoing-service office, the Greek church and school buildings, the 
railway company's hospital (for one hundred and eighty-six patients), 
the post, telegraph, and telephone offices, the Service Club and Concert 
Hall, the Yacht Club, Hotel Dalny, the Russo-Chinese Bank, police 
office and jail, the electric plant, machine shops, and the principal stores 
and shops. 

The city is supplied with water and electric lights throughout, and 
has an adequate police force and fire brigade, which extends also to 
the Commercial City. 

The permanent buildings of Dalny are at present confined almost 
entirely to the Administration quarter. 

European and Commercial City. — The European and Commercial 
City, which has an area of 1,100 acres, borders on the harbor and ex- 
tends to the range of hills on the south and east. 

Along many of the principal avenues and streets of the Commercial 
City a large number of shops, stores, hotels, and dwelling-houses have 
been built for the accommodation of both the large native population 
and foreigners. Most of these buildings, however, are only temporary. 
They are put up on the company's land with permission of the city 
authorities, and are to be removed in case the lots upon which they 
are built are sold or leased. 

The most central part of the Commercial City is Nicholas place, from 
which ten avenues branch. Around this circle (which is 700 feet in 
diameter) it is intended that the public buildings, banks, hotels, and 
office buildings shall be erected. Nicholas place is connected with the 
piers and shipping quarter by Moscow avenue, which is to be the main 
business thoroughfare of the city. 

The residential section is to be on the elevated ground of the European 

Chinese City. — The Chinese quarter is separated from the Adminis- 
tration and European cities by the town park and nurseries, which are 
upon the site of an old Chinese village. 


Climale of Dalny. — The climate of Dalny is agreeable, healthful, and 
dry. According to the weather bureau of Dalny, the t<?mperature in 
winter for the last four years has not been below 19° C. (3° F. below 
zero). During very severe winters the bay becomes frozen, but ice 
breakers are to keep the channel and harbor open for navigation. 

Building the City. — In the construction of the city thousands of 
Chinese laborers are daily engaged in the enormous excavations, the 
making of streets and roads, and the completion of the work on the 
harbor. Numerous steam and tram lines are used for the conveying 
of earth and stone and for filling in the piers and water front. 

The harbor is the scene of the greatest activity at present. The 
small harbor has been dredged to a depth of 18 feet, and the pier for 
coast steamers (which has been in use for over a year) is nearly com- 
pleted and has a railroad to its end. 

The work on the large dry dock is progressing rapidly; the cofferdam 
is built and tlie excavation well under way. This dry dock is to be 
630 feet long, 88 feet wide, and 28 fec^t in depth, and wnll cost about 
1,800,000 rubles («927,00()). 

The eastern side of the largo pier for ocean steamers is completed 
and in use nearly to its end ; on the west side the walls are nearing com- 
pletion, and one of the iron wharv(\s for light-draft vessels is built. 
Three railway tracks connecting with the main line and two storage 
w^arehouses, with a floor area of 19,600 square feet each, are completed. 
This pier is 1,925 feet long and 350 fo(^t wide, and has a depth of water 
of from 18 to 28 feet, and when completed will contain seven railway 
tracks and nine large warehouses. 

One can judge from this splendid pier how thoroughly and substan- 
tially the construction of the harbor is i)eing done. The foundation 
is laid with 50-ton concrete blocks and the walls finished with the best 
of dressed granite. 

For the outside pier, the foundation only is laid. The wharf between 
the two piers is completed and in use. The foundation of the break- 
water is finished for a distance of 2,800 feet and the sea wall along St. 
Petersburg quay is built. 

Work A ccomplished. — 

Area of port territory filled in, square yards 6,800,000 

Dredged from harbor, cubic yards 3,166,000 

Earth excavated, cubic yards 12,916,000 

Stone brought by rail, cubic yards 375,412 

Stone brought by sea, cubic yards 882,210 


Length of streets made, yards 77,000 

Streets macadamized, yards 20,300 

Sidewalks made, miJes 6 

Suburban roads made, miles 14 

Railway Service. — The branch railway connecting Dalny with the 
main line of the Chinese Eastern Railway at Nangalin was built and 
formally operated by the engineers in charge of the construction of 
Dalny. At the beginning of the current year this branch road was 
given over to the control of the main line, and Dalny was connected 
by daily service of through trains with Port Arthur, Harbin, and Man- 
churia. Prior to this, the Manchurian trains did not come to Dalny, 
passengers and freight being transferred at NangaHn. Besides the 
Manchurian service, there are now two daily trains between Dalny and 
Port Arthur and two weekly express trains between Dalny, Moscow, 
and St. Petersburg. 

On February 21, 1903, the first passenger express train from St. 
Petersburg and Moscow arrived at Dalny, and the weekly Trans- 
Siberian express service was inaugurated. Tlie demand for passages 
on this quick and comfortable route became so great that another 
train was soon added. 

The Trans-Siberian express leaves Dalny on Tuesdays and Saturdays, 
making a trip to Moscow — a distance of 5,375 miles — with a change of 
cars at Manchuria Station and Baikal, in thirtecMi and one-half days. 
The 'Hrain de luxe'' is a solid vestibuled train, composed of coaches 
of the International Sleeping Car and Express Train Company, having 
first and second class compartments and sleeping car and dining car. — 
Consular Reports, September, 1903. 

The Bagdad Railway and German Commerce in Asia Minor. — There 
exists to-day a railroad from Constantinople to Konieh, in Asia Minor, 
which is called the Anatolian Railway. It has branches to Smyrna 
and Angora. German financiers have succeeded in getting a con- 
cession from Turkey to continue this route from Konieh to Bagdad, and 
eventually through to Koeit, on the Persian Gulf. A corporation 
for the purpose of building the road has been formed in Constantinople, 
under the name of the Imperial Ottoman Bagdad Railway Company, 
with a capital of $3,000,000. Its president is one of the managers of 
the German Bank in Berlin. The Anatolian line to Konieh will not 
be merged into the larger concern, but its cooperation with the new 


enterprise has been assured. The approximate cost of the railroad is 
$90,000,000, and it will be about 1,800 miles in length. 

It is claimed that when the enterprise is completed it will bring 
India three days nearer London. It will shorten, by fourteen days, 
the journey by camel train from Aleppo to the valley of the Lower 
Euphrates, where ahnost every square mile of land has its interesting 
ruin or hidden treasure. Speaking of the country between the Euphra- 
tes and Tigris, the Chemnitzer Tageblatt says: The railway will pass 
through one of the oldest and richest countries in the world. The 
most fruitful part of what was once ancient Mesopotamia is that part 
of the country between Urfa and Mosul. So regular and plentiful are 
the rains that out of every six or seven harvests only two fall short. 
In other portions of the country rain is not so frequent, and the soil 
must be nurtured by irrigation. The land is adapted to raising wheat, 
barley, rice and cotton. A territory as large as Saxony and Italy 
together will be opened up to German markets. 

To find the shortest way to India is an achievement which has occu- 
pied the attention of European commercial nations since the earliest 
times. The highway built by the Persian satraps, the success of Vasco 
da Gama in finding a water way around Africa, and the construction 
of the Suez Canal mark epochs in the development of European com- 
merce with India. The construction of the Bagdad Railway will prob- 
ably be fraught with equally great results, as it will not only serve as 
a connecting link between the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf, but it 
will tap a large territory which in recent times has been of practically no 
value to the commercial world at large. — Consular Reports^ August, 1903. 

A Plan Which Interested a Geography Class. — While teaching in 
a graded country school, I found the pupils looked upon geography 
as a most uninteresting subject of study. I had, from a child, been 
fond of the study of this subject and determined that if it were possible 
IJwould awaken in these children a love for geography. 

I found little trouble in interesting the first, second, and third 
grade children, but found it more difficult with the fourth grade. 
The pupils had been using the text-book alone for their material of 
study. I examined the text and found it was not a poor one, but that 
the children had grow^n tired of using it as a reader and reciting from 
it in the same manner every day. I decided upon another plan of study. 

In the neighborhood of the school was a natural clay bed. The 
children of this class and I went there one afternoon and modeled a 


number of objects until each child was interested and knew it would 
not be impossible for him to model a large ball or globe. We chose 
the best of the clay, and cleaned it from any sticks or lumps. Each 
child carried home with him enough clay to form a globe nine inches 
in diameter. The children were instructed how to make their globes 
solid, how to place them to dry, and how, finally, with their mother's 
permission, to bake them in their mother's ovens. 

While the globes were drying, the children prepared papier mache. 
This was done by tearing paper into very small pieces and cooking. 
After the paper had been cooked and had cooled, most of the water 
was poured off and the paper kneaded with the hands until it became 
a smooth pulp. Each child prepared his own papier mache and brought 
it to school in a clean cloth. 

Some time was then spent in studying the relief maps of the different 
continents and modeling them from their papier mache. None were 
allowed to dry, but the pulp was returned damp to the cloth. 

When the globes had been dried and baked and were brou'^ht to 
school, the large globe on the teacher's desk was studied and carefully 
compared with the ones they had made. The glol>e was studied in order 
to learn the relative positions of the continents, the relative amounts 
of land and water, and, finally, in a very general manner, allowing the 
pupils to speak of anything about the globe that appealed to them. 

Many of the globes were good in shape, solid, and free from cracks. 
They were heavy and not easy to handle, but the pupils were delighted 
with them, and protested they were not ''too heavy." After the 
material had been prepared, the study of the book and globe made, we 
were ready for the final work. The children placed their globes on 
their desks and drew the zone lines and a few meridians. They then, 
after careful measurement, drew an outline of each continent in its 
proper place. They then put the papier mache on, and modeled the 
continents in relief. This was allowed to dry, and when the globe was 
completed, each pupil had a relief map of the world. Of course the 
bare clay represented tlie water and the papier mache the land. The 
water was not the regulation "blue." and as we had no water colors we 
managed to be content witli a dull brown. 

Now, of course, this work was not done in a day, week, nor month, 
nor was it allowed to drag along until pupils grew despondent of i-^eeing 
the end of their labors, but it did take time and thought on the part of 
both teacher and pupil. Hut the device proved a success in interestin<i 
the pupils in the study of geography. — The InteUi{]ena. 



Addition to the List of Geographical Societies of America. — ^The 

list of Geographical Societies published in the September, 1903, number 
of the Journal of Geography failed to include mention of the Geo- 
graphical Society of the Pacific, one of the oldest societies. Through 
the courtesy of Professor Davidson of the University of Cahfornia, I am 
able to add a notice. 


The Geographical Society of the Pacific was organized March 16, 
1881, by citizens interested in the geography and exploration of the 
western coast of America, and of the islands and lands adjacent to the 
Pacific. The purpose of the society is to gather geographical informa- 
tion for publication, to conduct lectures by travelers and explorers, to 
pubUsh material of interest to geographers, and to form a library of 
geographical works, maps, and charts. The society was incorporated 
January 5, 1892. It has a well- chosen library of books and charts, and 
exchanges publications with 135 homo and foreign geographical soci- 
eties. Meetings are held monthly and bulletins are published. The 
membership of the societies consists of fellows, associates, honorary and 
corresponding members. Honorary members are chosen on account of 
their distinction in the science of geography, and not more than two 
of them are elected in one year. Corresponding members are chosen 
from those who have added to the advancement of geography, and 
not more than three of them are elected in one year. Associates, cor- 
responding, and honorary members have no voice in the management 
of the society. There is provision made for junior members. Boys 
and girls under ago are admitted as junior members at one-half rates. 
The annual dues are $6.00. Any fellow of the society may be given a 
life fellowship on the payment of SIOO. Persons who have rendered 
valuable service to ihe society for ten years may l)e given life fellow- 
ship without fees. Any fellow who shall have paid his dues continu- 
ously for twenty years may become a life member without further 
payment of dues. The society has rooms at 419 California Street, San 
Francisco. The president is Professor George Davidson, of the Uni- 
versity of California. — ./. Paul Goode. 

Current Articles on Commerce and Industry : 

Argentina, Opportunities in, Bradstrccfs, September 26. 
Boston: City Characters (Illus.), World To-Day. 
Canal; Proposed Forth-Clyde Ship Canal, Cons. Report. 
China, The Building of Dalny (Illus.), World To-Day. 


Copper Converting (lUus.), Set, Am.y September 26. 

Cotton Crop of To-Day (Illus.), Rev. of Revs, 

Cotton Problem in the South (Illus.), World To-Day, 

Cuba, Commercial, in 1903, Mo. Summary of Commerce and Finance y 

Forest Planting in the U. S., Miss. Valley Lumberman ^ September 
11 and 18. 

German-American, The,. Makings Mag. 

Gun Making (Illus.), World's Work. 

Italy: Thirty Years of Progress, World's Work. 

Macaroni Wheat Question, Bradstreet's, September 19. 

Mexico, The American Influence in (Illus.), World's Work. 

Mexico, Pulque and Mescal of (Illus.), Set. Am., September 19. 

Potters and Their Products (Illus.), Clay Worker, September. 

Railroad Accidents in America and Europe, World's Work. 

Railroad Engineering, Modern Feats of (Illus.), World's Work. 

Rice, Cultivation of in the United States, Jour, of Geography. 

Rice Culture in the Philippines, Mo. Summary of Commerce of the 
Philippines^ May. 

Silk, Artificial, Sci. Am. Supp., September 19. 

Storms, Frosts, and Their Effect on Business, Paint, Oil, and Drug 
Rev., September 16. 

Sugar Discovery in the Beet, Bradstreet's, September 12. 

Tea-Raising Methods, Coram. Bull, and N. W. Trade, September 19. 

Timber Standing in the Country, Miss. Valley Lumberman, Septem- 
ber 18. 

Time (Illus.), Jour, of Geography. 


Alaska as an Investment, Sci. Ain. Supp., October 24. 
Alaska, the Rich Empire of the North (Illus.), World's Work. 
Americanizing Scotland's Industries, Cofis. Report. 
Canada: Turning Back to the Dominion, Success. 
Chicago at the End of a Century (Illus.), World To-Day. 
Cleveland (Illus.), World's Work. 

Coal-Mining in the United Kingdom (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 
Colombia and the Panama Canal (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 
Diamond Mining in the Kimberley Field (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 
Fisheries Commission, Work of (Illus.), Sci. Am., October 24. 
Garbage Disposal at Baltimore (Illus.), Sci. Am., October 31. 
Geography and History, Jour, of Geography. 


Holland: Reclaiming an Ocean Bed (Illiis.), McClure's. 

Immigrants: Where They Settle (Illus.), World^s Work. 

Industrial Schools in Germany, Sci. Ain. Supp., October 17. 

Inventions, Epidemics in, Trade- Mark Record. 

Iron and Steel Production of the World, Cons. Report. 

Irrigation Question, A Phase of, BradstreeCs, October 3. 

Japan, Foreign Commerce of, Cons. Report. 

Java Petroleum Districts (Illus.), Sci. Am.^ October 10. 

Lumber Transportation (Illus.), Sci. Am., October 17. 

Metal-Working, The Modern Craft of (Illus.), Sci. Am. Supp., 
October 3. 

Municipal Reform and Social Welfare in New York (Illus.), Rev. 
of Revs. 

Newspaper: Development of the Daily (Illus.), Mahin^s Ma^. 

North Sea Fisheries, Sci. Am. Supp., October 3. 

Philadelphia (Illus.), World To-Day. 

Salt Mining and Manufacture (Illus.), Sci. Am. Supp., October 3. 

South, a Seaboard Gatew^ay of the West (Illus.), World^s Work. 

Sugar Supply of the United States, Sci. Am. Supp.y October 17. 


Beet Sugar Making, Comm. Bull, and X. W. Trade, November 28. 
Camphor, Artificial (Illus.), Sci. Ain., November 21. 
Camphor Industry of Formosa, Sci. Am., November 21. 
Cane-Sugar Production of the World, Crop Reporter. 
Chicago: How a (Jreat City Is Fed (Illus.), World To-Day. 
Coal-Mining Industry in the United Kingdom (Illus.), Engineering 

Corn-Growers (Illus.), World's Work. 

Cost of Living, Bull, of Bureau of Labor, November. 

Country Merchant Come to Town, World's Work. 

Cuba, Cons. Report. 

Dairy Farming (Illus.), Country Life in Am. 

Denver: Character Sketches of Cities (Illus.), World To-Day. 

Galveston's Great Sea Wall (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 

Kimberley Diamond Mines (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 

Labor Boss: The Trust's New Tool, McClure's. 

Linseed Oil, Making of. Paint, Oil, and Drug Rev., November 25. 

Louisiana Purchase. Bradstreet's, November 7. 

Moseley's Industrial Inquiry, Cons. Report. 

New Zealand, Labor Conditions in, Bull, of Bureau of Labor. 



Onion-Seed Farm in California (lUus.), Set. Am., November 7. 

Panama, Commerce of, Hide and Leather, November 21. 

Post Office and the People (Illus.), World's Work. 

Printing Methods, Modern (Illus.), Sci. Am. (Special Number). 
November 14. 

Rubber Tree of Central America (Illus.), Sci. Am. Supp., November 

Russian Absorption of Asia (Illus.), World's Work. 

Savings Banks, The Romance of, Success. 

Scientific Research and Chemical Industry, Sci. Am. Supp., Novem- 
ber 14 and 21. 

Tea-Growing in India, Sci. Am. Supp., November 14. 

Textile Industry of Philadelphia, The Manufacturer, November 16. 



IT Is hoped this department will prove of practical benefit to teachers of geogra- 
phy, opening a way for the solving of the many geographical problems which 
are constantly met with in the classroom. All questions received will be answered 
by specialists in the various methods of geographical work. We invite inquiries, 
criticisms, suggestions, and discussions. Address all communications for this depart- 
ment to: EDWARD M. LEHNERTS, Winona, Minn. 

(5) As 1 am an old reader of the Journal of Gkography and 
of its two parent magazine-^, I trust you will pardon me for troubling 
you with a question. To what extent and in what ways do forests 
influence climate? In your Journal for April, 1902, in the excellent 
article entitled ** Certain Persistent Errors in Geography," Mr. Henry 
Gannett positively affirms that forests have absolutely no influence on 
rainfall. I cannot see the reason for his statement; and hence my 
question, which I hope you will find worthy of a reply. 

A. H. G., South Bend, Ind. 

Every one of our readers, old and new, is cordially invited — yes, 
even urged — to send us any geographical (luostion that is giving trouble. 
Your letter is therefore more than welcome, and we gladly reply as 
fully as our space permits. 

In the article you refer to, Mr. Gannett exposes and condemns in 
a vigorous and effective manner certain widespread geographical mis- 
conceptions including the popular belief that the removal of forests 
greatly decreases the rainfall. He does not, however, raise the question 
whether forests have any appreciable influence on climate. This 


question has been discussed for yea's, and much time has been given 
to its study : but most of the conclusions reached would seem apparent 
even without any elaborate investigation. 

It is a matter of common observation, particularly on sunny summer 
days, that the ground and the air under the trees are cooler than the 
soil and the air in the open field ; and this effect is not only noticeable 
by day, but by night as well, as every one will testify who is acquainted 
with the cool, d mp evenings and nights of our wooded areas. This 
lowering of the temperature is caused by the shading of the ground and 
by the increased evaporation and radiation from the leaves, which 
present an enlarged surface for these processes, transpire large amounts 
of water, and possess a radiating power equal to that of soot. Of 
course, the effect is increased with the size and the number of the trees, 
the density of the foHage, and the extent of the forest. Moreover, the 
kind of trees, whether deciduous or evergreen, makes a considerable 
difference, especially in our northern latitudes in the spring season. 
In the deciduous woods on the shaded northward slopes of the bluffs 
about Winona, the snow in spring lasts from one to three weeks longer 
than in the open fields; but in the evergreen forests of northern Minne- 
sota, especially on northward slopes, snow and ice remain until the 
beginning of summer. The Indians even claim that they can find ice 
in the dense cedar swamps of that section at any time during the 
summer and fall. In general, forests retard the melting of the snow 
in spring and thus lower the temperature, favor frosts, and delay 
the approach of warmer weather. 

The following tables taken from Hann's Handbook of Climatology 
give interesting data regarding the influence of forests on temperature: 









Vienna Citv . . . 






j 9.6° 


Vienna Count r>- 

Vienna Forest 

.. -1.5° 






7 a. m. 

2 p. m. 

i 9 p. ni. 


In Winter 



1 0.8° 
1 .230 


In Summer 


1 4° 


On our western prairies nearly every farmhouse has its grove of 
trees to serve as a protection against cold winds and drifting snows. 
This illustrates another important effect of forests, namely, the break- 
ing of the force of winds and the checking of air currents. Partly 
because of this diminished air movement and partly because of the 
coolness due to the stoppage of the sunshine by the leaves, the forest 
keeps the air under its cover relatively moist; and since cool, moist, 
and quiet air does not favor evaporation, and since this process is 
still further retarded by the protective and water-holding capacity of 
the forest floor, it is not surprising to learn that observers find the 
annual evaporation within the forest to be about one-half of that in 
the open field. This leads to the conservation of the water supply, 
one of the most important of forest influences. Rain water is retained; 
evaporation is decreased ; surface flow-off and underground circulation 
are regulated; stream flow is controlled; excessive erosion and floods 
are prevented; and many other beneficial effects are produced. 

Wherever a forest has been considerably reduced in area, changes 
in the water supply have occurred; in certain cases, wells, springs, 
and small streams have become intermittent and even permanently dry. 
Extensive reforestation, on the other hand, has been known to again 
bring water to the well and to re-establish the spring and the stream 
flow. Some observers, believing these effects to be due to changes 
in the amount of rainfall, concluded that extensive deforestation always 
caused a corresponding decrease in the annual precipitation. It is, 
however, perfectly clear that such a conclusion is not safe since the 
forest influences mentioned in the preceding paragraph are in them- 
selves adequate causes. 

The question whether forests increase the annual rainfall has been 
answered in the affirmative by many careful observers and students, 
including Blanford,^ Muttrich,*^ Hettner,^ Hann,' and many others ; 
but their answer is based on data and methods of investigation which 
cannot be adequately set forth here because of lack of space. 

The earliest and most untrustworthy data are those obtained by 
the historical method. Ancient history and literature give illustrations 

' H. F. Blanford: "The Influence of the Indian Forests on the Rainfall," Joum. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, LVI, Part II, 1887, pages 1-15. 

' A. MDttrich: "Ueber den Einfluss des Waldes auf die GrOsse der atmosphftri- 
schen Niederechltlge," Das Wetter, IX, 1892, pages 46-48, 68-71, 90-96. 

^ A. Hettner: Regenvertheilung, Pflanzendecke, und Besiedelung der tropischen 
Anden, 1893, Berlin. 

^ J. Hann: Handbuch der Klimatologie, English Translation by R. DeC. Ward, 
1903, The Ma<?millan Co., New York. 


of forested and well- watered regions which have since become deforested 
and arid; but such data are imperfect and unreliable, and, even in 
cases where former humidity and present aridity are authenticated 
facts, the change can be shown to be due not to a decrease in the rainfall 
but to changes in distribution and circulation of the rain after it has 
fallen, or to dry winds no longer checked and modified by the former 
forest barrier. 

A j^econd and more satisfactory source of data is furnished by 
meteorological records; and these point to three definite conclusions: 
That about 9 per cent more rain falls over a forest than over open fields 
in the immediate vicinity; that the precipitation is somewhat greater 
in the tree-covered areas as compared with the treeless districts of a 
given region, and that in cases of reforestation the precipitation has 
increased with the increasing forest growth. Recent writers, however, 
especially in America, have shown a disposition to question these con- 
clusions; and some have gone so far as to deny that forests have any 
appreciable influence on rainfall. Professor Cleveland Abbe''* of the 
United States Weather Bureau has clearly shown that the great mass 
of meteorological data is not reliable, so far as this problem is concerned, 
since rain gauges in open places catch less rain than they should, owing 
to the influence of the stronger wind. Wherever the gauges have been 
properly corrected in accordance with l^rofessor Abbe's suggestion, 
there has been found no appreciable (liff*erence in tlie amount of rainfall 
over the forest and over the open land ; and it is now generally conceded 
that the facts at hand do not prove conclusively that forests increase 

As regards climate, then, forests tend (1) to lower the mean tem- 
perature of the air; (2) to check air movement; (3) to increase its 
relative humidity; (4) to equalize day and night temperatures and to 
make seasonal extremes less severe; (5) to favor frosts and fogs, and, 
some say, clouds and rain; and (6) to increase the healthfulness of the 
locality by decreasing the number of disease-producing organisms in 
the air, the water, and tlie soil. In short, the influence of the forest 
on the local climate is considerable, but its effect on the general or 
regional cHmate is not appreciable. E. M. L. 

'• C. Abbe: " Deteniiination of the Tnie Amount of Precipitation and Its Bearing 
on Theories of Forest Influences," Bulletin No. 7, 1892, forestry Division, U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, pages 175-185. 




THE beginning of a new year is a favorable time to summarize 
the results, the successes of the past, and estimate the direc- 
tion thought and action will probably take in the future in our 
chosen field of work. 

At no period during the last decade has there been a time when 
the signs of the times were more encouraging than they are now. 
Geography teaching is slowly but surely improving. The subject is 
receiving increasing emphasis in normal schools, in secondary schools, 
and at teachers' institutes, and teachers arc seeking enlightenment 
and help in the subject constantly. In spite of all setbacks and the 
persistence of ultra conservatism in some cities and states, in spite of 
the unnaturalness of geography as still taught in the larger number of 
rural schools, there is good reason to be optimistic and not pessimistic 
as to the future of the subject. 

Among the evidences of progress in elementary school geography 
since the ''renaissance,'' which dates from the appearance of Frye's 
first book in 1894, may be noted more logical, more usable text-books, 
and a greater emphasis of the causal idea and the phenomena of the • 
home environment. Writers of texts for elementary schools now 
adopt a plan of procedure whereby the subject is modified to fit the 
pupil, instead of the pupil being wholly molded to fit the text. The 
better text-books now contain fewer unessential points, fewer imag- 
inary', untruthful illustrations, better maps (though in this regard there 
is still great room for improvement), references to collateral reading for 
teachers and pupils, and are in general more geographical than their 

In the secondary field there are several excellent texts, and labora- 
tory and field work have come to stay. The fact that geography has 
been accepted as an entrance requirement by several colleges has 
stirred many secondary schools to better work in the subject. Broadly 
considered, perhaps the most satisfactory progress in geography within 
the decade has been in this fiekl. 

In normal and training schools, on the other hand, the subject is 
in a verj' unsatisfactory position. There are many normal schools in 
which geographers have been employed as leaders in the work, and it 


is needless to say that this group of schools has led the way in reform 
in the training of teachers'of/geography. In a large number of the nor- 
mal schools, however, geography is still stagnant, and in this field there 
is the greatest need for improvement. 

The progress in the higher institutions has not been as great in 
proportion as in the lower institutions. In many colleges and universi- 
ties geography does now have a place, but in many others it is unknown 
or given a mere foothold. Even where geography is taught it is not 
commonly related to the work of other departments, such as history 
and sociology, as it should be, and hence the success is not as great as 
it might readily be. The teachers for the secondar^^ and normal 
schools must come from the colleges and universities largely, and the 
demand for such trained teachers is far in excess of the supply. 

One of the most favorable evidences of progress is the fact that the 
public and educational officers are alive to the worth of geography as 
a subject of culture and training. This is well illustrated by the 
increasing number of teachers of all grades of work who seek opportu- 
nities to secure better training in geography through teachers' classes 
or summer schools. The success of the Cornell Summer School of 
Geography in 1903 is the best test of the increasing demand by teachers 
for better training in geog aphy we have had, and it is most encour- 

Progress has been made, and is going to be made rapidly in the next 
few years. Faddism in methods of teaching is passing away; rural 
school geography is being strengthened through the introduction of 
agriculture and geographical nature study; better courses of study 
are being adopted in elementar}^ schools; laboratory work is being 
introduced into secondary^ and normal schools; and the text-book is 
not always followed slavishly now. In our zeal for better things, 
however, we are in danger of forgetting that pupils must be taught to 
study and think, to apply their knowledge in daily life, and that the 
easiest way to the goal is not always the best. If, ten years hence, 
those who have been pupils in this decade do not know the facts and 
principles of geography necessary for an understanding of current affairs, 
it will be a good indication that the pendulum has swung too far and 
that in our endeavor to make things interesting we have failed to give 
the best discipHne and training. 



Field and Laboratory Exercises in Ph3rsical Geography. By James F. Cham- 
berlain. Size 10x8. Pp. 127. New York: Amencan Book Company, 1903. 
While the teaching of Phj-sical Geography through the laboratory is no longer 
in the experimental stage, the use of this method is necessarily restricted to those 
few whose training has been of a nature to enable them to organize this line of work 
for themselves. 

For the great majority, the need of a liiboratory manual is an imperative one 
and each new contribution to the field is eagerly welcomed, not only by the teacher 
of many subjects, whose training is inadequate to meet the situation unaided, but 
also by the specialist who is desirous of seeing Physical Geography taught according 
to the best method. 

The book noted above seems well adapted to meet the needs of the situation. 
The exercises, sixty-nine in number, touch up>on the various departments of the 
subject: "The Earth as a Globe,'* "The Atmosphere," "The Ocean," "The Lands," 
and "Life," and are fairly well proportioned. More space, however, should have 
been devoted to the lands through the study of topographic sheets illustrating 
typical land forms. 

The exercises generally are elementary in character, easily within the compre- 
hension of pupils of the upper grammar grades or of the first year of a high-school 

The sequence of the topics treated usually is logical though in some cases a 
rearrangement should be made as, for nstance, in the case of exercises thirty-one 
and thirty-three where the study of "isobars'* follows that of "cyclonic areas." 

Many of the problems presented do not fall properly either in field or in labora- 
tory work, for their solution lies in the library alone. While this work is valuable, 
it should not be confounded with laboratory work. 

The manual serves a double purpose, outline maps and blank pages for record- 
ing observations accompanying the problems. 

The book will, without doubt, be found helpful in offering suggestions, and 
should be used from this standpoint rather than as an infallible guide. 

C. B. K. 


special Method in Geography. From the Third through the Eighth grade. By 
Charles A. McMurry. New edition. Pp. xi and 217. New York: The Mac- 
millan Company, 1903. 
A new and much-enlarged edition of Dr. C. A. McMurry's well-known book 

on geography teaching. Very detailed in its suggestions, and especially adapted 

to the Tarr & McMurry geographies. Would have been more readily usable if 

accompanied by an index. To be reviewed later. 

Waterways of Westward Expansion, being Volume IX of Historic Highways of 
America. By Archer Butler Hulbert. Pp. 220. Cleveland, Ohio: The 
Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903. 
This book deals particularly with the Ohio River and its tributaries, and is 

fuller and more complete than most of its predecessors in the series. Contains three 


reproductions of old maps. Valuable especially to the student of American history 
as related to its geography. 

Indians of the Painted Desert Region. By George Wharton James. Pp. xxi 

and 267. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1903. 

An attractive and readable book on the Indians of Arizona and New Mexico, 
by a well-known writer on Indians. Well illustrated. To be reviewed later. 

Descriptive Geography from Original Sources: Australia and Oceanica. By 
F. D. and A. J. Herbertson. Pp. xxvi and 221. London: Adam and Charles 
Black, 1903. 

The last of the several volumes devoted to the dififerent continents and prepared 
by Dr. and Mrs. A. J. Herbertson. Like the preceding volumes, this volume con- 
tains an excellent introductory chapter, bibliography, and index. The material 
is well selected, well illustrated, and very usable. The volume is excellent for 
supplementary use in the higher grannnar grades of American schools. 

Around the Caribbean and Across Panama. Bv Francis C. Nicholas. Boston 

and New York: H. M. Caldwell Company, 1903. 

An interesting account of an explorer's adventures in the region indicated by 
the title. Written by an authority and well illustrated. 

Elementary Geography. By Charles F. King. Pp. vi and 220. Boston: Lothrop 

Publishing Company, 1903. 

An elementary geography by an experienced and well-known teacher. De- 
scriptions of excursions and imaginary journeys are made the means of imparting 
both general and regional facts. Excellent illustrations, some being colored. Illus- 
trations of animals especially fine. Maps are somewhat crude and proper names 
are not always spelled correctly. To be reviewed later. 


The New Republic of Panama.— Early in November the State of 
Panama, hitherto a part of Colombia, seceded and established a new 
republic known as Panama, and on November 6th this republic was 
recognized as a new nation by the Ciovernment of the United States. 
The action taken by the inhal)itants of Panama was primarily due to 
the fact that Colombia had stood in the way of allowing the United 
States to build the Panama Canal. The inliabitants of Panama, having 
been paying large amounts in taxes to Colombia, felt that they had 
not been duly considered by Colombia and that their business interests 
had been sacrificed; hence their action. 

Meeting of National Educational Association in 1904. — It has 

been decided to hold the 1904 meeting of the National Educational 
Association at St. Louis during the latter part of June or the early part 
of July. The various features of the exposition will be made the 
chief topics of the papers and discussions, and thus the meeting wdll 
be centered about the exposition. Details as to time of meeting and 
the attention to be given to geography will be announced in the 
Journal as the plans mature. 

Newest and Best Text-Books 



Morton's Geographies 

By Eliza H. Morton. Mem\x»r of the Xational Geographic Society. 

Elementary Geography $0.55 

Advanced Geography i.20 

Natural Geographies 

By Jacqif.s \V. Redway and Russell Hinman. 
Elementary Geography ... .... fo.6o 

Advanced Geography 1.25 
Brief Geography 80 

Tarbeirs Geographies 

By H«.RACE S. Tarbell, A.M., I-L.I).. formerly Siiperintendent of 
Schools. Providence. R. I., and Martha Tarhell, Ph.D. 

Introductory Geography fo.50 

Complete Geography i.oo 

The same. With Special State Editions .1.10 

Carpenter's Geographical Readers 

By Frank d. Carpenter. 
North America $0.60 Europe .... fo.70 

South America .60 Asia 60 

Australia and the Islands of the Sea (/>/ prcparatioti). 

Write for descriptive circulars and infor- 
mation about Text- Books in Geoj^raphy 


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New York 

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UcaM M Mm C. 1. 4 «. 1. •.. 14 ailM VMt tf Chktft 
This fielect Boarding School for the higher 
education of jrounR Ituilvi. with a pnparatoiy 
department n)r Ifttic Rlrlu, Is directed by the 
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The course of Studies Is sfstematlc and 
thorough, emhracing every branrii of a 
refined, solid, business, and Industrial educa- 

The Academy offers exceptional advantagefl 
In lYIosic, Art, and LanvaaveM. Classical 

Prospective patrons are invited to call at 
the Academy or they may refer by permis- 
sion to the Most Keverend James Edward 
gulffley. D. I>. 

Board per Scholastic vear. «250. Extras 
moderate. Beautifully Illustrated caUlogue 
furnished on application to 


Telephone, La Grange 61. 




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school of Columbia University for the 
study of education and the theoretical 
and practical training of teachers of 
both sexes for elementary, secondary, 
and normal schools, of specialists m 
various branches of school work, and 
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Its Courses of Study are 

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which, followed by a two-year Profes- 
sional Course, leads to the degree of 
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and to the University degrees of A. fi. 
and Ph. D. ^ Many courses in other 
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qualified students. 

For circulars and further information 
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Flexible Bindins:. 15c. 

A real gem. Teachem fall In love with It 
and pupflH want to read it ihroiiKh as souii as 
they begin It. Appropriate for School and 

It 1» the «tor>- of the experience of Delma 
and Harold who wimii to tneir grandfstber'a 
to Hpend the HUiiiiner studying sod obser^'Ing 
the birds. 


BiRDiRs AT Thkik Trai>K8: Ma*on — 
Swallow. Babketmaker -Crimson line h. 
Weaver -Oriole, Fuller — Goldfinch, Carpen- 
ter - Woodpecker, Tailor - Tallorblrd. 

Birdies a.vdTheirSongs: IntheOsrden 

- Hohln, In the Wood - Thrush. In the Field ' 

— Bluebird. In the Sky — Lark, In the Home — 
Canary, In the ti rove — Mockingbird. 

Birdies on hie Wino; Huminlngblrd. 
Tn« Birdikh' Farewell: Jack Sparrow 
and Jenny Wren. (Jood-Bye. 

The ))Ook Is very prettily Illustrated by 
Bertha L. Corbett, the artist of Sunbonnet 
Babies. The author Is Ida S. Elson, of Phils- 
delphia, formerly a prominent RIndergartner 
of Bethlehem, Pa. 

William G. Smith & Company 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Journal of Pedagogy 

"PROM the first issue the Journal of Pedagogy has been edited solely in the interest 
■•■ of sound education and correct teaching. Some of the most important contribu- 
tions to pedagogical literature in this country have appeared in its paees during the 
past decade. It is the aim of the magazine to oflfer from issue to issue a full and impar- 
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thought and practice. 

It has become a necessity to every library, and teachers who wish the best must 
include it in their list of periodicals. 



EDITORIAL — The BaUvia System— What the Batavia System Is — A Quickened Intellec- 
tual Life — The Right View of a Superintendent's Duties - A Needed Amendment — 
Music in the High School — A Difficult Undertaking Well Done The Boston Meeting 
— Medical Inspection of Schools - College Entrance Examination Board. 



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The Southern 


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Ncw vouh 


An Announcement to Teachers of 

RAND, McNALLY & COMPANY will publish 
this fall and winter a new series of Geographies 

By Richard Elwood Doihie 

Professor of Geography^ Teachers College ^ Columbia Universi/y^ Xew York City : 

co-editor of The Journal of Geography; and author of '*''A Reader 

in Physical Geography for Beginners.''* 


Cloih, Square 8vo, 8xio, 228 pages; 75 cents. 

THIS is a gcojrraphy for bejjrinners. The book has, therefore, been divided into two 
parts, entitled, respectively, " Home Geoj^raphy " and " World Relations and the 
In Part 1. the purpose has been to show the relation of the individual pupil to all 
parts of his own country, and thereby to emphasize the interdependence of people com- 
mercially and industriiilly. Any treatnieni of Home Cicoj^raphy must be general in 
order to make it true f«)r all children in all localities. In the '* SujifK^cstions for Review '* 
the pupil is asked to stu ly his own environment auvl 10 explain its xeojfraphy by 
the universal facts presented in the text. 

Part II. opens with a treatment of those factors that must be understood by the 
pupil in order that he mav appreciate his relation t«» the world as a whole. The mter- 
dependence of nations is here brouj^ht out. The part is dev»»ted to ti:e several con- 
tinents, and shows the reasons, so far as is possible within the limits t»f an elementary 
book, for the supremacy of certain industries in certain places. 

Boolt TWO ..ADVA NCED GEOGRA PH Y.. m preparation 

Cloth, Square Bvo, 8x10, ... pajjes; $1.20. 

'"T^HIS book has been written with the idea of emphasizing: particularly the "causal 
l^ noti(m'* in jc'^oj^raphy teach injc- Part I., called "The Principles of Geographv," 
treats of those phase's of j^^eneral Keojrranhy which are necessary as a founciation 
for an intellijrent and disciplinary studv of the several continents. The topics in this 
part of the book are considered as far as possible in the order of their mutual depen- 
dence, and the pupils are thus led to see the dependence of the hiy^her and more compli- 
cated phases of geography on the simpler hut fundamental conditions. 

In Part 11. "The Continents" arv treated in such a way as to emphasize the impor- 
tance of their phy.sical characteristics. Kspecial attention is given to their economic 
conditions, because it is believed that the greatest value from a stuily of the continents 
comes: First, from the training in clear thinking involved; and' second, from the 
knowledge it gives of principles and facts that can be used in later life. 

... •• p/lA¥Ky •• •• 

THE attention of geographers and geography teachers is especially invited to the 
large number Jind excellence of the map.s. all'of which have been ma'deexpres.slv for geographies. Each c«)ntirent antl the United States is represented by three 
maps, a relief map to giv(,' a bird's-eye view of the contour, i\, physical map showing, in 
accordance with the international color scheme, the land heights and water depths, and a 
political map giving the latest information in regard to boundaries and other varying 
points. In Book Two appear commercial map<. showing the railroads and principal 
industries of each region. For the Hist time in a school geograi)hy water depths are 
.show^n on all maps. 

The drawings for the maps have passed under the critical eye of Dr. J Paul Goode, 
Assistant Profes.sor of (ieography in the University of Chicago, an expert in cartography. 

Write us for fur/ her information regarding these books 

Chicago pieW York London 

Educational Publishers 

jt y^iS^ ^ ^ ^ ^ozv many of your Nigh School 
pupils can correctly make out a 
bill, draic a check, ivrite a business letter or intelli- 
gently ansiver the sim- ^ ^^ ^ a a a 
plesi business question .^ A. RCfnCdl^ T TT 

A First Book in Business Methods 

Bv William R Teller. CrtJit .1/jh. Tkr /^ri/jm MjMmf'jif»trtmir c\»«i/^i»y» A j/«i> 
muisvo, MnJki^uM, and Henkv K. ItROWN. //^jJ \>r tkf C**mmtr\ta7 

Illustrated with 154 business forms, >■> in ct^lors. 
Cloth, lamo, 171 pages; 75 cents. 

THE need of the hour is practical eilucation for the business of life, Th»s )xH>k 
promises to meet the need, t\^r it is m^t a work v>n lvH»k-keepin^or acc^nmtinir, but 
what its name implies. It tells a bi>y or jfirl how to write busmess letters, how to 
send money orders and telejrr.ims, how tv> ship frei>rhi and express, how to depi^sit and 
draw money in various forms from banks, how to make contracts leases and ivirtner- 
ships. how to deal in stvK'ks and bvmds, how to jfive deeds and mort>ra>{:es, and how to 
settle estates. The b«x>k is profusely illustrated with /jisitmi/t's of business iwpers 
printed in seven colors. The style is "simple and the lxM>k can Ih* easily usetl in the 
eiehth g^radeand the rtrst years ot Hiifh SchtM»ls. As this isprv>lx»bly iheonly l>ook avail- 
able for these grades it will be welcomed by those interestetl in cv^mmercial educaliv»n. 

Rand, McNally ft Company : Educational Publishers : Chicago New York London 

Bv K'A THAKIXE F.LI/ABETH HO PP. Ph. />. jHsfrHitor in the Extension Division of 
the Unitersity of Chicaji^o^ author of '/he Place of Industries in Elementary Education. ' 

Book/. THE TREE-DWELLERS. Thk A.;e of Fi- ar. 

Illustrated with a maps /> full pat^e and (k^ text drarctn^trs in half-tone by Howard I'. 
Broxvn. Cloth, square unto, / ;X/./<vjr .- ^j; cents. Eor the primary {grades, (fust issued.) 

THIS volume makes clear to the child how people lived before they hail fire, how and 
why thev conquered it, and the chanjjes wrouj^hl in society by its use. The simnle 
activities of gathering food, of weaving, building, taming fire, making use of the bmly for 
tools and weapons, wearing trophies, and securing cooperative action by means of 
rhythmic dances, are here shown to be the simple t\>rms of processes which still minister 
to our daily needs. 

Bool' II. THE EARLY CAVE-MEN. Thk Ar.K <.!• Cmhat. 

Illustrated with 7.> drawinf's in ha f- tone f>y Howard \'. Brown. Clothe square rjmo^ 
n4 pages : 4^ cents. Eor the primary grades, (/n press.) 

IN this volume the child is helped to realire that it is not only necessary to know h»>w to 
use fire, but to know how to make it. Protection from the cold winters, which char- 
acterize the age described, is sought first in caves ; but fire is a necessary means of defend- 
ing the caves. The serious condition to which the cave-men are reduceil by the loss <»f fire 
during the time of a flood is shown to be the moiive which pn>mpts theiu to hold a council ; 
to send men to the fire country ; to make improvements in clothing, in devices for carrying, 
and in tools and weapons ; and, finally, to the discovery of a way of making fire. 


Book III. THE LATER CAVE-MEM. The Ace ok the Chase. 

Illustrated. For the primary grades. 

Book IV. THE TENT-DWELLERS. The Early Fishino Men. 

Illustrated. For the primary grades. 

Later volumes will deal with the early steps in the development of pastoral and agri- 
cultural life, the changes wrought by the discovery and of metals, and the first steps in 
the evolution of travel, trade, and transportation. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Write us a letter of iiupiiry 
a nd receive in reply our new circu lars and a lett er of i nform ation r egardin g these l>o(»ks. 



[HE day is already here when ac- 
curate and convenient maps are 
considered an essential part of 
the equipment of every school. 
Few teachers would undertake to 
teach the subject of geography or history 
without a set of down-to-date maps, A few 
years ago it was enough to have a wall ?nap 
of the United States, hid at the close of the 
Spaftish war we found ourselves interested 
in the geography of both Europe and Asia. 
The recent conflict in South Africa has 
revised the map of that continent and created 
a new interest in its geogi'uphy. The Pan- 
American Exposition, the Pan-American Con- 
gress, and the plans for the Panama Canal 
have turned our eyes a?iezv toward South 
America, whose geography is practically un- 
known to the American people. Our interests 
are now world-wide, and we are of necessity 
becoming a geography -studying people. J^ J^ 
^ Eor nearly fifty years Messrs. Rand, 
McNally & Company have been the largest 
map makers in America. Their imprint 
corresponds to the ''Sterling'* mark on 
silverware, a7id stands for accuracy, com- 
pleteness, and convenience. Their informa- 
tion is secured from official sources and each 
map is caref^llly revised with each printi7ig. 



The necessity of Physical Maps as aids to the 
teachin}^ of Kcojjjraphy and allied subjects is Ken- 
erally recojrnized. For many years the Physical 
Maps issued by Hand, McNally & Co. have* been 
accepted by teachers of geography as the standard. 


Pnlnrincr These maps follow the ttitertiatiottal color scheme and show 
l^OlOnng; /and elevations in four shades of brown, the darkest bent if 
the highest, and the water depths in three shades of blue, the dat kest shade 

being the c\^^^^ rnrrAnfc Ocean currents 7vhich are one of the great 
deepest. '-'Cean V^urrentb j-.j^f^rs in determining the climate of 
countries are clearly indicated, the warm currents being shaken in broken 
or pink and the cold i^^^o-, ri^krifVic i^'^ter depths of less than 
currents in dark blue. '-'Cean L/epins ^-^ feet are shoivn in light 
blue, depths from 6jo to 6,j;oo in darker blue, and depths greater than 
dy^oo in a still darker shade of blue. This is an important addition 
to the information usually shown on Physical Maps, and enables the 
student to study intellii^ently the interesting geography of the ocean 
bottoms aswell'as the p)iysi- pi^-f nicfriKufiftn Phese are the only 
ographyof the land surface, r'lant UlStHDUtlOn physical Maps 
which sho7V correctly and clearly the plant distribution of North America, 
Euf ope, and Asia. And this feature alone t<<^4.v.**..«*o1 T :«-»><< ta . 
empLsiz,slhecon,plele,u-sSiJf preparation. ISOthcrmal LinCS. The 
isothermal lines for fuly and January are shown in red, and degrees of 
heat and cold are marked on the margins of the maps, Arriirarv 
showing the curious effect of topography upon climate. ■'^CCUracy ^/^^. 
making of these maps the latest official information and the results of 
the most recent explorations have been utilized. They tell the truth. 


United States North America South America Europe Asia Africa 

World on Mercator's Projection Pacific Ocean and Australia 


"Equal to the Best Work in Germany" 

Chicago, III. 
'"'Allow my hearty thanks that an American publisher has, at last, met the pressiuj^ 
needs of j^eniiine j^eo^raphnal leachinf^ by publishing such excellent wall maps. 

" > our Physical Maps are njnal to the best 7vork done in Germany. Tiny are well 
printed and very cheap, compared with the best ivall maps. published at Got ha. 

^^It is seldom that J have an opportunity to endorse so emphatically a means of 
teaching true geography. I trust these maps will make their appearance in every 
school-room in America. 1 should prefer them in grammar and high schools to atiy 
text -book in geography ei>er yet print id. 

Late Director of the School of Education, The University of Chicago. 

A hand-book giving a full de.scription of these maps, 
with special suggestions for their use. has been 
prepared by Dr. J. Paul (ioode of the University 
of Pennsylvania. There is an introduction by Dr. 
T. C. Chambcrlin of the University of Chicago. 

Rand, McNally 6r* Company, Chicago and JVetv York 


Ghe New International 

ITs A Glorious Thing to hnow\ dlTO^ 
to Knaw Thc^i Vou Khqh 

Hotii> to Knotty 'hL^ here 
io go ^ar in^omxcx- 
tian— Ihaf^ the ^ 
if u c .f t I c^n 

Here's a Rich < 


Mine Ihdi's 
Open to -* 


]htm \mmmuiimm?tim 

In oilier W9r(lt, Tli£ ficv tnltniAlMkaAt Bn^ 
cjctiipac«l« msvers laUi fUty per c«fl|. raoit 

It eonUloi i(K» itilt pafc coloned pUi^i— 
^irtr 7/^^n tjll&cr cxctUeot lUikSirattos. Coin*- 
pTbet t r tirf < f ommc»-^f er 1 6,(HI0 fSfef- 

tj tlic ootmtrir't jiHat tpccUlKts ind editors. 

It tti& life eniofseiiieiar of America'! I^adtflr 

fkrnktn, tr^cbo^ anJ icb<»Urt. AfliS tiuCf 

Wbti 10 iLDftW iDfrn: afimtv IfK fCcw Intrr* 

c^r ar^ -Jty- 


Send aie« 

Is new, thorough, com 
prehervsive - s viper lor ti 
ail other works of j^tmtlai 
nature. That's a. vcrr 
positive stiitement, hu^ 
the facts iusiify it '• ^ 
Under (he searcKhtih 
opposite. iacontrovertibl» 
I evidence is ihnwn V r 

itrt f Ar m&WA 


Jciof.ofiJ^c:^ ' 


^ i^- 1^ 

, . r ' .^ \. 


^upcHfiten«l«£nt of ScHi^oUk Peoria* IINnoH, sa> * 

«ni safe It b «iirti^ ^f » rtace ao< o«li io iHe coaflcr^Mt t)> 





A book for High Schooib, Com- 
mercial Courses and Business 
Colleges, full of the laiest and 
freshest material available on 
Commercial Subjects. 



i «« ^k_r ■ • <^^ Ml4^ W 

• Vi • '.^ 



» t ^ I . » • i • _ 

J ].UKl AK'» - TC,ot 

^;.<iiiviivhi| ill i?lp- 
Ah nux'ttial 4»ci(oaiiy 

(T oiitFnt*> leU VH i? t-^i 


•I .50 


f i J J^ L t I 


The Only Geo- 
graphical Journal 
for Geography 


Recommends it 
to Teachers 

We find The Journal of 
Geography very helpful in 
our school work, and recom- 
mend it to the teaching pro- 
fession. Each issue contains 
a great many things helpful 
in the class room, and the 
service of the Journal in 
broadening and deepening 
geographical knowledge 
among teachers is very great. 
—William C. Ruediger, 
Ph. M., Dt//on, A/on/. 

How to become a 

better teacher 
of Geography? 

This question 

can be answered by 

^ ''signing yi>ur name to this slip,^ _ 

cutting it off, and mailing it with 

25 cents (stamps accepted) to the 

address given. This will entitle you to 

the next three issues of 

^The Journal of Geography^ 

and enable you to see whether or 

not this magazine is what you want 

to increase the usefulness of your^ 
geographical work. If yonr J^^ The 
^name is notalready on our^^^r Journal 

lists, take advantage X^f Geography 

of this 

Call tht 
atttnthn of 
I/our t0aohing^ 
to it. 

Room 560,160 Adama St. 
For enclosed *25c. send 
me 77//' Journal of 
Geog-rap/iy for 3 months. 



World's Fair 

and National Educational 

Association Number 


The June number of T'/f/' Journal o/"Geograph y will be a World's Fair and 
a National Educational Association Number. It will be devoted entirely to 

^he Geography 

of the Louisiana 


Amonj^ the numerous articles that may be expected are the following : 


By Professor A. P. Brigham, of Coij^a/e University 

By N. V. Darton, of the United States Geographical Surtey 


By Dr. A. C. Rowland, of the Teachers College ^ Columbia University^ 
Netv York City 


By Professor Spencer Trotter, of S-varthmore College^ Svjarthmore, 
Fa.: author of '^l Commercial Geography ' 


By Geo. B. Hollister, Associate Editor of 7 he Journal of Geography; 
Ilydrographer for the United States Geological Survey 


By Ellen C. Semple, of Louisville, At..- author of *' American History 
and Geographic Conditions'' 

By Charles E. Cmadsev, Superintendent of the Denver, Colorado, Schools 

The articles will be illustrated extensively by photographs and maps: 
there will be a larji^e foldins: map of the Louisiana Purchase inserted, and 
the number will be invaluable to all teachers who intend to visit St. Louis in 
1004, or who wish to have well selected geojjfraphical material on the Great 
West and especially of the Louisiana Purchase, available for class use. The 
number will also include a brief selected bibliography on the geography of 
the Louisiana, and statistical notes showing its population, com- 
merce, industries, and relative economic importance. 

The price is 20c, postpaid 

This remarkable Special Issue should be in the hands of every teacher 
before attending the Convention. Its publication is of decided importance 
in the geographical world. Order now and be sure of a copy. 

Subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to 


Room 560, 160 Adams St., CHICAGO, 




The Journal of Geography is an Illustrated Monthly Magazine devoted to the interests 
of teachers of geography in elementary, in secondary, and in normal schools. It is 
published the fifth of every month, excepting July and August. 

Price — The subscription price is one and one-half dollars a year, payable in advance. 
Twenty cents a copy. 

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Diacontinuances — If a subscriber wishes his magazine discontinued at the expiration of 
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mal School 

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Only 25 cents by mail 

If you are going to start a class 
try this book. Good introduction 
rates given. Whatever book you 
may be using you need the 
method and questions of this 
book to raise the interest to 
white heat 








An attractive little mag- 
azine containing every 
month : Outlines of Lessons in Drawing, 
for all grades — Illustrated: Helpful 
Articles Bearing upon Art craft Work in 
Schools — Illustrated; Discriminating 
Reviews of the Current Magazines, from 
the Viewpoint of the Art-craft Teacher; 
Inspiring Editorials— Illustrated. 

Indispensable to Every Growing Teacher 

Subscription . . One Dollar a Year 
Single Copies, Seven a-Cent Stamps 



Publinhrrit of Thingn to Srrve Thone irho Tcich 

Drawing and the AUted Art* in Schoola 


The American Advance 

By E, J. CARPENTER. 8vo. S^.jo n^t. 

Th€ New York Times Saturday Review : " Mr. Carpenter tells well and 
with some details not usually given, the oft-told story of our territorial 

The Spanish Conquest in America 

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The Expansion of Western Ideals 


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\TOT an abridgtnent of the text-book by same author^ but a briefer., simpler treatise 
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yV/^ series will consist of twelve volumes, each being an essay descriptive of a great 
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0/ the world, more especially as the field of human activity. 

1. Britain and the North Atlantic. By the Editor. 

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3. Central Europe. By Dr. Joseph Partsch, Professor of Geography in 
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Published in October, 1903, but already 
m use in 114 different schools. 



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Current Events 

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^he Study of Maps 

IN GEOGRAPHY we arc con^ 
stantly using maps; and upon 
them must be based a neces- 
sarily large part of our work in 
geography. So proper education in 
geography must include a careful train- 
ing in the making and interpretation 
of maps. More a^td more a map is 
coming to be a method of shorthajtd 
representation of a mass of geograph- 
ical information, and more than ez^er a 
good geographer is able to read a chap- 
ter from a map. A pupil needs to 
learn the language of maps, then to 
memorize some of the essays and 
sketches set forth in that map's lan- 
guage. To do this is an exercise of 
attention and retention, and, studied 
in this way, the continents become as 
easy as so many letters in an alpha- 
bet — learned once, learned forever. 

J. Paul Goode 


Vol. III. FEBRUARY, 1904 No. 



0/ the Chicago Normal School, Chicago, Illinois 

THE organization of all courses in the Chicago Normal School 
is adapted to the well-defined conditions peculiar to the school. 
The fact that the Chicago Normal School stands at the head of 
the Chicago school system to prepare graduates of the Chicago schools 
to be teachers in the same system, gives the school the advantage of 
limitations which normal schools do not often enjoy. All entering 
students have had equal and practically the same chances for prepara- 
tion in the Chicago schools All graduates must l)e especially trained 
to meet the conditions i)eculiar to the Chicago schools. Hence the 
course in geography, here presented deals oidy with these known con- 
ditions of entrance and attempts to meet these known conditions of 
demand, but at the same time it aims to give such a preparation for 
general teaching that the students may be well prepared to teach in 
other environments than those prevailing in the Chicago Public Schools. 
It is assumed that a student entering the Chicago Normal School 
has had all of the strictly academic study of geography that is necessarj^ 
to allow of his treating the subject-matter as the accpiired building 
material with which he works. The course in geography is entirely a pro- 
fessional study of the subject and it is found that the students do get 
a better review of the subject-matter of geography by approaching it 
from the standpoint of the teacher than those, with equal preparation, 
did under the previous course, by a simple academic study. The pro- 
fessional study is divided into two distinct divisions: 

1. The study of the subject from the point of view of the subject- 
matter alone, with the conscious aim of discovering the organization 

Copyright^ igo^^ by E. M. Lehnerts 



inherent in the subject-matter. This procedure must include a 
close scnitiny of the different parts of the subject-matter to discover 
the relations existing between the parts as applied in the study of 
certain wholes. Such is the intent of the first year's work as outlined. 

2. The study of the subject from the point of view of the child with 
the conscious aim of adapting the subject-matter to the growing con- 
sciousness of the child. This must include a psychological study of 
the child to determine his ability for mastering and his mental processes 
of comprehending certain parts of the subject-matter at certain ages. 
Incidentally it also includes the discover>^ of the discipHnary value 
of the subject. Such is the intent of the second year's work as outlined. 

After this preparation, as outlined, each student is given a chance 
to practice teaching the subject in one of the grades for six weeks. 
This teaching work is done under the direct supervision of the regular 
grade critic teacher and the geography department. 


(Fourteen nreks, fire fijtu-minute periods weekly.) 


-1. .1 Consideration of \Vh(tt Geoijraphy Is; riz., '*A study of the earth 
in its relation to life." 
1. Earth factors determining life conditions. 
a. Climate. 
h. Structure. 

e. p]xaniples showing tlie innnence of these factors. 
]i. Educational Value oj such a Study of Nehttiotfs. 
1. Discipline. 




.1 . Shape. 

1. Proofs. 

a. A person moving north or south sees stars rise and set at an 

e(|Ually progressive rate. 
I). The sun rises westward at the same rat(\ 
r. Ships sailing with ecpial speed disappear in all directions at 

the same rate. 
d. The shadow of the earth cast upon the moon during a lunai 

eclipse is always circular. 

2. Results. 

a. The pull of gravity is nearly the same all over the earth, hence: 



(1) The moving of weights is easy. 

(2) The atmosphere at sea level is of the same density. 
Most men are adjusted to hving under such a density. 

(3) The earth has a comparatively level surface, hence: 
(a) There is a wide distribution of organic species. 
(6) Communication is easy. 

h. We have the terms ''up" and ''down." 

c. The curvature of the earth has to be taken into account in 
digging canals. 

B. Size in its Relation to Man^s Life. 

1. Effect upon the intercourse of savage peoples. 

2. Effect of railroads, telegraph lines, etc., in overcoming size. 

a. Free exchange of products and irleas between all parts of the 

C. Spheres of the Earth. 

1. Atmosphere. 

2. Hydrosphere. 

3. Lithosphere. 

4. Centrosphere. 

5. Relation of spheres in space and comparative mass of atmosphere, 

hydrosphere, and lithosphere. 

6. Interpenetration of atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere 

and its effect in furnishing conditions for life. 

D. The Lan^s. 

1. Arrangement about the North Pole. 

a. Effect of massing of lands in the northern hemisphere uj)()n 
the distribution of heat. 

2. North and south projecting arms. 

a. Effect upon ocean currents and distribution of heat. 

3. Division into continents and islands. 

a. Effect upon life in the development of species. 
h. General triangular shape of continents. 

c. Size of continents and effect upon the develoj)ment of life. 

d. Formation of the continents. 

(1) Diastrophism. 
Effect upon the surface, 

(2) Vulcanism. 

Formation of igneous rocks and surface forms. 

(3) Gradation. 

Formation of mantle rock, sedimentary rock, and surface 


E. The Oceans, 

1. General arrangement and comparative size. 

2. Relation to life. 

a. Sources of food, moisture, and means of cheap communication. 
P\ Movements of the Earth. 

1. Rotation. 

a. Proof of rotation. 

(1) Deflection of falling bodies. 

(2) Foucault's pendulum. 

(3) Flattening at the poles. 
6. Results of rotation. 

(1) Gives a unit of time — the day. 

(2) Directions — points of compass. 

(3) Latitude and longitude. 

(4) Standard time. 

(5) International Date Line. 

2. Revolution. 

a. Sun's apparent movement among the stars. 
h. The year. 
G. Distribution of Heat on the Earth's Surface. 

1. Nature of heat. 

2. Modes of transference. 

3. Measuring of heat — thermometer. 

4. Sources of heat. 
a. Solar. 

h. Terrestrial 

5. Distribution of heat due to slant of sun's rays. 
a. Distribution as observed in Chicago. 

(1) Daily distribution as shown by weather records kept by 


(2) Cause of daily distribution. 

(a) Comparison of angle of sun's rays received in the morn- 
ing and at noon (by use of skiameter); at night. 

(6) Comparison of amount of surface covered by noon and 
morning rays. (By use of ski meter.) 

(c) Effect of rotation. 

(3) Yearly distribution as shown by change of seasons. 

(4) Cause of yearly distribution. 

(a) North and south apparent movement of the sun and its 
distance from our zenith at different seasons. Effect 
upon angle of sun's rays. 


(6) Varjang length of clay. Place of sunrise and sunset 
and length of sun\s path at the 
Winter solstice. 
Summer solstice. 

b. Distribution on the earth as a whole. 

(1) Region of vertical rays and greatest heat. 

(2) Region of oblique rays. 

(8) Cause of vertical and oblique rays. 

(a) Comparative size of earth and sun and distance between 

(6) Practical parallelism of all rays received from the sun. 
(c) Effect of curved surface of the earth upon the angle 

which rays make with the surface. 

(4) Shifting of vertical rays. 

(a) Earth's orbit, shape, distance from the sun, 
(6) Plane of the orbit. 

(c) Attitude of the earth as regards this plane. 

(d) Conditions of heat and light if axis were vertical to this 


(e) Amount of inclination of axis necessary to carr>' rays 

23i° north and south of the equator. 
(/) Fixed direction of North Pole. 
(g) Combined effect of revolution, and inclination and 

parallelism of axis. 

(5) Location of vertical rays and twilight circle at 

(1) Winter solstice. 

(2) Summer solstice. 

(3) Equinoxes. 

(a) Consequent length of day and distribution of heat. 

c. Location and definition of zones of insolation, tropics, polar 


d. Visualization of sun\s position at noon at different places on 

the earth's surface at 

(1) Summer solstice 

(2) Winter solstice. 

(3) Equinoxes. 
6. Winds. 

a. Composition and pressure of the atmosphere. 

b. Measuring pressure — barometer. 

c. Changes in density and pressure. 


d Movement as a result of difference of pressure. 

e. Direction of movement from high to low pressure areas. 

/. General circulation of the atmosphere. 

(1) Region of greatest heat on earth *s surface, 
(a) Effect upon density and pressure of air. 

(2) Formation of 

(a) Trades. 

(b) Belt of equatorial calms — doldrums. 

(c) Antitrades 

(3) Effect of rotation of the earth, 
(a) Deflection of air currents. 
(6) Circumpolar whirl. 

(f) Low pressure areas at the poles. 

(d) High pressure at about 30° north and south latitudes. — 

Horse latitudes. 

(e) Westerlies. 

(4) Effect of migration of vertical rays. 
(a) Shifting of wind belts. 

(6) Deflection of trade winds as they cross the geographical 
equator. Terrestrial monsoons. 
[/. Effect of land and water surface on general circulation due to 

(1) Unequal heating of land and water, 
(a) Continental monsoons. 

(2) Obstruction of land. 

h. Effect of winds upon the formation of ocean currents. 
i. Effect of winds upon the distribution of heat 
/. Summary as to the distribution of heat on earth^s surface by 
a study of isothermal charts. 
//. RainfalL 

1. Presence of moisture in the air. 

a. Relaticm to heat. 

b. Relation to bodies of water. 

c. Humidity. 

(1) Measuring amount of, — hygrometer, 

2. Conditions causing rainfall. 
a. Chilling of the air due to 

(1) Ascending currents at region where the sun's rays are 

vertical — zenithal rains 

(2) Storms. 

(3) Mountain deflection 

(4) Latitude. 


3. Measuring amount of rainfall. 

a. Rain gauge. 

b. Average annual rainfall of Chicago. 

c. Average annual rainfall necessary for agriculture. 

4. Distribution through the year. 

a. Relation to vegetation. 

b. Relation to agriculture. 

5. Rainfall of different wind belts. 

a. Effect of highlands upon distribution. 
6. Effect of cyclonic storms. 

6. Study of rainfall map and summary as to distribution of rainfall. 
Vegetation Zonea. 

1. Factors essential to plant growth. 

2. Distribution of plants in Chicago environment. 

a. Typical areas. 

(1) Sand dunes. 

(2) Swamps. 

(3) Prairies. 

(4) River valleys 

3. Geographical distribution of plants; control by temperature. 
a Heat belts 

(1) Polar cold caps bounded by isotherm of 50° for the hottest 

month which marks the northern limit of trees and most 
hardy cereals. 

(2) Hot belt bounded by the annual isotherm of 68° which 

marks the limits of palms. 

(3) Temperate belt. 

b. Tundras and barren lands of polar cold caps. Characteristic 

plants — mosses, ichens, dwarf birches, stunted berry-bear- 
ing bushes, l)right colored flowers, gentians, anemones, etc. 
Animal life and people studied in relation to the environ- 

c. Distribution of vegetation in the temperate belt in relation to 


(1) Temperate forests, coniferous and tleciduous. 

(2) Steppe lands. 

(3) Deserts. 

Influence of the different areas upon the animal life and upon 
man's mode of life. 

d. Distribution of vegetation in the hot belt in relation to mois- 



(1) Tropical forests. 

(2) Savannahs. 

(3) Deserts. 

Influence of the different areas upon the animal life and upon 
man's mode of life. 


A. Position on the Globe. 

1. Position in the northern hemisphere. 

2. Position in relation to oceans and other continents 

3. Advantages of position between densely peopled regions of 

Europe and Asia. 

B, General SLape and Size. 

1. Advantage of wide extent in temperate belt. 
2 Advantages of extent in latitude. 
('. Physical Features. 

1. Arrangement of highlands. 

2. Comparison of highlands as to extent, height, and general appear- 


3. Drainage areas as formed by slopes of highlands. 

a. Atlantic. 

b. Great Lakes. 

c. Gulf of Mexico. 
cl. Pacific. 

e. (ir^at Basin. 
/. Hudson Bay. 
g. Arctic. 

4. Lowlands in j)art formed from debris washed down from high- 

D. Glaciation. 
I. Valley glaciers 

a. Location, 

b. Origin. 

c. Movement. 

d. Work. 

2 Continental glaciers. 

a. Present — Greenland Antarctic. 

b. Ancient — North American ice sheet. 

(1) Centers of ice accunudation. 

(2) Extent. 

(3) Work done in Canada and New England. 


(4) Work done in Northern Mississippi Basin r^on. 

(5) Origin of Chicago plain, topographic features and iis 

influence upon the grrowth of a great city. 
E. Climate. 

1. Winds. -1 
a. Part of continent in each beh. 

h. Effect of seasonal shifting of belts 

2. Temperature. 

a. Part of continent in different heat l)elts 

6. Effect of winds and ocean currents on east and west coasts. 

c. Comparison of interior with coasts. 

3. Rainfall. 

a. Distribution in relation to highlands. 

b. Effect of cyclonic storms. 

c. Influence of the Gulf of Mexico. 
V, Life. 

1. Part of continent in different vegetation zones. 

2. Influence of the above distribution upon the industrial life of 

the continent. 


Lake and Prairie Plains. 

New England Upland. 

Atlantic Coastal Plain. 

Piedmont Belt. 

Appalachian Ranges. 

Allegheny Plateaus. 

Gulf Coastal Plain. 

Alluvial Plain of the lower Mississippi. 

Ozark Mountains. 

Great Plains. 

Rocky Mountains. 

Columbia Plateau. 

Colorado Plateau. 

Basin Ranges. 

Pacific Mountains and Valleys. 

Note: — The lake and prairie plains are first studied because the 
students are within this environment Next, the New P]ngland plateaus 
are studied as a contrasted glaciated area. Each region is studied 
according to the general plan outlined below^ for the lake and prairie 


A. . Lake Plains and Prairie Plains; the Northern Glaciated Part. 
1. Location and extent. 
* Characteristic features. 

a Level or undulating surface. Low hills of glacial origin. 

b. Drained and terraced lake beds. 

c. Young valleys, falls akes 
(/. Glacial soils. 

3. Climate 

a. Great range of temperature. 

h. Length of growing season from four to six months. 

c. Rainfall from twenty to forty inches. 

4. Industrial regions. 
Forest areas. 
Wheat region. 
Corn belt. 

Iron region. 

Coal regions. 
a. Location and extent of each. 
b General characteristics of the industry. 

c. Amount and value of the products. 

d. xMarkets. 

/' Allied industries. 

/. Amount and value of indiistries as to states. 

5. Imj)ortant centers. 

6. Trade routes. 
Great Lakes. 
Mississi])pi River. 


Organization of the wliole as seen throuirh study of the political 

XoTi:: — Each jaipil is recjuired to make a sand model and a chalk 
modeled relief map of tlu^ whole contin(»nt and of the different physio- 
graphic regions 

No one text-book is us(m1 for students are referrcul to different texts 
found in the libraiy and in the geogra])hy room. 

During the study of the earth as a wliole weather records are kej)! 
and regular observations of the sun's position made 

( 7" /'/' rtnt-hnhd.) 



Of the Stale Normal ScfuxU, Worcester, Massachusetts 


IT was the privilege of the writer, during the past summer, to conduct 
a number of field excursions in geography with North Carolina 
teachers. At the outset, many of the teachers expressed the desire 
to undertake map making out of doors. Every one of the teachers had 
followed, to the best of her ability, the directions which her own school 
text-book and the supplementary books had yielded for mapping the 
schoolroom or school yard. They were not sure, however, that the 
result of their conscientious endeavors was the desirable one, nor 
were they sure why the books were insistent upon this exercise. Fur- 
thermore they were not certain when this work was done that any more 
in this line was demanded of them. They were not on familiar ground. 
A similar uncertainty exists among teachers generally, for nearly all are in 
doubt as to the advisability of even trying map drawing in school work. 
The present condition is, in part, the result of lack of clearness and 
completeness in the statement of what is desired, and is a good illus- 
tration of the unfortunate period which often follows the promulgation 
of new ideas, between the time of a teacher's schooHng and her assum- 
ing a teacher's responsibilities, when the medium for the transmission 
of the ideal of reform does not adequately enlighten. The best thing 
concerning map drawing has not been said. Along many lines of map 
work there are differences of opinion, and hence it is not strange that 
the teacher hesitates. The present article is not written to cover the 
whole field of map exercises, but to present certain helpful points in 
reference to a few fundamentals. The writer assumes the responsibil- 
ity of no new ideal, but insists on a more careful plan and longer training 
in order to reahze as far as possible the old. Its specific aim is to aid 
a number of teachers who have in times past sought aid, and it has 
been submitted for pubHcation only in the belief that there is a general 
desire for help in this direction. No attempt will be made to divide 
the work according to the demands of the grades, but all of the sugges- 
tions are applicable to the work of the elementary schools. 


The first duty of a teacher is to lead the pupils to reahze that the 
map is a reproduction, to scale, of a portion of the earth. This is 


not altogether a simple ta-^k. The present -clay judgment concerning 
the best niethocl by which this idea may be inculcatetl finds its expression 
in the rlirections for map drawing in most elementan- books on geog- 
raphy. The stei)s are throe — repro<luction. reproduction to scale, and 
an orienterl reproduction to scale. The first introduces the child to 
symbols and may easily represent a lesson in drawing. A verj' crude 
rectangle, as a sign for the schoolroom, is the temporary goal. The 
second has for its object the sense of proportion. The third combines 
the sense of direction and location. Finishetl work cannot be expected 
during this stage, but- the essentials should be strongly emphasized. 
Here may l>e ingrained neatness and care without which no success 
in map work may l>e attained. A ver>' poor drawing in the elementary 
stage may be made with neatness and care. 


Passing over the elementary drill on the scale which is well discussed 
in many books, let us turn to another phase of the subject. Ever}' 
map made by the pupils should have a scale appended. As a map of 
a locality, it is imperfect without one. Some maps used in the schools, 
such as the .Mercator projections, because of an increase in the scale 
with an increase in latitud(\ do not lend themselves readily to an 
expression of distance or siz(». The scale may be stated in two ways, 
either by the numbcT of f(M*t or miles represented by one inch of the 
reproduction, ttr by stating the fractional part the reproduction is to 
the area itself. The former is th(» common method in school atlases 
tonlay. and the scale is often expn'ssed by a line segmented to the proper 
lengths. The latter is the method used by government surveys. The 
topographic maps of tin* I'nited States Geological Survey, for instance, 
have their scale expressed as ,;oJrMi» t2:.Vmhm ^'^c. The interpretation is 
simple. One inch, foot, or metre on the map is e(|uivalent to 62,500 
inches, feet, or metn^s on the surface of the earth. It expresses at once 
a ratio between the reproduction and the actual. It has a value beyond 
its simplicity. It is expressed in a universal language. The unit of 
iiK^asurenient may i)e difTerent as it is in the various nations, the lan- 
guage may Ik* a strange* on(\, but the fraction stating the scale of a 
map allows but on<* interpretation. 

In mapping a school yard, using the pace as a unit of measurement, 
the scales of the maps of twenty j)upils would tend to confuse 
rather than enlighten, and the teacher who has to correct the repro- 
ductions has no basis for comparison. In pacing, the pupil should 
be taught to walk naturally. To try to lengthen the step to a yard 


is wearisome, often impossible for children, and certainly ungainly; 
and in much such pacing the steps are unconsciously shortened. Each 
pupil may ascertain the length of his natural step by walking over a 
measured distance a number of times and dividing the number of steps 
taken into the entire distance. This will serve as a unit of measure- 
ment for all out-of-door mapping. The transformation to the fractional 
scale is not difficult and may serve as a lesson during the mathematics 
period. It seems best to urge the use of this scale on all maps con- 
structed by the pupils. 


The reproduced school yard is not complete without a symbol for 
orientation. The ordinary one in use is an arrow pointing towards the 
geographical pole. It is possible that the meridian line has been found 
by the sun. and a mark on the ground, or a chalk line on the bricks, 
exists as the class's determination of the north and south line. The 
introduction of the compass, in its proper time, on this line, will show 
the deviation l)etween the geographical and magnetic meridians, and 
a second line across the first, parallel with the compass needle, will 
mark the direction of the magnetic pole. In the corner of the map 
may then be added, pointing in the proper directioas, these two lines. 

When the pupils are fairly sure of the meaning of orientation, a 
useful exercise may be given by j)assing out papers with the compass 
indicated and allow them to draw the map of the yard. On the ordi- 
nary' atlas maps, meridians serve the office of the needle. The trans- 
formation from reading a map with a compass to reading a map with 
projected meridians has been slighted. The idea that up on the map 
is north, and right is east, introduces an error from which even the 
teachers of geography are not free. Pupils are not corrected for ignor- 
ing the meridian lines of a map. Many pupils are not taught to see 
them. Without the meridians, what is below is south. A distorted 
idea is thus gained. Take the map of North America, and, without 
consultation, let the teacher state for herself, or allow the pupils to tell, 
what city in the United States lies almost north of Havana. Few 
pupils are loath to name a city west of Albany, and in a gathering of 
half a dozen teachers, one with hesitation answered Buffalo. A few 
problems of this nature will show how es.sential is an emphasis on the 
meridian lines of a map, esj)ecially far to the east and west of the cen- 
trally-projected meridian. This difference l)etween a map with a 
compass symbol and some meridian-marked maps should be fixed upon 
the attention as early as possible. 



Map reading is an interpretation of symbols. From the very 
beginning of geography, the introduction of symbols is proper. "Con- 
ventionalization and symbolization seem to be an inborn trait of the 
human family/' * 

The first maps should be the means of introducing a few symbols. 
No generally accepted list of symbols for use is published. Text-books 
vary somewhat in the points, emphasized slightly up to this time. 
The topographic maps of the United States Geological Survey may 
be taken for a standard. At some time in the grade a familiarity 
with these maps is advisable, for the legend is simple and easy. There 
seems to be no argument against the use of a few of their conventional 
signs. In a district map, where roads, bridges, brooks, and buildings 
are used and plotted, some legend is demanded; the one that is to be 
used later, if within the comprehension of the pupil, is the proper one. 

Writing on the maps sliould not be encouraged when the symbol is 
definite. The writing of ''street'' on the symbol for the same, "river" 
on its symbol, defeats the use of the sign language. If the sign is there, 
the word is superfluous. As long as a universal sign language for maps 
has not been accepted, a legend must be appended to every exercise. 
Some (elementary books use as a sj-mbol for 'Hree'* a printed outline 
of a tree. Two objections may be raised to such kinds of symbols. 
In the first place the printed outline takes more room than the space 
marked out for the tree according to the scale of the map, and again 
it will not b(» easy to persuade the child that it is a symbol, not a picture; 
that the house cannot be pictured by its outline, a bridge by the same 
method; that a stone wall or a fence cannot be introduced in a similar 
way; that a pictorial j)lan is not a map. 

Water and culture lines should be started early in the work. As 
soon as possible the relief lines should be begun. Reading relief from 
contour lines is a liahit to be cultivated. 


The t()[)ographic maps are superior to most maps in ordinary use. 
The maps are contoured for every 20, 50. or 100 feet of vertical height. 
The idea of contour lines is best obtained from a field exercise. If 
a locality is selected in which a liill rises sharj)ly from a level base, the 
problem may be easily exj)ounded. The base will be the zero line. 
For every foot of height, if the hill be low, a pebble may be placed on 
the slope. A line of pe])bles around the hill will mark, then, the foot 

* Kedway, Xcw Basis of Geogrnphi/f page 139. 



contour line. In mapping, plot the pebble lines as one would were 
they roads. While still in the field, a cross-section may be started. 
Standing to one side where a view of the hill, sharply outlined, may 
be had, sketch the outline. Then, by pacing, make the outline to scale. 
The steps to the drawing of a cross-section of one or two portions of a 
topographic map are then simple. A little of such work should be 
done; a great deal is a waste of time. 

Cross-sections should always be drawn with the vertical scale and 
horizontal scales alike. The transposition of a 1500-foot contour 
to the scale of ^^iirir should be practiced until it is made easily. One 
or two well-selected cross-sections will fix the insignificance of the 
irregularities of the earth. A section of the ocean depths from the 
mouth of the Amazon to Libreville in the French Congo, along the 
equator, is an excellent choice. The distance is approximately 60® 
of arc. With a 12-foot radius the irregularities of the ocean floor do 
not appear. The width of the thinnest line is then too wide to show 
the ocean depth. 


For a first exercise in mapping — the preliminary consideration of 
scale being understood — the remnant of a hill was used. The locality 
was selected because the slope was prominent. The emphasis of the 
exercise was placed on compass readings and contour lines. Four 
points. A, By Cy and D (Figure 1), were selected as the corners of 
the area. 

Fio. I. Map and cross-section of a hill. Scale, ^^oo- 

• Contour lines; interval three feet. 




The data, obtained by the pupils, were as follows: 
From .4 C is N S0° W. 53 paces. 

B is N 20° W. 53 paces. 

SK base of hill is X GO'' W. 34 paces. 

\K base of hill is N 45° W. 36 paces. 
From D ^ is N 70° E. 36 paces. 

(' is due S. 28 paces. 

NW base of hill is S 70° E. 17 paces. 

SW base of hill is S 15° E. 20 paces. 

• I ^,8 I 


Miif> kJuJ cross sections oj brook. Scnlc oi map. V'ioti. Scale of section. I'lo- 
R riKk' P B park hruit^c. 

Slalions li and (' are used to check the above readings. The 
contour linos may then hv plotted from the stations at the base of the 
hill. The height is an average estimation, and the horizontal distances 
between the contours are determined in the same way. A cross-section 
is then added. 

Another exercise, I'igure 2, was undertaken along a neighboring 
l)r()()k. All distances along the brook were paced. All measurements 
of the width and depth of the brook were measured accurately. 



From Bridge (P. B.) brook runs 8 12° W. 19 paces to Bend A. 
From Bend A brook runs S 15° E. 45 paces to Bend B. 
From Bend B brook runs S 20° W. 12 paces to Bend C. 
From Bend C brook runs S 20° E, and on. 

1. Cross-section in straight reach between A and By depth expressed 
in cm., readings ever>^ 10 cm. from west to east. 

1.4 3.6 3.5 3 2 2.8 2.5 1 

Current swift. 

2. Same at Bend C 

5 (rock) 9 8.7 5.3 4.4' 3.6 2.9 1.2 

3. Same in straight reach between B and C. 

5.8 7.8 10.4 11.5 12.4 12.2 10.5 9.5 7 4.9 
Current sk)w. 

4. Same at Bend B. 

2. 2.5 8.6 11.5 14.3 16 12.8 (rock) 26 25 19.9 {undercutting) 

A third exercise, Figure 3, was conducted ak)ng a strip of coast. 


From .4 (rock) beach runs X 12° Iv 

Beach runs S 20° K to S 70 paces. 

From S to B (rock) line runs S 45° W. 107 paces. 

From B to T E. 57 paces. 

From T to C (rock) S. 30 paces. 

From (' rock extends west 13 paces. 

From C shore runs K to /) (rock) and on. 

In this exercise, as in the others, the data were supplemented by 
rough sketches and some attempt was made to incorporate into the 
maps the ideas expressed in the free-hand outline. Thus the slight 
irregularities in the curved coast line between A and B were observed 
and mapped. 


The journey to the brook opened a number of interesting problems. 
These may be considered in papers presented by the pupils. It is 
very evident that in the bends of the stream one kind of cross-section 
obtains, while in the straight reaches the section was of a different 
type. Notes were made concerning the swiftest part of the current 
in each .section; that this swiftest line of flow crossed the channel was 
among the conclusions. That is hardly a safe principle that would 
apply all the results of an investigation of 150 feet of a single stream 
to all streams. It is better to leave a few problems unsettled until 




further investigation and observation allow a definite answer. Thus, 
from the stream measurement, it seems to be a natural deduction that 
the swifter parts of brooks have a shallower flow of water than the 

h A n B c n 

Fig. 3 Map of coast-lhw. ScaUr, Vizsn. R rock. 

slower portions. Some problems will be presented that can not be 
solved, either because of lack of time or because of insufficient data. 
It may be convenient to some members of the class to investigate the 
brook further and to present a more comprehensive report on one or 
more problems. At least it is well to leave the exercise in such a way 
that, either as an investigator of the physics of rivers, or as a casual 
observer, the pupil may approach a stream, not in the beUef that all its 
ways are known, but with the inspiration from knowing something 
of its history, and the enthusiasm which the hope of discovery begets. 
The conclusion from the shore map should be treated in a similar 
manner. A reserve of judgment is advised. In regard to the location 
studied, let the statements be definite. At the Fort (Figure 3), the 
salients are rocks, and between them the beaches are cur\'ed. That 
all salients are rocks might be a next step. Between A and B bunches 
of shore grass catch the sand and cause slight irregularities in the 
curve of this beach. The case is so evident in the field that it is 
remarked upon by a pupil. Perhaps, then, some other things besides 
rocks mark the sahents of a coast. An island in the harbor, showing 




the white line of a sand spit, reenforces the statement. At a later 
period these may enter the discussion and be investigated. For the 
present we know that rocks form salients, and are one cause at least 
for the irregularities of coast lines. 


Before map reading is perfected, a conception of the error of the 
maps in constant use is necessary. It has been the general printed 
opinion that exercises in map projections, although ideally a desirable 
part of a child^s knowledge, are best not considered in the grades. 
There are many things in projections that mature minds only can 
grasp; at the same time there are some elementary considerations 
in the subject which should be properly delegated to the geography 
teaching in the schools below the vSecondary. The study of a globe 
follows naturally the construction of the maps of limited areas. The 
child may believe, as the human race did in its infancy, that the earth 
is flat. The introduction to a spherical earth at this time repeats the 
race history. At some later time in the grades the spherical maps and 
the flat maps must be considered in comparison. There is no better 
way than to have the child construct two or three types. 

A Mercator map is not beyond the child's comprehension. With 
little difficulty, a figure, like Figure 4, may be made. The pupils should 

<o Vo 'io 'Ho 

. / 







^0 'fo Ho 1% 


Construction of Mercator Projection. 

have the small hand globes. If the diameter, AB, is made equivalent 
to the diameter of the globe, the later comparisons are more obvious. 
The equator of the map should equal in length the circumference of 
the globe. When the diagram is made the map may be begun. It 


is not neccssarj' to complete the whole map of the world, but enough 
of it must be undertaken to show the distortion. It may be advisable 
to plot points only, as Caj)e Farewell and Christiania on the 60th 
parallel. Compare the plotted distance with the true. In like manner 
take locations nearer the equator. Then the latitudinal distortion 
may be proved in a similar manner, or a teacher may consider it wise 
to construct a map of North America after having plotted thirty or 
forty points around its coast. Here may be emphasized at the same 
time the preliminary steps of great circle directions. An investigation 
of the shortest distance between Mt. McKinley, Alaska, and St. Peters- 
burg, on the globe, and on the Mercator projection, will easily show 
that the latitudinal direction is not the desirable one in point of distance. 

Constructions of other projections woidd consume too nuich time. 
If, however, blank outhnes of one or two projections in common use 
be furnished the pupil, a similar use may ])e made of them. It is advis- 
able to have the circumference of the globe and the circumference of 
the projection alike at first, as direct comparisons may then be made 
without the confusion of a change of scale. 

The plotting of points from a globe is beneficial, furthermore, because 
the pupil must say to himself the latitude and longitude of the localities 
plotted, a thing that map copying does not make necessar\'. 


''Teaching words before ideas has the same effect as teaching a 
map without associating it with that which it re])resents. The problem 
of how to lead children to use maps properly, that is, to make a map a 
means of developing thought power, is an exceedingly serious and 
important one. All directions and suggestions, therefore, should tend 
toward this one ])urpose." So said Francis W. Parker.* 

Stress has been laid, uj) to this time, on the constniction of maps; 
not, however, as an end in itself, but as a means of acquiring some of 
the habits of map reading. If, in its proper time, there should be added 
to this foundat'on the knowledge of the wind belts and the ocean 
currents of the earth, a great deal of the text of a geography may be 
discov(»rod ])y the pupil. In order that this work may be carried on 
safely, the l)est ma])s should be employed. A more intelligent under- 
standing of geograj)hic relationships may be attained from an increasing 
use of (juestions demanding judgment and reason. Further expansion of 
this would only repeat what has already been printed in this JouRNAL.f 

* How to Study Geography, page 92. 

t Journal of Geography, Vol. I, "The Use of Maps in the Teaching of Geography," 
page 97, 1903. 




Of the Vniveraity of California 

CAN grammar school pupils determine the causes of the chano:e 
of seasons by their own observations and by experimental study 
of possible solar systems? Several years' trial with students 
in secondary- schools has entirely convinced me that for them this method 
of studying change of seasons is thoroughly practicable and satisfac- 
tory. Recently I have had a senior in the University of California tr>' 
the plan mi her practice teaching in an eighth grade class under the 
usual public school conditions Apparently these children master 
the main ideas as readily as do adult students. While the work was 
not carried so far as it would be with older students, the account below 

Fig. I 

uill show% I think, that this eighth grade learned more and reasoned 
more than the average grammar school student does by studying the 

I will present the work substantially in the order that it was given, 
and the headings of the paragraphs will constitute an outline of the 

Observation of a shadow cast by the sun at noon. Heginning the first 
part of September a peg was fastened in the sill of one of the south 
windows and the point of the shadow of this peg at noon was marked 
on the floor below. (See Fig. 1.) The window was raised to get clearer 
sunshine. Various predictions were made by the children in answer 
to a question as to w^hether the point of the shadow woukl come to the 
same point on the floor the next day at noon. As they watched the 


marked lengthening of the shadow during the week following, many of 
the class expressed great surprise. 

In response to questions they answered readily that the sun must be 
getting lower in the sky each noon to produce a longer shadow. They 
also assigned this as a probable cause of the winter's cold. 

Space covered on different parts of a sphere by the same beam of sun- 
shine. Through a hole in a piece of cardboard sunshine was allowed 
to fall on the surface of a g obe and the var^'ing area covered was noted. 
The deduction is easily made that the heating effect of sunshine is greater 
the nearer the rays come to being perpendicular to the surface. 

What the gyroscope teaches about rotatimj bodies. The gyroscope 
shown in the figure was made by mounting a six-inch sewing machine 
wheel on ball bearings in the fork of an old bicycle. (See Fig. 2.) With a 
stout string one can spin it so fast that it will nui for nearly five minutes. 
The great advantage that this gyroscope has over the one commonly 

FiQ. 2. Home-made gyroscope 

sold to high schools are its simplicity, the ball bearings, and the greater 
weight. Taking it in the hand when the wheel is rotating rapidly one 
feels a wonderfully strong resistance when an attempt is made to 
change the direction of the axis of the ichirling wheel. It may be carried 
around the room without feeling this resistance, if the axis is kept 
parallel to its first |)osition. This experience enables the children really 
to appreciate the ])rimary fact luiderlying the change of seasons, namely 
that the earth l)ecause it is a whirling body keeps its axis constantly in 
the same direction. The gyroscope can also be suspended by a cord 
and carried around in a circular orbit. If proj)erly balanced, it will 
twist its supporting cord and keep its axis constant in direction. The 
children easily ])erceive the i)oint of the experiment and a little ques- 
tioning will lead them so to phrase their ideas that they will be avail- 
able in future work. 

Description of a planet irith its axis perpendicular the plan^* of its 
orbii. All the children were familiar with the idea of an earth going 
around a sun and so tliev were asked to carr\' an earth with a vertical 


axis around a sun — a circular orbit being used. They at once located 
vertical sunshine at the equator of such an earth and saw that it would 
be constantly on that line. Day and night were correctly explained 
but with little interest — the problem having evidently been long solved 
The elevation of the sun at noon for a man at different latitudes requires 
some drill, especially as to the meaning of horizon. A card held on 
the globe at the equator and slid toward the pole is a great help. They 
finally saw (Fig. 3) that a man going north 30° from the equator would 
tip his horizon 30° and that hence the sun that 's 90° high at the equator 
is only 60° high in lat. 30°. The teacher must remember here in draw- 
ing any diagram that the sun is not close at hand, as in the concrete 
illustration, but at such a great distance that its rays are sensibly parallel. 
The children must be led to see that this man has no change in noon 
elevation of the sun and hence no change of seasons during the year. 

Does our earth have its axis perpendicular to the plane of its orhitf 
The children were next told that they were to answer a question about 
our own earth entirely from their own observations. The statement of 
the question above brought a look of surprise that they could be ex- 
pected to know anything about our big earth without the help of books. 
But in a few seconds one could see the flash of intelligence come first in 
one face and then in another, until soon the majority of the class were 
wildly eager to answer. They referred to the varying length of the 
noon shadow and said they knew our earth could not have its axis 
perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. In the class this fall this part 
of the work was particularly enjoyable, for one boy had but recent V 
remarked that ^'only the wise men" could study out such things as the 
text-book tells about the change of seasons. 

Description of an earth with its axis tipped. A globe rotating on an 
axis inclined 10° from the perpendicular was next assigned to be carried 
around a central sun. It is well to have the sun in the center of the 
room and to use a large orbit. Here, of course, some of them had to be 
reminded of the gyroscope before they would keep the axis of the rotating 
earth constant in direction. As soon as that was done they saw that 
vertical sunshine varied from 10° north to 10° south of the equator, 
making a torrid zone. It is a more difficult problem to work out the 
noon elevation of the sun for a man living at (say) 30° north latitude. 
But with care they saw that the noon elevation would vary from 70° 
to 50° during the year. 

Is our earth an earth xvith its axis iltedf This question is readily 
answered by a reference to the changing noon shadow. It is really 



answered too readily for of course, as original work upon the part of 
the children their proper answer is merely that it may be. In due time 
the children should l>e led to see that while they have worked out a 
scheme that may be true for our solar system, yet they have not fully 
proved that it is the scheme. 

Does a planet with its axis inclined hare summer and icinier? This is 
a variation of the work already done, but if their attention has been 
centered upon the chanpng noon elevation of the sun. the children may 
not reahze that they have been studying change of seasons. The ques- 
tion about summer and winter serves to correlate their recent ol>ser- 
vations with their past experiences of summer's heat and winter's cold. 

// the axis of a planet is tipped 15°, irha* zones of sunshine result aiid 
what are their boundaries? The torrid zone and its limits are seen at 
once. Usually it recjuires some more time to establish the changing 
conditions of sunshine in passing from the frigid into the temperate 

Care must be taken that the children really gra.sp the relation of 
the amount of tij) of the axis to the width of the torrid zone and to the 
varjdng noon elevation of the sun. Work well done here will prevent 
confusion in the future. 

Can you measure for yourselres the inelination of the axis of our earth? 
if the preceding work has been well done l)y presenting each problem in 
various forms and with several inclinations for the axis of the earth, 
the children will see that the shadow of the peg in the window-sill gives 
them an answ(»r to this ([uestion. If the |)upils have not measured 
angles they must be given simple protractoi*s and made to measure 
various angles for practice. The elevation of the sun can l>e mea.sured 
by putting the protractor on the floor with its center at the point of 
the shadow, and seeing where the line of sunshine cuts the protractor. 
Another way is to draw the triangk* of the height of the peg, the floor, 
and the line of the sunshine at the board and to measure the proper 
angle at the board. (See Kig. 1.) The children will at first say that it 
will take a year to measure for our earth — that they nuist get the lowest 
noon elevation of the sun in December and the highest in June. This 
is of course the best way but if the height can be had in December or 
June and at one of the ecpiinoxes. the problem can be solved. It is well 
to consult the almanac and to note that the fall e(iuinox was September 
24 in 1003 and that the winter solstice was December 22. As the 
Berk(»ley class has not carried the work through a season. I will give 
figures obta ned in another school. Highest elevation of sun in June. 


77°, lowest noon elevation in December, 29° — difference, 48°. This 
gives of course 24° for the incHnation of the axis of our earth. Ordi- 
narily, perhaps, the result will not be so accurate as this Thinking out 
the problem is the valuable part of the work, although care should be 
taken to get the very best result possible. 

It may be granted at once that this method wdl take more time than 
to commit the ordinary text to memory or to explain directly the change 
of seasons. Our real object, it must always be remembered, is to de- 
velop thinking, self-reliant boys and girls, and to accomplish this we 
can afford to take time. Necessarily, little details have been omitted 
in this brief description of the plan of work. Any teacher interested 
can easily add them. It may possibly be well to remind teachers who 
begin this work at the December solstice that the increase in elevation 
of the sun is very slow for the first two weeks. The lack of a gyroscope 
should not deter any one from attempting to teach the subject by this 
method. Any top stands upright when it is spinning rapidly and can 
not be upset by any moderate blow. When it is not spinning it is 
almost 'mpossible to l)alance the same top s(^ that it will stand upright 
even for a second. Again, if one holds the wheel of a bicycle (taken 
from the frame) by the ends of its short axle he will find it hard to change 
the direction of the axis if the wheel is whirling. Either the top or the 
wheel illustrates the same point as the gyroscope. 

In the observation work that is carried along with these lessons 
the children will have noticed the change in the time of sunrise and of 
sunset and will have correctly given the short day as one cause of winter. 
They should also be recjuired to show with the globes that an earth with 
a vertical axis has always and everywhere equal days and nights, and 
that an earth with its axis inclined has days and nights of var^'ing length. 


Lecturer in the History of Geography in the University of Oxford. 

IN the development of the world's commerce and trade routes, history 
meets geography very closely, and the geographical teacher can 
find in this subject many excellent lessons afforded him by historical 
research, just as the historical teacher cannot here neglect the sugges- 
tions, the conditions, and the limitations of geography. Trade routes 

♦ Abstract of Lectures given at the Oxford Summer Meeting, August, 1903, 
and reprinted by pormission from the Geographical Tea/'her, October, 1903. 


can only run where the Earth-surface is favorable; but a sufficient 
amount of favor is shown by wide tracts of that surface; there is an 
extensive possibility of choice and change; and historical events have 
constantly modified, and sometimes revolutionized, the course of the 
great trade channels. At the same time, history has constantly neg- 
lected to consider adequately the mercantile, economic, and geograph- 
ical elements in man's advance and the evolution of modem society. 

If we look for the central principle in the history of the World's 
exploration, we shall find tliat commerce, the search for material gain, 
has been the most permanent, vital, and effective spring of progress. 
Religion, science, and politics — the missionary spirit, the pilgrim spirit, 
the spirit of adventure, the colonizing spirit, the scientific spirit, the 
political spirit — these have all played their part, they have all done 
much. But none of these has the importance of trade in the opening 
up of our world, in the development of geographical knowledge. Trade 
ambitions are the most powerful factor in bringing about a continuous, 
progressive enlargement of the horizon in making discovery a lasting 
gain to the race. Trade decadence marks the Dark Ages in Western 
Europe, more, perhaps, than anything else. Trade revival coincides 
with, and is a main cause of, that mediaeval and modern Renaissance 
which begins in the eleventh century, on the eve of the Crusades, and 
has continued ever since.* 

The ancient trade routes continue far into the Middle Ages — with 
changes, it is true, but only changes of masters, of products, of compara- 
tive importance. And these trade routes are mostly, both in pre- 
Christian and in early Christian times, from west to east, or from east 
to west, moving, like the great mountain ranges, along the length, or 
longitude, of the old world. The amber trade of the Baltic coast, the 
fur trade of the northern forests, and the gold, ivory, and slave trades of 

* Contrast tlic permanent, effective discovery of China for Europe, by the mer- 
cantile spirit of the Polos, in the thirteenth century, with the comparatively ineffec- 
tive religious discovery of the Celestial Empire by Xestorian missionaries from 
A. D. 635 or with the still less effective and permanent diplomatic discovery by 
Roman envoys in a. d. IGG, 284, etc. 

Contrast the permanent Columbian discovery of America, so laigely inspired 
by mercantile ambitions, with the transitory discovery by the Northmen in the 
tenth and eleventh centuries, a discovery mainly adventurous (which essays coloni- 
zation, but in vain). 

Contrast the permanent attempts to circumnavigate Africa, before a settled 
commercial purpose inspired the enterprise, with the success of the same considered 
as the opening up of a new trade route of primary value in the thirteenth to the 
fifteenth centuries. 


the East African shore are the chief flank divisions of the great stream 
of international commerce flowing from Britain and Spain to India and 

Looking, first, at these trade routes from a Mediterranean or 
European standpoint, we may instance among the more important the 
Black Sea way from the Bosporus to Trebizond, and sometimes to 
other ports of Armenia and Caucasia. This route crossed the isthmus 
of the Caucasus, traversed the Caspian, and ascended the Amu or Oxus 
to the rich lands of Western Central Asia (Bukhara, Samarkand, etc.). 
Another branch of the same route passed over North Armenia and 
through North Persia, just to the south of the Caspian. In 
"Sogdiana" it met with other trade routes in profusion; for the Soghd 
was the true heart of Central Asia, at least from the ninth — probably 
from the eighth — century, and even in Ptolemy^s time (c. a.d. 130) 
it had great mercantile importance. Upon it converged the three great 
Chinese western tracks, one of the most important routes from India, 
and various much-frequented roads from Southwest Asia. The Trebi- 
zond path of commerce is perennially active ; but it is most important 
in the Mongol era, and for a century after the destruction of Bagdad 
and the consequent rise of Tabriz (c. a.d. 1258-1360). 

The Euphrates route, uniting (at Rakka or Calhnicum, in North- 
east Syria, on the upper course of the great river) with many shorter 
mercantile ways from the Mediterranean coasts, brought the traveler 
down to the Persian Gulf, and thence either by sea or land along that 
dreary south coast of Persia and Baluchistan to the Indus and Sind. 
By the former. Alexander's fleet returned to Mesopotamia ; by the latter, 
his army. 

The north and central Persian routes, skirting the southern edge 
of the Caspian, or running through Mosul and Northern Mesopotamia, 
passed through Merv to the Amu and Sogdiana. Till its sack by the 
Mongols, in the thirteenth century, Merv, ^'Antiochia Margiana,'^ was 
one of the chief centers of the trade of upper Asia — from the age of 
Alexander the Great to that of Genghis Khan. 

The Red Sea route, connecting Egypt and the Mediterranean world 
with India (and at times even with China), by way of Aden and the 
South Arabian ports, was also important as bringing the products of 
tropical Africa to the *^ Roman Sea.'' By means of this route the horizon 
of the Ancient World was extended (in the time of Pliny and Ptolemy, 
c. A.D. 50-170) to the Zanzibar Islands and the equator; while the 
early Moslem traders pushed on still farther along this path to Mada- 
gascar, the Mozambique Channel, and Sofala. Here the Europeans, 


coming from the west, round the Cape of Good Hope, met the Moham- 
medan traders of the Indian Ocean, whose southward terminus had 
been Cape Corrientes. 

The northern fur and amber trades followed, for the most part, the 
courses of the rivers which formed the natural highways between Baltic, 
Kuxine, and Mediterranean lands — the Dilna or Western Dvina, the 
Dnieper, the Mstula, the Memel or Niemen, the Dniester, or the Prut. 
Easy portages, as in the backwoods of North America, connected the 
upper courses of these streams or their tributaries. This route was 
also followed by Xorse, Danish, and Swedish traders, and travelers 
to Constantinople, the Mediterranean, and the Holy Land, in the age 
of greatest Scandinavian activity. 

A route of minor importance, but of great historic interest, con- 
nected with the main Hlack Sea avenue of commerce, ran from the 
lower Danube round the north of the Euxine. thence moving eastward 
either to the north or south of the Caspian: this was occasionally 
employed by the Byzantines in their sixth-century intercourse with the 
Turks, and became of great importance in the Mongol age (thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries). 

The Tigris route from north to south was not very important 
before the rise of Bagdad (c. a.d. 750). The Freshwater Canal route 
from the Nile to the Red Sea, connecting the Mediterranean with the 
Indian Ocean, was, on the other hand, prominent at certain periods of 
the earlier Middle Ages. The canal, however, was often choked and 
disused; it was finally abandoned a.d. 767. 

Looking at these trade routes from an eastern standpoint, w'e may 
distinguish three chief highways between China and the Western World 
— one running to the north of the Tian Shan, the second to the south 
of that range, while the third skirted the northern face of the Tibetan 
Plateau, masked l)y the Kuenlim Range. All these met at the western 
extremity of the (Ireat Wall on one side, and in the Sogdiana oasis 
(Samarkand, etc.) on the other. In Ptolemy's age (second century a.d.), 
the (Ineco-Honuin merchants who traded with the vSilk Land seem to 
have preferred the second and third of these routes, and especially the 
Kuenlun way; most Chinese travelers to the west, on the other hand, 
a])pear to choose the first, or northern Tian Shan road. From Fergana 
and I^asteni Turkistan the Kuenlun path (the third Chinese road to 
th(» west just noticed) threw off an important sidetrack over the 
Indian .Mountains southward into the Indus Valley, where men, passing 
down the river, reacluHl a .seaboard in direct communication with the 
Persian (lulf, the He(l Sea, and thelMediterranean. 



The limitations of the Ancient World are always perplexing us; 
the successes gained by the pre-Christian civilization are constantly 
suggesting yet greater things unattempted or unachieved. In a sense, 
perhaps, the light that was in the world proved to be darkness. The 
Helleno-Roman World, as organized under the Caesars, was so rich, 
so self-sufficient, so full of proud contentment, so weary of struggle after 
many centuries of conflict, that it made little serious effort to explore 
beyond its own limits. For instance, there was felt no want of a 
commercial route by water around Africa; the Phcenicians, six hundred 
years before Christ, claimed the discovery of that waterway; but, in 
the heyday of old civilization, no adequate attempt was made, 
under far easier conditions, to repeat the experiment. It could have 
been successfully carried through, without doubt, under the Julian or 
Flavian or Antonine emperors; but it had ceased to appeal to practical 
men, though it still attracted the learned and the imaginative. Again, 
while the ancient coast and overland routes — by caravan or river boat or 
coasting vessel — were in good order, even the most adventurous did not 
seriously think of the great voyage from west to east, ''from Spain to 
India/' which was believed in as a theoretical possibility {e. g., by 
Aristotle), fully eighteen hundred years before it was realized by Colum- 
bus and Magellan The discoveries of the Great Forty Years (1480- 
1520) were not anticipated in the times of Strabo or of Ptolemy, chiefly 
because the same suggestions of vital gain did not occur to the sublime 
self-satisfaction of imperial Rome. The compass and quadrant 
were then unknown, it may be said, and nautical science was in its 
childhood. But, if (ireek thought and Roman perseverance had given 
attention to the problems of ocean travel, the progress of later centuries 
would certainly, in great measure, have been anticipated. But the 
intellect of the later classical time was interested in the theory of the 
world — its shape and size — far more than in the practical exploration 
of the same. 

The ancient trade routes, as already noticed, continue far into the 
Middle Ages almost unaltered; but, as regards the west, their activity 
decreases, their scale of supply and demand is lowered, their good order 
and safety are seriously impaired. 

In the sixth century a.d., the Byzantines try to divert the overland 
commerce (from China, India, and Central Asia) away from the Persian 
routes, which most of that commerce then followed. Two attempts are 
made with this object: (1) by the Indian Ocean routes, and in alliance 
with Abyssinia ; (2) by the Black Sea and steppe routes, in alliance with 


the Turks of Sogdiana. Both these attempts had special relation to 
the silk trade, important both under the Old Empire and in the Middle 
Ages; this trade had long been in the hands of the Persians as carriers. 

The first attempt involved an alliance with Abyssinia, and with 
the Ncstorians of Persia, South India, Sokotra, etc.; it brought about 
the visit of Nonnosus to the Negus' Court, and the visits of Sopater 
and Cosnias to Ceylon (before 545) ; and it produced the valuable writ- 
ings of Cosmas on the regions of the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, etc. 
In these writings there is a great advance on previous Christian knowl- 
edge of South Asia and East Africa. 

The second attempt involved alliance with the Turks, then ruling in 
Samarkand and over vast regions north of the Amu (the camps of 
their khans are always in motion; sometimes they are in the Soghd, or 
near Kokand, at other times near Lake Balkhash, or in the Lower Altai 
regions, etc.). This alliance produced many valuable travels between 
the Bosj)orus and West Central Asia, and good records of the same. 
Tho»5e travels really proved the Caspian to be an inland sea, and not a 
mere gulf of the Arctic Ocoan; but this lesson was not properly drawn 
except, perhaps, at Constantinople — c. g,, St. Isidore of Seville at this 
very time repeats the old misconceptions. Excellent descriptions of 
the Turco-Tartar nomades were now given in Greek, recalling Herod- 
otus, Hippocrates, and Strabo. Hence also comes one of the earliest 
notices of Lake Aral, and of the Rivers Ural and Emba; the better 
known \ olga, Syr-daria or Jaxartes, Don, Dnieper, etc., are clearly 
described i^r inferred to by the Byzantine historians of the sixth cen- 
tury. This intercoui*se lasts from 568 to 590 or 595; its central object 
is to "transfer the sale of silk from the Persians to the Romans" — i. e.. 
it is a commerrial object that inspires the whole. Also, under Justinian 
i^ln^fon* A,n. 5i>5), the secret of silk manufacture is transferred from 
China to the Byzantine Knipin^ by Xestorian monks, who bring silk- 
worms* ejip? in a hollow cane to Syria. This remains the most per- 
manent rt^sult of the new By.:antine enterprises. In Western Europe, 
durii\g all the |vri<.Hi oi the earlier Middle Ages, commerce is extremely 
deprt^ssinl : yet theri^ is occasional surprisinn evidence of its vitality — e. g., 
Cin\jrory of Tours tells oi men*hants going from France to Syria, and 
of a meri*hani pilgrim coming fn^m South India to France (about 
.\.D. ooi^^ : also 01 Indian shi|>s coming regularly at the same time to 
Suoj "lor the sake of merchandise.*' Note also the colonies of Syrian 
traders in Marseilles. NarlnMine, Honieaux. Orleans, Tours, etc., under 
:he Mer\>vingiau Kinir^ ^sixth-eighth ceuTurie?"^. as well as the com- 
moTVMal }^T\^slx>rity of \ enioe Ivginning in the sixth century. 


The rise of Islam produces incalculable effects in commerce as in 
politics. Moslems now control the most important sections of the great 
international trade routes, and are practically masters of the world's 
carrying trade. A wonderful development of Indian Ocean trade and 
trade routes occurs under the early Caliphate, and before a.d. 1000 
Moslem traders visit North China, Korea, and Japan. Already in 
A.D. 700 they are found trading in Canton; in 758 they head serious 
riots here; in 795 they transfer their main Chinese market from Canton 
to Khanfu or Hangcheufu, near the mouth of the Yangtse, the greatest 
Chinese port throughout the Middle Ages. Kala, in the Malay Penin- 
sula, is their chief market in the East Indies. Ceylon is also important, 
and Arab merchants appear here long before Mohammed; even about 
A.D. 400. Arab trade colonies, also, on the Malabar coast and in North- 
west India, are pictured in glowing colors by early Moslem travelers 
and geographers before a.d. 1000. Within the Caliphate, the courses of 
the Tigris and Euphrates and the Persian Gulf routes acquire new and 
special value, and are indeed primary after the foundation of Bagdad 
(a.d. 750). Busra, at head of Persian Gulf, Maskat, Siraf, and Kishm. 
predecessor of Ormuz, close to the mouth of the gulf; Aden, the key 
of the Red Sea; Jedda, the port of Mecca; Suez, *^ where Egypt met 
India;" Mozdishu, on the Somali coast; and the far eastern harbors 
of Kala and Khanfu, or Han^cheufu, are the chief centers of the ocean 
trade of Islam down to the Crusading Age. On the other hand, the 
overland routes are somewhat depressed during the early centuries of 
Islam; but along the northern frontier of the Caliphate, from the Pamir 
and the Syr-daria to the Caucasus and the Volga, there is a surprising 
amount of commerce and a surprising variety of commerce avenues. 
Those already noticed — the Amu-Caspian-Caucasian-Euxine route, the 
steppe routes north of the Euxine and the Caspian, the South Caspian 
or North Persian road — are now of considerable importance, though 
quite secondary to the great maritime coast tracks of the south. The 
fur-trade route, running up the course of the Volga into the far north, is 
also valuable, owing to the passion of rich Moslems for furs; its chief 
terminus is at Bolgharar (answering to the modern Kazan). 

All Moslem trade routes are summarized by Ibn Khordadbeh, about 
A.D. 880. Great importance is assigned by him not only to the routes 
noticed above, but also to the North African caravan route, skirting the 
north edge of the desert, from Morocco to Egypt. He also emphasizes 
the commercial position of the ports of France and Italy, even then, and 
of the market town of Rh6 or Rai, near Teheran, where Slav, Khazar, 
and Levantine traders met. He also gives an elaborate account of a 


Central European trade route from Southern German}'^ eastward, run- 
ning through the Slav lands to the lower X'olga, and thence on to Cen- 
tral Asia, India, and China. 

The early triumphs of Islam, following on the barbarian invasions, 
for a time almost stifle the commercial life of western Christendom, and 
Moslem piracy for a moment apparently completes the destructive work 
of Moslem conquest. While the East and West Caliphates develop 
commerce of their own, of immense reach, depth, and volume, the 
Christian lands outside the Byzantine Empire seem commercially 
dependent on their more prosperous rivals. But gradually matters 
alter, the outlook changes, and the central period of the Middle Ages is 
marked by a mercantile development of decisive character; a new era 
in trade, as in politics and society, is created; and whatever the other 
fluctuations of European histor\', in commerce the Mediaeval Renais- 
sance, beginning on the eve of the Crusades, is an abiding and vital 
force. This steadilv grows till Europe arrives at the discovery and 
trade exploitation of the entire world. 

The new European mercantile life really begins as a continuously 
progressive force in Italy and the south of France during the ninth 
century — especially at X'enice and Amalfi, and to a less degree at 
Marseilles. This mediteval mercantile life is superior to the ancient 
commercial activity in claiming greater privileges for the trader, in 
giving more attention to freedom of trade intercourse, in undertaking 
more daring and speculative operation.-', in devoting greater energy to 
the discovery of new markets. At the conclusion of the Crusading 
struggle it is evident that the solid results of the religious wars are 
mainly commercial — a new culture and material prosperity, a vastly 
extended knowledge, a well-informed and far-reaching ambition, whose 
results are seen in the great scientific and geographical discoveries of 
the latest Middle Age. 

The Crusading States of the Levant, advanced bases for Christian 
trade, help the Christian travel-pioneers, especially merchants, to pene- 
trate the inner regions of Asia. Thus Italian and Provengal merchants 
push up to Aleppo. Damascus, and the Euj)hrates before a.d. 1200. 
Some time before 1264 we find a X'enetian trader in Tabriz, the North- 
Persian successor and supplanter of Bagdad. The conquests of the 
Mongols are first announced to Christendom by pAiropean traders in 
g'^ms and spices who had gone up, a])out .\.d. 1200, from the Syrian 
coast towards the Euphrates. 

New routes and new markets are opened by the Latin capture of 
Constantinople (a. d. 1204), and the rise of the Mongols (from a. d. 1190). 



Venetians are now established as commercial sovereigns on the 
Bosporus and the Black Sea: their traders penetrate to Kiev, into the 
heart of Asia Minor, into Persia, into Central Asia, finally, with the 
Polos, info China, Indo-China, and India. 

The Mongols open continental (overland) routes, as they have never 
been opened before, to Christian trade and travel. The opportunities 
given by Mongol rulers to European merchants result in that new 
knowledge of India and China which, above all else, inspires the great 
geographical discoveries. For Henry the Navigator, Dias, DaGama, 
Columbus, Magellan, and the rest are all primarily in search of 
better and easier ways to Cathay and the Indies. The difficulties of 
the land routes are well known by the fourteenth century; the value 
of the objects and regions sought are also thoroughly apparent to the 
searchers; the first hopes of profitable overland intercourse (raised by 
the Mongols) have now been completely disappointed; therefore, men 
seek for maritime, oceanic ways. Hence the circumnavigation of Africa, 
the western route by voyages of Columbus, the reaching of East Asia 
by a western course from Europe (by Magellan), the incidental discovery 
of the unsuspected land-mass of America (by Columbus). 

The importance (in the Mongol period) of the Trebizond — Tabriz 
and Lajazzo — Tabriz routes (from the Black Sea and the Cilician coast 
to North Persia, and so to China by the way running south of the 
Caspian) is very notable. 

Only second to these come the steppe routes — c. g., from Kiev 
or the Crimea to the lower Volga, and so to the Mongol capitals and 
China by tracks running north of tlie Caspian — while, again, the river 
routes are not to be forgotten — e. g., the I)on-\'olga way into the Caspian 
(crossing over by the Kalach portage from one river to another) ; also 
the Amu route. But before the close of the Middle Ages both Mongol 
and Moslem alliances for commercial purposes are clearly seen to be 
futile experiments, ending in utter disappointment. Good examples of 
the latter exist in the attempts of European traders in the twelfth, 
thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries to reach the Indies through an 
understanding with the Moslem rulers of Egypt. Some of these are 
temporarily successful — e. g., the Pisans in a.d. 1175, the Germans about 
1240, the Venetians about 1330 — but none are permanent. 

The routes of the Polos in their two great journeys (1260-1295) 
give an excellent view of the chief trade avenues in the Mongol period. 

I. On the first journey the outward route was: Crimea, X'olga, 
Bukhara, over the dividing mountains by the southern Tian Shan way, 
over the Gobi to the Great Wall, Kublai's Court at Shangtu. II. On 


the second journey: Lajazzo, Erzinghian, Mosul, Ormuz, Badakhshan, 
over the dividing mountains by the Northern Kuenlun way, Great 
Wall, Pekin, various routes in China (a) to Southwest, (6) to Southeast, 
especially to Hangcheufu, the ''City of Heaven;" home from Zayton, 
in Fokien, by the coasts of Indo-China, through the East Indies, along 
the Coromandel and Malabar coasts to Ormuz, Tabriz, Trebizond, Con- 
stantinople. The Red Sea routes are elaborately described in the Polo 
narrative, but not apparently from first-hand observation. We must 
notice the importance of the Nile and of Alexandria in international 
trade even at the close of the thirteenth century. 

The persistence, daring, and success of Christian traders, even from 
the beginning of the Crusading Age, correspond to an ever-increasing 
weakness and decay in Moslem commerce, which from the seventh to 
the eleventh century had controlled the world's purse-strings. Com- 
mercially, as in some other respects, Islam never recovered from the 
Mongol convulsion; c/. Polo's evidence on the vast superiority of 
the Chinese ports over Alexandria at the close of the thirteenth century. 

So the break-up of the Mongol Empire and the conversion of the 
Western Tartars to Islam destroy Christian hopes of effective overland 
trade through Asia. A thorough knowledge, we have seen, now pre- 
vails in the west of the riches of South and East Asia. These riches are 
accordingly sought by the longer but safer maritime routes. The chief 
stages in this search are the following: In 1270, European discovery in 
the African islands and off the African coasts begins again with the 
voyage of Lancelot Malocello to the Canaries; in 1291, we have the first 
overt attempt to reach India by an ocean voyage round Africa, planned 
for strictly commercial purposes; in 1341, 1346, 1402, etc., European 
voyages are repeated among the African islands, and renewed attempts 
are made to coast on beyond the farthest hitherto known. Valuable 
discoveries are made among the Canaries, the Azores, and the Madeira 
group, even before 1351 ; but permanent, continuous, effective Atlantic 
exploration only begins under the leadership of Henry the Navigator, 
1415-1460; the route around Africa is practically opened up by 1486 
(Bartholomeu Dias), absolutely by 1498 (Vasco da Gama). The great- 
est commercial revolution ever known is produced by this, by the dis- 
covery of America in 1492, and by the Ottoman conquest of the 
Levant, which last dealt a deathblow to Moslem commercial spirit, 
just as the Ottoman conquest of the Crimea and other coasts of the 
Black Sea dealt a deathblow to the old Christian trade by this route 
with Central Asia, China, etc. 



The Production of Sugar in the Hawaiian Islands. — A state- 
ment recently received from a high authority in Hawaii by the Bureau 
of Statistics indicates that about one hundred million dollars of capital 
from the United States have been invested in Hawaii since the 
reciprocity treaty of 1876, a large part of this having been so invested 
since annexation, in 1898. This development, since annexation, in 
the increased investments in capital from the United States, and its 
application to irrigation in its highest forms, has resulted in an increase 
of more than 50 per cent in the sugar production of the islands, the 
production of 1897 being 562,000,000 pounds; that of 1903, 840,000,- 
OOO pounds. 

The Hawaiian Islands now stand third in the list of sections pro- 
ducing cane sugar for exportation. Curiously, all of the great cane- 
sugar exporting spots of the world are islands. Cuba stands at the head 
of the Ust, with an annual exportation, under normal conditions, of 
over two biUion pounds; Java next, with an average annual production 
of one and one-half billion pounds, while the Hawaiian Islands have 
now nearly reached the one billion mark. China and India are also 
large producers of cane sugar, but consume practically all of their 
production, their exportation being small. 

Sugar production in the Hawaiian Islands has developed much 
more rapidly during the last thirty years than in any other cancr 
producing section of the world. The production in Java grew from 
432,320,000 pounds, in 1875, to 1,887,899,000 pounds, in 1903, or less 
than five times as much in 1903 as in 1875. Cuba has increased its 
production from 1,736,000,000 pounds, in 1873, to 2,183,000,000, in 
1903, while that of Hawaii, as already indicated, has grown from 
23,000,000 pounds, in 1873, to 840,000,000, in 1903. Thus, Java's pro- 
duction is now less than five times that of 1873; that of Cuba has 
increased less than 50 per cent, while that of Hawaii is about tliirty- 
five times as great as in 1873. Meantime, the cane-sugar production 
of the world has grown from 1,793,000 tons, in 1873, to 4,118,000 tons, 
in 1903, having about trebled during that period. The beet-sugar 
production of the world has grown from 1,210,000 tons, in 1873, to 
5,520,000 tons, in 1903, being about four and one-half times as much 
in 1903 as in 1873. 

Hawaii's share in supplying the sugar consumption of the United 




States has increased very rapidly since the reciprocity treaty of 1876. 
Prior to that date, sugar imported from Hawaii formed about 1^ per 
cent of the total importation, while in the fiscal year 1903 Hawaii 
supplied about 15 per cent of the total brought into continental United 
States. — Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. 

The World's Maritime Statistics.— ** Lloyil's Register'' for im3-4 
puts the world's mercantile marine, on July 10, 1903, at 29,943 steam- 
ships, of 27,183,365 tons, and 12,IS2 sailing vessels, of 6,459,766 tons. 

The principal are represented in the following table: 

Country Tonvaoe 

England 16,006,374 

United States 3.61 1,956 

Germany 3,283.247 

Norway 1.653.740 

France 1.622,016 

Italy 1.180.335 

Russia S09,648 

Spain 764,447 

Japan 726.S1S 

Sweden 721,116 

Con n try Ton nage 

Holland 658,845 

Denmark 581,247 

Austria-Hungary 578,697 

(Greece ". 378J99 

Helgium 157,047 

Hrazil 155,086 

Turkey 154,494 

Chile 103,758 

Portugal 101,304 

Argentine Re])ublic 95,780 

Area, Population, and Density of Population of the South 

American Republics. 


Argentine Republic . 










Area {Kilnrneler«) 







Density of 



Total 17,S51.902 



Manufacture of Ice in Palestine. — Then* is a snuill ice plant in 
Jerusalem, which lias been in operation for three years. An oil 
engine of three horse-power furnishes the power; the freezer is of 
French manufacture. The sale of ice amounts to about 700 pounds 
a day, and the capacity of the works is about 1.400 pounds daily. 
The selling price is 5 cents a kilogram (2.2 poimds). Neyer before in 


this countn^ have the inhabitants used ice. or seen it, in fact. The 
demand at present is limited, but is steadily increasing. 

At Jaffa, the seaport of Jerusalem, the ice business was established 
about 1890 on a small scale and for several years the business was 
not successful; but. in 1S99, as the demand for ice was on the increase, 
the works were enlarged, and since then have been operated quite 
successfully. The engine used is of German manufacture: oil is used 
for fuel. The present daily demand is for about 1,500 pounds, and 
the capacity of the works is about 4,500 pounds. The priee is the 
same as charged in Jerusalem — 5 cents per kilogram. When the works 
were first established the price was 10 cents per kilogram. The water 
in Jaffa comes from wells, and. owing to their proximity to the sea, 
is brackish. The ice is never clear, and when melted leaves considerable 
sediment. The water u.sed in Jerusalem is rain water, from cisterns, 
and the ice is Uke crystal. No natural ice is brought to this country. 
The demand for ice was first made by the hospitals; the hotels soon 
after began its use, and now nearly all the foreign residents and many 
of the wealthy native families are consumers. 

Raising Crops in the Far North. — Mr. X. L. Skalosubof. address- 
ing the recent agricultural convention at St. Petersburg, said that 
many facts may be given to disprove the popular idea that grain will 
not ripen north of 60° X. Lat. A clergyman at Vugansk, Siberia, 61° 
X. Lat and 73° 40' E. Long., is building a mill propelled by wind-power 
to turn his winter rye and spring wheat into flour. At Masau. on the 
Pelym River, in 61° X. Lat., a farmer has extended his area under 
tillage, so that he now raises all tlie griin recpiired by his large family, 
and has a surplus to sell. The efforts to raise rye at Herezov in 63° 54' 
have been very successful. Still farther north, in 64° 13', barley, rye, 
and oats have been grown for a series of years, and yield fifteenfold. 
Vegetables are raised at the most northern line of Russian settlements — 
for example, at Obdorsk in 66° 31', where the successful experiment 
was first made in 1894. — Bulletin American Geor/raphical Society, Octo- 
ber, 1903. 

Standard Time in South Africa. — The Ciovernments of Cape of Clood 
Hope, Natal, Transvaal, Orange River Colony, Rhodesia, and Portu- 
guese East Africa^* having decided to adopt a standard time for railroads. 
telegraphs, and other public purposes, have agreed that the time shall 
be that of the meridian 30° E. Long. — that is to say, two hours in 
advance of Greenwich time. The arrangement took effect from 
March 1, last. — Bulletin American Geographical Society, Octol)er. 1003. 


Manufacture of Perfumes in Grasse. — The city of Grasse, the 

most important industrial place of the Riviera, is widely known on 
account of its perfume manufacture. At present thirty-five concerns 
making essences of flowers are in operation there. The average con- 
sumption of roses for that purpose is about 2,650,000 pounds, and that 
of orange flowers about 660,000 pounds per year. The annual sale of 
these essences amounts to $1 ,000,000. Vallauris has nine such factories. 

The most important product of this industry is oil of neroli, made 
from the flowers of the bitter orange. A kilogram (2.2 pounds) of 
this oil is worth $60. From the peel of the bitter orange oil of orange 
is made. The peel of the sweet orange is seldom used for making oil. 

The manufacture of essence of roses is also very extensive. The 
so-called oil of roses is manufactured from the grass Andropogon 

The flowers of the large flowered jasmine yield the oil of jasmine. 
A hectare (2.471 acres) })lanted with jasmine is said to yield a yearly 
product worth $3,000, but requires a groat deal of work. Filled violets 
formerly brought from $1 to $2 per kilogram (2.2 pounds); at present, 
however, they bring only 50 cents. A kilogram of essence of violets 
is worth from $4.50 to $5. 

Oil of geranium is produced from the flowers of Pelargonium cafita- 
turn. The flowers of the tuberose, of the jonquil, and of a species of 
narcissus are manufactured into essences; also the leaves of the citron- 
ella plant, the root of the Iris florentinn (violet root) the patchouli 
flowers, sandalwood, etc. 

Fortunately for many places in the Riviera, the consumption of 
these essences has not decreased in late years. 

Although many of these perfumes are bad for the nervous system, 
others are recognized as antiseptics. 

Destruction of Cork Forests in Italy. — While Spain still fur- 
nishes 32,800 tons of cork annually, the production of Italy has decreased 
to 4,000 tons. Th(» value of the Spanish exports of cork amounts to 
$6,000,000 per year, against less than $250,000 for Italy. Only Sicily 
and Sardinia are still producing cork to any considerable extent in 
Italy, while the former great oak forests of Calabria are almost totally 
destroyed. It seems incomprehensible that this destruction has been 
permitted. The trees easily reach an age of two hundred years. They 
yield cork in their thirtieth year and continue to do so every seven years. 
Seventy-five years ago the English demand for cork was supplied 
exclusively from Italy. The destruction of the remaining forests goes 
on uninterruptedly, and nobody seems to try to prevent it or to plant 


new forests, in spite of the fact that Italy possesses the most favorable 
climate and soil for the cork oak, the most favorable conditions for its 
growth being found in the volcanic soil of the peninsula. — Monthly 
Consular Reports, December ^ 1903. 

Current Articles on Commerce and Industry : 

Agaves: A Group of Useful Plants (Illus.), Sci. Am. Supp., Decem- 
ber 12. 

British Columbia Water Powers (Illus.), Emjineerinij Mag. 

California in Winter (Illus.), World To-day. 

Canada, American Invasion of (Illus.), World To-day. 

Ceylon: Impressions of the Far East (Illus.), World To-day. 

China, Railway Making in (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 

Coal-Mining in the United Kingdom, Engineering Mag. 

Com Belt, Life in, World^s Work. 

Diseases of Farm Animals in Am., Sci. Am. Supp., December 5. 

East River Bridge (Illus.), Sci. Am. Supp., December 19. 

Farming: The New Farmer and a New Earth (Illus.), World^s 

Hemp Industry, Sci. Am. Supp., December 5. 

Insect Pests in Am. Agriculture, Sci. Am. Supp., December 12. 

Iron and Steel (Illus.), Sci. Am. {Special Edition), December 12. 

Irrigation in Ancient Chaldea, Sci. Am. Supp., December 12. 

Korea and International Politics (Illus.), World To-day. 

Louisiana Sugar Plantation (Illus.), Country Life. 

Orange Crop of the U. S., Crop Reporter. 

Paris, Metropolitan Railway of (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 

Philippines: Commercial Fibers of, Mo. Summary of Commerce 
of the Philippine Is., July. 

Philippines: Progress Among the Moros (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 

Potato Cultivation in Germany, Consular Rep. 

Primitive Inventions (Illus.), The Craftsman. November. 

Rubber Tree of Central America (Illus.) , Sci. Am. Supp., December 5. 

Sarsaparilla, Paint, Oil and Drug Rev., December 2. 

Scotch Oil Industry, Paint. Oil and Drug Rev., December 16. 

Sicilian Hills (Illus.), World To-day. 

Speculation and Business (Illus.), System. 

Standard Oil Co., Part II, Ch. I (Illus.), McClure's Mag. 

Warehousing Industr}^ Mo. Summary of Commerce and Finance. 

Who Owns the United States? World's Work 




IT is hoped this department will prove of practical benefit to teachers of geogra- 
phy, opening a way for the solving of the many geographical problems which 
are constantly met with in the classroom. All questions received will be answered 
by specialist* in the various methods of geographical work. We invite inquiries, 
criticisms, suggestions, and discussions. Address all communications for this 
department to: ki3\vAIU) M. LEHXERTS, Winorm, Minn. 

(6) Having noticed a tendency in the schools to combine language 

lessons with the teaching of geograpliy, I would appreciate a statement 

from Thk Journal of CIkogkaphy as to where, in its opinion, lies 

the value of this correlation of one pedagogical subject with another. 

M. Faulds, Aylnier (West), Ontario, Canada. 

The function of language is to express thought. Language fulfills 
its function wlien it enables the individual to convey to others his 
states of consciousness. That form which expresses thought most 
clearly and most concisely is the b(\st form. 

Any one who has watclied the development of children before they 
enter school, knows liow rapidly they acipiire the ability to use lan- 
guage. Early childliood is a j)erio(l of intense activity. It is a stage 
of inquiry, of desire to know. Tlie world is rapidly unfolding before 
the eyes of tlie child, and he camiot remain passive in the ])resence of 
sucli wonders, l^xpression becomes a neces.sity, and lience the power 
to use language deve]o|)s rapidly. 

To the teacher this fact should he very significant. It is at once 
associated with the immediate lu^eds and desires of the child, and with 
his present eiiviromnent. Why not follow this method in the school? 
Create a desire to ])()ssess, and you have implanted in the mind that 
which is fundamental in leading to possession. It is evident that this 
desire will grow out of that in which the child is most deeply interested 
— his environment — for in this his experiences are bound up. 

In the study of geograpliy we are constantly dealing with objects of 
interest, l)eauty. use. We aw studying processes which influence the 
daily life of every living thing. Types of the objects are ever before 
the pupils. The processes by which the world has been and is being 
shaped are at work upon every hillside and highway, along every 
stream course, and in the very atmosphere about us. 

Geograj)hy thus opens an uidimited field for training in the use of 
language, ])oth oral and written. Let the pupil be taught to express his 


growing personal experiences in the best form. Mistakes must be dis- 
covered, with or without the aid of the teacher, and must be corrected 
by the pupil. Demand the child's best in all work. 

How shall we test the value of the present method of teaching lan- 
guage? I believe that I am c^uite correct in saying that it is cus- 
tomary to judge the pupil's progress by his record in the language 
class. It is in connection with geography, history, arithmetic, and 
other subjects that the test should be made. 

Manual training involves the use of the saw, hammer, plane, and 
other tools. What teacher of mamial training would attempt to teach 
the use of these tools by having his ]nipils saw, hanuner, and plane 
worthless scraps of lumber month after month and year after year? 
Children learn how to use these tools by making something. In other 
words, the tools are used just as they arc used in the actual affairs of 
life — as a means of expression. Does manual training suffer by being 
taught in a rational manner? Should language be taught by a methc I 
any les{^ rational? 

Language should be taught in connection witli geography and all 
other subjects for the following reasons: (1) Its function is to express 
our thoughts in terms of these sui)jects. (2) This method is along 
the line of the pupil's interest. (3) It makes possible the greatest 
progress. (4) It furnishes a rational test of the pupil's ability. (5) It 
makes language a means rather than an end. 

J. y. Chamberlaix, 
Sfatc Xortrial School, Los A vticlca, Calijornia, 



DURING the agitation for better geography teaching in elementary 
and secondary schools which lias been going on now fr)r more 
than a decade, but little attention has been given to the prob- 
lem of geography teaching in normal and training schools. Inasmuch 
as these schools are the source of special training of a large proportion 
of the teachers employed in (lementar}^ schools, especially in cities, this 
neglect of attention has l^een most unfortunate. Teachers have been 
spurred on by new and revolutionary texts, by new and perhaps over 
detailed courses of study, by constant discussion in the pedagogical 
journals, and have l)een urged to make striking changes in their methods 
of teaching and in the choice of materials to be presented in classroom 
work, while httle attention in a connected way has been given to the 


improvement of geography training in the professional schools for teachers. 

In several of the normal schools, particularly in the western states, 
the task of training pupil teachers in geography has been entrusted to 
teachers who have had opportunities of specializing in geography during 
their academic training. Even these trained leaders have not, however, 
compared notes and discussed plans of work, as have the teachers in 
secondary schools. As a result, the normal school teaching of geog- 
raphy in the countr}^ at large is at present uneven in method, in point 
of view, and in results. 

Students who have gone through a two years^ normal or training 
course, following a high-school course, ought to have gained that knowl- 
edge of geography, and of methods of teaching, which will give them 
confidence in their work and a feeling of reserve strength beyond the 
needs of everyday school life. A teacher who must give to her pupils 
all she knows herself is to be pitied, for she is always liable to be upset 
by the sagacious question of some active-minded pupil who sees beyond 
the text and lesson of the day. 

A teacher who has had the benefit of a professional training ought 
to know what is essential and what nonessential in geography for school 
work; she ought to understand the cross-relations between the several 
divisions of geography onUnarily separated in a school text; she should 
be familiar with the best sources of reference and know how to seek new 
and additional information in atlases, cyclopedias and compendia; 
and above all she shoul<l be able to sift the small amount of accurate 
and valuable material from the vast abundance of geographical chaff 
poured forth from the press, and especially from the daily press. 

There is no field of school work in which a knowledge of geography 
is of more inune<liate value than in the current events class. Any 
teacher who has not gained from her professional course in geography 
a knowledge of facts and principles that will be of ever\'da3' service 
and consolation, has been negligent in her work or has been trained 
in a bad way. 

It is for the purj)ose of showing how these ideals can be obtained 
that The Joxtrnal begins this month the j)ublication of a new series of 
articles ^ dealing with the geography courses in several of the progressive 
normal schools of the co\mtr\\ The editors will welcome further con- 
tributions to the subject, either in the way of (questions or discussions, 
and it is hoped that the series may be of help and inspiration to all 
teachers of geography in normal and training schools. 

' Sec also, The Journal of Geography, Vol. II., pp. 393, 469, 507. 



The Geography of Commerce. By Spencer Trotter. Size 5 by 7J inches. Pp. 

xxiv and 410. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1903. 

A crop of books is now appearing on the subject of commercial geography. 
The Elementary Commercial Geography of C. C. Adams was reviewed in these pages 
recently. The book of Dr. Trotter is similar in scope and purp)ose. 

This is the first volume of Macmillan's Commercial Series. The editor's intro- 
duction indicates that the series is to contain two books on geography in relation to 
industry; namely, one devoted to the physical laws and facts influencing industry, 
and one developing the "standpoint of men and organizations of men." The author 
appears to dissent, for on the first page of Chapter I we find the statement that 
"Geography is used in the following pages in its broad meaning, and includes an 
account of man and nature, and the interactions which are an outcome of their 
relationship to each other.'* We venture to protest that commercial geography is so 
new a study in American schools, and its aims and methods, its disciplinary value, 
and its place in the curriculum are all so uncertain, that to split the various \iew- 
points of the subject apart into separate books will be to introduce the greatest 
confusion. Furthermore, it must be urged that to divide the subject along the lines 
proposed will be to prevent the effective juxtaposition of facts within a volume, 
in the eflfort to reveal the essential conditions of industry as they arise, partly from 
the physical environment, partly from the culture, laws, customs and institutions 
of human society, and become intimately associated in the process of wealth pro- 

Wliile there is much that is excellent in the book before us, and while the sug- 
gested questions and topics and the bibliographies following each chapter give evi- 
dence of much careful work, it nmst be admitted that the text proper is disappoint- 
ing, both because of an unsatisfactory general plan for the arrangement and balanc- 
ing of the various topics treated, and because the substance of the individual para- 
graphs is composed of the more obvious and superficial facts of industry, and these 
are not sufficiently digested in relation to any body of general principles which the 
student may seize upon and retain after the specific facts have been forgotten or 
have become out-of-date. 

The photographs with which the book is embellished are excellent; the charts 
also are correct in principle though by no means striking. The maps are quite 
ordinary in character; some of them, like the thumb-nail maps on pages 90, 92, 
99, and 102, are too small to show much of im|X)rtance; others are overloaded with 
data, as illustrated by the map of South America on page 208; while some are de- 
cidedly inaccurate, like the map on page 53 comparing the area of European 
countries with that of the United States. 

E. D. J. 

Elementary Geography. A Text-book for Children. By Charles F. King. Size 
10} X 8}. Pp. VI, 220. 26 maps and numerous illustrations. Boston: Lothrop 
P^ublishing Company, 1903. 

The author of King's Elementary Geography aims to cover the first two years 
of geography work. The first section deals with obsenational home geography — 
by means of trips to the park, the fields, the hills, and the seashore; elementary 
<*oncepts of surface, land, and water forms, work of air and water, the weather and 


the seiusons are brought out. Then type forms are taken up. The child's early 
interests in the particular rather than the general are appealed to by the study 
of a mountain (Mt. Washington), a river (the Hudson), a prairie, a coast, a cold, 
a hot, and a temperate country. The earth as a whole is dealt with, and then the 
continents by means of journeys. The author has used the journey method to 
add interest and sequence to the work, but he has not fallen into the conniion error 
of allowing this method to breed superficiality. Vital and fundamental facts have 
been emphasized. 

Less ground hiis bt^n covered than in man\' geographies because it has seemed 
more important to appeal to the child's interest in the real, the concrete, than to 
attempt to cover more ground in a general manner. Cities and industries are clearly 
and concisely described with sufficient detail to keep interest in the reality. Some 
of us will question the lulvisability of using the personal element and story form to 
such an extent, and even the extensive use of the journey method in a text-book, 
but the book will be interesting to every teacher of geography. The general appear- 
ance of the book is noteworthy. The innnerous illustrations are clear, attractive, 
and illuminate the text. The maps are sini{)le and clear. L. W. H. 


Manual of Geography and Language. Hy C. E. Mann, Chicago. Pp. 151. 

Chicago: M. A. Donohue & Company, 1903. 

This latest manual of geography contains an outline of a course of geography 
that has been tested by use, and practical suggestions as to ways of approaching 
the different subjects accepted as pertinent to the course. The outlines are largely 
devoted to economic and industrial topics. The book contains some very helpful 
and suggestive questions for review purposes, but is not particularly new or indi- 

Pioneer Spaniards in North America. Hv ^^'illiam Henrv Johnson. Pp. xvi and 

381. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1903. 

An interesting account of explorers like Vespucius, Balboa, Ponce de Leon, 
Cort^^s, De Vaca, Coronado. and De Soto, illustrate<l by many reproductions of old 
plates and a few of old maps. A good book of reference for teachers dealing with 
the period of exploration in America. 

Handbook of Commercial Geography. By George G. Chisholm. Fourth corrected 
edition. Pp. xlvi and 639. London and New York: Longmans, Green and 
Company, 1903. 
A revised and much-(»nlarged edition of a well-known and .standard book. A 

book of reference which may be used as a text in the higher grades of teaching. 

To be reviewed later. 

Precis de Geographie Economique. By Dubois and Kergomard. Second edition. 

Pp. viii and 837. Paris: Ma.sson et Cie., 1903. 

An up-to-date conunercial geograj)hy arranged by countries. Lacks illustra- 
tions and has a meager index. In the treatment of each country the causal idea 
is well emphasized, and comparisons with similar conditions in other countries are 
clearly brought out. 


Descriptive Chemistry. Bv Lvinan C. Xewell. Pp. vi, 590. Boston: 1).C. Heath, 


A descriptive cheniistr>', primarily for teacliers and students of chemist rv. A 
valuable book of reference for teachers of geography who wish to know more about 
the chemical side work of the atmosphere, and water, or about other topics of 
similar nature. 

The Land of Little Rain. Bv Marv Austin. Pp. xi, 281. Boston: Houghton, 

Mifflin & Co., 19a3. 

A book on the desert ^^Titten by an enthusiastic desert lover who speaks from 
intimate knowledge. Most highly commended to all who want an adequate pre- 
sentation of the truth about deserts. To be reviewed later. 

The Yellowstone National Park. Bv Hiram M. Chittenden. Fourth edition. Pp. 

X, 355. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke Co., 1903. 

A revised and enlarge<l edition of a well-knowii guide-book to the Yellowstone. 
To be reviewed later. 

The Cause of the Glacial Period. Bv H. L. True. Pp. xii, 102. (Cincinnati: Hobert 

Clarke Co., 1903. 

A review of the .several theories which have l)een suggested to account for the 
glacial period, and followed by a presentation of the author's views. To be reviewe<l 

The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. Kdited and amiotated by Knnna H. Blair 
and James H. Robertson. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1903. 

Vol. 11—1521-1569. Pp. 335. 

Vol. Ill— 1569-1576. Pp. 317. 

Vol. IV— 1576-1582. Pp. 320. 

Vol. V— 1582-1583. Pp. 321. 

Vol. VI— 1583-1588. Pp. 325. 

Vol. VII— 1588-1591. Pp. 320. 
The beginning volumes in an inclusive series to cover the history and geography 
of the Philippine Islands from 1493 to 1898, when Spanish rule ceased. The volumes 
are translations from original documents, are well arranged and edite<l, and appear 
in a pleasing typography and fonn. Of special value to students of historical 
geography and should be found in the leading libraries. 

The Philippines, a Geographical Reader. By Samuel MacClintock. Pp. 105, 
with four maps. New York: American Book Company, 1903. 
A simple book, dealing briefly with certain of the best-known areas of the Phil- 
ippines. Well illustrated and timely, but not especially interesting. 

New Physical Geography. Bv Ralph 8. Tarr. Pp. xiii, 457. New York: The 

Macmillan Co., 1904. 

A new book in fact as well as in name, by an author whose j^revious texts for 
secondary schools have been eminently successful. Especially striking for its many 
maps and diagrams. Many of the illustrations and some of the diagrams are too 
indistinct to be helpful. It is eminently practical and will immediately be ranked 
as one of the less than half-dozen books on physical geography which can be used 
to advantage in secondary and normal schools. To be reviewed later. 



Geography at the Normal School, Trenton, N. J. — Part II of the 
Second Year Book of the National Society for the Scientific Study 
of Education is devoted to a consideration of the Relation of Theory 
to Practice in Education. In this there is given a suggestive outline 
of the course in geography given to students in the Normal School at 
Trenton, N. J. Here the plan is for the pupil teacher to go over the 
subject matter of geography, much in the same order that is followed 
in the practice school. Thus the course for the normal training students 
is closely parallel to the course in the practice school, though much 
more inclusive. A study of this plan, therefore, will give a good idea 
of the school course of study. The plan followed is somewhat at 
variance with the usual courses of study for pupil teachers in normal 
schools, but is suggestive and helpful. 

A New Trial for the North Pole. — Commander Pear>% the well- 
known and indefatigable Arctic explorer, has been given three years' 
leave of absence by the laiited States Navy and will start in July, 
1904, on a new attempt to reach the North Pole from the American 

Geographical Exhibit to be Held by the Geographical Association 
of Britain. — The Geographical Association of Britain, of which Dr. A. 
J. Herbertson is the Honorary Secretary, will hold an exhibition of 
books, maps, and geographical apparatus in London in January, 
1904. This exhibit will be in association with a Conference on School 
Equipment for the Teacliing of Geography, full accounts of which 
may be expected in the later numbers of the GeographiccU TeacheTj 
of which Dr. Herbertson is editor. I^y mutual agreement between the 
editors, contributions to the Gvoifraphical Teacher which are of value 
in America are reprinted in this Journal and a similar use is made of 
the Journal of Gkographv in the Geocjra'phicid Teacher. 

Newest and Best Text-Books 



Morton^s Geographies 

By Eliza H. Morion, Member of the National Geographic Society. 

Elementary Geography ¥0.55 

Advanced Geography 

Natural Geographies 

By Jac\h Ks W. Rkdway and Russell Hinman. 

Elementary Geography f 0.60 

Advanced Geog^raphy 1.35 

Brief Geography 80 

Tarbeirs Geographies 

By HoRA( K S. Tarhkll, A.M., LL.I)., formerly Sunerintcndenl of 
Schools, Providence, R. I., and Martha Tarhkll, Ph.D. 

Introductory Geography $0.50 

Complete Geography i.oo 

The same. With Special State Editions .1.10 

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South America .60 Asia 60 

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Journal of Pedagogy 

IPROM the first issue the Journal of Pedagogy has been edited solely in the interest 
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It has become a necessity to every library, and teachers who wish the best must 
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EDITORIAL — The Batavia System— What the Batavia System Is — A Quickened Intellec- 
tual Life — The Right View of a Superintendent's Duties — A Needed Amendment — 
Music in the High School — A Difficult Undertaking Well Done — The Boston Meeting 
— Medical Inspection of Schools — College Entrance Examination Board. 

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SoppkacflUry LessMS it Gcoeraphy 

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W. G. CROCK RR. Editor WrstlnvJ Educator, 

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Tkorougkly revised and rewritten^ and printed from Men* pia/es. 

By George G. Chisholm, M. A., B. Sc., Fellow of the Ro}-*! Geographical and Sta- 
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The Eternal Question for Teachers 

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The Question Solved 

Send for Hbnry Sabin's COMMON SENSE DIDACTICS. 
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Of Ite SebtKil Df Edncntloia, Chlctito iTnllvcnliir, fi»yi of Tuc LirrLB 
CiinuNftiLCt '*1iuch A pAper w*a mucb seeded In tj)« Edlqcaitotial By*- 
tern iiad waft bound to r-utm*.** 
Grent Atd No, *2t 

*TIME CTCDCnCr^HDC Th » ri3cefit ■ntci« od tiie urn €4 sterviMcoptc Vlewi in 
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■H> i t ''The ^leK-cw-upe [■ ma Inalruinent ofrrofHlfftf ntcnh 
tafut/t geoffrajihk- itrirjicg and is corAinff ntp\tii§ inUi H«f.'* 

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to ODTi II. UU. and, w lih liMi nHrc^l vtews nt* Isptfr r ttian our*. tMW. 

Owlnir to verj^ iiiaii«iiHl f tri'tiiii6t»nc.ert, aod la urderto mtrvditt^s Tris Littlk CiiBOMfciL,B, we 
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iraEt'd),; one Strrcii#corn* *ltb uiumlQum hucid,(«Ml!i tlul«hc?d, bund eajjcriivfid^ p|u«b Ixxind. 
pitu^tit dirk irlriMii^M'r. wurtb it^ii; tlirre driien carefully »«J.ri^te!i iind beaiiilftillv Qnfiihf'd S'tereuM 
HI o[3io rIewJi frum dlfTen-nt pttTti^af tlur wwrld, wortli il.iU jher iki^iiu, f3.W>; maklDg a total viliif? 
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1A^EB5IEI^ 1 G« d C. ME.RRIAM CO«t Si>p1iiifl«ld. Mik»s. f WESSTBfi'S 


We Give These 
jitlases jlWay 

This POCKET ATLAS OF THE WORLD wiU be mailed free to you, and 
postpaid, with every $1.50 subscription, new or renewal, to THE JOUBJIAL 
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for a short time only, and you must mention this **ad" if you want the Atlas. 


Every one should have one of these invaluable little books 
This AtlAS will help to keep fresh your ^eofnaphical knowledge. It takes but a small 
space on your desk or shelf. It contains a fund of condensed information which is 

always at hand. 

1900 CENSUS 

Maps of every 




Canadian Province, 

Foreign Country, 

Our New 



Central America, 



new plates^ 


engretved and 


1900 CENSUS 

1900 CENSUS 

Printed matter 
relating to 



Physical Features, 




Live Stock, 







Legal Government, 




1900 CENSUS 

Pocket Atlas of the World 

This Pocket Atlas is designed to answer the demand for an Atlas in a compact and 

convenient form. There are four hundred pajjes of handsome colored maps, statistics, 

and descriptions. Size, 3x43^ inches. 

This POCKET ATLAS OF THE WORLD wUl be mailed free to you, and 
postpaid, with every $1.50 subscription, new or renewal, to THE JOURNAL 
OP GEOGRAPHY, cash to accompany the subscription. This offer is good 
for a short time only, and you must mention this '*ad" if you want the Atlas. 


Room 560, 160 Adams St., Chicago, Illinois 

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We Give These 
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This POCKET ATLAS OF THE WORLB will be mailed free to you, and 
postpaid, with every $1.50 subscription, new or renewal, to THE JOURNAL 
OF GEOGRAPHY, cash to accompany the subscription. This o0er is good 
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Every ont should /iave one of f/ii^se imaiuabit! iiltle dooA-s 
This AtlAS will help to keep fresh your K^OKiaphical knowled^fe. It takes but a timall 
space On your desk or shelf. It contains a fund of tunUensed informatinn which is 

always at hand. 

1900 CENSUS 

Mjtps of every 




Canmditin Province, 

Foreign Country, 

Our New 



Central America, 



Ati from 

new plaits^ 


tngrax^d and 


1900 CENSUS 


1900 CENSUS 

Printed matter 
relating to 



Physical Features, 




Live Stock, 







Le^aL Government, 




1900 CENSUS 

PocKet Atlas of the World 

This Pocket AUns is de^igmed lo answer the demand for an AtUs in a compact and 

coovenient form. There arc four hundred page« of handsome colored maps, statistics 

and descriptions. Siie, i%^% incht's. 

This POCKET ATLAS OF THE WORLD wiJl he mailed free to you, and 

postpaid, with every $1-50 subscription, new or renewal, to THE JOURNAL 
OF GEOGRAPHY, cash to accompany the subscription. This offer is good 
for a short time only, and you must mention this "ad*' if you want the Atlas. 


Room 560, 160 Adams St., Chicago, Illinois 


New Elementary Agriculture 

By Dr. Ckas. E. Bessey^ Prof. Lawrence 

Brunery and Prof. G. //. Swezey 

of the 

University of Nebraska 

gnu/M or tk* High Sehool. 


Some time ago I received a copy of 
your delightful Tittle book on Element- 
ary Agriculture. I am delighted with 
the step you have taken. I have been 
tirging the necessity of this for some 
time. The beginning should be made 
in the common school, or, probably, it 
should begin farther back than that — in 
the normal school, with the fitting and 
preparing of teachers, so that when 
they take up the common school work 
they can introduce this delightful and 
beneficial study. Every child would be 
benefited by a course of study in this 
book and instruction regarding it in the 
classroom. Hon. James Wilson, 

C/. S. Secretary of Agriculture. 

Published in October, 1903, but already 
in use in 114 different schools. 




Flexible Bindinff, 1 5c. 

A real gem. Teachers fall In love with It 
and pupils want to read It through as soon as 
they begin It. Appropriate for School and 

It Is the story of the experience of Delma 
and Harold who went to their grandfather's 

the birds. 


B1BDIB8 AT Thbib Tbadbs: Mason — 
Swallow. Basketmaker— Crimson line h, 
Weaver -Ortole, Fuller -Goldfinch, Carpen- 
ter — Woodpecker, Tailor - Tallorblrd. 

BiBDiBSAKD Thbib SoNOS: Id the Garden 

- Robin, In the Wood -Thrush. In the Field 

— Bluebird, In the Sky — Lark, In the Home — 
Canary, In the Grove — Mockingbird. 

BiRDiBs ox THB Wiife ; Hummingbird. 
Thb Bibdibs' Fabbwbll: Jack Sparrow 
and Jenny Wren, Good-Bye. 

The book Is very prettily Illustrated by 
Bertha L. Corbett, the artist of Sunbonnel 
Bahleti. The author is Ida S. Elson. of Fhlla- 
delpbla, formerly a prominent Klndergaitner 
of Bethlehem, Pa. 

William 6. Smith 4 Company 
Minneapolis, MlnneMta 

Higher Mental Arithmetic 

The most difficult, well-graded and 
thought-provoking text in its line 

Only 20 cents 

Bool: of Model Solutions or Key 
to it 50 cents 


Contains over 4,000 facts tersely stated. 
It is up-to-date and needs but to be seen 
to know its value. 

Only 20 cents 


A monthly paper devoted to the expla- 
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Traciiff aid Sketcliiir Lessoas 

By S. Y. GiLLAN, is a volume of 156 
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Paper, 40 cents ; cloth, 65 cents. 

Lessoas io Plitliematical Georraofty 

By S. Y. GiLLAN. A unique and Rys- 
tematic presentation of this subject 
by a method widely different from 
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books. Price, xo cents. 

Sappleaieatary Lessoas ia Gcoerapliy 

Compiled by S. Y. GiLLAN. Interest 
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Vol. III. MARCH, 1904 No. 3 



ANOTHER turn of the liistoric kaleidoscope, and this time the 
iraii d! union between North and South America is an independ- 
ent State. What are the physical characteristics, the geograph- 
ical advantages, the pxospective means for existence possessed by this 
newly fledged commonwealth? 

Its southeastern boundary, if the old departmental limits be main- 
tained, will follow the Serrania del Darien, which is the divortium 
aquarum between the basin of the river Atrato and its estuary and the 
valley of the Tuira, which drains into the Gulf of Panama. The line 
commences in the little bay of Aguacate or Octavia, in front of point 
Mazo or Morroquemado, and thence nms north-northeast, then north 
along the summits which separate the rivers that flow to the Pacific from 
those which run to the Atlantic. Reaching the headquarters of the 
Jurado, it turns west towards the heights of Aspave. It then follows, 
generally in a northeast direction, the divide between the Gulf of 
San Miguel and the river Atrato, until it reaches the ocean entrance 
to the Gulf of Uraba, where it diverges northwest to the headquarters 
of the river Tarena, the course of which, until it empties into the Gulf 
of Uraba, serves as the most northern section of the boundary in 
question, t 

The frontier with Costa Rica will, according to the award of Presi- 
dent Loubet in 1900, start from Cape Mona, on the Caribbean Sea, 
and enclose, on the north, the basin of the river Tarire (the lower course 
of which is sometimes called the Sixola), and then, by the watershed 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific (which is the narrow-crested 

♦ Reprinted from the Geographical Journal^ December, 1903. 
t See Perze, Geografia Fisica de los Estados Unidos de Colombia, 

Copyright y igo4^ by E. M. Lehnerts 


Cordillera of Talamanca), southeasterly to 9 degrees N. lat.; thence, 
it will take a southerly direction and follow the divide between Chiriqui 
Viejo and the tributaries of the Gulf of Dulce, and terminate at Point 
Burica, on the Pacific Ocean. 

A great river, the Atrato, flows in a deep gorge northward into the 
Gulf of Uraba or Darien, and separates the "Occidental Cordillera" 
of Colombia from the outlying parallel coast range, washed by the 
waves of the Pacific Ocean, and known as the Sierra de Baudo. This 
is generally low, its highest peak being only 6,000 feet above the sea. 
Its average elevation is from 2,600 to 3,300 feet, and its lowest depres- 
sions from 1,000 to 1,600. It is a wild chaos of ridges, highlands, and 
spurs, terribly ravined by torrential rains, thickly forested, and ren- 
dered almost impassable by an infinite number of rivers, brooks, and 
tropical swamps and jungles — a jjestiferous region uninviting as a 
home for man. 

In the latitude of the Gulf of Uraba, the extension of the Sierra de 
Baudo pushes into the Isthnms of Panama, on the Pacific side, as far 
as the mouth of the river Bayamo or Chepo, where it completely dis- 
appears. En route it breaks down to give place to the Bay of San 
Miguel and its tributary river system of the Tuira. Southeast of this 
bay is a low massif called the Altos de Aspave, and northwest of it 
another culminating height, broadly spurred and counterforted, con- 
nected by a transverse ridge with the low range which overlooks the 
Gulf of Darien. 

The Altos de Aspave throws off, to the northeast, the Serrania del 
Darien, which crosses from the Pacific Coast to the mouth of the Gulf 
of Uraba. Thence it skirts the Caribbean coast as far as Porto Bello, 
occasionally, for long distances, rising from the seashore in bold escarp- 
ments. Its principal summits are from 500 to 2 JOO feet above the sea. 

At the Cliagres River, that b*^te noire of the Canal Company, the 
Serrania del Darien completely breaks down, and the summit height 
between the two oceans is but 300 feet above sea level. With the 
exception of the interoceanic water-divide in Nicaragua, which is 153 
feet, it is the lowest break in the Andean and Rocky Mountain chain 
between the Straits of Magellan and Northern Alaska. 

The orographic system of the western half of the Isthmus of Panama 
is bolder and better defined than that of the eastern portion. The 
region has a broad l)ackbonc ribbed by numerous counterforts, but 
occasionally broadening into complex belts of highlands and isolated 
cerros. From tlie Costa Rica frontier, the range takes the name of 


Sierra de Chiriqui, then Veragua, and afterwards is known as the 
Sierra de Panama. In the first is the extinct volcano of Chiriqui, 
11,000 feet* elevation above the sea, but the entire sierra has an 
average altitude of 6,500 feet. The Sierra de Veragua presents us with 
the dome of Santiago, which rises to 9,275 feet, while the Tuta reaches 
5,000 and the Santa Maria 4,600. The Sierra de Panama seems to be 
thrown broadcast into disorderly fragments without law or regularity, 
and its summits nowhere exceed an elevation of 1,600 feet. 


PA C I F ! C O C E A N 


Showing ike new boundary lines, ihe route of the Panama railroad, and the proposed route of the 

Panama canal. 

West of Montijo Bay, on the Pacific side, a broad and massive 
mountain outwork forms the peninsula of Las Palmas^ and between 
that and the Bay of Panama lies the great peninsula of Azuero, which 
shows a capricious, distinctive orographic system of highlands and 
sierras. Its bold headlands, which overlook the ocean, rise to an 
altitude of 3,000 feet. 

About 150 short rivers flow to the sea from the northern side of 
the isthmus, and over double that number drain it5 Pacific slope. The 
largest and most important is the Tuira, which rises in the Pirn Moun- 
tains just north of the Bay of San Miguel, and empties into this. The 
Tuira is navigable for river schooners as far up as the first Spanish 
settlement, Santa Maria del Real; but, owing to the bars, they can not 
ascend to Pinogava, which is the highest point reached by the tides. 

♦F. J. Vergara y Velasca, Nueva Oeografia de Colombia. 


During the dry season, the river-bed above tidewater is a succession 
of rapids, beyond which the river dwindles into a small stream. The 
marks on the trees indicate a rise of sixteen feet during the wet season, 
when the volume of water carried by the Tuira and it« eleven main tribu* 
taries is immense. Its principal affluent is the Chucunaque from the 
north. It is nearly as large as the Tuira itself. 

The Bayanio, or Chepo, rises in the same knot as the Chucunaque, 
but flows northwest and then west and south until it discharges into 
the Gulf of Panama. It is about 150 miles long, and it is claimed that 
130 miles of its course can be navigated by rafts and small craft. It has 
a wide estuary, the entrance to which has a bar \\dth but two feet of 
water at low tide. The remaining streams on the Pacific side are 
short and torrential, and of little value, even for canoe navigation, 
except in the immediate vicinity of their mouths. 

On the Caribbean slope of Panama there are but two of its many 
rivers which merit attention, as offering some advantages as commercial 
outlets for the districts they drain. These streams are the Chagres 
and the Teliri, known now as the Tarire in the decision of the boundary- 
Une dispute between Colombia and Costa Rica. The Chagres, a historic 
waterway ever since the discovery of the Isthmus of Panama by Colombo, 
flows into the Caribbean Sea a little to the west of Porto Bello. It has 
a bar on which there are 11 feet of water, just outside the Laja reef, 
through which there is a passage 70 feet wide with 14 feet of water. 
The Chagres is navigable for boats to within fourteen miles of the 
Pacific, and is tame or fierce according to the season. In the dry season 
it is a deep ditch with a few feet of muddy water at the bottom, but 
when the saturated clouds burst over its drainage area of 1,000 square 
miles, and pour into it, at times, a uniform depth of seven inches of 
water in a day, the river rises over forty feet in twelve hours, and 
carries with it, in its torrential race to the sea, a vast mass of tropical, 
arboreal rubbish, clay, mud, and detritus which it receives from its 
swollen tributaries, it will l>e extremely interesting for the engineering 
and financial world to watch the coming contest between the Chagres 
River anil tlie United States Treasury. In comparison to the Chagres, 
the San Juan River of Nicaragua is a plaything. 

The Tarire, the mouth of which is in lat. 9° 34' 14" N., runs along 
the southern base of the great east^^rn counterfort of the Talamanca- 
Chiricjui range, through a spacious, undulating wooded valley of 100 
to 150 square miles area, having low grounds which are sometimes dry 
and at others swampy. Its Ur^n branch rises on the northeast slope 



of the Pico Blanco, the view from the summit of which is said to be 
"incomparably more extensive'' than that from the crest of the Costa 
Rica volcano of Irazu. The Tarire is navigable for Hght-draft steamers 
for fifteen miles up, but, from the Ur^n to Gule, there are twentynsix 
rapids and numerous snags. Boats carrying half a ton of goods ascend 
to Sapurio, one and one-half miles up the Ur^n. Between the Tarire 
and the small river Tilorio farther south is the crooked, narrow, and 
deep estuary called the Laguna de Sansdn, an ancient affluent of the 
Tilorio, full of sharks, alligators, and fish. It receives a little stream 
called the Dalni, which drains an impassable swamp. Southeast of 
and near the Tilorio is the Boca del Drago, one of the entrances to 
Almirante Bay.* 

Panama has many bays and ports on both oceans, but the greater 
part of them seem to be the undisturbed home of silence and primeval 
solitude. There is no accessible country behind them which offers an 
easy field for development. He is a bold pioneer who dares to throw 
down the gauntlet to nature in Panama. There she displays her forces 
with magnificent abandon; the very ocean-margin is a wall of vegeta- 
tion; nearly every swamp, hill, slope, mountain-side, and gorge is 
densely packed with growth of trees, shrub, vine, parasite, and grasses, 
forming a tangled jungle, sweating with the effort to maintain existence 
under the vertical rays of a tropical sun. The view is beautiful from 
the deck of a vessel, and no wonder that Luiz Colombo selected a part 
of "Castilla del Oro" as his fairyland, where his imagination might 
revel to the full, but which, unhappily, could yield him no other satis- 
faction. Four centuries have passed since he received his grant of 
ducal Veragua, and although it is within easy touch by sea with North 
America, it remains as the great Colombo discovered it, and as it was 
when for centuries it was the buffer region between Aztec and Ingarial 
civilization, so called. With the exception of bananas, no crop could 
be planted which would pay for clearing the lands of such a region, 
and keeping them cleared; and even bananas would not flourish suffi- 
ciently well if cultivated at an altitude exceeding 1,500 feet above the 
sea. However numerous the ports and bays of Panama on the Atlantic 
side, it is probable that many more centuries must pass before they 
become of any marked importance as commercial centers. 

Starting from the Costa Rica boundary, the first great well-protected 
sheet of water is Almirante Bay, which in reality is the northwestern 
prolongation of the Laguna of Chiriqui. Together they form a vast 

♦See G. E. Church, Costa Rica Geographical Journal, 1897. 


sheet of water. The former is thirteen miles long from east to west, 
and varies in breadth from two to thirteen miles. Its many harbors 
offer secure anchorage to ocean-going ships of the largest class, which 
may often moor alongside the shore. A low ridge of hills borders its 
southern side, in some places rising boldly to several himdred feet 
elevation, and two miles inland, reaching an altitude of 1,700 to 2,000 
feet. The bay contains many large and small islands. Its main 
entrances from the sea are the Boca del Drago and the Boca del Tore, 
the former very tortuous, but having a depth of nine fathoms of water; 
the latter offers five fathoms, but the channel is only a quarter of a 
mile wide, and bordered by coral reefs. The latter entrance gives its 
name to a small Colombian settlement supported principally by 
banana cultivation, the product being shipped to the United States. 

The Laguna de Chiriqui is thirty-two miles long and twelve wide, 
narrowing to five miles at its southeastern extremity, and ten at its 
northwestern. Vessels of any craft may enter it from the ocean by the 
Boca del Tigre by an 8-fathom channel, and find ample security in 
fifteen to twenty fathoms of water. The eastern and southern shores are 
low and swampy for a long distance inland, but at one point a spur of 
the Veragua range penetrates to wdthin two miles of the southeastern 
side of the laguna, where it has an elevation of 2,672 feet. The dense 
forest growth, which occupies the mountain-and-hill slope which sur- 
rounds nearly the whole of the Chiriqui laguna, extends upwards nearly 
to the water-divide between the northern and southern oceans, and, 
secure in its solitude, nature revels there in all the fantastic display 
of an exuberant vegetation. But, crossing the serraniaf there is a 
marked change; the forests give way to grass lands along the mountain 
flanks towards the Pacific Coast, and cultivated fields, pastures, and 
habitations of man indicate that here nature is in a less riotous mood. 
The distance from the Atlantic to the Pacific, across the district 
described, is fifty miles. The mountain slopes, owing to the ceaseless 
erosion of the rain-laden trade winds, are sharper on the Caribbean side 
than on the Pacific incline, whicli is also much drier than the former. 
This is true of the whole isthmus — at least, that part west of the Gulf 
of San Miguel. 

From the Laguna de Chiriqui eastward to the river Chagres, the 
forbidding coast-line (of coral reef, sandy beach, mangrove swamp, 
and a few precipitous bluffs) has no sheltered anchorage. A heavy 
surf breaks continually along nearly the entire shore. To the west- 
ward of the Chagres River twenty-five miles, and to the eastward of 


it as far as Porto Bello, the shore is low and flat, and deadly exhalations 
from the swamps veil the interior of the country from view. 

The so-called Bay of Colon, named in honor of Colombo, who dis- 
covered it in 1502, lies just to the east of the mouth of the Chagr^ 
Biver. It is poorly sheltered, and, being open to the north, is exposed 
to "northers," which frequently blow with such violence that the 
shipping is forced to run out to sea or seek shelter at Porto Bello. This 
place, historic in the colonial period of South America, and then the 
seat of the galeon trade between Spain and the West Coast, is a pesti- 
lential port without ventilation, owing to the high hills which enclose 
it on the north and south and prevent the winds from sweeping away 
the malignant miasma which continually arises from the swamps on 
the east. A coral reef skirts the southern shore, and the city and the 
ruins of the castle of San Jer6nimo are situated on the beach in the 
southeast comer. The width of the entrance to the port is one and 
one-fourth miles, but it soon narrows to half a mile. The depth of 
the water gradually increases to seven fathoms. Porto Bello, as a 
harbor, is the best between Almirante Bay and that of San Bias. In 
fact, there is no other worth mentioning. 

Of San Bias, Commander Self ridge, who surveyed it, says: "It 
extends in a northeast and southwest direction some twenty miles, 
and is about ten miles in extreme breadth. It is formed by the cape 
of San Bias and the outlying islands of the Mulatas archipelago, and is 
a most magnificent bay, with deep passages, and perfectly protected 
from the north winds in the dry season. In the northwest comer is an 
inner harbor formed by a circle of islands, with a passage leading into 
it. This harbor is magnificent for all purposes required as the great 
terminus of an interoceanic canal." Gen. E. W. Serrell says of the 
Bay of Mandinga, which is at the southw^est side of the Gulf of 
San Bias: "The water is eighty feet deep within 100 feet of the shore, 
and nowhere less than sixty feet deep all the way into the Atlantic 
Ocean." The width of the isthmus at San Bias, from ocean to ocean, 
is thirty-seven miles. This is the shortest interoceanic distance on 
the Western Continent. 

From San Bias Bay, for a distance of about eighty miles, is the 
remarkable belt of cays, islands, and reefs known as the Mulatas archi- 
pelago. The cays are sandy and mostly in clusters, but Uttle out 
of water, and thickly wooded. Between them are found many navi- 
gable channels. East of the Mulatas, and as far as Port Escoc^s, 
many cays also make the coast navigation dangerous and extremely 


difficult; but farther towards the Gulf of Uraba, these obstructions 
cease to exist. 

Between Point Sasardi and Point Escoc^s is a broad line of cajrs, 
sheltering what is knowTi as Caledonia Bay, in which are two harbors, 
the western called Sasardi, and the eastern one knowTi as Caledonia. 
The former is about three-quarters of a mile in extent, with four to six 
fathoms of water; and the latter, the entrance to which is obstructed 
by dangerous shoals, has from eight to nine fathoms at the anchorage. 
The bold Atlantic frontage of the Serrania del Darien, from the Gulf of 
Uraba to Porto Bello, is thickly forested, and receives the full force of 
the northeast trade winds, with a resultant heavy rainfall. 

Turning to the Pacific Coast, we find the Gulf of San Miguel, or 
"Darien of the south," on the eastern side of the great shallow Bay of 
Panama. At its head is the Bay of San Miguel, which was a great resort 
for the buccaneers, who reached it from Cale<lonia Bay in ten days by 
one of the routes which served for conmiunication between the oceans 
by the Indian tribes before the discovery of America. The bay is 
over six miles wide at its mouth. It has j)lenty of water on its eastern 
side, but is shallow on its western one. As at Panama, it has a tidal 
range of twenty feet or more, while Caledonia Bay, on the Caribbean 
side, like Colon, is almost tideless. Darien harbor, at the head of the 
gulf or estuary of San Miguel, extends in a southeast direction up to 
the village of Chupigana, where it receives the Tuira and Savana rivers. 
Its deep water affords anchorage to the largest ships. Mangrove 
swamps, backed by thickly wooded hills, are almost continuous along 
its shores. 

The island-filled Hay of Panama, at the head of which is the famous 
city of the same name, is well known. It commen«es at Cape Gara- 
china, at the southern entrance of San Miguel, makes a majestic sweep 
concave to the south, and terminates at Cape Malo, which is the south- 
east cape of the great peninsula of Azuero. The great distance between 
the two capes is about 100 miles. The northern part of the bay is 
shallow, and large ships have their anchorage near the famous island 
of Taboga, nine miles south of the city of Panama. On this island 
Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque made their famous contract to discover 
and conquer the empire of the Incas. The latter was cheated out of 
his share of the plunder, and Almagro was garroted in prison at Cuzco 
by the brother of Pizarro. Sailing craft find it extremely difficult to 
get in or out of the Bay of Panama, but especially out. It is one of the 
most tedious and difficult bits of navigation in the world. Pizarro 




was the first to try it, in November, 1525, but, after seventy da)rs, was 
forced to abandon the effort to leave the bay; and it is still the similar 
experience of nearly every craft unaided by steam. It is a region of 
calms, doldrums, vexatious currents, squalls, rains, and tormenting 




CoplTitfli^ IWS, Tif Bud, Me^uiltr * On 

The city of Panama is situated on high ground at the foot of Ancon 
hill, but west of old Panama, which was destroyed by the buccaneers 
imder Morgan in 1673. To the mouth of the river Bayamo, about 
twenty-five miles, and for another equal distance to the southeast, 
the coast is flooded, and at low water mud flats are exposed for"a dis- 
tance of three miles from the shore; but farther on, as far as the Gulf of 
San Miguel, the margin is higher, with occasional small hills. From 
Panama southwest to the Bay of Parita, on the westem^side of the 
Bay of Panama, the coast-line is considerably broken, and alternates 


between high and hilly ground and low flooded areas, the whole shore- 
line being generally of mud. The entire shore of the Bay of Parita is 
flooded land, and has a forbidding mud flat extending from two to three 
miles out. From this bay to Cape Malo, about forty miles, the coast is 
well out of water and backed by the highlands of the peninsula of Azuero. 

The southern front of this peninsula varies much in character; 
west of Cape Malo for about twenty-five miles the lowlands soon give 
place to the escarpments of the cerros, which rise to a considerable 
altitude farther inland, and the remainder of the frontage overlooks the 
ocean, the mountains, furrowed with gorges, pushing boldly down to 
the coast. The west side of the peninsula, which partly shelters the 
Gulf of Montijo, is high ground at times, and at others low with occa- 
sional beaches. It has many little bays, with a southwestern exposure, 
which receive the torrents that descend from the mountains. 

The Gulf of Montijo, penetrating north about twenty miles, has an 
opening of some fourteen miles. The short river San Pedro flows in 
at its head, and is navigable for small craft about seventeen miles up 
to the port of Montijo, where there is a little traffic. The gulf has several 
large and small islands, the principal one, Sabaco, lying off its mouth 
and completely sheltering it from the south winds. 

West and northwest from the Gulf of Montijo, as far as the Bay of 
David, the coast for the first twenty miles is sharply defined; thence, 
as far as Espartal Island, many hill spurs push down to the sea; the 
shore then becomes low and cut by numerous small streams. The 
whole coast, from Montijo's Gulf to David Bay, has many Uttle bays, 
most of which are available for vessels of very Ught draft. The bay 
last named is filled with cays, reefs, and hilly islands. At its head it 
receives the river David, which, with its tributaries, drains a vast 
amphitheater of mountains which abut upon a broad plain surrounding 
the little port of David near the river delta. The river has its sources 
in the serrania of Chiriqui, and several of its branches drain the south- 
eastern slopes of the great volcanoes of Chiriqui and Horqueta, the 
latter 6,600 feet elevation. West of the delta of the David, the coast- 
line bends in a great curve to the south until it reaches Point Burica 
at the termination of a peninsula formed by a rugged spur of the Chiriqui 

The Pacific coast-line of the Isthmus of Panama is about one-third 
greater in extent than that of the Caribbean side. There are many 
islands along both coasts, but those on the Pacific are more numerous 
and larger than those on the Atlantic. 



A thick, dark, primitive forest covers at least three-fourths of the 
State, and the vegetation in countless forms fights strenuously and 
ceaselessly with man for possession of the soil. It is nature's favorite 
tropical hothouse. 

The extreme length of Panama, from Colombia to Costa Rica, is 
about 480 miles, and it varies in width from 37 to 110. Its area is 
between 33,000 and 34,000 square miles, being more than one-half as 
large again as its last-named neighbor. About five-eighths of it con- 
sists of wild, unoccupied lands, and the remainder is but very rudely 
utilized by ite inhabitants. The population was oflScially estimated, 
in 1898, at 340,000, representing such a heterogeneous amalgamation 
of Spanish, negro, and Indian blood, stirred together by the buccaneers 
of colonial times, that white may, in Panama, be strictly classified as a 
color. Until I saw a Panama "army'' of 150 men at drill, I had no 
idea that the human form could take such shapes and colors — Proteus 
would have envied them. And yet these men, like all the Colombians, 
are first-class fighters, and, well officered, are a foe not to be despised 
by the best troops ever likely to come into collision with them. 


[Inserted by the Ediiar.] 

Panama Nicaragua 

Cost of Canal as estimated by Isthmian Canal Route Route 

Commission $144,233,358 $189,864,062 

Cost of French Rights 40,000,000 

Total estimated cost $184,233,358 $189,864,062 

Annual cost of maintenance, estimated $1,300,000 less than for Nicaragua. 

Length of route 49 miles 186.5 miles 

Length of ''danger zone^' (above tide level) . . 23.5 miles 176 miles 

Time required for passage 11.25 hours 33 hours 

Elevation of summit level 90 feet 110 feet 

Number of levels to be maintained 2 7 

Number of locks required 3 8 

Number of dams required 1 1 

Terminal harbors Ready for use Unbuilt 

Construction railway Ready for use Unbuilt 

Actual work could begin At once After 2 years 

Rivers to be controlled, as to level 1 2 

Lakes to be controlled, as to level None 1 

Fk)w per second of rivers 75,000 cu. ft. 200,000 cu. ft. 

Area of lake 3,000 sq. mi. 

I 12 





Profeuor of Commercial Ooography, Drexd In^'htU, Philaddphia 

NO single part of the whole broad subject of economic geography 
is more important, more essential to an intelligent under- 
standing of commerce, than transportation; yet strangely 
enough no part has been so scantily treated by the writers of geog- 
raphy text-books. This series of papers is intended to help in some 
small way to supply this lack. No attempt will be made to offer an 
exhaustive study of the theory or philosophy of the science of 
transportation; the aim will be rather to gather together and make 
available for teacher and student scattered facts and phenomena 
directly related to the processes and agencies involved in the move- 
ment of the world's great staple products. 

After a brief sketch of the historical development of transportation, 
especial attention will be paid to the problem in our own country, 
first in its relation to internal or domestic commerce, then in its relation 
to foreign trade. 

The foUowing rough outline will suggest the general plan of treat- 

Transportation : An Outline 

Ancient trade rout<?s. 
Early canal Vmilding in Europe. 
Transportation in America: 
The turnpike. 
Canal Era 1825-1837. 

Contest between canal 

and railroad. 
Present status of canals. 
Coiimiercial canals of 

United States. 
Erie Canal. 
Proposed canals. 
Canada's waterways. 
Ship canals of world. 
The Railroad Era. 
Periods of. 

Transportation in America — ConUnuei 

By geographical groups. 

By financial groups. 
Leading products. 

The freight service. 
Railway abuses. 
Interstate Commerce Law. 

Tlie railway problem. 

Railroad control. 

Railway clearing-houses. 

Traffic associations. 
Our Natural Waterways. 
The Great Lakes. 
Isthmian Canal. 
Systems of other countries. 


TraDflportation in America — Continued Transportation in America — Continued 
Merchant Marine. Comparison with great marine 

History. nations. 

Reasons for decline. Great Cable Systems. 

Remedies. Telegraph and Telephone. 

Shipping trust. Mail service. 

Shipping routes. Conduits — water, oil, gas. 

Trade of leading ports. 

Transportation is the agency by which the products of one zone or 
country are brought to another, or by which dissimilar products are 
exchanged between localities or regions within the same country. It 
is one of the chief devices by which producer and consumer are brought 
"together. Transportation makes possible (1) the production of articles 
of necessity, the great staples of trade, where they can be most cheaply 
produced; (2) the wide distribution of products whose growth is lim- 
ited by peculiar conditions to certain regions; and (3) the localization 
of manufactures and other industries where they can be carried on most 
economically. It is the agency that brings the wheat of Dakota or 
JBungary to the great flour mills of Minneapolis or Budapest, dis- 
tributing it in turn to every quarter of the globe as flour. By ite 
»d the giant furnaces of the Pittsburg mills are fed with iron ore from 
IMichigan, Cuba, or Sweden. It makes possible the refining of Luz6n 
sugar in Brooklyn or Philadelphia, and the making of pulp used in 
CDur morning paper from timber grown in Northern Ontario. In 
short, it makes possible that large territorial division of labor which 
is fundamental to modern industry and trade. 

This brief survey from the economist's point of view may serve 
^o suggest how inseparably transportation is linked with the pro- 
eduction and distribution of world products. And yet it is quite within 
^he truth to say that transportation is in itself one of the most powerful 
^md complex industries of modem times. 

It has been said with truth that a nation's progress, its standard 
CDf civilization even, may be judged by its transportation facilities. 
* ' Empires and cities have grown or decayed as they were favorably or 
Vinfavorably situated along the great highways of commerce." The 
^t^riteness of this statement is attested on the one hand by the black 
smoke-banners of a score of American factory towns that have sprung 
xap over night through the projection of a new railroad branch, and 
on the other hand by the commercial desolation of one-time thriving 
oities side-tracked through the shifting of the great routes of trade. 




Failure to develop avenues of communication and trade has in 
all times marked nations and peoples as static or decadent. China, 
hemmed in largely by nature, secured almost complete isolation for 
centuries by building the Great Wall and seaUng her ports against 
which the traders of the world thundered vainly for admittance. In 
the throes of a new birth, the Empire, recognizing the imperative need 
of better transportation, is granting concession after concession to 
railway engineers and companies, while a score of open ports invite 
foreign trade. Whatever Russia's purpose in building the Trans- 
Siberian Railroad, whether commercial, political, or strategic, this her- 
culean task has focused the gaze of the world upon the Muscovite. 

i\^fithtml, IIP>*. 

// CAf^Uuns the idea, f>m\ilcttt at that time, of the size of the world, and how sea nurckants sailed, 
first, east around Africa; and afterunrds west, like Columims in discovering America, in the 

search for India and tlu: Spice Islands. 

The early pages of histor}- reveal that the commerce and civiUzation 
of Asia anil Europe advanced conunensurately with the development 
of roails and canals. (See Maps I, II, and III.) According to the 
testimony of the \edas, the religious books of the ancient Hindus, 
highways were built by the State connecting the interior with the 
coast and with adjoining countries. The ancient peoples of Mesopo- 
tamia, the first to use domestic animals as beasts of burden, built canals 
for irrigation purposes anil constructed roads leading to their depend- 
encies. The Babylonians not only buih highways, canals, and great 




Sautktrn Route Controlled by i'tnict — • — 1 
CoprrigtiM, 194)4. Pram Mmc'i School Hlatorr of tlw VaiUA 

SUtos. UMdl>7p«Mimloaortb« 


The ships and caravans traveling over these routes sought the silks and spices from India and beyond, 

from the Spice Islands. 

irrigation works — they even constructed breakwaters and quajrs along 
the Persian Gulf for the encouragement of commerce. 

The earUest of the great maritime nations of antiquity/ Phoenicia, 
though depending chiefly upon the sea as a highway, built roads con- 
necting its two great cities, Tyre and Sidon, and constructed caravan 
routes south to Arabia and east to India and China, which countries 
sent their products to Tyre to be exchanged for the produce brought by 

CSoWtlibMit, ItOI. rVan Ut-f-t 9«b4«l HUiiptt «r Ih i li'allwl 3^i^ 

An all^water route to India was sought by the Portuguese. 


Phoenician vessels from the west. So, too, Egypt and Carthage, each 
of which attained commercial eminence in this early time, maintiuned 
highways leading in all directions. 

The great Roman Empire, which embraced every civilized nation 
then known, and which counted some 120,000,000 people, was covered 
with a network of roads many of which remain to this day the admiifr- 
tion and wonder of the world. It is estimated that 50,000 milcB of 
these highways, built mainly for military purposes, connected the 
various parts of the Empire. Over many of them the Government 
maintained an efficient postal service, using fast couriers. 

A survey of the history of the great nations that led in trade and 
civilization after the downfall of the Roman Empire shows a widening 
use and growth of the improved transportation facilities. Thus, Em- 
peror Maximilian of ^Germany established a postal route between Brus- 
sels and Vienna, in 1516, and at a later date Frederick the Great, 
recognizing the need of better, means of conmiunication, began the 
construction of turnpikes and canals on a large scale, ^noe the 
organization of the various German States into an Empire, Germany 
has made vast improvements in her internal communications. She has 
canalized many of her rivers, and has constructed thousands of xnileB of 
artificial waterways connecting all the large rivers and affording cheap 
transport of raw materials to her great industrial centers. The railway 
system of modern (IcTuiany is highly efficient, being controlled for the 
most part by the States. 

As early as the twelfth centur}-, the Dutch began the construotion 
of canals, which, owing to the flatness of The Netherlands, became the 
conmion roadways, as they are to-day. The great conmfiercial cities of 
Amsterdam and Rotterdam have been made possible by deepening 
and canalizing the rivers on which they are situated. Similarly, 
Brussels and Antwerp in Belgium have secured access to the sea. 
That great advances were made in marine transportation in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries is attested by the colonial empires 
built up by the Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, French, and English. 

In 1006 France projected her first artificial waterway, the Lan- 
guedoc Canal, 148 miles long, connecting the Mediterranean with the 
Bay of Biscay. To-day France has a splendid system of artificial 
waterways connecting the headwaters of the three most important 
rivers, and forming a network over the entire country. Russia, that 
new candidate for commercial honors, has not only pushed to prac- 
tical completion the great Trans-Siberian Railway, nearly 5,000 miles 



in length, linking the Pacific with the Atlantic, but also has under con- 
struction one of the greatest of modern canals, connecting the Black 
Sea with the Baltic. The Unit^ Kingdom commenced canal building 
in 1767, since which time waterways have been dug all over Great 
Britain to connect the main water courses. Enormous sums have been 
voted by cities like Manchester and Glasgow to improve their shipping 
facilities. So, too, on the Continent, Hamburg, Bremen, Rotterdam, 
Le Havre have made lavish expenditures for dredging, wharfing, and 
improving their harbors. 

Fn>ini Pn.i^'1 EI^IHQlUj U#v,T*|.lif 

Long trains or caravans of camels carrying merchandise over a desert region. 

On the Western Hemisphere there still remain traces of the wonder- 

^Xil roads built by the Incas of ancient Peru. One of these roads, 

V>uilt of stone, at an elevation of over 12,000 feet, Humboldt estimated 

'^^ be 2,000 miles long. In its route engineering difficulties that would 

¥>uzzle the modern engineer w^ere met and successfully overcome. The 

Spaniards allowed the roads to go to ruin, and they now lie as broken 

"ttionuments to the skill and enterprise of these wonderful people. 

The early settlers of the North American continent depended almost 
"Wholly upon the natural water courses for transportation. Heavy 
forests and the dangers from unfriendly Indians made interior 




Fig. 2. 

FriM Ma«^ S«hMt HtaMqr of ite 1M«i« ItaMS. 
Vmt fcy p— IwliB of tt» piMlit in. 


communication difficult; hence 
the settlements at first clung 
close to the river courses or to 
the seaboard. As settlement 
gradually spread to the interior, 
roads of inferior sort were made, 
but these were for local pur- 
poses, and road building was 
left largely to individual exer- 
tion. Thus in colonial days it 
took a week to go from Boston 
to New York by stage. Many 
of the earliest wagon roads fol- 
lowed the trails originally made 
by deer and buffalo through the 
forest and over the mountain 
passes, and naturally the rail- 
roads at a later date were projected along the same general routes. 
The history of internal transportation in this country can be divided 

roughly into three periods: 

1. Turnpikes.* 

2. Canals. 

3. Railroads. 

The first American turn- 
pike was built in Pennsylvania 
in 1790, and ran from Phila- 
delphia to Lancaster, a dis- 
tance of sixty-six miles. In 
the next thirty years that 
Stato expended $8,500,000 for 
such roads. From Pennsyl- 
vania the system spread into 
New York and New England. 
Those roads were constructed 
and operated by private enter- 

j)rise and were supported by tolls, which often yielded large profits. 
Tliey greatly cheapened transportation, and gave reasonable satis- 


Frin M»rr> !"<-h.H>l IliilorT i.f tli» Tnlt^! St»tr* 
r**<! hr |»enuli>iikiB of thi» iMiMlAlirm. 


* " Tliese roads were called tumiNlcMi 
collected there wuti placed acrooi tl 
pikes, and so hung us to turn upo 

at the places irhere toUs were 
b« eoniiBtiiig of a pole aimed with 
MMI, p. 13. 




faction. In 1807, Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, proposed that* 
the Government shoiihi undertake the construction of roads and canals 
on a large and systematic scale. Local jealousies and the opposition 
of a powerful faction in Confess who did not believe that the Gov- 
ernment should earrv' on internal improvements delayed for many 
years the active interest of the Government in road making. Only 
one important national road was actually constructed — the "Oid Cum- 
berland Road/' This road was begun in 1811 at Cumberland, Md., 

rT«» i^<\ 

.-i snten'maslcd tcfwonrr. The largest stiilinK vcssft carrj,'in^ frHght in the ztHxrid 

^-Hd continued almost due west in practically a straight line through 

^Xar}dand» Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois to St, Louis. 

^ t^ is said to be the longest straight road ever built by any Govern* 

lent in the world. It was about 700 miles long, and cost nearly 


Along this great ** National Pike" a stream of emigration flowed 

toward the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Another movement set in 

farther north toward tho prairies of the Great Lakes States. '^Pitts- 

y>urg and Cincinnati, the two main points of tranashlpmcnt on the 

Bouth western route, had become flourishing business centers, while 

Bxiffalo and Cleveland were yet the merest frontier settlements.''* 

♦Hadley, Railroad Trarispi^rtation, p. 29 < 


TH?: CANAL ZKA, 1S25-1S37 

Toward the ciof?^ of the eighteenth century, as the people of the 
new tVleral Union bjef ame c«>nvince»l of its permanence, attention was 
directe<i to the neceAr-ity. in the interests of commerce, of binding 
t^igether it* varioa"^ r?cattere»i parts by a system of canals. G«i»al 
\Vaf>hington had called attention to the possibilities of a canal westward 
frr*m the Hudson, and the pe*»ple of New York had from an earhr 
pfrnrA realize^! the inip*?nance of connecting the Hu«json with the Great 

Tlie Alleghenies. alnK^st unbroken from New York to Alabama. 
f}\f\f<f^'^\ a nerious obstacle to the construction of a canal from east to 
west, but in New York State the Mohawk Valley opened a passage 
through the chain and suggeste^l a level canal route. In 1810 the 
Erie Canal Commission was appointed Ti^ith De Witt Clinton at its head, 
and a sur\'ey was made of the entire route from the Hudson to Lake 
Erie. Aid was expected from the Federal Government, but at first 
Madis^jn opfKisei^l Fe^leral aid to "internal improvements," and later 
the War of 1812 stopped all progress. In 1S17 New York, through the 
restless energ>' of Clinton, decided to go on with the project on her 
own resources. The whole canal was completed and opened for traffic 
amid national rejoicing in 1n25. 

The canal was 'iTs miles long and 4 feet deep; it had a width of 
4f) fffet at the surface and carrieil boats of 76 tons burden. The first 
CfiSt of the canal was $5,700,000, but subsequent enlargements have 
made the total cost over $50,000,000. The utility of, and the returns 
from, the canal exceeded the most sanguine expectation. Cities sprang 
up wherever the canal met a water course, c. g., at Buffalo. Rochester, 
Syracuse. In 1826. the year after the canal o|)ened, the receipts from 
tolls were $726,000; in IStVS, they had douViled. Tolls were constantly 
reduced until iSo.S, when they were only about one-third the original 
figure, but even then the revenues amounted to over $3,000,000 a year. 
"Tlie constniction of the Erie Canal reduced transportation charges to a 
little over one-tenth their former figures.'' ♦ 

Tlie oj^ening of the Erie Canal marked the beginning of a mania 
for (runal building.f New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illi- 
nois all projected extensive canals, while in many other States private 
companies commonly aided by the State constructed canals of greater 

♦ Hadlev, p. :n . 

t JohriHtoii, Jnlaud Waterways, p. .31. 


or less importance. "In 1834, Pennsylvania had 589 miles of State 
canals, among them the Central Division Canal 172 miles long, and 
the Western Division Canal 104 miles long."* In 1832, Ohio opened 
two important canals, the Ohio Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, 
and the Miami & Erie from Toledo to Cincinnati. The traffic on these 
canals t reached in 1857 a tonnage of 1,635,774 tons. Indiana com- 
pleted the Wabash & Erie Canal from the junction of the Miami 
Canal to Evansville on the Ohio in 1855. The Illinois & Michigan 
Canal, 102 miles long, from Lake Michigan to LaSalle at the head of 
navigation on the Illinois, was opened in 1848. It was intended to 
make this canal deep enough to carry vessels through from the Lakes, 
a project recently completed by the city of Chicago for sanitary 
purposes at a cost of $30,000,000. 

Besides these great State waterways many canals were constructed 
and are still operated by private companies. Chief among these were: 
the Raritan connecting the Delaware River with New York harbor; 
the Chesapeake & Ohio from Cumberland, Md., to Washington; the 
Morris Canal across New Jersey; the Delaware & Chesapeake connect- 
ing Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay ; and several canals, mainly in 
Pennsylvania, for the transportation c»f coal, e. g., the Delaware & 
Hudson, Schuylkill, Lehigh, and others. 

The panic of 1837 almost completely stopped canal building, and 
when the country had recovered from that shock, it was felt that the 
chief means of transportation was to be rail not water. Some local 
canals, chiefly coal canals, continued a profitable local traffic, but the 
extension of railroads compelled the steady abandonment of the canals. 
Only two great systems of water communication — the Great Lakes 
and the Erie Canal on the north and the Mississippi to the south — 
have been able to continue in competition with the railroad. It is 
to be noted, however, that at one time we had 5,000 miles of canal in 
operation, built at a cost of $150,000,000, and carrying in 1857 traffic 
amounting to 3,344,000 tons. 

♦Larrabee, The Railroad Question, p. 41. 
t Jeans, Waterway Bj p. 195. 

(To be continued in April.) 





O! tk* C4toa9» .V«rMa/ 5dl«rf, Ckitmgm, iB$mm0 


(Fourteen Kceek^, fire fijUj-minute periods, \r€€kly.) 


-I. Content of Geography: A stUily of the relations existing between 

earth and man. 
B. Arramjement of (he Snhject-mntter in it* Satural Causal Order, 

1. Earth. 
Top<^igraphicaI con<li- 



Climatic conditions. 




2. Man. 

Productive condi- 

Industrial conditions. 
Social " 

Commercial " 
Locative ** 


C. Relations of Cause and Effect Existing beturen these Factors. 

I. Trar-ing the effect of each factor in determining the ultimate con- 

ditions of life in typical regions; as, a tropical forest region; a 
savanna region; a desen region; a tundra region; some tem- 
perate regions. 



A , Dependent on Stages of Mental Development. 

1. Discuf><ion of child's mental growth from obser\'ation and theory. 

2. Determination of characteristics of childhood at T^idely differing 

ages and then in the different grades. 

♦Continued from the Jourxal of Geography, Vol. III.. No. 2, February, 
19^)4, page 64. 


3. Naming of stages. 

a. Stage of gathering conceptions. Characterized by sense per- 

ception of simple wholes. 

b. Stage of relating conceptions. Characterized by natural tend- 

ency to compare and relate the simple conceptions with each 

c. Stage of constructing conceptions. Characterized by ability 

to put together the conceptions gathered through the senses 
and to construct a new whole distant from sense perception. 

4. Discussion to determine relation of stages. 

a. No distinct demarcation, but gradual growth of one into another. 

6. When one stage is attained it continues throughout life of indi- 

c. Determination of the grades in which teacher should count on 
average child maturing to each stage and formulate work 

(1) Gathering conceptions in grades I-II. 

(2) Relating conceptions in grades III-IV. 

(3) Constructing conceptions in grades IV. to the end. 
-fi. Dependent on Child's Environment. 

1. City child and his conceptions. 

a. Mainly concerning subject-matter noted under I, B, 2. **Man," 

and end at products of industry. 

b. Necessity of supplementing his knowledge with conceptions of 

natural phenomena. 
2. Country child and his conceptions. 

a. Mainly concerns subject-matter noted under I, B, 1; natural 

phenomena, products, and simple industrial processes. 
6. Necessity of supplementing his knowledge with conceptions of 

social, commercial, and political conditions. 


^ • Determining Factors in Arranging Subject-matter for Different Grades. 

1. Child's mental ability as indicated in II, A. 

2. Child's environment as indicated in II, B. 

3. The causal order of arrangement inherent in the subject-matter 

as indicated in I, ^. 

4. General aim and motive for teaching geography. 

a. As indicated by the content 1,-4. 

b. Mental discipline of constructive development. 


5. Number of years the average child attends school.* 

B. Relation One Graders Work should Bear to Another. 

1. Unity of purpose in course as a whole. 

a. Continuity only broken into grades because of arrangement of 
school year. 

2. Necessity for each grade having a special aim and accomplishment. 

but in harmony with the purpose of the course as a whole. 

3. Each grade's work a whole in itself, but also a base for the upper 

grade's work and growing out of the previous grade's work, 

C. Relaiion of Geography to Other Subjects in the Curriculum. 

1. Grouping of subjects. 

a. Language group: Reading; writing; composition; grammar. 

b. Art group: Manual constniction ; drawing; music; literature. 

c. Number group: Number perception; number relation; algebra, 


d. Science group: Nature study ; geography ; history . 

2. Disciplinary value of each group. 

a. Each contains a part especially adapted to child's ability in 

each stage. 
6. Some one part of each worthy of special emphasis because of 

social demand. 

D. Analysis of the Science Group to Ascertain the Importance of and 

the Emphasis on Geography. 

1. Nature study or gathering of single conceptions through sense 

perception especially emphasized in grades I-III. 

2. Geography or study of man's earth relation especially emphasized 

in grades III-VII. 

3. History or study of effects of man's relation to earth seen through 

man's relations to each other especially emphasized in grades 

E. Analysis of Geography Itself to Ascertain Its Importance and Determine 

the Divisions of Its Subject-matter to Correspond to the Different 
Stages of Child^s Ability. 
1. Divisions of subject-matter inherent in subject-matter with order 
determined by child's ability. 
a. Must have conceptions of objects and conditions in immediate 
environment in order to 

* III Chicago this is an important factor. In the schools of the foreign and 
overcrowded districts of the city a large per cent of the pupils drop out before the 
fifth grade and a majority before the sixth grade is finished. 


(1) understand relations of objects and conditions in immediate 

environment. This is essential in order to 

(2) comprehend simple and complex conditions and relations 

in regions distant from immediate environment. 
2. Arrangement of these divisions of subject-matter by grades 
dependent on stages of child's ability in different grades. 
a. Conception of immediate environment with simplest relations 
in grades I and II, as: 

(1) Physical and climatic conditions. 

(a) Directions; time; heat; clouds; rocks; soils, etc. 

(2) Products seen in home, market, and field. 

(a) Harvest crops; domestic animals ; wool ; fruits ; lumber, etc. 
h. Interrelation of these immediate conditions as causal to an 
organized geographical whole, in grade III. 
(1) Relations observable between abstract parts of the local 
(a) Parts of the city : Residence portion; productive portion; 
manufacturing portion ; trade portion ; shipping portion. 
(6) Transportation means. 

(c) Products as relating center to surrounding regions: Shel- 

ter; food; clothing. 

(d) Organization: Commercial; social; political. 

c. Simplest conditions and relations in regions distant from imme- 

* diate environment, in grade IV. 
(1) Relations of immediate environment to distant regions 
leading to a conception of the world as a whole, 
(a) Northern North America; Mexican Plateau; Amazon 
Basin; La Plata Basin; Congo Basin; Sahara Desert; 
Eastern Eurasia, etc. 
(h) Summary in Earth's physical and climatic relations. 

d. More detailed conditions and relations in regions distant from 

immediate environment, in grades V-VII. 
(1) Physical, climatic, productive, industrial, social, locative, 
and political relations in related regions of continents, 
(a) North America; South America; Eurasia; Africa; Aus- 

e. Relations of great regions to each other, in grade VIII. 

(1) Physical relations, climatic relations, productive relations, 
commercial relations, and political relations of the earth 
as a whole. 



A, EmnronmerU Study, Aim, as determined in III, E, to give concep- 

tions of objects and conditions in child's immediate environ- 
ment, and show the simple relations existing between these and 
the child. 
1. First grade. 

a. Subject-matter: The physical and climatic conditions. 

b. Order and choice of the subject-matter. 

(1) Determined by child's natural contact. 

(2) Determined by season of year for economy of effort. 

(3) Determined by necessity for continuity. 

c. P^ssentials of presentation: 

(1) Awaken child's interest by showing a motive for knowledge 

of the topic. 

(2) Observation of the object or condition. 

(3) Bring out relations, of the object or condition, to the child. 

(4) Relations, of the object or condition, to other objects and 


(5) The next topic for study determined by an intimate relation 

with the one being studied, and by so doing strengthen : 

(a) Sense of relation in child, and 

(b) The continuity of the subject-matter. 

Note: — Together with the discussion of each grade's work the class 
(1) observes a recitation in each grade, (2) writes a plan for teaching 
some topic in the grade, (3) collects materials (drawings, pictures, maps, 
specimens, etc.) for teaching the topic. 
2. Second grade. 

rt. Subject-matter: The products seen in home, market, and field. 
b. and c. Same as in first grade. 

B. Geographjf of the Local Center. Aim, as determined in III, E, to 

bring out tlie relations of objects and conditions studied in the 
first and second grades as causal to the organization of a 
geographical center. Incidental aim: The construction and 
interpretation of maps. 
1. Third grade. 
a. Order and choice of the subject-matter. 

(1) Determined by child's natural contact: Conditions of com- 
munitv in which he lives. 


(2) Determined by continuity inherent in the subject-matter, 
(a) Because of relations to locations in the city. 

(h) Because of causal order as indicated in I, B, 

(3) Statement of order. 

(a) Directions in schoolroom and community. Making of 
drawings and plats according to horizontal directions. 

(6) Study conditions along the most direct thoroughfare to 
the business center, making map of same. 

(c) Physical features, slope, drainage, etc. 

Modeling of surface in sand. 

(d) Parts of city and relation of parts: Retail and wholesale, 

manufacturing and shipping, residence, farm, or suburb 
portion. Making and interpretation of complete map. 

(e) Transportation means. 

(/) Products: Shelter, food, clothing; use in home; location 
of industries in city and reason ; how products come to 
city and from where. 

(q) Organization: Need of each working to supply another's 
need. Need of organizing to supply lights, protection, 
etc. Study of organization of fire department, etc. 
Need of political organization to select heads over all. 
Need for and determination of city Umits. 
'b. Essentials of presentation. 

(1) Procedure from that easily observed by child to that more 


(2) Observation by excursion work. 

(3) Stimulate spirit of inquiry outside of the school. 

(4) Make use of each individual's observations throughout year. 

(5) Presentation of subject-matter not as isolated facts, but 

related, and in relations are found causes for location, etc. 

(6) For making and interpretation of maps: 
(a) First drawing of a whole seen at once. 

(h) By easy gradations build on to map of thoroughfare map 

for whole city. 

(c) Mark directions on map and hang on north wall for first 

comprehension of map directions. 

Superficud Study of the World as a Whole. Aim, as determined in 

III, Ey to bring out (1) relation of child's community to distant 

regions, (2) physical, cUmatic, productive, and life conditions 

in the distant region. (3) Incidental aims: The comprehension 


of land forms. To gain a conception of the shape and climatic 
conditions of the earth. 
1. Fourth grade. 

a. Order and choice of the subject-matter. 

(1) Determined by intimacy and evidence of relation of the 

distant region to the child's enWronment. 

(2) Determined by simplicity of relations within the r^on. 

(3) Determined by necessity of selecting such r^ons that the 

whole may represent typical conditions in earth's climatic 

(4) Statement of order: 

(a) The sphere as a whole: Relative size; shape; surface. 

(b) Distant land masses; as: Use and appearance of seal 

skin; use of fur coats to animals; determination of 
kind of climate seals must live in; life and appearance 
of seal; appearance of country, physical and climatic 
conditions; land form of plain and island; productive 
conditions; social conditions; chalk relief of northern 
North America on blackboard-globe; direction and 
distance from child's home. 

(c) Summary and determination of location of hot, cold, and 

temperate regions of the earth. 

b. Essentials of presentation: 

(1) In presenting shape of earth: 

(a) Avoid use of symbol until after child strives for it by 
attempting to determine shape from the earth itself. 

(6) Sizes and distances must be in terms of things experienced 
by child. 

(2) In presenting distant regions : 

(a) Distant region introduced by a product familiar to child, 
and one in itself, to some extent, characterizing condi- 
tions in the region. 

(h) Conditions must be imaged, not memorized. Use of pic- 
tures, etc. 

(c) Land form should be studied when it forms a part of the 

region studied, and there shown as affecting the life of 
the region and its form represented by pictures, sand 
model, etc. 

(d) By representation of relief on slated globe relation of land 

masses may be shown. 


(3) In presenting earth's climate: 
(a) By reviewing conditions of climate and life in each region, 
showing relation of tropical, polar, and temperate regions, 
climatic conditions of earth will be brought out. 
D. Intensive Study of Regional Geography, or Continental Geography, 
Aim: To apply in every specific instance the relations existing 
between topographic, climatic, productive, industrial, social, 
locative, and political conditions that — 

(1) The reasoning power of the child may be developed through 

his self-activities or original effort. 

(2) The facts learned may be seen as something more than 

arbitrary facts, as: reasons for location, products, etc. 

(3) The child may image conditions in distant regions through 

the comparison with conditions he has sensed. 
1. Fifth, sixth, and seventh grades, 
o. Order of arrangement of the continents. 

(1) Determined by child's contact and association. 

(2) Determined by simplicity and unity of relations in each. 

(3) Determined by importance of each in commerce and current 


(4) Statement of order of arrangement: 

(a) North America and important islands: Fifth grade; 
because of child's natural association. 

(6) South America: Sixth grade; because of simplicity and 
unity of relations, especially topographic, climatic, and 
productive, and because of the growth of intimate asso- 

(c) Eurasia, Africa, and Australia: Seventh grade; (Eurasia 
30 weeks, Africa 7 weeks, Australia 3 weeks), because 
of complexity of arrangement in Eurasia and its great 
commercial importance, it is left till more mature age 
of child. 
b. Order of arrangement of subject-matter in continent study. 

(1) Determined by causal order as stated in aim and in I, B, 

(2) Determined by natural deductive and inductive reasoning 

from image of the whole to study of the parts in detail and 
synthesis of the parts into a detailed whole. 

(3) Statement of order of arrangement of subject-matter, 
(a) Continent as a whole. 

Physical basis of topography in relief. 


Means: Sand model, chalk model, interpretation of 

relief map. 
Division into natural topographic regions. 

Climate of continent as a whole and climatic belts 
dependent on location of continent and its topo- 
graphic regions. 

Life belts of continent as a whole dependent on topo- 
graphic regions and climatic belts. 

(b) Topical study of each topographical region to bring out 

more in detail the physical, climatic, productive, indus- 
trial, social, and locative relations. 

(c) Political divisions of continent in which a review of the 

essential characteristics of each region is built into con- 
tinent as a whole, 
c. Discussion of methods of presentation. 
E. Extensive Study of Regional Geography; World Relations. Aim: To 
show world relations existing between its parts, especially as 
influencing conditions in child's home country. Incidental aim: 
A review of geography of the United States, especially through 
the commercial and political relations. 
1. Eighth grade, 
a. Order of presentation of the subject-matter. 

(1) Determined by the natural causal order. 

(2) Determined by the importance of tlie relation of the different 

regions upon the home region. 
6. Statement of the order of presentation of the subject-matter. 

(1) Pliysical relations: 

(a) The earth as a whole. Primary highlands. Great slopes 

and drainage areas. 
(/>) Tlie earth as a planet. Movements, inclination, and 

division of time. 

(2) Climatic relations: Temperature and seasons; winds, rain- 


(3) Life relations: Tropical forest, Savanna, Desert, Temperate, 

Sub-arctic, and Tundra belts. 

(4) Commercial relations of other regions with United States. 

Of other regions with each other. Routes, etc. 

(5) Political relations of great powers, dependencies, and protec- 

c. Discussion of methods of presentation. 


Laboratory work accompanying the second year's work. Done out- 
side of the r^nlar class periods. 

I. Picture library: Collecting, mounting, and classifying pictures. 

II. Reference library: Collecting, classif)nng, and binding of articles 

from periodicals. 

III. Picture drawing: Chalk modeling of geographical forms. Black- 

board drawing of pictures. 

IV. Map making. 

A study of the development of map making. 
Sand modeling. 
Chalk modeling. 

Making of one papier-mach6 model. 
Study of map projections. 

Making diagramatic outlines of continents indicating parallels 
and meridians to determine relative sizes and distances. 


Controlling Sand Dunes in the United States and Europe. — In 
many parts of the United States there are areas of drifting sand which 
«re of much econon^c importance from the fact that they not only 
«,re useless for agricultural purposes, but may seriously encroach upon 
valuable property. These areas, known as sand dunes, consist of hills 
of sand which, when bare of vegetation, readily shift from place to 
place when acted upon by the wind, and are then called wandering or 
shifting dunes. Such dunes occur along sandy shores of the ocean, 
of the Great Lakes, or even along our large rivers, notably the Columbia 
Hiver in Washington and Oregon. These dunes are formed from the 
sand which is washed up during the tides, storms, or high water in case 
of rivers. The sand soon dries, is blown in the direction of the prevailing 
^nds, and forms drifts in the same manner as snow. The drifts may 
Attain the size of hills, in some cases as much as 200 feet in height. 
Continuous winds blow the sand over the brow, and the whole dune 
thus moves slowly but irresistibly forward, covering whatever is in 
its track — fields, forests, ponds, rivers, buildings. The direction of 
"the prevailing winds determines whether dunes will be formed along a 
sandy coast. On Lake Michigan dunes are found at various places 
along the south and east shore, but none along the west shore. It is 


interesting to note that the dunes in this region are probably the largest 
and highest to be found on the continent, and are scarcely exceeded 
by any in Europe. 

In nature sand dunes are not formed where the conditions will 
allow a covering of vegetation; consequently they are not found in 
warm regions, or only exceptionally, as the long vegetative season allows 
opportunity for a covering to become established; but in northern 
regions, where vegetation lies dormant for a considerable portion of 
the year, the severe winter storms may prevent such covering from 

The chief areas of shifting dunes to be found along the Atlantic 
Coast are on Cape Cod, in the vicinity of Provincetown; Southern New 
Jersey, near Avalon and Stone Harbor; Cape Henlopen, near Liewes, 
Delaware; Cape Henry, Virginia, and less extensive, though quite 
troublesome, dunes at Currituck, North Carolina; Isle of Palms, near 
Charleston, South Carolina; and Tybee Island, near Savannah, Georgia. 

Sand dunes occur at various places along the Pacific Coast, as 
Ventura, Monterey, and Mendocino counties, California, and the coast 
of Oregon. The latter are minimized by the moist climate. Extensive 
and exceedingly troublesome dunes are found along the Columbia River 
in Oregon and Washington from The Dalles to Riparia. The sand is 
brought down during the floods and blown about during the long dry 
summers. Here the conditions as to rainfall are reversed, the rain 
coming in the winter and the dunes forming during the dry summer. 

More or less successful efforts have been made at various times to 
**fix" the dunes and thus prevent the serious injury which they cause 
to valuable property. 

In order to attack these problems more intelligently, the writer was 
sent by the Department of Agriculture to investigate the methods used 
in Europe, where work of this character has engaged the attention of 
the various Governments for fifty years or more, and where the efforts 
in fixation or reclamation have been more successful than anywhere 
else in the world. 

For this purpose typical dune areas in Holland, Denmark, Prussia, 
and France were visited. In all cases the reclamation is carried on by 
the general government, sometimes assisted by the local government, 
as private individuals are unable to bring to bear upon the problem 
sufficient means or continuity of purpose. 

The fundamental principle of dune fixation is to cover the sand with 
a layer of any material which will prevent the access of the wind to 


the surface, and thus prevent drifting. The kind of covering used 
depends upon climatic conditions and the availability and cost of 
material. The aim is, when possible, to produce a forest, as this is 
I)ermanent, and, moreover, if properly managed, yields an income. 
However, a forest can not be produced with certainty upon a surface 
of drifting sand, and it is therefore necessary to temporarily fix the sand 
in some other manner. Although any covering of inert material, such 
as chips, gravel, brush, etc., would answer the purpose, economic factors 
have reduced the preliminary methods of fixation to these: (1) trans- 
planting beach grass; (2) covering with heather; (3) covering with a 
network of sand hedges. 

(1) Many plants have been tried, but the most satisfactory is beach 
grass (Ammophila arenaria Link). This grass grows naturally upon the 
sand dunes of the north Atlantic Coast of Europe as far south as Morocco, 
and of America as far south as North Carolina, and also along our Great 
Lakes. This is the grass which was used in reclaiming the land which 
is now Golden Gate Park in San Francisco. It has also been imported 
at various other points along the Pacific Coast. To fix the sand the 
grass is transplanted in spring or fall and set two or three feet apart in 
the sand. The blowing sand is caught and held by the grass, but it 
has the power to grow up through the accumulated sand, and thus, 
with care to replant where necessary, it becomes a permanent covering. 
As a forest can not be established close to the ocean, a strip a few rods 
wide must be permanently fixed in this manner. 

(2) In localities where heather is abundant this is cut with brush 
scythes and laid upon the surface of the sand. It is held in place by a 
little sand thrown over the edge of each layer. 

(3) Where neither beach grass nor heather is available, or where 
the conditions are especially severe, sand hedges are used. These 
consist of rows of cut brush or stakes or of cut reeds, which are inserted 
in the sand in rows or quadrangles, allowing the upper end to project 
for six inches or more. 

After the sand is temporarily fixed by one of these methods, young 
trees, usually conifers, are transplanted, and the forest soon removes all 
danger of further shifting. In southwestern France the forest was 
established by sowing the seed of Pinus mariiima upon the sand and 
covering with brush, but this method has not been successful in Northern 
Europe. In France, and also the Kurische Nehrung, in Prussia, it has 
been found necessary to form artificially a long barrier dune between 
the ocean and the forest which protects the latter. This barrier dune 


is fixed by means of beach grass, but requires constant oversight to 
keep it in order. During severe storms dangerous breaches are formed, 
which, if neglected, would soon destroy the dune and seriously injure 
the forest in its lee. These breaks are mended by sand fences, such as 
already described, but taller, which rapidly accumulate the sand until 
the hole is filled. — National Geographic Magazine, January, 1904. 

Climate of San Francisco. — On the coast of California there is 
a city justly famed for the abnormalities of its climate. Overcoats 
and heavy wraps are worn in midsummer, while the lilies bloom in 
December. From May until September very little rain falls, yet during 
this period with clock-like regularity great banks of fog march in every 
afternoon and cover the bare, brown hills. The city of San Francisco, 
the gateway to the Orient, as it has been termed, is strangely situated 
with respect to ocean, bay, mountain, and valley. It may perhaps be 
said of this city that nowhere else can such a strange mixture of marine 
and continental climates be found. The topography is such that 
marked contrasts can be found within comparatively short distances. 
Certainly the climatologist finds in the vicinity of San Francisco so 
many climatic anomalies that he feels as if he were in fact present in a 
great natural aero-physical laboratory where daily experiments were 
being performed on a large scale. In building this meteorological 
laboratory at San Francisco nature also provided seats wherefrom we 
can obtain excellent views of the experiments while in progress. From 
the Weather Bureau station on Mount Tamalpais — elevation of station, 
2,373 feet — one looks down on the broad expanse of the Pacific, nearly 
20,000,000 square miles of water, to the north, west, and south. From 
the open roadstead of Drakes Bay, the eye passes over the Sausalito 
hills to the headlands of Points Bonita and Lobos, marking the entrance 
to the Golden Gate. This passage plays an important rdle in connection 
with the winds, temperatures, and fogs of the San Francisco Bay re^on. 
At mean tide the area of San Francisco Bay is about 450 square miles. 

Far on the eastern horizon, especially on clear i^inter days, the 
snow of the Sierra — 155 miles distant — can be seen glistening. These 
mountains vsiTy in height from 8,000 to 14,000 feet. 

Extending from the slopes of the Sierra to the Coast Range is a 
great basin 500 miles long and about 50 miles wide. The Sacramento 
and San Joaquin rivers, flowing through this basin, unite in Suisun 
Bay. This great inland basin, surrounded by mountain walls, is con- 
nected ^v^th the Pacific Ocean ])y the gate at San Francisco, San Fran- 


Cisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Karquines Straits, and Suisun Bay. Here, 
tihen, is an aero-physical laboratory par excellence. Now for the results. 

When a native of San Francisco is asked which is the coldest month 
of the year, he is generally at a loss for an answer; and if asked which 
is the warmest he may say November. This confusion arises from the 
comparatively small range of temperature. The mean annual tem- 
perature, as determined from the records of the Weather Bureau for 
thirty-one years, is 56.1° F. May and November have practically the 
same temperature. The warmest month is September, 60.8°; the 
coldest, January, 50.2°. The other months have mean temperatures 
as follows: February, 52°; March, 54°; April, 55°; May, 57°; June, 
July, and August, 59°; October, 60°; November, 56°; December, 52°. 

The highest temperature ever recorded in San Francisco was 100°, 
on June 29, 1891, and the lowest 29°, on January 15, 1888. Abnor- 
mally warm and cold periods last, as a rule, about three days. The 
mean of the three consecutive warmest days at San Francisco has 
never exceeded 76.3°. A period of warm weather during the summer 
months is, as a rule, brought to a close about the evening of the third 
day with strong west winds, dense fog, and temperatures ranging from 
49° to 54°. The mean of the three consecutive coldest days was 40.7°. 
The greatest daily range of temperature was 43°, on June 29, 1891. 
This was the date when the temperature reached 100°. The range of 
temperature was from 100° to 57°. The morning was calm and very 
warm, while at 5 p. m. the temperature was 80°, and next morning 74°. 

In the past thirty years the number of days on which snow has 
fallen can be counted on ten fingers. Thunderstorms likewise are 
infrequent, but not altogether unknown. Earthquakes, meaning by 
this all slight shocks and tremors, average about seven per annum. 
Little damage has been done by earthquakes during the past fifty years. 

The people in San Francisco have long realized that winter and 
summer are purely relative terms. Thus at any of the ferries on a 
midsummer day one can see summer fabrics worn with heavy wraps, 
and it is not unusual to see white duck and sealskin in combination. 
Visitors to the city should by all means wear heavy wraps or overcoats 
during the summer afternoon. 

The experiments of the observers of the Weather Bureau during 
the past two years with kites have thrown much light upon the causes 
of the climatic abnormalities experienced at San Francisco; and, among 
other things, it has become evident that in summer as we ascend from 
the ground the temperature rises. For each 155 feet of elevation the 


temperature is 1° F. warmer, and so on any of the hills or mountains 
in the vicinity of San Francisco one can find with very little effort the 
climate best suited for him. In other words, the citizen of the San 
Francisco Bay section can regulate the temperature to suit himself^ 
having a choice between 55° at sea level and 85° at 2,000 feet above. 
With regard to rainfall during the summer months, San Francisco 
is practically rainless. The average rainfall is about 23 inches, 
and mast of this falls during the months of November, Decem- 
ber, January, Febniary, and March. Looking over the records of the 
past fifty years we find that the year 1898 had but 9.31 inches, while 
in 1893 there was 38.82 inches. In 1861 there was 38.51 inches.— 
BvUetin L, Climatology of California, U. S. Weather Bureau. 

Current Articles on Commerce and Industry. — 


Automobiles (Illus.), Sci. Am. (Special Edition), January 30. 

Canada's Ability as a Wheat Producer, BradstreeVs, January 9. 

Cod-liver Oil of Norsvay, BradstreeVs, January' 23. 

Colombia: The Government and People and Country (Illus.), 
World's Work. 

Com: The World's Corn King (Illus.), Export Implement Age. 

Cuba : Commercial Notes, Consular Rep. 

Engineering Retrospect of 1903, Sci. Am., Januar>' 2. 

p]nglish Walnut in Southern California (Illus.), Rei\ of Revs. 

Erie Canal, Electricity on (Illus.), Sci. Am., January 9. 

Ciermany, Commerce and Industries of, Consular Rep. 

Hudson Bay: Canada's I^ndeveloped Empire (illus.), World To-Day, 

India: Impressions of the Far East (Illus.), World To-Day. 

Invention, Connecticut the Home of. World's Work. 

Japan, Industrial Development in, Consular Rep. 

Korea, Commerce and Resources of, BradstreeVs, January 23. 

Locomotive Industry (Illus.), System. 

Logging in the South, Miss. Valley Lumberman, January 22. 

Lumber By-products, Miss. Valley Lumberman, January 29. 

Mississippi: The Great River (Illus.), World To-Day. 

Oil: New Texan Deposits (Illus.), Sci. Am., January 30. 

Oil Industry' of the Southwest (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 

Panama Canal and Railway Traffic, BradstreeVs. 

Peach Farm in Michigan (Illus.), Country Life. 

Philippines: How They A<lvertise Shoes, Hide and Leather, Jan- 
uary 30. 


those days when accessible sessions of the Congress are held. It is 
probable that the educational aspects of geography will be made the 
special subject of one or more sessions, in which contributions will be 
especially appropriate from experienced teachers of geography in col- 
leges and normal schools. The Journal will publish the plans as they 
mature and will make special note of any details of particular interest 
to teachers. 

Correspondence regarding membership and general information 
should be addressed to International Geographic Congress, Hubbard 

Memorial Hall, Washington, D. C. ; regarding the general scientific 

program of the sessions, to Professor W. M. Davis, Cambridge, Mass. ; 

regarding the educational division of the program, to Professor Richard 

JE. Dodge, Teachers College, New York City. 


-^^ Laboratory Manual of Physical Geography. Part I, Directions for Teachers; 

Part II, Laboratory Exercises. By Frank W. Darling and four instructors in 

the Chicago High Schools. Chicago and Boston: Atkinson & Mentzer, 1903. 

The authors have prepared a helpful and suggestive manual of value to all High 

'^•'»^<i Normal School teachers. There is some question as to the advisability of includ- 

* *^^ the study of minerals in Physical Geography as is done here. To be reviewed 


le Cumberland Road, Being Volume X in the Historic Highways of America 

Series. By Archer B. Hulbert. Pp. 208. Cleveland, Ohio: The Arthur H. 

Clark Company, 1904. 

^ The latest volume in the series of Historic Highways of America is much like 

^"^-CR predecessors in scope and form. Of interest to all students of the history of 

^S c^ c^graphy and the geography of history in the United States. 

ic Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. Edited and annotated bv Emma H. Blair 
and James A. Robertson. Vol. VIII, 1591-1593, pp. 320, 1903; and Vol. IX, 
1593-1597, pp. 329, 1904. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. 
These voliunes continue the account of the Philippines begun in the other volumes 

^^■J^^ady noted in the Journal, and carry the story to the end of the first century. 

^^^jiy facts are of interest to the general reader, but the series is of particular value 

^o the student of geographical history. 

^imxxuoary and Outline of Geography Course for the Grades of Chicago Pub- 
lic Schools. Pp. 160. PubRshed by the Board of Education, 1903. 
A valuable contribution to educational geography. A well-ordered and sensible 
^^ourae of study. Contains excellent references and is of value to all grade teachers. 

"^lie Tree-Dwellers. By Katherine E. Dopp. Pp.158. Chicago: Rand, McNally 
& Co., 1903. PH F ^^ , y 

The first of a series of books on primitive life, for use as a reader in elementary 
Si^es. Pleasing in form and illustration. To be reviewed later. 




Eighth International Geographic Congress, Washington, i904. 

Hubbard Memorial Hall, 
Washington, D. C, U. S. A., January, 1904. 

The Executive Committee of the Seventh International Geographic 
Congress held in Berlin in 1899 having voted to convoke its next ses- 
sion in Washington, the National Geographic Society, as the organ- 
ization responsible for the management of the sessions in the United 
States, will welcome the Eighth Congress and its friends to the 
National Capital of the United States in September, 1904. 

Geographers and promoters of geography throughout the World, 
especially members of Gcograpliic Societies and cognate institutions 
of scientific character, are cordially invited to assemble in Washington, 
D. C, on September 8, 1904, for the first international meeting of 
geographers in the Western Hemisphere. 

On the invitation of the National Geograpliic Society, the following 
Societies join in welcoming the Congress and undertake to codperate 
toward its success, especially in so far as sessions to be held in their 
respective cities are concerned : 

The American Geographical Society. 

The Geographic Society of Baltimore. 

The Geographic Society of Chicago. 

The Geographical Society of California. 

The Mazamas. 

The Peary Arctic Club. 

The Geographical Society of Philadelphia. 

The Appalachian Mountain Club. 

The Geographical Society of the Pacific. 

The Sierra Club. 

The American Alpine Club. 

The Ilarv^ard Travellers Clul). 

Sessions, The Congress will convene in Washington on Thursday, 
September 8th, in the new home of the National Geographic Society, 
and will hold sessions on the 9th and 10th, the latter under the auspices 
of the Geographic Society of Baltimore. Leaving Washington on the 
12th, the members, associates, and guests of the Congress will be enter- 
tained during that day by the Geographical Society of Philadelphia, 


and on the 13th, 14th, and 15th by the American Geographical Society 

in New York, where scientific sessions will be held; on the 16th they 

will have the opportunity of visiting Niagara Falls (en route westward 

by special train), and on the 17th will be entertained by the Geographic 

Society of Chicago; and on Monday and Tuesday, September 19th and 

20th, they will be invited to participate in the International Congress 

of Arts and Science connected with the World's Fair in St. Louis. 

Arrangements will be made here for visiting exhibits of geographic 


Excursions, In case any considerable number of members and 

associates so desire, a Far-West excursion will be provided from St. 

X.«oiiis to the City of Mexico, thence to Santa F^, thence to the Grand 

Canyon of the Colorado, and on to San Francisco and the Golden Gate, 

"^irhere the western Geographic Societies will extend special hospitality; 

^a^terward returning by any preferred route through the Rocky Moun- 

^t^^dns and the interior plains to the eastern ports. 

If the membership and finances warrant, the foreign delegates will 

!:>« made guests of the Congress from Washington to St. Louis, via 

^^ialtimore, Philadelphia, New York, Niagara Falls, and Chicago. On 

"fciie Far-West excursion special terms will be secured, reducing the 

•^^^gregate cost of transportation with sleeping-car accommodations 

^^iKid meals materially below the customary rates. It may be necessary 

limit the number of persons on the Far-West excursion. It is 

Lanned also to secure special rates for transportation of foreign members 

3m one or more European ports to New York, provided requisite 

S.:a::ftJormation as to the convenience and pleasure of such members be 

^>"lzDtained in time. Final information on these points will be given in 

"t::»l:^e Preliminary Program of June, 1904. 

The subjects for treatment and discussion in the Congress may be 
<:^l^issified as follows: 

1. Physical Geography, including Geomorphology, Meteorology, 

Hydrology, etc. 

2. Mathematical Geography, including Geodesy and Geophysics. 

3. Biogeography, including Botany and Zoology in their geographic 


4. Anthropogeography, including Ethnology. 

5. Descriptive Geography, including Explorations and Surveys. 

6. Geographic Technology, including Cartography, Bibliography, etc. 

7. Conunercial and Industrial Geography. 

8. ffistory of Greography. 

9. Geographic Education. 


A special opportunity will be afforded for the discussion of methods 
of surveying and map making, and for the comparison of these methods 
as pursued in other countries with the work of the Federal and State 
Surveys maintained in this country. 

Membership, Members of the Congress will be entitled to partici- 
pate in all sessions and excursions, and to attend all social meetings in 
honor of the Congress; they will also (whether in attendance or not) 
receive the pubUcations of the Congress, including the daily Program 
and the final Comptc Rendu, or volume of proceedings. Membership 
may be acquired by members of Geographic and cognate Societies on 
payment of S5 (25 francs, one pound, or 20 marks) to the Conmiittee 
of Arrangements. Persons not members of such societies may acquire 
membership by a similar payment and election by the Presidency. 
Ladies and minors accompanying members may be registered as asso- 
ciates on payment of $2.50 (12^ francs, or 10 sliillings, or 10 marks); 
they shall enjoy all ])rivileges of members except the rights of voting 
and of receiving publications. 

Geographers and their friends desirous of attending the Congress 
or receiving its publications are requested to signify their intention at 
the earhest practicable date in order that subsequent announcements 
may be sent them without delay, and that requisite arrangements for 
transportation may be effected. On receipt of subscriptions, members' 
and associates' tickets will be mailed to the subscribers. The privileges 
of the Congress, including the excursions and the social gatherings, 
can be extended only to holders of tickets. 

Societies and Delegates. It is earnestly hoped that the Congress 
of 1904 may be an assemblage of Geographic and cognate Institutions 
no less than of individual Geographers; and to this end a special invita- 
tion is extended to such organizations to participate in the Congress 
through Delegates on the basis of one for each one hundred members 
up to a maximum of ten. No charge will be made for the registration 
of Institutions, though the Delegates will be expected to subscribe as 
Members; and in order that the hst of afTiUated Institutions (to be 
issued in a later announcement) may be worthy of full confidence, the 
Conmiittee of Arrangements reserve the right to withhold the name 
of any Institution pending action by the Presidency. The publications 
of the Congress will be sent free to all Institutions registered. It is 
especially desired that the Geographic Societies of the Western Hemi- 
sphere may utilize the opportunity afforded by this Congress for estab- 
lisliing closer relations with those of the Old World, and to facilitate 
this, Spanish will be recognized as one of the languages of the Congress 

igo4 NEWS NOTES 1 43 

with French, English, German, and Italian, in accordance with previous 
usage; and communications before the Congress may be written in 
any one (or more) of these languages. 

Institutions not strictly Geographic in character, Libraries, Univer- 
sities, Academies of Science, and Scientific Societies are especially 
invited to subscribe as members in order to receive the publications of 
the Congress as issued. 

Communications. Members and Delegates desirous of presenting 
communications before the Congress, or wishing to propose subjects 
for discussion, are requested to signify their wishes at the earliest prac- 
ticable date in order that the titles or subjects may be incorporated 
in a Prehminary Program to be issued in June, 1904. The time required 
for presenting communications should be stated, otherw^ise twelve 
minutes will be allotted. It is anticipated that not more than twenty 
minutes can be allotted for any communication unless the Presidency 
decide to extend the time by reason of the general interest or importance 
of the subject. The Presidency with the complete Organization of the 
Congress (including Delegates) will be announced in the Preliminary 
Program of June, 1904. 

Program, All papers or abstracts designed for presentation before 
the Congress, and all proposals and applications affecting the Congress, 
will be submitted to a Program Committee who shall decide whether 
the same are appropriate for incorporation in the announcements, 
though the decisions of this Committee shall be subject to revision by 
the Presidency after the Congress convenes. 

Any proposal affecting the organization of the Congress or the pro- 
gram for the Washington session must be received in writing not later 
than May 1, 1904. Communications designed to be printed in con- 
nection with the Congress must be received not lat^r than June 1, and 
any abstracts of communications (not exceeding 300 words in length) 
designed for printing in the General Program to be published at the 
beginning of the Congress must be received not later than August 1, 
1904. Daily Programs will be issued during the sessions. 

All correspondence relating to the Congress and all remittances 
should be addressed: The Eighth International Geographic Congress, 
Hubbard Memorial Hall, Washington, D. C, U. S. A. 


W. J. McGee, National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C, 

Henry G. Bryant, Geographical Society of Philadelphia. 


George B. Shattuck, Geographic Society of Baltimore. 

A. Lawrence Rotch, Appalachian Mountain Club, Boston. 

Zonia Baber, Geographic Society of Chicago. 

George Davidson, Geographical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco. 

Frederick W. d'Evelyn, Geographical Society of California, San 

John Muir, Sierra Club, San Francisco. 
Rodney L. Glisan, Mazamas, Portland. 
Angelo Heilprin, American Alpine Club. 
Herbert L. Bridgman, Peary Arctic Club. 
William Morris Davis, Harvard Travellers Club. 
J. H. McCormick, Secretary. 


John Joy Edson, President Washington Loan & Trust Company, 

David T. Day, United States Geological Sur\'ey. 
Charles J. Bell, President American Security & Trust Company. 

National Educational Association, 1904. — The first of the many 
importa,nt educational meetings to be held at St. Louis in 1904 
is the National Educational Association. This convention will be 
held from June 28 to July 1. Details of the geograpliical program 
will be published in the Journal of Geography when it has been 
completed. In anticipation of this meeting the Journal will issue, the 
last of May or early in June, a special number devoted to "The Geog- 
raphy of the Louisiana Purchase*." The Purchase has never before 
been so completely written up from a geographical standpoint. 

Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. — The Editors 

of the Journal note \\4th pleasure a change in plan whereby the Bidleiin 
of the American Geographical Society will hereafter be published 
monthly instead of five times a year. The BxiUetin is the oldest regular 
geographical periodical in the country, and represents the oldest and 
most renowned Geographical Society. The geographical interests of 
America are so large and so increasing in scope that there is plenty of 
opportunity for two monthly periodicals devoted primarily to advanc- 
ing the science of geography. Although the Bulletin, like its com- 
panion, the National Geographic Magazine, will devote a certain 
amount of attention to educational geography, neither paper will 
cover the field which the Joijrnal of Geography and its predecessors 
have occupied for more than seven years. 

Newest and Best Text-Books 



Morton^s Geographies 

By Eliza H. Morton, Member of the National Geographic Society. 

Elementary Geography f 0.55 

Advanced Geography z.20 

Natural Geographies 

By Jacques W. Redway and Russell Hinman. 

Elementary Geography fo.6o 

Advanced Geography 1.25 

Brief Geography 80 

TarbeH's Geographies 

By Horace S. Tarbell, A.M., LL.D., formerly Siiperintendent of 
Schools. Providence, R. I., and Martha Tarbell, Fh.D. 

Introductory Geography f 0.50 

Complete Geography z.oo 

The same. With Special State Editions .... z.zo 

Carpenter's Geographical Readers 

By Frank G. Carpenter. 
North America . $0.60 Europe .... $0.70 

South America .60 Asia 60 

Australia and the Islands of the Sea (in preparation). 

Write for descriptive circulars and infor- 
mation about Text-Books in Geography 


ciSaV?" 521-531 Wabash Avenue, Chicago 

New York 

€:eacl^er0' agenct J^ivtctotig 

SIS Colorado Teachers' Agency 


M Teatii' Hpeles 

Send touy If tk MlowiagidinaeiteigeMyliiiMl Fife 

S03IIUUcaBBoiiL.CUa«D,2tt- _, »» C^vv^SMf.. BMW. GW^ 

FRED DICK. Ex-State Sup«rint«nd«nt, 


1MI Ottum tlTNt. DENVER, COLO. 

Teachers Wanted 

We need at once a few more Teachers. 
Good positions are bein^ iilled daily 
bv us. We are receiving more calls 
ttiis year than ever before. Schools 
and colleges supplied with Teachers 
free of cost. Enclose stamp for reply. 

American Teachers* Association 

J. L. Graham, LL. D.. Manager. 
158-164 Randolph Building, Memphis, Tcnn. 


rpKACHEKS wishing to propsre for examlna. 
J tlons Bhonld write, at once, to PROF. J. L. 
GRAHAM, LL. D.. 15^154 Rmndolph Bulldlna; 
Memphis. Tenn.. for particulars concsmlng Us 
special Teachers* Examination Course. 

Thli coarse Is uuRht by mall, sod prepares 
Teachers for examination in every 8ksCe In the 

and all Teachen wishing to advance In their pro- 
fession should Immediately arail tbemselTSS of 
it. Enclose sump for reply. 


Westlanil Teachers' Leape 


Address the Manager 

W. G. CROCKER. Editor Westland Educator. 

Lisbon, N. D. 


September Jacancies 



The Auditorium, Chicago, 111. 

Established 20 years. Positions Filled^ 6,#n 
Specialty— The Best Teachers. 



'T^HIS is the day of Special Teachers. Those who can teach any subject well, noticeably 
J[ better than it is usually taught, are in demand at got>d salaries. There is a call, not 
only for teachers of Geography, but for teachers of Physical Geography «nd Com- 
mercial Geography as special subjects. If you will write to us we shall be glad to send 
you evidence that we have opportunity to place superior teachers by RECOMMENDATIOII. 
There is no other Agency to which so many applications are made for teachers. 

The School Bulletin Agency, c. w. Bameen, Syracuse, N.Y. 


Pubhsked, The 
Editor has taught Twelve Years and Superintended Eleven Years, 
Carefully graded Selections, Language Studies for Composition Work, Neirs Itelns 
(Kindlings) with Pertinent Questions Songs with Music, Friday Afternoon Selections, 
Story Letters Written bv the Children, and Uncle Will's Comer and its Personality so 
prized bv the Younger Ueaders. 

Free sample. Better still : Send ten cents for a five months* "Trial Trip" to 

Bh9 ROTARY. Ushon. North Vakota. 

43 page* of 


relating to 




HiatQry^ Area, 








The Census List 
gives Names 

and Population 

of over 70.000 


The Cost of 

Securing and 

Compiling this 


amounted to 

several Millions 

of Dollars 

Su6ffan/iai/y bound in doth, marbUtdgt: s^P<*g*^: J^'«^i axi^inckes: weight y 5 pounds . 
A bonk that is ^ood enotify^h for any one, at a special differ to our readers bv special 
arrAn<ement with the publishers. All can afford to buy. While ihe cost fs small, 
the work is c<^tmpleti: and contains about cverythinjkj in Ihe j?cii;^raphy line that Mnt- 

cuulii vvibh to know. 

$3.60 fh« Unrkaliri Allat af IN World $ 1. G0 
J 50 Thi Jouf Bsl fit fitogri phjf \m e r»i' ^ 150 
$5.00 16.00 

S4,CK> - Both to You ' S4,0O 

TtJirt Utirirnlrii AUum offhv Wnrhi will W nenl 
In 1,011, t'jirrla)£<^ prt*piiUl, toj^^eiher with Thi> 
Jfiht utfi uf Grijijrftpfkif for iiVkVi ytMir, If you 

Send us $4.00 at once 

Ttjl* fipf.'Jlu'H »o new or ri-Miewiil («ubiacrl|i'Ltou9. 

TuK .f<n UNAL OP OtoiiiiArHY. IlfMHH Vh i. \(*^ AUdnih St., CLSia^o, IH, 

^ Wonderful Compilation of Gtographicat Facts. 

ji ^Storehouse of Useful information* 


The American Advance 

By E. J, CARPENTER, 8vo, S^jo net. 

The Xew York Times Saturday Reitiew : " Mr. Carpenter tells well and 
with some details not usually given, the oft-told story of our territorial 

The Spanish Conquest in America 

By SIR ARTHUR HELPS, i2mo, in 4 vols. Si^o each. 

The Boston Transcript: " Further evidence of the present interest 
taken in matters pertainmg to early American discovery and colonizing is 
presented in the publication of a new edition of Sir Arthur Helps* * History 
of the Spanish Conquest in America.' " 

America: The Land of Contrasts 

By JAMES FVLLARTON MUIRHEAD. i2mo, $1,20 net. 

The Springfield Republican : *• Mr. Muirhcad is one of the most intelli- 
gent ancl bes't informed of the Englishmen who have written down their 
impressions of the United States, ft is a most instructive book." 

The Expansion of Western Ideals 

By CHARLES WALDSTEIN. i6mo, $1.00. 

The San Francisco Chronicle : * ' The first essay presents a logical and 
earnest argument in favor of the retention by the Republic of all the island 
domain of which it has recently become posses.sed." 

Persian Children of the Royal Family 

By WILFRID Sr ARROW Svo. S3. 30 net. 

The Dial : "Brimful of interest. The book is supplied with choice 
illustrations, depicting scenes at court descril>ed by the author, and also 
some of the most picturesque views on his travels." ' 

JOHN LANE '^^''^ ^^^^^->' ^^'^'^ •••■ •••■•••■ 

.••• 67 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK 

An Announcement to Teachers of 

RAND, McNALLY & COMPANY will publish 
this fall and winter a new series of Geographies 

By Richard Elwood Dodge 

Professor of Geograthfy Teachers College y Columbia University^ New York City : 

Oh-editor of The Journal of Geography: and author of **A /deader 

in Physical Geography for Beginners.^' 


Cloth, Square 8vo, 8xio, 228 pag^es; 75 cents. 

THIS la a geoflfraphy for begrinners. The book has, therefore, been divided into two 
parts, entiued, respectively, " Home Geography " and *' World Relations and the 
In Part I. the purpose has been to show the relation of the individual pupil to all 
parts of his own country, and thereby to emphasize the interdependence of people com- 
mercially and industrially. Any treatment of Home Geography must be general in 
order to make it true for all children in all localities. In the ** Suggestions for Review '' 
the pupil is asked to study his own environment and to explain its geography by 
the universal facts presented in the text. 

Part IL opens with a treatment of those factors that must be understood by the 
pnpil in order that he may appreciate his relation to the world as a whole. The inter- 
dependence of nations is here brought out. The last part is devoted to the several con- 
tinents, and shows the reasons, so far as is possible within the limits of an elementary 
book, for the supremacy of certain industries in certain places. 

Boot TWO, .AW A NCED CEOGRA PH Y.. /» Pr.i>aro»to» 

Cloth, Square 8vo, 8x10, pages; $ 

THIS book has been written with the idea of emphasizing particularly the ''causal 
notion" in geography teaching. Part I., called "The Principles of Geography," 
treats of those phases of general geography which are necessary as a founaation 
for an intelligent and disciplinary study ot the several continents. The topics in this 
part of the book are considered as far as possible in the order of their mutual depen- 
dence, and the pupils are thus led to see the dependence of the higher and more compli- 
cated phases of geography on the simpler but fundamental conditions. 

In Part II. "The Continents" are treated in such a way as to emphasize the impor- 
tance of their physical characteristics. Especial attention is given to their economic 
conditions, because it is believed that the greatest value from a study of the continents 
comes: First, from the training in clear thinking involved; and second, from the 
knowledge it gives of principles and facts that can be used in later life. 

'T^HE attention of geographers and geography teachers is especialljr invited to the 

•• •• fSAV\S •• •• 

__ „__„_ hers and geography teachei ^ ^ 

large number and excellence of the maps, all of which have been made expressly for 
these geographies. Each continent and the United States is represented by three 
maps, a relufmat to give a bird's-eye view of the contour, a physical map showing, in 
accordance with tne international color scheme, the land heights and water depths, and a 
political map giving the latest information in regard to boundaries and other varying 
points^ In Book Two appear commercial mapSy showing the railroads and principal 
industries of each region. For the first time m a school geography water depths are 
shown on all maps. 

The drawings for the maps have passed under the critical eye of Dr. J. Paul Goode, 
Assistant Professor of Geography in the University of Chicago, an expert in cartogrraphy. 

Write US for further information regarding these books 

Chicago ff9W York London 

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Board per Scholastic vear, «290. Extras 
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TOPICS I Weekly CIum ProgramB— For all Grammar Grades Including Departmental Work. 
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Grammar Grades. 
Illustrative Lessons: Alms; re- 
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In the Fourth Year. A coin- 

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Comparison In Geography— 
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In comparing new topics 
with familiar ones. 


Historic New York-///MJif mfi^. 
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Logic In the Public Schools. 
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Journal or Pedagogy 

"C^ROM the first issue the Journal of Pedagogy has been edited solely in the interest 
-*■ of sound education and correct teaching. Some of the most important contribu- 
tions to pedagogical literature in this country have appeared in its pages during the 
past decade. It is the aim of the magazine to offer from issue to issue a full and impar- 
tial account of the progress that is being made toward better things in educational 
thought and practice. 

It has become a necessity to every library, and teachers who wish the best must 
include it in their list of periodicals. 





EDITORIAL — The Batavia System — What the Batavia System Is — A Quickened Intellec- 
tual Life — The Right View of a Superintendent's Duties — A Needed Amendment — 
Muaac in the High School — A Difficult Undertaking Well Done — The Boston Meeting 
— Medical Inspection of Schools — College Entrance Examination Board. 



P. E. Spaulding. 







Published Quarterly. Subscription Price, $1.50 per year. Single numbers^ 
50 C9nts. For terms to new subscribers^ address 

Journal of Pedagogy ^ Syracuse, N. T. 


Read This! 


Since the first dav n[ pul)licatit)n T have been a subscriber to THE JOURNAL 
OF GEOGRArnv ancT its predecessors. It is so helpful and sujf j^estive that I can 
not afford to do without it. It is an excellent means of keeping one's ideas 
up-to-date both in methods of teaching: and in the evcr-growinjiC, ever-widening 
science of geography, as well iis in kindred sciences. ^j fxis E Frve 

Former Superintendent of Schools of Cuba; 

Hotel Trot c ha ^ Havana, Cuba. author of Fryers Geoj^raphies. 

Then Read This! 


For several years past all of our teachers who teach geography have taken 
The Journal' of Geocraphv. and we see no reason tor changing. The 
Journal gives to the teachers scientific information, pedagogically arranged, 
on the most vital subjects in the curriculum. (Geography has ceased to be a 
memory study in our schools and has become a thought study. THE JOURN a L 
has done much to help to that result. Teachers of geography can not do 
better than to take this very readable and profitable Journal. 

John A. Long, 

Streator, Illinois. Superintendent of Schools. 

Send for a Free Sample Copy 

Thf JournnI of n^^niphy, Rtmm HHK IW Adtimtt fit.. Chicago. lU. 

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THE be si work of Its kind, 
yftj pa^feft *cm Openm^ 
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FUxibU Ooik, jQc. 


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Moofe'ft The rtdetic* tif ht«dy, ... I *W 

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Man W Wt Flea im?b^ Woman WIfp C ha f m * .75 
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Short, newsy, helpful notes on the progress of science. 

Novel, suggestive, illustrated descriptions of apparatus, experiments, 

plans, and laboratory equipment. 


A Bi'Monthly Journal for Mathematics Teachers 

Emphasizes particularly the problem of the correlation of 

science and mathematics. 

Contains the best thought of the leading teachers of mathematics. 

Gives reports of all important meetings of mathematics teachers. 

Price of SCHOOL SCIENCE Is $2.00 a year; 25c a copy. 
Price of SCHOOL MATHEMATICS is $ 1 .00 a year ; 25c a copy. 

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*^^x* the more important of the two, for it will keep you growing 
^•^cl make you worth more as a teacher. The first will be read 
^^^ thrown aside ; the second will be preserved and bound up 
"•-^^x* permanent reference. 

We publish "EDUCATION," the oldest of the high-class 
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World's Fair 

and National Educational 

Association Number 


Tht? Juny numbernf TA*- TOUHSal tt/'(iEfirrKAf»n V will be a World'if Faif und 
Bl Naticinul KduciLtidnQl AssoQiAtion Number. It will be devuted entirely to 

Bhe Geography 

of the Louisiana 


Amofijc ilie numerous articles that may be expected are the followln|| : 


Iy\ X. 11. i>AKl(^N% ('////(' Litift'ti Sfafi's Gtt^js^t'itpknai Surt^v 


By Dk. a. C. HowlaS'u, of tbr I\'a<ht'f.< Ct^Hf^e^ Coiumbia Lfniversiiy, 

^ Xeii} Yi*rk Ctfy 


By l*k[>KEssf]H Sr-EM'Kk TKDni-ik. i*f Su;tr//iniotr Ce/ii-jiT'', Stiar/A»i0re^ 

I\t., ijiillii}r iff "A Lommti-ciai (ftiW^'^My" 

/lytirifj^'^riipht'r J\}r the Ctnitd Sfuifs Gt'tfiQ^iOii Survey 


By Kllkn C. Skmple, 0/ /AmtM'iih\ AV,.- aufh&r n/ **Jmtfri'£0tt Hiifery 


By CBAkLES E. CifJ^ttiiKV. Asshfanf Snf^eriHtendcnf iif tkr Deftf^, 

t'titiyradif^ Schiwis 

The iirtielcs will be tlllufitnited exletislvely \%y phfitn^s^mphs and nmpAi 
there waU h^' u Ifirj^c foUlinK ttiuii nf ihi- Lt>u(?iiiHna Purchase Inserted, and 
llie numljer wtlJ be invaluable tu all ttaehers whn in Lend Ln viHit St. U>mH in 
\p^t or who winh tn have vvcU Afflicted (^iH>jrrm>bkiU material on ih* Great 
West and especially of the LfiuiKiJina PurL^lui^^e. available for elas^ ase. The 
nuuibtr will alrin include t* brief Kelccted biblio^raphv im the j?ei>j?raphy of 
Llie I^uistann t'urehasu.', nml s^iati^iieal notes showing its poptiUtioa, euro* 
merte, indu»trie»^ sind relative eLnmoniic inijiortuncr. 

The price is 2Qc, postpaid 

Thijs remarkable Special Issue should be m the handps of everv teacher 
before at tendinis? the Conv^eulinn. Its pubUcatloTj in f»f decfdcd inipnrtance 
ia thf ^cenKiaphicul wurld. <Jrdcr now and be Hure i*f a cupy, 

if ub^^eriptiutifi and adverli,'iement5i shimld be jieai to 


Room jfKj. Un Adams St., CHICAGO, ILL. 

World's Fair 

and National Educational 

Association Number 


The Tunc nuinburof 77/»: lOL'KNAl. o/ CIkograi'HV will be a World's Pair and 
a Nationsil Rducatiunul Association Number. It will be devoted entirely to 

She Geography 

of the Louisiana 


Amon>c the numerous articles that may be expected are the followinsr: 


/fy Prokksmik a. \\ IlRlciiAM, 0/ Co/fTii/i' Cfiiz'trsity 


/>y N. H i)Akic)\, of tlw L' nit id S/a/tS lii'O^rapfticai Surzev 



Fy Dr. A. C. Howi.axp, of tlw Teachers College^ Columbia University^ 

AV:t' York Lity 


fi\ PR(»KKssi)R Si'KNrFK TRoriLR. of Swat tliviort' CoUt'f^e^ Stvarthmorey 

Pa.: author of "A Comtmrcial (iio^'raphy" 


/?v Gko. H. Hni.i.isiKR. .l.\soi/a/r liditor ot 1 ho Journal of Gcoj^rapMy : 
llydro.i:raphor for (ho I'm fed Sfatcs Gooloxncal Survey 

A'y Ki.LKN C. SK-MTLK, of l.oui.\',tllt\ Ay.- aufhor of '\lnierican History 

a nd ( rt\\i,'rj/>hio ( i uiditi\ 'fts ' ' 

Jfy E. Ciiadsicv. Assistant Superinfcndcnt of the Denver^ 

Color ado .^ Schools 

The articles will be illustrated extensively by phi»tn>craphs and maps: 
there will be a l;u>ie foldiuvr map of the I.,uuisiaha Purchase inserted, ana 
the number will be invaluable tD all teachers wh«) inten<l to visit St, I^iuis in 
M-. 4, or who wish to have well selected .iceovjraphical maurial on the Great 
West and especially of the Louisiana I'urcliaso. available for The 
number will also include a brief selected biblio>,'raphy on the Keojjraphy of 
the Louisiana Purchase, antl statistical notes showinjlc its population^ com- 
merce, industries, and relative economic importance. 

The price is 20c, postpaid 

This remarkable Special Issue shouUl be in the hands of every teacher 
before attendmvr the (.'onvention. Its publication is of decided importance 
in the ^LTr;. graphical world. ( )riler now and be sure of a copy. 

Subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to 


Room ;f«, i6o Adams St., CHICAGO, n#L. 

20 ceotM 


We Give These 
Atlases jlWat^ 

This POCKET ATLAS OF THE WORLD will be mailed free to you, and 
postpaid, with every $1.50 subscription, new or renewal, to THE JOURNAL 
OF GEOGRAPHY, cash to accompany the subscription. This offer is good 
for a short time only, and you must mention this "ad" if you want the Atlas. 


Every one should have one of these invaluable little books 
This AtlAS will help to keep fresh your jfcj>«:raphical knowledge. It takes but a small 
I on your desk or shelf. It contaiiiN a fund of condensed information which is 
always at hand. 

1900 CENSUS 

Maps of every 




Canadian Province, 

Foreign Country, 

Our New 



Central America, 


All from 

new plates^ 


engraved and 


1900 CENSUS 







1900 CENSUS 

Printed matter 
relatinj^ to 



Physical Features, 




Live Stock, 







Legal Government, 




1900 CENSUS 

Pocket Atlas of the World 

This Pocket Atlas is desiffned to answer the demand for an Atlas in a compact and 

convenient form. There are four hundred pages of handsome colored maps, statistics, 

and descriptions. Size, 3 x 4»< inches. 

This POCKET ATLAS OF THE WORLD will be mailed free to you, and 
postpaid, with every $1.50 subscription, new or renewal, to THE JOURNAL 
OF GEOGRAPHY, cash to accompany the subscription. This offer is good 
for a short time only, and you must mention this "ad" if you want the Atlas. 


Room 560, z6o Adams St., Chicago, Illinois 

Send for a Sample Copp 

TiiE Journal of geooraphy, 
RcMom 560, i6a AdmmH St.* Chicago, II L 



Thfi Journal of Geography is an IDuslratetl Monthly Magaxine devoted to the interests 
of leachcfH nf j^tng^ruphy in elementary, in, secondary, and in nornuil schools. It is 
published the fifth of every inonth,^ except jnjf J nly and August. 

Price — The siibjicription price is one and one-half dollars a ye^r, payable iti advance. 
TvvenLy cents ft copy. 

Poalage ift Prepaid by the ptJbH£;hers fur all subscripttons in the United States, Hawai- 
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Dii.coD tiauances 1 f a subscri ber wishes hi<% magazine dincontlnued at the expiration of 
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How to Remit — Remittances should be sent by Check, Draft on Chicago, Express 
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Letter! should be addressed : 


Room 5^0, i6a Adams St,j Chlcai^o, IJIiaoia 


^n Attai for Your School ^ Jin Atlas for Your Home 

LUt of Counties of every State, givinj^ Popylation and Index to T^ocatjon on Map. 
LiiEt of Post Officer in the United StateK, and Popalation ot every City, Town, Village, 

and HamleU 

F€>r Geographicai, I/tsfoncalt and Siatisikai Reference 

Jnrivaled Atlas 


43 pages of 



relating to 




History, Area, 








The Census List 
gives Names 

and Population 

of over 70,000 



The Coat of 

Securing and 

Compiling this 


amounted to 

several Millions 

of Dollars 

159 pages of 


Colored Maps, 

showing all 



Our New 


every State in 

the Union, and 

Seventeen of 

the Largest 

Cities of our 


56 pages with 
over 500 Holt- 
tone Illustra- 
tions describing 
the World's 
Peoples, and 
Portraits of sll 
the presidents 
of the United 

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Illustrated and 


Subsfartfuil/y doHJui tn cUyth, marbls edge: 330 pages; size^ ax 14 inches; weighty k pounds. 
A b*«ok (hut is ^oo<l enouf^h for any one, at li special offer to our readers by special 
arran(femeot with the publishers. All can alTord to buy. While the cost is .smuTl, 
the work is complett? and contains aboul everything in the geography lint that one 

could wish to £now. 

13.60 T^i UnrlvilBif Aflii of fhi iQrld 1 3. BO | 
150 Tht JoHmil of Gtofraphy loai yiir) 1 ,50 | 

S4.00 - Both to You 

Thh rnrirfilM Atl'iKufthf Worht win bfj uetit 
tu Mui, cNrrlsK*^ pre paid » itj^fctlier with Tftf 
Joufttal of Gtoifntphi/ for uae year, tf you 

il^lSenci us $4.00 at once 

S4.00 I TlilN u(tiilk\H to m-w *jr r*,M»t;v,u] i^Lj|iHerH*tii^>ii". 

The *loiR\A 

OF ClF-ooiEAi'M V, Ttoorti TAtf, \ftii AdatnH St., ClihHii^^'o, 111. 

jf Wondtrfni Coms>ilation of Geographical Facts, 

Ji Storehouse of Use fat Information. 

You have solved the book problem 

Writes a book-buyer m Indinnapolts. " I can !q>end only so much each month on book& 
The problem was to make it ^«j fur enauifh. Your system fits my tieedii exactly- Send 
ine evcrv Unit Book ii* itisued miinthly.' 

We have devised a unique system'of bn<ik prices which insures the cheapest aeries 
t f jfenuincly made book;* ever issued in America. 

Tbiii new nystem of pitblisbinjf is mort; lofi^ical than the system of fixed pnce^ ior 
reprint*, cjther things oeini^ equal, it costH less u* produce a short book than a Umg 
vne. Hitherin the selling pnce of the lihort book has been a;* hi^h uh that of the h*n^ 
And even the longest bcutk has not been sold to you al a lotis. We g:rve you the benent 
of the saving on the shorter bofuk. Qur prices are rej^ulated by the co!*t of the actual 
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What do you mean 

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Merely these ihin&s: 

I, A series of readable books old enough to be coaudered permanent. " Whenever 
a new book comes uut I read nn Mid one/ 

3. Such books annotated in a helpful and common -sense manner. 

3. Then printed from new k'Ktble type on featherweight i>apcr and bound in 
paper, cloth, and leather, 

4. Lightest books made. A%'erage cheap reprint weighs ^3 ox.; average Unit B*"!. 
weighs 10 oi. 

5. Prices range from 9 to So cents per volume. Unabridged texts. 

6. Hubh'shed and sold on the unit plan, which means that for every printed page 
the purchaser pays i-2sth of a cent^ one cent for each vs pages (the unit), four cents for 
each hundred pages. Cloth cover jo cents extra, leather cover 50 cents ejKtra. 

First 27 Books 

1, Hawthorne's Marble Faoti 

Paper, sric ; cloth, stc ■, leather, 71c. 

2, Lincoln's Letters and Addresses 

Paper, i6c,; cloth, 46c, j leather, 66c, 

3, Pt>e's Tales of Mystery 

Paper, ^it; cloth, ^tc,-, leather, 7ro. 

4, Renan*s Life of Je^us 

5, Curtis's Prue and I 

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6* Trollope's Domestic Manners of 

7. Trench's Study of Words 

8. Philippines in the 17th Centurj' 
q. Simm's Vemassee 

ID. National Docitmcnts 

11. Knickerbocker's History of New 


12. DenifKracy in America 

13. Hamerton's Intellecttial Life 

14. De Qniocey's Essays 

15. Lear's Nonsense Books 

Jb. Familiar Letters of James 

17, Life of Benvenuto Cellini 
iS, Pater's Marius the Epicurean 
1*). Boker's Francesca da Rimini 

(with a comparative study of 

other versions) 

20. Rejected Atidresses and other 

prose parwiies and burlesques 

21. Goethe's Faust 

22. The Old Red Sandstone, by 

Husfh Miller 
23* The Journals of Lewis and 

24. Pride and Prejudice^ by Jane 


25. Hertzka*s Trip to Freeland 

26. Horace in Latin and English 

27. S win burners Poems 

The Unit Books 

259ma Fifth Avenue. New York 



Elementary Geography 


Profess&r of G^og^raphy^ /'rachers Cot/cif,'^^^ CoiuMbid UHh*frsif\\ New York City; 

i&'Cditcr i*f tht Journat of Geography, tiutfiar o/^'A Reader in 

Pkysicai Geography f0r heginners^'* etc, 

Consislinjj^ of 

'Part I 

Home Geographic 

Showing the relation of the individual pupil to his own country, empha- 
sizing thereby the interdeijendcnce ot people com- 
mercially and inaustrially ; .ind 

Vart II 
World Relations and the Continents 

Treating of those factrtrs necessary to an understanding of the pupil's 
relation to the world as a whole. 

With jiS iiiu St rat ions in hn/f-font, ^ dia^^rams, /o text maps, 

tiHii 4^ maps in ini^rs, 

Cioth, square Svo. (St lo inc/it's), ^^i pages. 75 cents, 



Before adopting old books SI^K 1 IIIISE which are tip to-date. 

Chicago New York 

Fd,. 113* -/ iapt\ peninsula , and isthmus. This is a characteristic hit of 

AVtt' England shore. 





JVednesdap, Julff 6 to 
fVedntsdajf^ August 17 


ErinK.fnk>. 1 ■ 
irmiii - 

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Monnuc, ut the t^iatf Noniial SehMoL Wt*«t- 

ludgiQj? limy t>o tiQil Id Wblttter ttiiU. 

The announcement is now ready and 
will be sent liponi applicatmn to the 
Secretary, Columbia University, New 
York, N, Y. 

lu, His- 

. Mathr 



-M nM^n* flu I; 

t thf^ Uiilvor 

' rnlvcrsJty i, In 

rt'spfctlvt/U i; 


from Our Catalogue 

Proinotion Blank, based on & 
study of the pupil's individual 
records. The best plan ever 
devised to jifive teacher and su- 
pt rinttrideni a more thoroufirh 
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Price, per too .__ S5<00 

Educational Disk Game, fornum- 
ber work. Price, each 9S 

Medial Script Word Builder, 
Pnce.each .14 

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Tliese aremade mlhe new script, 
midway between the vertical 
and the old slant. Price, ench.. .14 

Table Builder No, t, for number 
work. Price, each ,-- .13 

Table Builder No. t, for number 
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Milton Bradley Companj 


New York Oui»iL.>n Philadelphia 

Atlanta San Francisco 


$1.00 a year. Send for Sample Copy. 

M.10 FOR ^2.00 


Birds and Nature ^nne te^ri ,. .^,» Sl.SO 

BIrdK of Song and Story 4.Grlnn«llj *... , 1.00 \ ^.. m-^w^ ^mni^ 

Gantfiof Birds ,36 J ALL FOR OIMLY 

Golden Pheasant (Colored Picture) .25 ' 

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Gameof tfiduslrlet 26 1 iC^ il fl 

Twrenty-rive Pictures iFrom Birds and NatureU.. ,60 \ ^D^^m^^^^ 

The total amount of value ....... t4, 10 

BIRDS A\ O NATLH K, Monthly ; W pages, fi j. 10 Inchps; per year, •L.V>. A maKaJtlDc 
drvoterl to nalure. iind IHuhI rated hv culor ptidtngraphy. It Is the only ptTlodJcul In the wurld 
wlitch jHiblinhes p1cttire<« cif bird*. atiJaialn„ JuKettK, (lower*, pinnies, etc. In natural color*. Eight 
fun pa^i' ptatcw fjirh month. 

*• ttTfafijlv n<i Dk rloiilfaK anrt probably no hook, on hlrd* evpr found anythlnif llko ku«U favdr 
with ibfl public Li«BrKUfi AXh Mature"— Etenittff I\>Ht, Xrw York. 

BIRDIE OV ^n^U AK B ^Tfltt Y. A htrd )KiOk for Awdu^cn soctcttcR, 16 col«r plates. 

fvAllt'lE OV BIB IIS. lUuBlrflilloiis ^^f popular litnlB, in i;ok>ri« true to Dfttun?, on S2 flnely 
enameled L'ardlJ« 24xSi^ tticbi'^. Eiick**i5d In cage wlfh rull direct lt*u» for plnykUR. A b^aatlful 
and faaclnatlEiK isajoiv 

tiCll.llKN PIIKASANT, A beauUftd picture for train In |r. Primed In natural colort on 
llDej>tt|>«'r iH V .'I bi ki - 

LpITEK I TliC E I;A11E. r^) fiuemlonn mid luiawert^ In Fltiirllab llteraturr, 100 cards, 
Sf^X » lut-hi'K. iiiicrt-i^ibiK iin.l Instruetlvi'. 

C« A M EOF 1 ?i 1> I ST it 1 1 S, Ethicailonal - 4()0 questions and answers on rhi' pT«*at tmlus- 
trleft of our rnudfrv. ]inp cimSs, :i^ \ :i Iih-Jil'k. 

KKM E:*I BEU. a > < Hth Bnliftcrljitlun U* Bi nns A^t» Nati-ur and " Birds of p^tiir mul St^iry" 
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one year. 

A iimple of tirdf and Kilure for i dimt and 1«o pinnilii - 12 ctntt In ttamps, Stnd for Citilofut. 
A. W. MUMFORD. Publisher. 378 Wabash Avenuep Chicago 




Tart's New Physical Geography $1.00 

Trotter's Geos:raphy of Commerce 1*10 

McMurry's Special Method in Geo^fraphy 70 

Chamberlain's How We Are Fed 40 

(^/ Geographical Reader^ 


Two, three, and five book series 


37B Wabash AV€nu€, CHICAGO 





^"^ ^ \ is u/ed^n the . ^ 

PourAl^orneM^^^^^ Earrtn 

In ever-y^clim^and^ 
evfery nation it /is the 

Stanaard Typewritc^r^ ^ 

'' ^ Remington 

Typewriter Compan> 
327 Broadway 
r ^^ |Njg^ York 


The American Advance 

By E, J. CARPENTER, 8vo, S^^jo net. 

The Xeu* York Times Saturday Rez'ie^ : *' Mr. Carpenter tells well and 
with some details not usually given, the oft-told story of our territorial 

The Spanish Conquest in America 

By SIR ARTHUR HELPS. i2mo. in 4 vols. Si. so each. 

The Boston Transenpt : *' Further evidence of the present interest 
taken in matters pertaining to early American discov^ery and colonizing is 
presented in the piibliLatioii ot a new edition of Sir Arthur Helps' * History 
of the Spanish Conqnest in America/ " 

America: The Land of Contrasts 


The Springfieid Repubiican : ' ' Mr. Mutrhead is one of the most intelli- 
ja^ent ancf best informed of the Englishmen who have written down their 
nupressions of the United States. It is a most instructive book." 

The Expansion of Western Ideals 

/ly CHARLES HALDSTELW i6mo. Si.oo, 

The San Francisco Chronicle: "The first essay presents a lo^cal and 
earnest argument in favor of the retention by the Republic of all tue island 
domain of which it has recently become possessed/* 

Persian Children of the Royal Family 

By niLFRID SPARROW Svo, $s3o net. 

The Dial: '* Brimful of interest. The book is supplied wnth choice 
illustrations, depicting scenes at court described by the author, and alsti 
some of the most picturesque \news on his travels." ' 

JOHN LANE ^'^^'' nod ley Head .••• .■• .•■■ 
.••• .••' .•/ .•/ 67 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK 



The necessity of Physical Maps as aids to the 
teaching: of fi^eography and allied subjects is gen- 
erally recognized. For many years the Physical 
Maps issuea by Rand, McNally & Co. have been 
accepted by teachers of geography as the standard. 


These maps follow the international color scheme and show 

land elevations in four shades of brown ^ the darkest bein^ 

' ^ ' ^ de 

CZ coloring: 

^.^.^ highest^ and the water depths in three shades of blue ^ the darkest sha^ 

^^^mg the r\g^t^^r\ r*in-«-<»rif c Ocean currents which are one of the great 

^^^sr^srpest. ^^ean L^urrenis factors in determining the climate of 

^r^:^ M^ntries are clearly indicated, the warm currents being shown in brown 

^^^^ j>ink and the cold c\rt^'>r\ FlAnffie i^^l^^ depths of less than 

^x^ ^-rents in dark blue, ^ccan i^epins (y^o feet are shown in light 

A^ .M^e, depths fro fn 6jo to 6,joo in darker blue, and depths greater than 

^'.t.jSroo in a still darker shade of blue. This is an important addition 

^<^ ^he information usually shown on Physical Maps, and enables the 

•^^ ^:^ dent to study intelligently the interesting geography of the ocean 

^^^J^ Joms as well as the physi- oi-* «4. ri;c4>«-;Ki«4>:^«« These are the only 

^^S-^aphy of the land surface, r'lant LUStHDUtlOn physical Maps 

"^^^^ Jch show correctly and clearly the plant distribution of North America, 

■^^^^' ^ope, and Asia. And this feature alone Te./%4.ViA«-mfi1 T ;«ao ti,^ 

^/^^^hasizes the completeness if preparation. ASOtnermai J^meS. i ne 

^^^■^ thermal lines for July and January are shown in red, and degrees of 

^^^ ^rxi and cold are marked on the margins of the maps, b^ccwrvLCv 

^^^^^ing the curious effect of topogrc^hy upon climate, ■accuracy ^^^ 

'^^ ^^^ J:ing of these maps the latest official information and the results of 

^^^r- most recent explorations have been utilized. They tell the truth. 

)- 2 ted States North America South America Europe Asia 
World on Mercator's Projection Pacific Ocean and Australia 



*' Equal to the Best Work in Germany" 

Chicago, III. 

^'^ Allow my hearty thanks that an American publisher has, at last, met the pressing 
^•^"^ais of genuine geographical teaching by publishing such excellent wall maps. 

_ *^''\our Physical Maps are equal to the best work done in Germany. They are well 
*^Mted and very cheap, compared with the best ivall maps published at Got ha. 

^'■/t is seldom that I have an opportunity to endorse so emphatically a means of 
J ^*="^/«^ true geography. I trust these maps will make their appearance in every 
" ^^<^4>l'room in America. J should prefer them in grammar and high schools to any 
"dT-book in geography ever yet printed. 

Late Director of the School of Education, The University of Chicago. 

^^^ .^^nd-book giving a full description of these maps, 
•j-r*-«> special suggestions for their use, has been 
^r^P>ared by Dr. J. Paul Goode of the University 
»^^ ^^nnsylvania. There is an introduction by Dr. 
" vi:. Chamberlin of the University of Chicago. 


Rand, McNally &* Company, Chicago and New York 


New Elementary Agriculture 

By Df\ Cliiii. E, BffsrVf Prof. Laivrence 

I<rHti€t\ and Pro J, G, D. Sive^ey 


Universii Y OF Nebraska 

An tltm*fttary tfxt-tooti for fiitf »*v9nth and *igkth 
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PDpsiograpDp ^ eeograpbp 

EOGRAPHY is a study of the earth 
as the home of ^pnan, he7ice we have 
two elements in the study of geography: 
the earth and man. In one extreme 
the study of geography is led toward 
pure physiography which is a branch of geology, 
on the other extreme toiuard sociology or history j 
or some other branch of the study of man. Neither 
aspect of geography should, however, be studied for 
itself, but solely with reference to the relation of 
earth and man. The utilization of physiography 
in geography study is rational, well founded, and 
scientific. If we are to have a study of the earth 
as the hom^e of man, we must have some famil- 
iarity with the earth. Physiography in the rela- 
tion of the earth to m^an tells not merely the facts 
of importance, but the reasons as well, and helps 
in geography study to introduce the element of 
interest — an ele^nent sadly lacking in 7nuch geog- 
raphy work. Physiographic features determine 
the industrial, commercial, and political aspects 
of a section of country. Knowing the climate and 
products of the United States one can predict with 
a considerable degree of certainty what occupations 
would be carried on in that country. Therefore, 
physiography should be taught in a way that 
brings out this relationship. Make use of causes 
in explaining effects of a geographic nature and 
you will make geography interesting. This is 
rational geographic teaching. — RALPH S. TARR. 


Vol. III. APRIL, 1904 No. 4 



0/ the Univernty of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 


THE relative positions of the earth and the various heavenly 
bodies continually change, and these changes imply that some 
of them, at least, are in motion. The difficult part of the 
question is to determine the i)art of the change wliich is due to the 
motion of each. Tliis is illustrated and emphasized by the fact that 
in antiquity it was believed by some philosoi)liers tliat the earth was 
absolutely at rest, and that all apparent motions were due to actual 
motions of the moon, sun, planets, and stars; by others, that the earth 
rotated on its axis, but that the moon, sun, and planets all revolved 
around it; by others, that the i)lanets revolved around the sun, and that 
the sun with its retinue of planets revolved around the earth; and by 
others, chief of whom was Aristarchus of Samos (810-250 B. C), that 
the earth rotated, and that the earth and planets revolved around the 
sun. It is an interesting fact that each one of these theories agreed 
with all the data which their authors possessed as well as any other, 
for it was only the relative motions they were explaining. If they had 
had any fixed point of reference to start from, it could easily have 
been determined which theory was correct. The difficulty is illustrated 
by the experience which ever^^one has had of sitting in a railway 
coach with another coach very near at the side. When one of the 
coaches starts the observer at once knows that one is moving, but 
he can not tell w^hich it is until he sees some object known to be fixed 
on the earth. If we ever get airships passing each other at high alti- 
tudeS; some amusing experiences along this line may be expected. 

Copyright^ tgo4^ by E. M. Lehnerts 


At -presont it is uiiivorsally believed by civilized i)eoples that the 
earth rotates on it.s axis and that it revolves around the sun. It is 
also known that this has been proved, but it must not be supposed 
that it has been proved except on the basis of certain assumptions, 
or axioms, as doubtless everything: is proved. This may appear to 
weaken the case a little, but most of the axioms involved have an 
immeasurably wide verification in human ex[)erience. It is something 
like the residts obtainecl in ordinary (leometry, which are always suj)- 
posed to be of the most certain character althoujrh they are directly 
based on axioms which are admittedly incapal)le of proof. The rec- 
otrnition of tlii^se conditions simj)ly sliows us that there is a possibility 
of other pt^rfectly logical explanations, just as there are Geometries 
other tlian tlie ordinary which are just as logical and at the same time 
ajrree just as well witli every expericMice. l)ut which seem to our minds 
nnich less simpl(\ How ohvn <lo we unconsciously accei)t as an axiom 
that, of a number of j)ossil)ilities. tlie one which seems simplest is 
necessarily correct I 

The objects of this paper are to describe what are beheved to be 
the actual motions of tlu* earth and th(* reasons for these beliefs, to 
state on what axioms they are founded, and to discuss some of the 
indirect conclusions which follow. 


The first j)hiloso))her of anti(iuity after Pytha^roras (500-470 B. C) 
who seems to have advocated tin* rotation of the (»arth was Heraclitus 
of Pontus (about :iS()-.S2() H. ('.). Ih^ was a friend and disciple of 
Plato (42S :U7 H. ('.). a contemix.rary of Aristotle (384-322 H. C), 
and an innnediate ])re(lecessor of Aristarchus of Samos (310-250 B. C.) 
who strongly su])port(Ml his views, and argued for the heliocentric 
theory of the solar system. Tufortunately Aristotle, whose towering 
t:;enius wa> a «iuid(^ not only for most ot" his contemporaries but also for 
the civilizcMJ world for more* than a tlKuisand years, maintained that 
the earth was tlu* fi\(Ml cent(M' of the universe, although admitting 
and attcMuptiniz: to i)rove its sphericity. It follows from the statements 
in the Introduction that thi- error should not le.*<sen our resjject for 
his remarkal)le talents, for physical theories bear necessarily the imprint 
of the epoch in which they were born. To judge them justly, it is 
necessary t(^ exclude from our consideration all their faults which 
a|)pear only in the liiiht of sub-secjuent discoveries. 

Since the tinu^ of Copernicus (1473-1543) the Dresent theory of 
the rotation of the earth has been almost ' 
Copernicus ^ave no proof that the e 


more .simi)lc than that the whole heavens should turn around it. After 
tialileo (1564-1642) had applied the telescoi)e to celestial objects the 
idea of rotation was supported by analoj2;y with the other planets 
£Lnd sun, whose apparent rotations could not be explained except on 
the hypothesis that they actually turn on their axes. So far we have 
*the uncertain proofs (?) of simplicity and analo^ry. 

After Newton (1042 1727) published his celebrated laws of motion 
ill 16SG a new series of demonstrations based on these axioms became 
|30S.sible. The first was (hie to Newton himself who showed that, assum- 
i xig that the earth rotates, it will be bul<red at the ecjuator, and conversely. 
The demonstration was completed in 174o ])y the verification of the 
ol>lateness from the nu^asures of IMcanl in France, of Houguer La 
Oondamine, and Godin in Peru, and of Maupertuis in Lapland.* 

Newtcm also pointed out the fact that if a body is dropped from 
a. jjjreat elevation, it will strike the earth a little east of the foot of the 
|>lumb line let fall from the startin.t»; point. Tlie reason for this is (piite 
i=^imple. The body is subject to an cnistward motion du(* to the rotation 
of the earth which is j^reater than that at the surface of the earth where 
it strikes. Now, the fact that it falls does not interfere with its east- 
\var(l motion; consequently, durin*^ tlie time of its fall it goes farther 
c^ustward than the foot of the plumb line goes, and the deviation is 
the result. The variation is snudl, amounting to about two inches in 
^ fall of oOO feet in our latitude, and air curnMits make its successful 
execution very difficult. Nevertheless, it was successfully performed 
*>y Benzenberg at Hamburg, in 1S02. l)v Reichert at FreibiTg, in 1831, 
*^ii(l more frecpiently in recent times, mostly in deep mine shafts. This 
^fgument is based directly on the laws of motion. 

It follows from the laws of motion that a pendulum tends constantly 
tcj swing in the same plane. It is (»asy to see tliat if a pendulum were 
*^tispended at the pole of the earth, the (»artli would rotate under it; 
tliat is. the plane of the swing of the pendulum would apparently 
Rotate in the opposite direction with tlie |)eriod of a day. At the earth's 
^^^liiator there would be no rotation at all. At intermediate latitudes 
'^J'lere would be a rotation, though slower than at the poles, the rate 
^l^pending upon the latitude in a way which can not be derived by 
simple methods. This ex])eriment was devised and carried out with 
S^^eat success by Foucault at Paris, in 1851, and has been many times 
^^peated by others. 

The gyroscope experiment, also due to F^oucault, is essentially of the 
^ame character, the pendulum being replaced by a heavy rotating wheel. 
♦See The Journal of Gkogr.aphy. November, 1903. p. 485. 

There are other proofs of the .^ame general character, though less 
conclusive* such as the direetinn of trade windis, ocean currents, direc- m 
tion of rotation in cyclone?^, etf% f 

A niethoti of independent character consists in me^isuring motion 
in the line of sight liy means of the spectroscojie. When a celestial 
object^ as the sun, is rising in the east the obser%^er is approaching it 
owing to the earth's rotation, and when it is setting he is receding at J 
the same rate. It follows from the wave theor}^ of light that this motion ™ 
causers a slight change in the apparent color of the source of hght, 
just as the motiou of a locomotive has an effect upon the pitch of itafl 
whistle. The s|)ectroscoix> is an instrument which can be used to ■ 
measure extremely slight changes in color, and conseciuently motion 
in the line of sight. By observations of stars near their times of rising 
and setting the lotation can be |)roved, thongli the amount f>f motion 
is near the hmits of observation. 

The question of whether the rotation is imiform or not was discussed 
in the paj>er on Time/ The conclusion was that while the rate of] 
rotation is almost certainly not exactly uniform, the variations are] 
extremely shght and very nmch below the lituits of observation. 


The latitude of a place on the earth depends upon its distance 
from the earth's pole, wliich is detenuined by the earth's rotation. 
Now if the earth*s axis of rotation is not always the same, the pole 
will not always be at the same point, and the latitude of every place 
will vary. There is no dynamical reason why it may not change if 
the earth is given tlie proper ilisturbance but the period of variation M 
will be a perfectly definite interval of time depending upon the size. ■ 
UHisg, distribution of density, rate of rotation^ and rigidity of the earth. 
It is something like the wafibling which may be set up in a ** sleeping** 
to]i by a little external disturbance, though the analogy is not perfect. 
Assuming that the earth is pvrfnihj rigid Euler and Laplace sf vowed 
that such a walihling in its rotation must take place, if at all, in 305 
days. It was not su|>posed that the lack of perfect rigidity would 
mako very nmcli tlifference in tfie period. Since no wabbling with 
this period, or indeed any other, had been found, it had come to be 
firmly believed that the earth's axis is sensibly fixed; but between 
1S80 and IS90 new observations of extraordinarj^' ]>recision» chiefly by 
Kiistner at Berlin, showed beyond a doubt that there is a variation 
of at least two- or three-tenths of a second of arc corresponding to a 

♦The Journal of Geogbaphy, September, 1903, p. 3,^, 






shifting of the pole by twenty or thirty feet. This work has since been 
amply verified by observers in many plaeei?, and the question is of 
such importance that by international cooperation observatories have 
been estahUshed in Mar\'land, ('Ldifoniia, Japan, and Italy t<i make 
further investigations along this line. The whole amount of the varia- 
tion does not excee<l six-tenths c»f a second of arc. or about sixt}' feet, 
ami 18 exceedingly irregular The aecomiianyinfj fignre whicli repre- 
sentii sixty feet s:|uare shows the variation of I lie po^ition of the pole 
from IS<M1 to 1898 according to the computations of Albrecht. Dr. 

^ lO ♦o3o <o.1o qjto -P.I0 -oJio - oJa^, 






+(iio +atio 










Fig. t 

Aibrechts compulations xhaa*ing Ihex^rtation of fht pvsitiovs of the pok, lAoo-iSo?** 
From Yoiinfi's Mantntl of Astronomy. 

Chandler has shown that this motion is the resultant of at least two 
simpler ones, the smaller <jne having a iH?riod of one j^ear and the larger 
one a period of 428 days. Ahhongh the eoml)ined effect is always 
small it is conceivable that it may si>me tiiTie give rise to interna- 
tional complications where bomidaries are defined by latitude alone. 

There are two fpicstituis which at once arise in one's mind. One 
it;, what is t he sotirce of the disturbance, and the other, how it happens 
that the larger peri<ul difTers so mucli from tltat given by theory. 

Any change of nuitcrial on the surface or in the interior of the earth 
will cause a change in the axis of rotation. 

Large masses are shifted b}" atmospheric currents, the How of rivers, 
the deposit of snow, etc,» but these causes very nearly balance each 
other, and even if they did nrU.the involved in thent are sosnniU 
compared to that of the whfjie earth that the results would be qtiite 
inappreciable. At present the cause of the variation of latitude is 
nut certairdy known, .Much less is there any assignable cause for such 

Inrm viuiMtimis in latitude a."^ some have iujapned in attemptinu lo 
explain tlie marked clianj^es in climate wliich different parts of the eartl*^ 
have undergone. The researches! of Darwin and Schiaparelli have^ 
shuwn cnntdusively the inernnpetency of such a theory. 

The sef'i>nd question has been ^iveii a reasonalik* answer by Professor — 
Newcorab xiiid ulhers. As lias been sti^erl, the 3()5-(lay ]»eriod i^ founfM_ 
under tfie hypotliesis that tfie eartli is perfectly riirid. The thoughtr.^ 
that a nearly ri|;id 1>ody would behave st'iisibJy as a perfectly rigid one?^ 
is suggested by our experience with v(^ry small bodies. The leverage^' 
for strain increases so imich faster I ban the resisting power, as the siz<^^ 

increases, tliat matters are (|uite ahered in large l)odies like the earth 

A glass marble will lie oh a rigid support and preserve its shape almost:. 
i>erfectly; but if it were a few miles in rlia meter, it would flow out afc. 
tlu' bottom like a visi-ous mass. Xewcomb njade a tost of the effee'^ 
of a lack of rigidity on the period i>f wabliling by assuming that thc*^ 
earth has the rigidity <rf steel His coiufHitatioii slicnved that if this 
hypothesis were true, the jieriod would be 448 days, soniewliat gmat<*r 
than that observed. Cons€*r|uently Uie actual efTective rigidity must 
lie between i)erfoct rigidity anil that of sleel, i»r tin period of vanaiiofi 
of liitttttde S'lmn's (hat tin nirth /> tin tftt tttrntin u fitflt mort' ritjkf thtin 
Btci'l, It should be added thiit a uundjcr of otlier tests, such as certain 
tidal phenomena ;md tlie transmission of earthquake wavers, lead to the 
same conclusions. Here Dynamies and -\stronomy unite in giving the 
geologist i>recious results respecting the condition of the interior of 
the earth which his own metho<ls seem powerless ever to reach. 

( 7^^ itr cottrluthtl hi Ihr Mny ii<,^m\) 



Ptof^snor of Comnierciai Gvitqrtipht/, Drexd InMitHit, Phittuit/i*ktH 


X no country has there licen a longer or more severe struggle between 
eanab and railroads than in the United States. , . . In no 
countiy have railroads antl canals lieen affonled etiiuilly free scope 
for develi»pment, and in nrr country have transi)ortation rates been 
cut so fine and reduce^^l so low.'' t At the outset, however, this struggle 

Vol III 


* CVintiiiue<I from Thk JnrrtXAi. of GEtHiKAPHV 
page 120. 

No. 3, :\ffirT h, 19t^, 



%^'as waged under very unequal conditions. Up to 1S51, the railroads 
v^'ere greatly handicapped by having to pay canal tolls on their tonnage, 
^ud, in some instances, being prohibited from carrying freight. **The 
State authorities looked upon the canals as a trust confided to their keep- 
i. xig, and protected them against the railroads/'* With the repeal of these 
discriminating laws in 1S51, railroads developed rapidly. In 1S57, 
the total traffic of the canals declined 772,000 tons, while at the same 
trime railroad traffic had a large increase. The railroads not only 
c:>fTered much more rapid transportation, but also very low rates, and 
e^xitered into arrangements with steamers on the lakes and rivers to 
divert freight from the canals over their roads. Hadley says of this 

Cop/rinht, lWit4. Krmii Do-lnf'. .\<lvanc«>l <ie<>era|>h.?. 

Fig. 5. Traveling alottf: the Eric Canal. 

The passage is only xvidc cuourIi for the passat^e of canal boats, and 

the canal is not deep enoufih ;or larf:e boats. 

contest: *^From 1853 to 1X59 there was a fight for supremacy between 
canal and railroad. For twelve years more there was a contest for 
profits. Then it became a (juestion whether the canal could pay 
expenses of maintenance; a question which was finally decided in the 
negative/' t 

At present only three States — New York, Ohio, and Illinois — own 
or give aid to canals. (See Figs. 5 and 13.) All the others have 
leased, sold, or abandoned these waterways which have l)een unable 
to meet the competition of the railroads. (See Map IV, page 153.) 

A statement is appended showing the cost and date of construction, 
length, number of locks, and navigable depth of the principal canals 
of this country used for commercial purposes. t (See Map R', page 153.) 

♦Jeans, p. 197. 
t Hadley, p. 30. 
t World .\lmaiiac, 10(«. 

■ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 










^^m CANALS. 




* LOCATrON. ^^^B 











^^H Allienmrlo & ChesafM*fike 

, . $1,6413^3 1S60 



7JXorfolk, Vh., to Curri- ^H 


tuck Sound, X. C. ^H 

^^H Aui^Hta. , . 




11 Savannah H,. Ga,, to ^^M 

^H Blui'k Jihi^r 





4 Ronif, \\ Y., to LvoiiS ^^1 
Falls. X. V. ^H 

^H ( !ayuga & Seneca 





7 Moiitpieuiim, N*. V., to ^^M 
C*avu|ia ^ SeniMii L. ^^| 

^H L*hanipUii[L . 





Whitehall. X. Y,. to ^H 
\\ Trov, X. Y. ^H 

^V Chcsai>eake & Dt'luwiirt- . 

. , 3.730;23U 




9 Che^ipeiike'ritv. Md., ^H 
to IM. City, l>d. ^H 

H Chcsiipeake A' Ohio ... 





Cuniherlaud. Md.« to ^^B 
Wai^hin^ton, D. V. ^^M 

1 Corii[mMy8 





B MisH. HivtT to Bavou ^^H 
Black, La. ^M 

1 1 Jplnwar*' *t Ranlflu. . 





7 Xew Brunswick. X\ J,, ^^| 
to Trent on, X. J. ^^H 

1 Deb ware !>iYision . 





6 Easton, Pa., to Hri^tol. ^H 

1 Des Moines llapids. 





5 At Des Moines Rapids, ^^M 
Misf^Wtppi Riv. ^^H 

i>isin:d Swaiiip 





6 Connect^s Chesafx^'ake ^^B 
Bav wit h A Ibeiuarle S. ^H 



1826 387 


7 All Kill v, X. Y., to Buf- ^H 

lalo'. X. Y. ^M 

Fairfield. . 

4 J None 

Allii^ator R. to Lake J 

MatiiniUHkeet, X. C. 1 

Galveston tk Hraxos. . . . 




3JGalveston. Tex,, to Bra- 1 

sjos River, Tex. 1 






4 Carroll. O,, to Xelson- 1 

villi', th ■ 

lUiuDif} l\: MichifCHiv. 





6 Chi<Ti^o, 111., to 1ji fl 
Salle. Ill ■ 

Illinois & Mississippi , . 





7 Anjund lower rapidi* of H 
K ork R . < o 1 \ . v^-itli M i« . H 

Lehigh Coal & Xavigatioi 

iCo. 4,455,001) 




6 Coalport, IVu, to EaistoUt ^| 
At FnlW of nhio R,. ■ 

Lovimville & Port lain J . . . 





Louitiville. Ky. ^H 

Miami & Erie . , 

. 8,0B2,aS0 




54Cinfintiati. t >, to To- ^H 

Morris . 





5 Efii^ton, Pa,, to Jersev ^^M 
City. X. J. ^B 

Muscle Sboals & Elk R.Shoals 3.1.^,919 




6 Bis^ Musete ShoaJ^ to ^^M 

Flk H, Shoab. Term. ^H 

Xe whence & Beaufort 



Clidifoot Cri'ok to Har- ^^H 
low Creek. X. C. ^^1 

Ogeechee . . 





3 Savannah IC. Ga,. to ^^H 
( >^iH>rlu*e River, Ga, ^^^H 

Ohio. ... 


1835 317 


4 Cleveland. 0,, to Port^- ^^H 







7 (J^wego, X. Y,, to Syrn- ^^^H 
nisc, X. Y. ^^^H 


CANALS ^'= x-| j= ^ J- LOCATION. 

w _: :«?: '-' 

PeMinsvlvMiiia $7,731,750 IS'M) 193 71 (> Columbia, Northumber- 
land. W-B. Hunting- 

Portage Lako iV: L. Superior. . 5'2s,s92 1873 25 Xonelo From Keweenaw Ray to 

Lake Superior. 

Port .\rthur 1S09 7 20 Port Arthur, Tex., to 

Gulf of Mexico. 

Santa Fe 70,(MK) IssO 10 5 Waldo, Fla., to Melrose, 


Sault Ste. Marie 4,000.000 ls9o 3 1 IS Connect.s Lakes Supe- 
rior and Huron at St. 
M. River. 

Schuylkill Xaviiration Co. . . r2.4(il .000 1S20 lOS 71 OiMill Creek, Pa., to Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Sturgeon'.s Hay i'c L.Michi«:an 09.0(>1 ISSI 1\ Xonelo Het ween Green Bay and 

Lake Michigan. 

St. Mary's Fall^^ 7.909,007 ls90 1^ 1 21 Comiects Lakes Supe- 
rior & Huron at Sault 
Ste. Marie. 

Susquehanna i^' Tidewater .. 4.931,3 45 1.S40 45 32 5ACoUnnl>ia, Pa., to Havre 

de Grace, Md. 

Walhondinj: (i07.2(')9 1M3 25 11 4 Rochester, O., to Ros- 

coe. (). 

Welland 23.790.353 2(> 55 14 Comiects Lake Ontario 

and Lake Erie. 

Despite tlic ahaiuloiiniont of many lines of State and private canals, 
the interest and faith in canal transportation, properly adapted to 
modern conditions, has not died out l>v any means. "Canals as they 
were a century ago have no longcM* any function to fidfill that is worthy 
of serious consideration. Their mission is ended, their use is an 
anachronism. Tlie canal of the futun* must be adapted to the new^ 
conditions of commerc(\*' Cliief int(M'est continues to center about 
the Erie Canal, comiecting \ew York witli the steadily increasino; 
trade of tlie (Ireat Lakes, in trrain, ow. timlx^r. animal products, coal, 
etc. (See l''i<rs. o and (>.) These hidkier raw {)roducts, which originate 
lar<i;ely in the States drained by llu» (Ireat Lakes system, are shipped to 
the foot of navi<iation at HutTalo. Thence^ lh(\v are transported by barges 
througli the 3.S7 miles of the I'^rie Canal to Albany, and down the broad 
Hudson to the docks of X(nv \'ork. The comj)etition of the railways, how- 
ever, has gradually overshadowed the canal, and now it retains only 
a very small ])art of the traflic l)etween the lakes and the seaboard. 
The canal has brought such inestimable benefits to the JState of 
Xew York, and especially to the cities of New \'ork and Huffalo, that 
many plans have been proJtM'ted to improve it so as to meet the demands 




of modern traffic. M eomiAvXvd iji ls25 it was 4tJ feet wide nn the 
surface, 2fl feet at the bottom, and 4 feet deeix Eniarjienieut?? were 
made from 1836 to 1S62 so tliat the dimensions were: Surface width, 
70 feet: bottom width, o(> feet; dej^tlu 7 feet. This canal, improved 
but little ^ince. acconuiiodated liuats i>s feet long, 17^ feet beam, 
drawing 6 feet uf water, and having a cargo capacity of about 250 
tons. In 1S95. the legislature voted SO.OOO.CKK) ff»r deepening the 
Erie^ Chamiihiin, aiul Osvvegci canals, biU this sum i>ri*vcH| jpiite inade- 

For matiV years tliere ha*^ been an earnest agitation for a <h:e|i-.sea 
waterway, large enmigli ta carry iK-ean-going vessels, from the lakes 
to the Hudsrm. Two snrvevs have actuallv hetm made: the St. 

Vtc._ >t. I anal f'oafs Jri>in the l£rir Cunal b^in^': iiKt'^:J fo sUiifHi r'j i\: 
Xne York Harbor jt*r the inmsshiptttcni oj ihcir caraoii^s, 

rence-rham|>lain route, suggested by the Cleveland Commission of 
ISlKi, and the Oswego rf)Ute, approved by the Raymoud-Xoble-Wisuer 
Commission appointerl by Fresiilent Mclvinley. The first route would 
re*iuire a canal froniToiiawanda. near Huffalo, to < )h*ott \n\ Lake ( >ntario, 
thence down the St* Lawrence to a point op|iosite Montreal. From 
here a canal wouhl cross to the Riclielieu River, thus giving ctnmection 
with Lake Chamjilain. which in turn is comuH*ted liy the Champhun 
Canal with the Hudson. The Oswego route would foUovv a canal from 
near Buffalo Ui Olcntt. thc^n Ijv Lake Ontario to Oswegii. where it 
would turn inland along < tneida Lake and the Mohawk TFiver To rolu»e8 






Fig 7, CatuiJ IhhUs abtfut io <nUt the htcks. A canal v^rry frcqncntiy runs aton^isidv a 
Hvtff, Here a dam has htrti buiil across tkt river in order t0 supply that canal with water. 

Oil I he Hudson. This hittt^r nnite, besides being 244 miles shorter than 
the Chaniplain route, has the advantage of being entirely within the 
American line. 

The latest project to fin<i fawir, liuwever, is the barge canal rectun- 
rnended hy the ex|>ert Cnnnnitfee nn Canals appointed by Ctovernor 
R<»(>8evelt. A bill embodying the refonnnen<lations of this Omnnission 
recently passc^d the New York Legislature, and in No%'emher last the 
voters of the Stale ar^^reed to make the proposed impr(»vements at a 
cost of f l()l,()tK).n(K). The bill provides for ihc eidarijjing and rebnikhng 
of the Erie and Oswego canals to carr}^ boats 1.50 feet long. 25 feet ■ 
wide, and 10 feet draft, with a rartro capacity of 1,000 tons each. The 
Champlain Canal is \i) accommodate boats of 250 ton>. The proposed 
new canal over the old l%rie mute is to follow the present canal for 
about two-thirds of the ilistance. It will be fit for use by steamers of M 
900 tiHis cat>acity lowing two barges of l,OtMJ tons each. It is estimated 1 
that these Inirges, capable of carrying 33,333 bushels of wheat each, 
could do a profitable business at eight-tenths of a cent per busliel from 
Buffalo to New York. 

With the enormous development of traffic in the new raw products™ 
of the Mississippi Valley, the demand for an inland waterway coutiecting 
the Great Lakes with the Mississippi has become more urgent. The 
marvelous growth of the [>ort of New Orleans in recent years shows a 
how the trade of the great valley has increased, and the construction 
by the United States of the Isthmian Canal will undoubtedly greatly 
augment the volume of river tonnage. President Madison urged the 
great need of a ship canal connecting Lake Michigan and the Mississippi 



SO that light-draft war vessels eooM reach the great inland seas in case 
of war with Canada. When repeated attempts to secure the aid of the 
t^ederal Government had failed, the city of Chicago, unaided, under- 
took to build a connecting waterway* which, however, was to answer 
stiiiitar}^ rather than niiUtary or eonnnercial needs. Work on the 
Sarxitar\' and Ship Canal was begun Septend>er 3» 1892, and conipieted 
January 2. 1900. It connects Lake Michigan at Chicago with the 
XlUnoLs River at Lockport, a distance of thirty-four mile^s. **Tiie 
oaual was cut for the purpose of giving to the city of Chicago proper 
clrainiige facilities hy reversing Ihe movement of water which formerly 
flowed into Lake Michigan through the Chicago River, and turning 
ia. current from Lake Michigan through the (*hicago River to the Illinois 
I^iver at I^ockport, and thence down the Illinois Kiver to the Mississipfn. 
"^^he niinimuni depth of the canai is 22 feet; its width at bottom, 100 
€^eet; and the width at the top from 162 to 290 feet." (See frontis- 
;|3iece, facing page 145.) The channel discharges 360.000 (ndnc feet per 
Bminute, which capacity can be largely increased. The total cost of this 
jarreatesii feat of sauitar>^ engineering in the world was $34,000,(X)0. It 
is expected that Congress will make it a coimnercial highway by 
vleepening the Illinois ami Mississip|)i rivers to fourteen feet and con- 
structing locks for fleets of l^arges from Lockport', the terminus of the 
«lrainage canal, to St. Louis. 

■ af iVru' Or U arts. 

Fin. S, Shipf'ing u-harj on in.-: Missisiippi , 
if a sktp eanal were built eonntciin^ the Great Lakes with the Mississippi River, the vaUt* of Nww 
Orkans as a shipping port ^or the Mississippi Volley States urn* id be vastly ificreas«d. 





In the lti8t Tpvv years Congress Ikis liepii (lpliit!;e<l vvitli nieinorials 
pleading i'or shi|>-eaiml (Hmnertiiniis. i^liihulclpliia has Iniii!^ iirit«:ed the 
necessity of a canal aeross New Jerfcipy to New Vnrk harbor; Baltimore 
demands a passage across Dehiware; PittshurL; seeks a ship eanal from 
the Allegheny River to Lake Erie, and Cincinnati demands a similar 
channel to Ti)ledi>: Chicago urges the rnni[jlctinn uf a 22-foot water^'ay 
to St. Louis, ajid, also, a cana! west to rhe Mrssissifjpi; and Minneapolis 
expects to get a ship eanal to Dulnth, 


Relatively to her trade uiul [^npulntion. Canada has one of the 
most extensive and jnTfect systems of canal connnunication in the 
world. Inasmuch as tli*» prim'ijnd articles of her trade are raw prod- 
ricts, she has carefully develope<l cheaj> water transportation, nsing as 
a basis the great drainage system of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence. 
Canada has sjient on her canals S12 per heatl as against our 15 cents, 
and has un<ler consideration yet larger canal pr*)jections. Canadian 
vessels (and liy the Washington treaty of 1S70, American ve-ssels ako) 
now have a 14-f(yot waterway from the head of Lake Superior to tide 
water, a distance of over 2,UI)0 miles. Som«' boat.s loaded at Chicago 
have actually made the passage through the Canadian canal system 
to Kngland without breakint: l>u]k. 


Pig, Kt. L<~-ui;cj,u\i trt.iitspcrta!ion. 
This flici of idki! <ankfs is tud up at Stsult St^. Maru bfcanse af a bhckadt^ caused by heavy 

traffic in the canaL 





A whttUhack jt^ifituer passing through tiw "Soo" iMks »»t iht* >i«// Sfe. Afarv cmtat t>etitWM Liihe 

Snffcrior and Lake Hnron, 

The important rujials uf ihv J)fiiniiiit>a arr as follows:* 
I, The thrcmpfh route lietwceii Moiitreal anJ t!ie hi^ad of Lake Superior. 

1. Laehiiie, 8i miles, exteialhijj: from Montreal to Laehine, uver- 
eoming the St, Louis rapids, 

2. ir^uulangps, 14 miles, exteiidiiiii; from Taspinle Tnini to Coteau 
Lanilin;r, overeomin^ several rapids. 

3. (*ornwalL 11 miles, frnm foriuvall to Dickenson's Larnling, past 
the Lon^ Sault li:i])i(ls. 

4. Williamsburfr t'anals (the Inrrans I'niul. Jlapide Hat, and Galops 
canals) 1 12 miles, 

5. Murray, o miles, extending through tlie Lsthm\is of I\lurray 
between the Bay of Qiiinte and Lake Ontario, thus etuibling 
vesselj? to avoid the open-lake navigation. 

0. \A>lland, 26 J miles, connecting Lakes Ontario and Erie, and 
avoiding Niagara Falls, This canal was constructed in IS33, 
enlarged in 1S71, mid again in 11)00. It has 25 locks, with a 
total rise of 327 feet, and cost S2riX)00.nnn. 

7. Sault Ste, Marie, 1^ miles, through St, ,Mary's Island on the 
north side of the rapids in the St, Mar}' River, and connecting 
Lakes Huron and Superior, 
IL Ottawa River canals, avoiding rapiils between ( htawa and Montreal. 

♦Report Cmindiiin Depart ineiit of Railways anil Canab, 1900. 

•'r<tTiv1tt, ItOi FftMB 1M(b'* KlM BiiMm j timgntfttf. 

,4f this port all v«sseh f^assing titrougk the canal fioy ftili. 

II L Rideau* 126 miles, connecting Ottawa on the Rivor Ottawa with 

Kingston at the eastern eml of Lake Ontario. 

IV. The Trent extends from Trenton on tlie Bay of Quinte, Lake 

Ontario J through a chain of lakes imd rivers to Lake Hnron. 

As yet tliere is not a eonnerted system of navigation. 

\'. The Riehelien & Lake Chamjilain commences at Sorel, at the eon- 

fluence of the St. LawrerK'o ami the Richelieu, 46 miles below 

Montreal, extends alon*r the river Richeheii, through the 

Chamldy Canal to St. Johns, thence down the Richelieu to 

Lake Champlain. Lt is eighty-one miles from Surel tu the 

boundary line. 

VL St. Petei-s connects St. Petem I^ay <>ri the southern side of Cape 

Breton with Bras d'Or Lake, 

Camula's total expenditure on her canals up to June 30, 1900, 

anunmted to S95. 31 7,000. Still other canal projects are couteniplated, 

notably the Montreal, Ottawa, and Cierirgian Bay Canah intended to 

divert the trade of the Lakes to Montreal. When completed it wnll 

bring Duluth and Okicago 500 miles nearer to Mont real, and will afford 

a direct, air-line route to Liverpool, saving 1,000 miles over the route 

via New York, Much interest has been shown, too, in the ]>roject to 

connect Winnipeg, in the center of the great Manitnba wheal fields, 

with the Great Lakes by a ship canal. That Canada realizes the great 



importance of her chief water route is shown by the n^ittition to deei>eti 
the Lakes-St, Lawrence I'lianiiel to ei|[f;hteeii feet thr<iun;hout. 


The artificial w^aterways of the Avorld, properly termed ship canals, 

Suez Canal, begun 1859, completed 1S60. In its present form the 
canal cost about ? 100,000.000. It is without locks, bcin^ at the 
sea level throughout the SK) miles of its length. Passage througli 
the canal averages about 18 hours. The tolls arc 9 francs per ton 
net register (Danube measurement), which is a little more than 
S2 per ton U, S. measurement. In 1900. »1441 vessels with a gross 
tonnage of 13,G90.2H7 tons passed throu<i;h the canal. 

Kronstadt & St. I'eterslnirg CanaL begun 1S77, completed 1890. 
This canal extends from Kronstadt on tfu* Gulf of Finland to St. 
Petersburg, a distance of 10 miles, though the canal proper is 
only 6 miles long. It has a navigable depth of 204 feet, and 
represents a total cost of »lf).(H10.n00. 

Corinth Caruil was begun 1S.'»9 and completed 1K93. It connects 
the Ciidf of Corinth witli tlie Gulf of .Kgina, and is about 4 nulcs 
hmg. It has a tleptJi of 261 ^^^^^* ^^^^^ ^^^^ about $5,000,000. The 
average tolls are IS cents ]ier ton and 20 cents per passenger. 
Like the Suez and Knnista^lt canals, it has no locks. 

Manchester Ship Canal crjonecting Manchester witli the Mersey 
River, Liverpool, and the AlJantie Ocpan, was openetl January^, 
1S94. The canal is 35 i miles long, and cost S75 ,000,000. 

* Great Canali* of tlip WorUi, Bureau of Statislirs, Monthly Siimmnry, May. 1902. 



Plc, I J, The Suc2 Canal at tlte entrance to Lake Timsak, 
Tht canal « 1 50 U'ft u^^d* /A*? whok distance. 



5, Kaiser Wilhelm'or^Kiel Canal, boguu in 1SS7» completed 1895. This 

€aiial, 61 miles long, ami 29^ feet deep, connects the Xurlh Sea^ 
with the Baltic at Kiel The total cost was about $4O,OUUv0iK)- 

6, Elbe Sc Trave Canal, opened in 1900, connects the North Sea an A 

the Kllie River with Lubeek on the Baltic, It is 41 rniles loiig;^ 
has a depth of 10 feet, and cost S5,s;il,()00, of which Liibeck con — 
tribiited over $4,000,000. 

Fjc, 13. A strtct canal iti Amsterdam, 
Mu£h of rfc# ammwrce af Itu city is carried on by titc me oi thfic numerous ciHots, 


^ In athlition to the above great ship canals, there are a number of 
important waterways worthy of notice : 

1. North Ilohand Canal, cut in 1845 from Amsterdam to Helder, It 

is 51 miles long, 20 feet deep. 125 feet wide at the surface, and 
carries ves^si^b of \,'Si}0 tons. Tlie great ]>rosperity of Amsterdam 
in recent year^ is largely due to this canaL 

2. The Caledonian Canrd runs through the north of Scotland, and con* 

nects the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. The canal proper 
h 250 miles long, 117 feet deep, 126 feet wide at the surface, and 
cost about $7,0(KK000, 

3. The Canal du Midi, cut through France from Toulouse on the Garonne 

River to Cette on the Mediterranean, is 150 miles long, 6^ feet 
deep, 60 feet wide, has 114 locks, and at its highest point is 600 feet 
above sea level. It cost $3,500,000, and will carry boats <yf 100 tons, 

(7Vi 6** r*m till tied.) 





Inatruetor in Oeooraphy, State Normal School, Salem, Massachutetts 

HE State Normal School at Salem, Massachusetts, is most favor- 
ably situated in a locality rich in geographical illustrations. 
Looking northward from the windows of the school building the 
pi"! Jicipal industrial features of a moderate sized city, including a cotton 
miU^ shoe factories, and a tanner>^, are easily identified. Towards the 
nox^lieast is the harbor from wliich in times past the vessels of Salem 
sa,i led to all parts of the globe. (See Fig. 1.) Towards the west can 
b^ s^en the line of railroad by which the city is connected with the 
chi^f center of trade in New England, and in this direction also is a 
Jft**g^ freight yard in which cars of all the principal railways of the 
Ea^^^m United States arc to be found. Looking in a southerly direc- 
^^^^3. ^he eye is pleased and rested by fresh green meadows through 
whiic*"|-i the tidal creeks reach out their glittering arms. Here also are 
fer-t: il^ vegetable gardens, fields of waving corn, smoothly graded knolls, 
^^ * in the distance, numerous ranges of irregular rock hills spiked 
^'^ ^"^ dark green cedar trees. (See Fig. 2.) In one direction, there- 
"^^^^» ^re the agricultural and pastoral conditions typical of a rural com- 
^'^-■- ^*^^ i ^y, and in the other the imj)ortant industrial and commercial 
feii^tix^^sof city life. 

-■"""Vie organization of the normal scliool provides a two years' course 

^l^ '^ Ine professional training of teachers, and a system of elementary 

^^^^^^Is which serve as the basis for the observation and practice-work 

*^ ^ normal school students. The work of the elementary department 

^ ^^a=^ to prepare the children for admission to the high school in eight 

-*-^lie course of geography in the normal school proper consists largely 

^. ,*^^ observation and discussion of the methods of teaching pursued 

J "^ ^lementar>' pupils. The outline of work actually performed by the 

rr« *^^^s of children is made the basis of these recitations and discussions. 

£ ^1^^ _^3istnictor in charge of this department finds a ver}^ profitable part 

^1^^^^^*^ duty in supervising and teaching tlie lessons in geography in the 

jpT^^^^ntary school. One marked result of this intimate and actual 

jqX^^ "^^ct with the children is the unity which exists between the theo- 

^^,^^^^1 work of the normal school class room and what is actually 

^^*riplished with the elementarA^ ])upils. 


Perhaps another n^«ult is tliat some of the things which find an 
honored pUiee in nuiiiy of llie "geography ont linos have been discarded 
in favor of a simpler, more rational, and less formal treatment. The 
study of geography in the elementary'' school is suffering from the 
severely logical metlind of teaching into which the work has been thrown 
by educators who have had little or no actual experience with children. 

The regidar wiirk in geography with tlie children begins in our 
school with the third grade, that is, with the [jupils who have attended 
school ftir three yeai^, and continues tlirougli the eighth or last grade. 
During the first and second years of school life the nature study and 
language lessons have been creating a certain fiUKl of experience which 
contributes more or less directly to the work in geography. During 
the third year this information is gathered together and additional 
experience created in the study of the surface features, oeeu pat ions, 
people, map readin;br. simple weather ]4ienomena. and i>roduciiuns. 

This introductory treatment is of enurse very simple. It is intended 
as a preparation for th(Mnore careful study of these topics wliich comes 
in the next year. In that year, the fourth, the work with local surface 
features is followed closely by a study of distant areas whicli are similar 
in type to the local forms or which contril>ute niorf* or less directly 
toward sitjjplying the materials nec<le<l hv the rhildren for food, clothings 
and shelter. 

The study of tlie local surface features Ijcgun in the third year and 
continued throughout the fourth year is based upon the usefulness of 
the hills, valleys, and plains to the people of this community in affording 
suitable building sites, in determining the location of street.s, roads, 
and railways, in furnishing a fotid supply, and in giving beauty and 
variety in the hind scape. 

The physiogra|>hieal aspect of the fulls, valleys, and plains, although 
not ignored, is not made the staiiiiig ])oint. For example, witliin easy 
reach of the school buikling are various illustrations of rock hills and 
gravel hills. But the study of hills as individual tilings, separate rn»ni 
any obvious relation to the life of the couHmmity, is not of geographical 
importance. Instead, therefore, of selecting types from the unsettle*! 
district to the south and west where, although numerous hills of both 
kinds are to be fourid. few of them are fonsjucuous for their usefulness, 
we turn towards the settled area, for it is here that the surface fea- 
tures are in a more intimate relation to the daily life of the people. 

The gravel hills within the settled portiou of the town have streets 
laid rmt u[>ou their surfaces^ the npirroaches to their summits are in 


most cases easy, and the sides and tops of the hills are well built upon. 
The nearby rock hilb, on the cnutrarj^ are not laid out in buikling: loisA 
there are few houses upon theni^ and the area is useil for little morel 
than pasture land. Some of tlie hills, therefore, afford desirable buikling 
sites, and some do not. Ttiese facts are easLl}- witliin the everyda} 
experience of the pupils anfl may be considered also as coming withiaj 
the range of their natural interests. 

The explanation of these facts leads in a very simple way to a ' 
recognition of tlie differenee in structure between rock hills and gravel 
hills. The pupil soon discovers that in every case the hills that are notj 
occupied by buildings are of solid rock. The reason is that the blasting 
and excavating necessary for the constniction of cellars adds* consid-l 
erably to the cost of Iniildin^. l\ulher, the laying out of streets uponj 
the rock hills is almost prohibited by the steepness and irregularity j 
of their slopes. The hills that are well built upon are found by the] 
pupils to be composed of gravel and sand. This loose n\aterial offers I 
little resistance to the pick and shovel. As a result streets are laid 
out without much difficulty and the erection of houses is encouraged. 

Tlie eontnil which the surface features have exerted in determining i 
ordinary lines of travel is well illustrated in the location of Lafayette] 
Street, the main thoroughfare. Although in the beginning it was! 
simply a rough country mad from Salem to Marblehead, tlie fact never- j 
theless remains that throughout its entire length it avoids both the 
highest and lowest parts of the land. Thus the steep grades of the ^ 
hills as well as the marshy lowlands, wliieh at times must have l^een I 
quite impassable, are both avoideti. The influence of the topography j 
upon the location of other streets is also easily seen. 

To the south of the school buil<ling in the agricultural area before 
referred to there is good opportunity to study the usefulness of theJ 
surface features in providing a supply of food. Here upon the flati 
stretches and gentle slopes where the loam is fine and dark are the vege- 
table gardens; on the lowlands, where the soil is too wet for planting, 
the rich green grass gives promise of an abundant hay crop; and upon I 
the SDUtliern slopes of the gravel hills are fields of waving corn. The 
rock liills with their steep sides and their gravelly soil offer httle encour-^ 
agement to cultivation and are therefore used only for grazing. 

This brief description indicates the kind of work which receives 
emphasis in the study of local surface features. Whenever it is possible 
to do so without making the instniction stiff and formal the attention 
of the pupils b directed to the effect of the diversity of the surface 


1 68 



featurej^ in giving beauty and variety to the lanciscinie. It is impos- 
sible to indicate, within tlie limits of this article, the numlDerless details 
in the study of the home geography which the very favorable situation 
of the school building makes; not only po?isible but eai?y. Let me empha- 
size the fact tliat the study of the locality does not stop w^ith simply 
observing and describing the characteristics of the liills, valleys, ami 
plains^ although this in itself would be a very coniinendal>Ie aim; it 
includes a recognition and emphasis of those relations of the local 
geograpliical features to the life of the people of this community which 
help to ex|>kin the control which distant geographical features exert 
upon the distribution of the world's popuhition. 

The knowledge of the jiosition and characteristics of tlie natural 
and artificial surface features of the neigldiorhood gained in this study 
of tlie local geography is a very important basis for the first work in 
map reading. In developing this line of thnnght the children have the 
advantage of a very carefully constructed model of the locality surroutKi-^ 
ing the school building. This model is fashioned in putty. Its hori- " 
zontal scale is thirty-four inches to the milej and its vertical scale is 
one inch to forty-five feet. Upon it the hills, valleys, plains, coast line» 
harbor and mill pond, streets and railwa3^s are shown. It is not used, 
however until after some familiarity with the various natural and 
artificial surface features has t)ecn gained. Then the pupU is led toB 
make a close association between the actual features of the locahty ■ 
and their re]>resentations upon the model, and the study of surface 
features goes hand in hand with the study of the local maps. Thei 
tletails of this work can not be included in this description. 

We have founds by the w^ay^ that the almost imiversal device recom- 
mended to teachers of having the pupils tlevelop logically the map of 
the neighborhood step by step from the plan of the pupils' desks is; 
not a good way to teach young children what drawing to a scale means. 
In the first place the careful work requiretl for good results is not inter- 
esting to children of that age; in the next place, the results, even 
after considerahle effort on the part of the teacher to give the work an 
acquired interest to the pupils, are slovenly and unsatisfactoiy. Finally, 
it can be saiil, the work is wholly unnecessary, for the pupils from the 
kindergarten upward, in their clay modeling and outhne drawing, hav 
been making use of the principles involved in representation to scale 
All tluU is really necessary at this time is to show the children, by 
[ueans of photographs of themseh^es, of the teacher, and of scenery with 
which they are familiar, the necessity for making the features that 




^^n^aUer than the others in nature the smaller parts in the representation, 
^^iid that each part in the picture or model is oiade tlie proper size to 
^-Ook right. 

Following the work with the motlel of the neighborhood and closely 
^i-ssociated with it and with the features out of doors conies a slope-line 
^tn.ap of the same scale. The sloi)e lines are hnes which in<licate thi- 
T>aths wtiich running water would take in flowing down tlie hills. The 
"V\rork with tliis map, therefore, is very closely associated with the 
^ tudy of local drainage. 

A contour map of the home locality with a vertical interval of 
^^^ven feet comes next in the study of map reading, and prepares the 
'^^^ay for a very intelhgent appreciation of the Salem sheet published 
V^y the United States (leological Survey. It also leads directly to an 
i ^interpretation of wall maps like llie Sydow-Halx^nicht. 

The w^ork with tlie series of local maps is found to be an exceedingly 
iTiiportant and valuable part *>f the course in geography. Tliere are 
tnany interesting details cormected with the devel(jpment of this topic 
xvith the children w^hich must be omitted from this article for want of 
^pace. ** Without maps true geography teaching is impossible/^ but inth 
maps like those used in this scliool the work takes on a concrete char- 
tic ter which gives an interest and reality to the lessons that is most 

The study of distant surface features implies considerable progress 
in the reading of maps. The successful interpretation of the map 
symbols, however, will depend upon the thoroughness with which the 
study of the home locality has been pursued in connection with the 
local map. The use of pictures and the abiUty to form good mental 
images from verl)al descriptions are also indispensable. 

The plan by which the pupils in ttiis school are led to an under- 
standing of maps of distant pjaces throvigh a study of local maps has 
already been outlined in part. The steps have been so natural and 
easy that when the map of North America is readied the pupil recog- 
nizes at once the meaning of most of the conventional symbols. Just 
as soon as these luive been nameth suitable pictures of important 
featiu^43 are shown. These pictures help the process of visuahzation 
by giving life and reality to the places represented upon the map. A 
picture of the Arctic cr >ast Hne. one of the tropical shores of Central 
America, others of the coast hnes of New England » New^ Jersey, Florida, 
CaUffirnia, and Alaska; views of the Rocky Mountains, the great plains, 
the prairies, the tundras, and of the Mississippi and other rivers— 

all of these are recoi^nijied, describecL tn\<\ ui^soeiated with the part 
area upon the map or with the appropriate symboh 

The study of the map (Sydow-Habenicht) ilhistrated by pictures 
and supplemented by verbal desenptions is made from this time on the 
basis of every geography lesson. Those distant siuface features which 
are intimately connected with the lives of the people in this locality 
are t^tudied first. The pupils recall the varicms needs in their own 
climate, and some of the more important cunmiudities of life are traced 
back to their region of production. Then pictures which illustrate the 
conditions under wliich thest^ tilings are grown or raised are used. 
The significant things in the picture — the character of surface, kind of 
soil, chmatic conditions, productions, and people — are looked for and 

The wlieat fields, grazing sections, garden farms, fruit districts, 
lumber regions, cotton and sugar plantations, and tlie mining and 
manufacturing centers of North America in i>articular and the world 
in general are recognized atul studied as the work progresses. The 
control which relief, climate, and soils exert over natural ]>roductions 
is continually kept before the pupils, and frequent reference is made 
to the local conditions which illustrate these relations. 

The study of these industrial regions leads almost immediately I 
to the recognition of the physiographic types — prairies, coastal plains, 
flood plains, delta plains, tundras, mountainous regions and coaMal 
forms, and the relation of the rivers to these surfaces features. ■ 

The topics, weather, climate, and natural prod tic tiona receive due 
attention in the ivork of tlie third and fourth years. The aim in the 
study of the weather is to secure definiteness in the observ^ation of 
characteristic |)henoniena, and to acquire the experience necessary for 
a rational understanding of climatic conditions. Instead of a formal 
record kept day after day the teacher is expected to take advantage 
of the opportunities as they occur for studying typical conditions. 

The study of natural productions^plants, animals, and minerals — 
is closely related to the so-called nature work. The geographical aspect 
of the study of the organic side of nature consists largely in picturing 
and describing the plants and animals in their relation to the climatic 
conditions and physical features. This work, like the study of People, 
can be done most intelligently, not as a separate topic, but in connection 
with the work on relief, drainage, and coastal forms, 

A summary of the work which is attempted in the fourth year, of 
which the above is only a partial and very brief description, is as follows: 



Relief, Drainage, and Coastal Forms. 
Local surface features studied in detail. 

School buildings, dwellings, factories, streets, in relation to gen- 
eral surface features. 
Hills, valleys, plains, and coastal forms of the neighborhood. 
Surface drainage in relation to hills, valleys, and plains. 
Distant portions of landscape seen from schoolroom windows. 
Usefulness and beauty of forms of land and water. 
Distant surface features studied in their relation to life. 

Plains: prairies, coastal plains, western plains, tundras, pampas, 

llanos, selvas, steppes, etc. 
Mountains: Appalachian and Rocky Mountain highlands; Andes, 

Alps, Himalayas. 
Rivers and valleys: Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Columbia, Mac- 
kenzie, Yukon, Colorado, Hudson, Cianges, Indus, Yang-tse, 
Nile, etc. 
Coastal forms: irregular coast lines, harbors; regular shore lines. 
Rocky, sandy, and marshy coasts. 
Map Reading. 

Position: distance, cardinal directions. 

Local maps: model, slope line and contour maps; Salem sheet. 
Maps of distant places: wall maps, globes. 
Natural Phenomena. 

Forms of water: Atmosphere. Observations of sun, moon, stars. 

Weather observations at characteristic times; distant climatic con- 

Plants and animals. 

Races: life and surroundings of people recognized in study of distant 

surface features. 
Occupations: industrial conditions of home locality and distant places. 
Commerce: inland and maritime trade of Salem. 

The pupil at the end of the fourth year of school life has gained a 
fairly good knowledge of his own locality and considerable information 
concerning distant physical features, climate, and people. 

During the next year, in the study of the earth as a whole, the aim 
is to give the world-wide view^s of these same geographical phenomena. 

The largest foalures of reli(*f. drainage, and cua?sl line, already described 
to some extent as individual tliings are now reeognized as a part of 
and in relation to the whole earth. 

The various things eonsidered are form and size of the earth, earth 
in space, rotation. \nm\ and water divisions, latitude and longitude. 
The relief, drainage* coast lines, ciimat^}, and productions of the world 
and the tiii>ic People. 

Tfie splierical form of the earth is not a new idea to the pupils, 
and the purpose i\i this time is to furnish some reasons for the belief. 
The usual proofs are pre.^^ented and illustrated by means of objects, 
pictures, and tliagrams, but the teaching does not stop with the appa- 
ratus. By mean.s of the imagination, with the device nut of sight, the 
facts are applied to tlie earth itself. 

To picture the earth in space is a difhcult thing, even for adult8» 
and it ought not to be attempted by children without previous oliserva- 
tion of the moon. Some basis for imagining the earth in space may also 
be obtained l>y looking at pictures representing the earth seen along dis- 
tance away, and if the mental image which the pupils acquire is nothing 
more than the memory of a good ]>ictnre interpreted in terms of their 
observation npi)n the aiiion^the teaching need not be counted a failure. 

The rotation of the earth is also something which requires a well- 
trained imagiiuition to perceive. Usually the teaching of this topic 
anion nts to nothing more than a mere jugghng with objects. The 
geographical phases of rotation, however^ include not much more than 
a study of day and night . and since the alternation of light and darkness 
is sonu^thing within the ex{>enence of every ciuld this is tlierefore made 
the starting point in teaching rotation. 

The ptipils descril>e the a])parent movement of the sun from morning 
until evening. They think also of the possible path durhig our night. 
They are then UAd what fieople at one time believed and what the facts 
really are. Then conies the work with objects, not with a candle or 
lampj but with a sphere held in the sunlight. This objective demon- 
stration is followed by the application of these facts and relations to 
the earth itself. Tlie rletails ctf these lessons have been carefully worked 
out, but space forbids more than this brief nu^ntion. 

Small hand globes are supphed each jiupil, uml are constantly u.sed 
in the naming and description of the divisions of the earthV surface 
into land and water, continents and oceans, and hemispheres. Pic- 
tures of mountains, plains, deserts, coast line, Arctic seener>% and 
tropical vegetation are associatetl with particular areas and appropriate 
symbols upon the giobe, 


The primary highlands of the world, the lowlands and basins, the 
relation of drainage to highlands, lowlands, and basins are studied in 
"fche order named. New facts are not so much in evidence at this time, 
3,lthough of course no opportunity is lost to broaden and clarify the 
pupils' knowledge. The work has the character of a summary in which 
"the aim is to see the' w^orld features in their relation to each other and 
"to the whole. 

The study of the climate of the world — heat belts, winds, and rain- 
fall — is one of the most important and perhaps most difficult parts of 
the work of the fifth grade. The successful presentation of this topic 
requires very careful teaching. The writer was, moreover, inclined to 
believe at first that even under very favorable conditions the work 
might prove too difficult for the children, but actual experience has 
proved this not to be the case. Indeed, in the succeeding grades we find 
t/hat the facts and their simple explanations which have been taught 
at this time constitute a very reliable part of the children's geographical 

It is impossible to describe within the limits of this article the 
numerous concrete illustrations which are brought in to teach the 
fundamental facts about climate, nor to dwell upon the use which is 
made of pictures and stories in giving life and meaning to verbal state- 
ments. It must be remembered that the work here outlined depends 
very much for its success upon the previous preparation of the pupils, 
and upon the closeness and unity with which the work has been 

The line of thought is in general as follows: The location upon the 
globe of the warmest parts of the earth, the coldest parts, and the 
places of intermediate temperature. This is review. Then comes the 
explanation of these conditions by recalling the observations which the 
pupils have made upon the relation between the inclination of the 
sun's rays and the morning, evening, and noontime temperatures, and 
also the relation between the sun's meridian altitude and the seasonal 
variations in temperature. The importance of these observations in 
explaining fundamental differences in temperature upon the earth's 
surface is shown by means of a slated globe and a cardboard ring with 
parallel lines drawn upon it to represent the sun's rays. 

The distribution of temperature upon the earth's surface as deter- 
mined by latitude and as modified by the relation of land and water, is 
presented to the eye by means of a heat belt globe. Upon this globe 
the cold polar caps are shown in dark blue, the cool belts in light blue, 
the warm belts in green, and the hot belt in orange. This heat belt 




globe is referred to constantly in the subsequent study of coutinents 
and countries. 

The study of winds and rainfall of the world is closely connected 
with the work oji heat belts and is based upon previous observation and 
experimental work. Oeean currents are taught as an application of 
the efl'ect of the planetary circvdation of the atmosphere upon the ocean 

The topi(\ World Prod \ict inns, offers an excellent opportunity for 
summarizing and relating a large part of the geographical information 
already acquired and for emphasizing the control which the surface 
features, temperature and moisture, exert upon the distribution of 
plants and animals. Further, a discussion of the importance of the 
products of the world in supplying marfs needs, of the land and water 
rentes by which the surplus productions are sent to different parts of 
the world, and of the location of the principal trade and transportation 
centers, is valuable in showing the relation of the earth to man. 

The study of People is pursued in connection with every topic in 
geography. As a result the pupils ac(piire in the most natural and 
informal way considerable information concerning the habits, customs, 
and the degree of civilization of the different races. The aim at this 
time, towards the close of the fifth year of school life, is to recognize 
in a somewhat more logical way than before the rlistinctive character- 
istics of each race, and to note their original and ijresenl distribution 
upon the eartirs surface. This work give^ a gooil opportunity for 
reeognizing the different states of society and for diseussii^g, in a simple 
way, the progress of the human race from savagery through a condition 
of barbarism to civilization. 

The work of the sixth and seventh grades is conceiiUil with a study 
of each continent as a unit. The particular aims are to recognize the 
most important physiographic regions in each grand division, to describe 
the chmate, and to trace the inJinence of relief, <lrainage» chmate, and 
soils in determining the development of industrial and commercial 
conditions. The division of each continent among the nations of the 
earth, and the characteristic features of their different political insti- 
tutinns and habits of life, is now an important part of the work. The 
relation of distant people to ourselves in particular and to the rest of 
the world in general is. of course, kept constantly in mind. 



The outline of the work of the sixth and seventh grades is given below: 
The Continents, 
North America. 

Hemispheres, relation to oceans and other continents, latitude 
and longitude. 
General Description. 

Relief: highlands, lowlands. 
Drainage: Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, interior. 
Coast line: regularities, irregularities, harbors. 
Climate: heat belts, winds, rainfall. 
Physiographic Regions. 
Atlantic Coastal Plain. 
Position in North America; direction and distance from home; 

relation to us in supplying needs. 
Surface features; slope, soil, drainage; fall line; geographic 

Climatic conditions; effect of proximity of ocean. 
Productions in relation to surface features and climate. 
Location of cities as centers of accumulation and distril)ution. 
Routes of transj)ortation — by rail, by water. 
Gulf Coastal Plain. 
Description; surface features, history, climate, agricultural 

Leading cities and trade routes. 
Northern Plain. 

Location in North America; direction and distance from home; 

means of getting there. 
Description; surface features, history, climate; comparison 

with Gulf plain. 
Productions and occupations. 

Location, extent, direction, and distance from home; relation 

to us in supplying needs. 
Description: surface features, history, climate, agricultural 


Commercial routes: Great Lakes, rivers, railroads. 
Leading cities. 
Great Plains. 

Location, extent, relation to prairies. 
Description; surface features, climate, industries. 
Rocky Mountain Highland. 

Extent, general direction, principal ranges, and subdivisions. 
Description and comparison of physical features, climate, drain- 
age, and industries of Rocky Mountains, the Pacific ranges, 
Great Basin, Colorado and Columbia plateaus, Yukon 
region, and the highland of Mexico and Central America. 
Appalachian Highland. 
: Extent, general direction, principal divisions. 

Comparison with Rocky Mountain highland. 
Description of physical features, climate, and drainage of the 
mountainous region and the Piedmont belt. 
St. Lawrence Basin. 

Location, extent, comparison of relief, climate, soils. 
United States. 
Groups of States. 
Description of each section. 
Canada and Newfoundland. 
Political organization. 
Industrial conditions. 
Mexico, Central America, and West Indies. 
South America. 

Position (same as for North America). 

General Description (same as for North America). 

Physiographic regions. 

Description of surface features and climate of Andes, Brazilian 
and Guiana highlands, the selvas, pampas, and llanos, the 
desert of Atacama, and tlie plain of Chile. 
Plants, animals, and people in relation to surface features and 

Location, extent, political organization. 

Relation to physiographic features and climate. 


Industrial conditions. 
Cities and trade routes. 
Similar plan for the other countries. 
Observation Work (Carried on parallel with the study of The Continents) 

Prevailing winds of summer and winter. 
Changes in weather caused by passage of storms. 
Weather map. 

Sun; time and place of rising and setting, meridian altitude. 
Moon ; position and shape of young moon and changes throughout 

the month. 
Planets; evening and morning stars, names of planets. 
Stars; circumpolar constellations, other groups. 
Local Geographical Features. 

Weathering, formation of soils. Gutter streams. 
Industrial conditions. 
Continents (Continued). 

Position, Relative Size, Outline. 

General Description (see North America). 

Physiographic Regions. 

Eurasian highland; principal mountain ranges, plateaus of 

Mongolia, Tibet, Iran, .Asia Minor. 
Northern lowland; tundras, forest plains, steppes. 
Plains of Manchuria; China, Indo-China, India, and Mesopotamia. 
Plateaus of Arabia and the Dekkan. 
Plateaus and plains of Europe. 
Countries of Eurasia. 

Location, extent, political organization. 
Industrial conditions. 
Cities and trade routes. 

Position, size, shape, coast line. 
Relief, climate, drainage. 
Productions, people, countries. 
Australia and the Island Groups. 
Position, size, coast line. 
Relief, climate, drainage. 
Productions, people, government. 


The work of the eighth year consists principally in a study of the 
life of the worid in its geographical relations. The discussions depend 
to a great degree upon current events and cover matters of local interest 
and happenings of national and foreign importance. The work includes 
the recognition of the geographical significance of the particular event, 
a discussion of the conditions leading up to it or surrounding it, and a 
study of the })eople — their characteristics, government, territory, and 
international relations. 

In addition to the study of the life of the world the work of the 
eighth year includes something of astronomical geography and physical 

The study of the eartli in its astronomical relations consists in a 
review of the form, size, and rotation of tlie earth, latitude and longitude, 
and the presentation of the topic, Light Zones, with a discussion of the 
causes of change of seasons and variation in the length of day and night. 
The topics in physical geography include a study of glacial phenom- 
ena, wave and river action, and soils. The character of the teaching 
throughout the [previous grades has been such that the pupils have 
already gained considerable information about these phenomena and 
the aim at this time is to summarize and group the facts. 

The outline of the eighth year's work is as follows: 
Life of the World in its (leographioal Relations. 
Current geogra])hical events. 

Local, New lOngland, national, foreign. 
Geographical conditions affecting the event. 

People concerned; characteristics, government, territory, inter- 
national relations; nations. 
]\Ian; races, distribution, advancement, government, religion. 
Industries of the world; importance, development; commercial 

relations, trade routes. 
Leading nations; relative importance, territorial possessions, char- 
acteristics of ])eople, political institutions, industrial conditions, 
commercial relations. 
Astronomical (leography. 

Form, size, rotation of the earth; latitude and longitude. 
Revolution of the earth, light zones, change of seasons, length of day 
and night. 
Physical Geography. 

Glacial phenomena; river and wave action; soils. 



Plans for Home Geography Study. — The imagination must ever 
l^lay an important part in all successful work in geography and the 
^^^oncrete material furnished by our home surroundings is largely that 
Xj^pon which we must rely for our correct images. The real things, the 
^^ctual work and business that may be seen, the physical conditions 
s^bout us, are first to be carefully and intelligently seen and then the 
i magination may build up a larger world of real things, activities, and 
'IDhysical conditions, all somewhat like and yet unlike those with which 
x^ve are aheady familiar; but it must not be supposed that either children 
^Dr adults have really observed many of those things that years have 
KTiade familiar. Inaccurate, vague observation is neither knowledge 
:«nor a safe foundation for knowledge. The larger understanding of the 
"%3^orld must begin by giving the children's observation very definite 
^nd conscious aim. Problems must be clearly conceived by the teacher 
^nd then definitely and plainly proposed before either interest or 
«idvantage can come from an attempt at their solution by the children. 
Irrelevant matter, however valuable in itself, should be mercilessly 
- ^excluded from consideration ; first, because it will confuse the children's 
thought; second, the one who is tolerated in this way is deceived into 
thinking he is contributing something valuable, and finally it tends to 
:fix a vicious habit of illogical thinking, so ruinous to all effective work. 
The knowledge which children may be fairly expected to gather 
t:hrough well-directed observations will, very naturally, group itself 
»bout the common foods and drinks, the fibers used for clothing, the 
tuilding materials, and the fuels, with something about transportation. 
The children can easily bring to the schoolroom samples of most of 
'the cereals, of coffee, of tea, of sugar, and, after they have been suffi- 
ciently studied, these samples can be placed in boxes or bottles of 
appropriate size and form, and in a very short time a most complete 
and useful cabinet will be formed. In a similar way can the children 
observe fruits, nuts, :^ pices, and some of the more common special food 
preparations. The home, or the nearest grocery, will readily furnish 
specimens for study, and much more satisfactory work can be done 
studying specimens in the schoolroom than in the home or the grocery. 
A discussion of the common meats will lead to a knowledge of the kind 
of animal that furnishes each variety and some of the more marked 
characteristics in the life of these animals. Nothing should be sought 


bceanso it is iTtnarkablo or strange: choose rather the familiar things 
ill oriler the lielter to .see their great vahjes, and let the novelty of the 
fiiscussion ami observation come frotii the more accurate and broader 
knowledge that may be gainetl by properly considering those things 
which \hv children niay have ilioiight iltey kjiew qnite th<>r{nighly 
before. No more valuable lesson ran be learned by the (*hildren than 
that of the necessity for actuirate knmvledge. The child that recognizes 
his weakness has taken the first stej) towani strength. 

Lot it never he forgotten that in carrying on this work a mass olfl 
loose, chaotic, half-kntiwledge which the chihlrenV experience has 
already furnished should now be corrected ami made tU-finitc. and thus 
become a most valuable fund on whirh to draw in all future work 

A consideration of the important food (>roducts will very naturall 
leail to the further consideration of some of the most important tnatte 
refjuire<l for their production; as soils, warmth, rainfall, methods 
planting, cidtivatittn, aiMi harvesting. The further fact will come to 
the kuowl**dge of the chiklrcn that some of the fr^oils are jrrodueed in 
ovir own country and some come from abroad, antl we must consider 
how to [nc^cut as clearly as pf^ssible the matter of location. 

Prolialily no Ijetter way of traclting children the nieaning of a map, 
including the idea of relief, has been devised than that of having thenil 
take a binTs-eye view of some section and then show them how to 
make a sketch map representing its nuun surface features. With this 
will necessarily he associated some definite nieavSurement that shall 
const it tite a scale. No stich excursi(»n should be undcMiaken until the 
teacher has previously taken it and knows just what can anil sliould 
be seen^ and has also instructeil the children what is most iniportant to 
look for. Mere gating wilj ntvt be seeing, nor will it necessarily furnish 
any t lung etUicative. 

8ome observation of small hills and valleys, of watersheds and 
surface rirainage and erosion, in convenient nearness to the school- 
house, should be made and will be uinlerstood. The vahie of surface 
cultivation in retaiiung nuasture may lie <lemonsti*ated by taking tw^oH 
boxes of the same size and fdhng them with the same kiml of soih then 
weighing them, and letting tlie surface of one be left nnlouched and 
that of the other be frequently stin^efl and kept well pulverixed and 
both boxes be teste*! by weighing from time to time. Thus childreu 
can determine for thetuselves one of the main olgccts in the surface] 
cultivation of various crops. 

The textile fabrics lend tjiemselves to ^ch(K>lroom observation withi 







g^M^^^^l readiness. If rei[ue8te(l, tho ehildreii will brin^ samples of 

dJiJfif ^reii t kimU of cotton, of woolen, of linen, *^ind of silk fabrics* These 

^M^B^^M^^* be o}>sen-p(l and fompared anil fimilly eul Ui a unifMnn size and 

F* '^-•- -^^ ^f*d ou cardlmani of eonvenieiit size and laid away for future iitie. 

^'^-i * * J08t always an inquiry will brin*; In tlie schonlrooiii I he* stalks of 

^-^*-^^s^ with the seed still on, stalks of vniUni slmwinii: tlie fiber in the 

^*^-*^ 1, always samples uf woul, and stunetiines of tlie silk cnetiorL Flax 

^-■^^^J^ «cjtt«n seed may be planted and the plards nbservcMl during jLrrowth. 

^^^ ^^^M.tly ever\' nei^hbt^rhfKKl eaii furnisSi a s[)itiirmiy;-wiieel, aiui a simple 

*^i may t>e made or bouglit, and thus may be jy;ained a very intelligent 

^iV ledge of the essentials in the great textile industries. 

Tlie building matt^rials are always at hand an<l sam]>les may be 

vij^ht into the scliuolrucun. If there is a stime quarry neur» visit it, 

determining what it is desirable tn see: the sight <rf a brickyard, 

**_ ^il^ faetoiT. or a liniekihi will be very helpful Vnjl the pruduels of 

t.Vi.^se may always l>e ha«L One or more visits to a htajse in process 

— *"^ction will be well. Tliere is no excuse for not knowing at least a 

^f the trees that are s])e('ially valued for their hnnber. Almost 

^^ neigld>orhood. prairie <jr woodlaiuly has white pine, N<uway fiine, 

^^ ^"^^ oak, red oak, white elm, black waliuit. and hi<*knrv trees, and 
1 1^1^ 

^ fundsh a very large part <if the worhFs luinl>er. 
i Mn studying a few of the more important ijn>cesses in mainifut-turing, 
^o see but one simple thing at a time. How is coal matle to produce 
^^^^ ^rnr\*! Hnw is steam taken from a boiler to a steam cylinder au<l made 

^^x^ve a jiistfUi? lluw can a belt front the drive wheel ou an engine 
side to turn a line shaft in a factory? Ifnw can water I urn a wheel? 

^^l^m of these* (juestions is fundamental in tlie nuinufacturing world, 
^- ^ ^*ach by itself is very simple, and a htth* tibservatinii by the children 
-^ ^^^T singly or in groups, after the matter luis ))een carefullv talked 


w will !ea«l to a correct answer. Visiting a large nuinufacturing 
*^^ will not do it. In fact, such visits are {)f very small value to 
^'"'^h or even fiftli grade children. 

^^hildren can easily be led to see that each farmer spends quite an 
* ^*^^ciable amounl of time hauling his snri>lus prod ue is, milk, grain, 


stock, to the most convenient shipping ptnnt. The amount of 

di^ - ,.^^ and energy that this will require depends largely upon the eon- 
^^a of the roads, and chiMreu can understand that a well-rouudej 


^ Ihed thai has good surface drainage and a top finish of gravel or 
1^^ ^*^hed stone is an economical investment of money. It is easily 
^^^^^i-stood that to liaul a ton of pro<luce a mile, on even a good road. 

c(»sts as irnich as it would lu sentl the ^anw material on a well^eqiiip] 
railn>a(l twc^iity niile^, ur by ocean steamer two hundred nii!es, and th 
on a poor road the expense in more than doubleiL so that it not nnfre 
qnently happens that it costs a fanner nnre lo haid his mirphis pro<hi 
five miles from his home to the nearest railway station than it doe^ t 
ship it from there to a market five hundred miles away, he, in th 
meantime, placidly etui tinning to tlrivc through nuul and ** chuck ^ 
holes day after day, putting in his spare time comjilaining of 'Miarc*' 
times" and the exorbitant freight rates charged him by railroads U^^ 
taking his products to market. It is with the highways tliat we shouW 
begin to stiuly the great jirf^lilem of transportation. 

It is frequently surprising tliat children have so large a fund ti 
loose observation on the transportation problem. It simply nee<ls t 
be made more definite and jiut into organized form. They will ha\''^' 
observed wagons very differently arranged so as to be ada]>ted to haulin 
different products, as gravel, coal, hay, corn in the ear, flour, unsaek 
wheat. They will have noticed railrfwl trains having cars adapt eil t- 
carn^ing coal, loose grain, furniture, cattle, hogs, sheep, poyltrA% fnii^ 
butter, mail, passengers asleep and passengers awake, passengers th 
are dining and passengers that are smoking. They may have notice 
the springs under the passenger cnaches, and may know something 
the use of airbrakes and automatic ciiuplings. Help the children 
put this into the form of conscious knowledge by learning not only t 
use of each of the tibservetl forms, but alst> to understand how each 
ada[>ted to its use. 

If the work here outlined is successfully done, the chililren will ha 
a very fair foundation fi>r that larger knowledge which we hope to af^ 
them in gaining. All places referred to should be locatetl in directir 
and coniparative distance from home, and the glolx^s and maps us 
at every step to help in this matter Have all wall maps hung on t 
north wall, and, so far as possible, maps in books placed with their to 
actuallv to the nr*rth. Thr (\ttholic School JtmrnttL 

The Effective Teaching of Geography. — There is, perhaps, 
subject the teaching of which is more generally <listasteful than g 
raphy, and few subjects which are so ineffectively taught. I say **in< 
fectively" advisedly, thmigh I am, of course, quite aware that it 
possible in geography to obtain nearly always fair results a.s far 
examinations are eoncemed. But this fact is anything but comforti 
when one reflects that it is simply due to the getting up of the text-boi^ 



on the part of the pupils. And I am sure I shall not be alone in main- 
taining that mere lists of names and isolated facts do not constitute 
geographical knowledge. True, they are indispensable adjuncts of 
it, but that is all. Pupils need vivid and accurate knowledge of each 
country they study, such a knowledge as will enable them in the future to 
talk intelligently of other lands. The error in the teaching of geography 
lies mainly, I think, in a wrong use of the text-book. The text-book, 
which should be simply a correct outline of facts and a comi^endium of 
data for reference, is a book for the pupil, not the teacher. The 
teacher's lesson must be given on independent lines, and should be the 
result of careful reading. Naturally, a power of graphic description 
on the part of the teacher is of the greatest value. But a description 
which is merely a monotonous reproduction of some book of travel will 
fail to a certainty. Description, to succeed at all, and to make a real 
impression on the pupils, must be vivid and lifelike as if the teacher 
had personally visited the scenes described. Probably some will object 
that this is a counsel of perfection and impossible to attain generally. 
Perhaps so, but I am certain that the power can be cultivated even by 
the most unimaginative teacher. And, when geography is taught in 
the graphic manner I advocate, the educative value to the pupil is 
^reat indeed. The pupil whose interest has been once awakened will 
read up descriptions and details out of school. To take a few examples 
a.t random : there are few pupils who, having once formed a picture 
of the Bad Lands in the Lower Valley of the Yellowstone River, or of 
t,he great canyon river, the Colorado, or of the wonderful asphalt lake 
in Trinidad, will ever wholly lose the impression. 

Pictures, to be pinned on the notice-board, of the places mentioned 
^^re of the greatest help to the teacher. Generally speaking, the pupils 
c^re very glad to bring such pictures if they happen to possess any. 
I quite foresee, however, that, in the desire to be graphic and interesting, 
^^x^curate detail may be overlooked. Pupils must know how to use 
'fclieir maps, be trained to observe always its scale, and to give when 
^*:^equired the distance from one place to another or an area, approxi- 
^Kr"Kiately only, as I need scarcely add. Positions of towns, rivers, etc., 
^r^aust be known as exactly as possible, and pupils should be made to 
^""^el that a slight misplacement, which means in reality some hundreds 
^^^^f miles, is a serious error. 

As to actual map drawing, this has to do with facility in drawing 
^■^-ather than anything else. There is one thing, however, which is most 
^faelpful in the teaching of geography: The pupil should be able to 
^■*<5produce from memory a country or a part of a country with a fair 


dfgret* of accuracy, aiui, above all, be able to mark town;^ and rivers 
correctly. Perfect accuracy of outline is im attainable except for the 
few, and should most certainly not be insisted on. And, indeed, it is 
not really of great imj)ortance. Use may be matle occasiunally of 
lantern-slides, but this should not become too frequent, or the geog^raphy 
lessiin may come to be mgarded as amusentent and nothing more. 

I have not space hi this letter to touch on the teachin*: of physical 
geography at aD, for that branch is important enough to ekiim a sepa- 
rate consideration. And, indeed , there i^ so much to say on the subject 
of the teachint!; of geography, that 1 Viave not attempted to write com- 
prehensively. I have u^erely trietl to indicate briefly the practical 
lines on wliich my own teachinjc f*f the suVjjeet is based. — The School 
Worhl Dcfomber. VMl. 

The Eastern Shore of Virginia. — Perhaps few of the tourists on 
the "Cape Charles route'' have an idea what an important strip of 
our eoimtry they are rushing through, down the ** Eastern Shore " sliced 
t>fT by Chesapeake Bay from the states of Maryland and Virginia, 

The monotomms succession of flat, sandy fields, marshy inlets, and 
unpretending railway stations hardly tempts the eye from novel and 
nevvs[japer, or arouses more exciting emotions than the through pas- 
senger^s nervousness as to con riect ions after the train's unaccountable 
delay at some little nowhere-in-particular, or his mild amusement at 
such apparent misnomers in his time-talde as '' Fruitland,*' *'Eden.'* 
and **Bloomtown "; or ''Only/' whose sole visible claim to uniqueness 
is its "Hotel de Fox,^' suggesting that a rival Hotel de Rabbit may be 
just out of sight in the brier-patch. 

The through passenger is peril aps unaware that to this sand strip 
and its invading tides liis city table, whether set for him in Philadelphia 
or New York, Boston, San Francisco, or say London, ha.s long been 
indehled for many of its costly luxuries; fur soft-shelled cral) and caviare, 
quail and ptarmigan and reed-bird, canvas-back duck ami diamond- 
hack terrai)in, for early dainties of sea and shore, orciiard and garden, 
too numerous to catalogue. 

If our tourist have economic as well as gastronomic tastes, it may 
interest him to know that this l>ackbone railroad and its branches 
netting with nerve force the peninsula, have carried northward in one 
year over ten thousand carloads of peaches and small fruits, as many 
more being shipi>ed by boat or preserved in the canneries and evaporating 
I (hints; that ten million bushels of oysters are taken yearly, giving 
enq^loyment to over thirty thousand hantls: and that widle the northern 


half of the two-hiindreU-mile strip is a fine wheat and grass growing 
region, figs and pomegranates cunie to perfection at its southern extrem- 
ity. To enjoy these kifuUy fruits t»f the earth and sea, six million fuu- 
suniers %vait within twenty hours* distance from the lowest point of 
the jieninsula. and wheel and keel bring its farmers, fniit raisers, and 
fisheruieu into quick cuntact with the markets of the world. VV^-U may 
this narrow sand strip be called the Land of the Epicure. — 77^* Southern 
Workman f Ja^uar>^ 1904. 


An Interesting Atmospheric Phenomenon, —Recent newspaper 
announcements of an active volcano in Kentucky *M>ee<uninf!: quite 
ulurniing/' etc., recall a familiar |iheni>meuon which is srunelimes most 
impressive and deceptive in its appearance, ( hi January IM. a party 
of geologists visited the ruice famous Pilot Knnl> in Missouri. On 
nearing the surmnit, %vhich is covered with great angular rock fragHietits. 
many of the cracks seemed to be emitting steam in considerable quan- 
tities. The amount of vafHir was comparable to that which might 
}iave risen from a half-doxen f>ans ol' water boiling vigorously in as 
many different cracks. The whf>le appearance was so vividly vol- 
canic as to miggest at onee the origins of most of the sensational stories 
about v^olcanic eruptions in the non- volcanic States, Careful observa- 
tion disclosed the following circumstances: The atmosphere was cold 
and dry; the temperature of the previous niglit was close to zeiv^ F. 
The observation wa.s matle at 1 o'clock p. m., while the temperature 
was still t>elow the freezing point, but the sun was shining brightly, as 
it hatl been doing for some hours. To some of the vertical faces uf the 
rocks, snow from a recent .storm was still adhering. On these faces, 
exposed to the bright sun, both melting and evaporation were active. 
Convectional currents were indticed b}- the same conditions, but the 
vapor upon rising was soon partially condensed in the cold surrounding 
air. Current* other than vertical, among the angular blocks, caused 
the %^aj>or to be ilrawn into and to issue from crevices not illuminated 
by the sun, and which contained no apfiareut source of the vapor, 
thus adding to the deception. Ess.^ntially similar conditions and 
phenomena are conunon at f»rdtnarv le%Tls where they excite no com- 
ment. They are i|oul>tlcss mure comtiion, however, on high, rocky 
peaks, where the bright sunshine is qulXe as intense as on the plains 
below, and the air in cahii weather may be mtich colder. Here are the 
best Ciinditions for great evajioration into ati atmosphere wiiose dew 
point is far too low to allow it to retain all the moisture thus supjdied. 
Furthermore the conditiotis of convection on the fiillside cause an 



The English Mile Compared with Other European Measures. — 

:Ejiglish Stat. Milel.OOO 0.867 1.609 0.217 1.503 0.212 0.289 0.142 0.151 0.213 0.335 
:^5nglishGeog.Milel.l50 1.000 1.855 0.250 1.738 0.245 0.333 0.164 0.169 0.246 0.386 

JKUometer 0.621 0.540 1.000 0.135 0.937 0.132 0.180 0.088 0.094 0.133 0.208 

<3erman Geog. Ml.4.610 4.000 7.420 1.000 6.953 0.978 1.333 0.657 0.694 0.9851.543 
Xlussian Veret . . .0.663 0.575 1.067 0.144 1.000 0.141 0.192 0.094 0.100 0.142 0.222 
>\ustrian Mile ...4.714 4.089 7.586 1.022 7.112 1.000 1.363 0.672 0.7101.006 1.578 

Dutch Ure 3.458 3.000 5.565 0.750 5.215 0.734 1.000 0.493 0.520 0.738 1.157 

IV'orwegian Mile. .7.021 6.091 11. '299 1.523 10.589 1.489 2.035 1.000 1.057 1.499 2.350 
Swedish MUe . . . .6.644 5.764 10.692 1.441 10.019 1.409 1.921 0.948 1.000 1.419 2.224 

X>anish Mile 4.682 4.062 7.536 1.016 7.078 0.994 1.354 0.667 0.705 1.000 1.567 

Swiss Stunde. . . . 2.987 2.592 4.808 0.648 4.505 0.634 0.864 0.425 0.449 0.638 1.000 

Decisions of the U. S. Board on Geographic Names; Approved 
January 6, 1904. — 

Allegrippis; ridge in Huntingdon County, Pa. (Not Allegrippes nor 

IBeckley; pond in town of Norfolk, Litchfield County, Conn. (Not 

Blakley nor Blakeley.) 
Brannock; bay, Dorchester County, Md. (Not Bronnack, Brannack, 

nor Brannocks.) 
Bundcin; island, Hingham Bay, town of Hull, Plymouth County, Mass. 

(Not Bumpkin.) 
Celoron; P. O. and R. R. station, Chautauqua County, N. Y. (Not 

Cienega del Gabilan; land grant, San Benito County, Cal. (Not 

Sienega del Gabilan.) 
Dorseys; creek on north side of Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, Md. 

(Not Graveyard, Dorsey, nor College.) 
Highland; lake in town of Winchester, Litchfield County, Conn. (Not 

Inchwagh; lake in Livingston County, Mich. (Not Nitchwage nor 

Lemon Fair; river, Addison County, \i. (Not Lemonfair nor Lemon- 
Morgan River; stream in Barkhampst<?d, Litchfield County, Conn. 

(Not Mohawk Brook.) 
Rocky Mount; P. ()., town, and township in Edgecombe County, and 

town and township in Nash County, N. C. (Not Rockymount.) 
Rosbys Rock; P. O. and R. R. station, Marshall County, W. Ya. (Not 

Rosbysrock nor Rosbbys Rock.) 

1 88 



SoUers; R. K. station, and point in Patapsco River, Baltimore County, 

Mil. (Not Sollars nor Soller.) 
Spa; creek on south side of Annapolis, Anne Annidel County, Md. 

(Not Spaw nor Spat.) 
Starvout; P. O., settlement, and creek, Douglas County, Oregon. (Not 

Starveout nor Starve Out.) 

From Paris to Peking by Rail. — According to the Boersen Courier, 
a nuvting was nn-ently held in \'ienna to arrange for direct ser^'ice 
Ix^tweiMi Western Eurojx^ and Peking. China. The meeting was 
attemled by repn\sentatives of Russian. English. French, Bulgarian, 
Dutch, and Oerman railnnuls. It was decided to run a train de luxe 
(nm\ Lomlon and Paris via Berlin and Warsaw to the Chinese capital, 
beginning May. IIHU. The Russian Oovernment will arrange to sini- 
pHfy passport and customs n\siulations t\>r through passengers to min- 
imize delays anil formalities. It is the pur^x^se of those participating 
in this movement to make it possible for pass^Migers to book in London 
or Paris to China without change. Another interesting item connected 
with the arnuigoments is the issuing of a nnmd-trip ticket, first class, 
for $204. which permits the tniveler to make the trip both ways by 
rail or one way by niil and the other by water. The trip by rail is to 
Ix^ maile in seventtvu ilays. The tickets an^ to Ix^ juhhI on the ships of 
all companies voyairini: arv»i;i\d A>ia. anvl ivrmissiou is to be granteil 
to stop otY at any iHMt at whicb. rho --iup calls, with the privilege of 
taking another ship. ( .>»i,v...\!'* fx- :^-:<. Jai.v.ary. \\H^A. 

Snow Crystals. Sr.vnv iTy>:a;s an^ viiv: it\i into two great classes 
tluv^^ coiiimiunr ir. for:u ar.d tl.oM^ v^: a tai^r.Iar form. The forms varv 
avvoTXii!!:: to :!:o wi'.ui. ::.o hei; 
amou!\: v>: water i:: tl.o air. o: 

^:" tl.e cl-n; i<, the degnx* of cold, the 
Cry<:aN :" "riiuxi in cold weather or 
ar or - *.: i ta'^v.lar. Those fonned 

in r.uvionr.t^ woa:':.ev 1:^1. : \v.::.-< or i:. !.>w c:o-.;ds are apt to have 
>o V : :i tVa*-' er\ :yv< M:\t>«: forms grow partly 

frail br^it^oV.o^ :r. 



^^^ low and partly in high clouds. High winds are given broken and 
^^"■"e^gular forms, and much moisture the very granular crystals. 

The most common forms outlined within the nuclear or central 

T>ositions of the crystals are a simple star of six rays, a solid hexagon, 

^^'^d a circle. 




THE progress of the last decade in elementary school geography 
work, evidenced as it is by better methods of presentation, 
improved texts, more logical courses of study, more inquiring 
'^^achers, and an enlivened public opinion, is encouraging and most 
X^leasing. Is it not possible, however, that in our satisfaction at progress, 
^Xe have neglected one important element, namely, the time schedule in 
^ he curriculum? 

How can thought work be developed and discipline given, even under 
ti.he most favorable conditions of equipment, unless there is adequate 
^-ime for such work ? Memoriter work may be secured through cramming, 
V:)ut the emphasis of the '^causal notion" rightfully decreases, though 
i t does not and should not eliminate, memoriter work. Here is the 
tiheoretical difference between the old and the new. 

In fact, however, the new in many cases is, and under the circum- 
s^tances must be, memoriter work, because the time allowance for 
** covering '' a certain ground permits of no other result. What training, 
for instance, can come from 120 minutes devoted to the following series 
of topics proposed for sixth grade work? 

Northern Africa. Under control of various nations. Political divi- 
sions. Sahara — French; small section Spanish; area; surface; means 
of travel. 

Egypt (and neighboring British territory). The Nile; its impor- 
tance; agriculture. People; progress due to British direction. Suez 
Canal; agreement among nations concerning it. Cities. 

The Barbary States. Location — climate; products; capitals. Trip- 
oli (Turkish), Tunis and Algeria (French), Morocco (independent). 
Conditions in Morocco with regard to progress. 

Southern Africa. Comparison with Northern Africa. Dutch settle- 
ment at Cape Colony. Emigration to Transvaal and Orange Free State ; 

I go 




discovery of gold; Hovr war; result. Industries, pnxluct^j, climate. 
Mineral wealth (diamonds). Commerce and cities. I'nrtiignese and 
German possessions, Comimre Southern Africa with Southern South 
America in products and inipnrtauce. 

Not unly is there a tt-ndency to cruwd individual grades, but the 
total amount of time devoted to i:;en^rai»hy in the elementar}^ schools 
as a whole is often gn^sslv, mie nnglit suy grotes(|uely, inadetiuate. 

In the cfnii-se of study adopter! for Greater New York last year, 
English, History, Matiiematics, and Gen^rat>hy together are given less 
than one-half (»f the total school time in the eight gra<les. Geograjihy 
receives less tlian 4 ]>er cent of the total weekly time scale and has five 
mitmtes nn^re time a week than has histi^ry. The work of geography 
is concentiiited in the fuurth, fifth, sixth, and seventh graiies, though 
it shoulrl he noteil that there is a ver\^ small amount of geographical 
nature sttnly in the second and third gnuies, 

Sueh a condition of affairs in refeiTUce Xo a sidiject which has long 
been and still is one of the four fimdamental subjects in the cnrriculiuu 
is undouhtedly an extrenu^ eiise. It is not, however, so extreme as to 
be particularly individual, ami herein lies the danger. We are so accus- 
tomed to seeing the newer subjects almost replacing the old that we are 
not surprised at ativ allot nuMit of time. We ([uietly ac([iiiesce and 
accept what we do not approve, jierhaps unc<msciously taking comfort 
in the thought that the pendulum must turn back in its course before 
long, and that there are better times conung. 

Surely ph\^sical training, miture study, including elementarv science, 
hand-work, and music, have a right in a place in the curriculum, and 
have ]>roved their extreme value as factors in elenifutaty education. 
It is obvious that tf> introduce the new nuist mean a reduction of the 
time to be giveti to the old. Have we gone too far in this reduction? 
Has any one of these subjects as yet proved its right to have more time 
thjin either history or gecjgraphy? Are our cnrrirula synnnetrieal or 
lopsided? Are we sacrificing the essential h>r the relatively less valu- 
able? Does geography deserve more or less time tlian it now receives? 
W^e think it deserves m<n*e,antl believe Ihat if the geography specialists 
are as insistent in their demands as are the st>ecialists in the newer sul>- 
jects, geography will hold its own from now <m and jjerhaps regain some 
of its lost prestige. us work toward this end, not in the interests of 
the subject, but pritnaiily l^ecause we believe that geography has proved 
its vahie and that the best interests of the children in our schools require 
more and belter geography. 

tC^cmmercial Geography. By Jacques \\\ Uedway. Size, 6x3f inches. 
^'Mii ^^jui 406. Clias, Scribner's Sons, New York, 1903. 

^^eclway*9 Comtnercial Geogrnphy is the latest addition to the rapidly growing 
»*^* of r^ommercial gt^ographies written hy well-known Arneriean authors. 

T^Ji^ -iohuiie before lis contains thirty -four c'h:i]>ters. It is, like most of the 

»ll3- published texts on coiinnerrial geography, mpable of divij^ion into four 

There is, first, a general diiicuasion of eonmierce of 87 pages, next a desorip- 

<^f the commodities of trade covering 122 pagcjs, iheti an at'ronnt of the 



-les of the rnited States of 51 pages, und finally a review of tin? produt^tive 

*"^^^^ mries of the remainder of the world covering i:i7 priges. 
j^j ^r*X:i.^. first- seven chapters embra-fe iislroduclory elements on t:onnnerce, a brief 

^ ^-^ *■">?" of eonmieree, a diBcusftion of the topographic and climatic control of com- 

£^^^ ^^^ ^ a description of the means of transportation » and an enumeration of the 
^1^^ '^^^M^^ goveniing the location of citiei*. All of these chapters are well done except 
^^ *^^**^t, entitled "Genend Principles/^ which, to the rtnicwer^s mind, is too simple 

j^. '^^^i:*© indefinite. The chi^HsiHcation of industries adopted here does not include 

-•^».^^ cQUiiijon indnstrie8 later mentioned and distinctions are not jdwavs clearly 
**- The climatic and topographic control of connnerco is well discussed, as 
Ijso ocean and inland navigation and tranj^jKirtalion by rail. The chapter on 
■^^^^^^ in the location of eiiies and towns is interesting, but not sufficiently 
^^^ive. All our American commercial geographies have thus far failed to give the 
^.^^ X>^T emphasis to the principle's of economics necessary to an understanding of coni- 
**^^i»l geography. For instance, Btune idea of the function of a market and of the 
c>nwof urban conditions through tiic application of the principle of production 
,^^^ **► large scale might have prefaced the dJ.'^cussion of the general relation of cities 
* ^^dustrial society to elucidate the 8nbje<'t; and, in the further development of 

» ^He complex way in which conimerciaJ forces enforce physical conditions* and 
^Ulate the frc^fttienfe and distribution of cities might have been attempted, 
■-*t>lying, for example, the principles of railway transportation so coin|>{ictly stated 
^^*^ Pages m, 70, and 7L 

Tlie description of the tnimmodities of trade occypie* nine chapters, and is, as 

**tjle, well done. This is a kind of material which it is hard to present except in a 

^^logue fonn, and which yet mu><t be &o iirninged and treated that the vital 

^lations in trade may be constantly brought out. To give too much is to make the 

^^t mouotonons ; to give too little is to make it iji valuable. Between these 

^ -^tremes is the happy mean :is to (juantity which the author has very closely 


The remainder of the l>ook i.^ devoted to the regional commercial geography oi 

*^€ vrorld. The reviewer do^-a not believe that progress in an understanding of the 

r*»iueip!es of commercial geography, nor effective coordination in the science can 

^ brought about by such a representation of the facts of the subject. As yet, 

iowever.few authors in this field have succeetleil in departing fur from this regional 

'"^eatnient, inherited from the elementary school texts of to-tlay, and pa^sscd down 

^^* tiicni from the "grammars" of nearly two centuries ago. 

The aiubor hus presented his fat'ts with a gcKid distribution of timl th« 
relative iiiiporlaiire of fomgri counlries is imiirated l»y the attention thev reitive 

The Ixjok is typographirally pipjisiiig, and is well printeiL It has in any features 
whirh make it s^wni les5 forhiiiding than f^oinc l)ooks on the same .^snhjert. It is H 
rival and not a hU|XTior to its colleajeuea in the held of romniercial geography, nnd 
hen re does not represent the f>iogrfBi? that every new t)0€k in any field shoulcl 
mark. E. D, J. 


All interested arc' reminded again that suggjesticms for the Etliiea-j 
tional Proo:ram n( tiie Eighth Internationa! (Seograpliic Congress should 
be sent to the senior editor of the Joiknal at the earhest possible date 

Prof, D. C. Ridgleyj fornterly jinneipal of a grammar sehool in 
Chicago, has )>eon irjade head of the Department of Cieography at the 
Illinois State Normal University. Normal. 111. Professor Ridgley goes 
to his new jiosition tuialified lx)th by training and experienee to placi 
tfie work of geography on a high plotie. 

Educational Papers of the International Congress of Geog;' 
raphy. — The < )etober and Novend)er ntimljers of the Jouhnal o] 
(iKototAPlty will eontain the most important papers on Kdiieational 
Gec>graphy to be read before the International Congress of Geography 
to he held in Washington, 1>. i\, HK)4. f] 

Mr. Robert M. Brown, formerly instruetcjr in physiography at the? 
High SehooL New Hedford. Mass., has l^een appointed as instruetor i 
geography at the Normal Schord, Wnreester^ Mass, Mr. Browm wi 
be known to the readers of the Journai. as an author of several vahiabli 
papers. Other |mpers of a similar nattire may be expeete<l from bt 
in the near future. 

The Sea of Azov, — The daily papers reporteil in the middle o| 
December that the Sea of Azov hail snchlenly receded, exposing th6 
bed for several miles oil shore. \'essels were left high and dr)' anc 
the sand was thrown ashore, eattsing great (ianiage. The shore of the 
sea has very gentle slof>es, and thus a slight depression of the sea floon 
or a strong wind whieh r*nuld hr^ld the water back woidd cause a large 
area to be exposed, Tfie greatest reeessiou wns reported from Tagan- 
rog, one of the important ports of the Russian Empire, because i 
proximity to the wheat fiehls. 


$i*oo Per Year 

Twelve Numbers 

me Edflcaloi-Jouinal 

IX iSjf, the I?«niANA SCHOOL JriUKtsAL wttf* statteJ by the Indmna SUte Teachers' 
As«ticiation. each nicniber subscribing: for as mniiy copiei^as he tbuu>fht he could 
iillord. and i' ! under that name until iqco when it and the Inu.4NIj Euu- 

c.vxtjH (formerly ; t Tcrre Haute, Ind.i were consulidalfd under the name of 

ATOR-JouKNAL nt Indianaptvlis. 
L It^ able and popular contributors appeal to the teacheris of 
every grade, whether in the country or city. 

it. It i-i liberally patronired by both' county and city supcrin- 

nd their teachers, and its circtilation' e:itends into many 

>.. Librarians of normal schools and co I lejje.s throughout 

.States have subHcrilied fi>r it, and it is rej^arded u:» one of 

' ---ive educational journals published. 

•r is I »r. Roberi J. Aley, professur of tna the ma ties in 

-iiy He grraduated from that inntiiutiont and hulds 

, D- decree frtnTi the University of Pennsylvania. 

Because of itji extensive circulation it is recognj/ed aK one 

of the best adverti^iin^ mediums. Ab an educational monthly it 

^^^fcritj.s first in the United States in the umonnt of advert iidng^. 




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I^HIS ia the dtiy of Special Teacher*. who can ti?ach J^^y subject well, noticeabt j ^ ^ 
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JO URN J L OF GEOGRA PH J '. Wtii these help m ike 
^e&j^raphkaf li^ork of jtmr cluis/ 

The FuDctions Df Geography in the Elementary SchooL 

Geography in the United States. 

The Delta of the Mississippi River, 

A Noteworthy Cave in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, 

Weather Lore, 

The Scope and Coatent of Geog-raphy, Two articles. 

Map Drawing, 

Studying the 5un| Moon, and Stars. 

Transportation. A series <A articles. 

River Study, 

Geographical Education. 

The Geography of the Louisiana Purchase. A series of 

ten artides. 
Practical Exercises in Physiography, 

The Geography and History of Chattanooga and Vicinity, 
Geography in the Civil War. 
The Conduct of Excursions in Elementary Geography 

The Growth of Wheat in the United States. 
The Geography of the Fall Line, 
Geographic Influences of Government. 
Mathematical Geography. A scries. 

Geographical Course of Study In the Following Normal 

Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Los Angeles^ California, 

OswegOj New York, 

Westfield^ Massachusetts. 

Stii^^i f tf'f fi*r this Jour rtai. ^ttj jr^t ///*' uiif t*f fhtse artkltrs. 
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The Functions of Geog:raphy in the Eletnentarj School, 

Geography in the United States. 

The Delta of the Mississippi River. 

A Noteworthy Cave in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. 

Weather Lore, 

The Scope and Content of Geography. Two articles^ 

Map Drawing, 

Studying the Sun, Moon, and Stara. 

Transportation* A series of articles^ 

River Study. 

Geographical Education. 

The Geography of the Louisiana Purchase. A Rcries of 

Practical Exercises in Physiography, 

The Geography and History of Chattanooga and Vicinity. 

Geography in the Civil War. 

The Conduct of Excursions in Elementary Geography 

The Growth of Wheat in the United States, 
The Geography of the Fall Line. 
Geographic Influences of Government, 
A nt h ropo geo gra p hy , 
Mathematical Geography, A series. 

Geographical Course of Study in the Following Normal 
Schools : 

Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Los Angeles, CaHfornia. 

OswegOt New York. 

Westfield, Massachusetts. 

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The D«ltJi of tlu^ Misdsslftpd FRAKCIS E. LLOYD J04 

ht Motioos oi iHe Earth -Pan n FOREST R. MOUITON 213 

Hie Fi qI Geoffaphy in the Eleinentary School: A Study in Edu- 


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Home Geography an 
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B^lementary Geography 


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Before adopting old bfxiks SICIC THESE which are up to -date. 


Chicago Neu* York 

Fiii, 113, A i:apt\ peninsula^ and isthmus. This is a characierisiic M i*/ 

AVi£/ Eft gland shur^. 


Geography is the exact 
and organized knowl- 
edge of the distribiition 
of phenomena on the 
surface of the earth, cul- 
minating in the inter- 
action of 7nan with his 
teri'esti'ial environment 




Vol. III. MAY, 1904 No. 5 


THE announcements of summer courses for 1904 sent out by our 
leading universities and normal schools contain the welcome 
evidence that geography will again receive, as it did last year, 
^ very generous allowance of time and attention. This is especially 
"true at the University of Chicago and at Columbia University, where 
xmusually attractive opportunities for geographical studies and investi- 
gations will be offered, and at Cornell University, where last year's 
successful summer school of geography will be repeated under still 
more favorable conditions by the same strong corps of well-known 
instructors and geographers. So many and such valuable courses are 
announced by the«e and other educational institutions that every 
«tudent and teacher of geography will be able to find interesting and 
profitable work in his chosen field. It is believed that many readers 
of the Journal are planning to do such work this summer, and it is 
for their convenience that the Editors have prepared the following 
brief summary of the principal courses in geography and allied subjects. 


The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. The Principles of Geog- 
raphy. Mr. L. H. Wood. 

A study of the general principles underlying the distribution of 
man and the development of human culture, and a special study of 
type regions on the basis of the principles developed. June IS-July 27. 

Columbia University, New York City. General Geography, Miss 
Clara B. ICirchwey. 

This course is especially planned for teachers of nature study and 
geography in elementary schools, and covers the most difficult topics 
ordinarily presented in the introduction to a school geography. Lec- 
tures, laboratory work, and collateral reading. Sixty hours. July 6- 
August 17. 

Copyright y tgo4^ by E. M. Lehnerts 


Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. General Geography. Mr. 
Henry T. Burr, assisted by Mr. Frederick M. Wilder. 

A course designed primarily for teachers of geography in grammar 
and high schools. The subjects treated in the lectures and illustrated 
in the laborator>' and field work will include: Physical features of the 
lands; classification of land fomis; the earth as a globe; meteorology; 
oceanography; geographical controls of the distribution of plants 
and animals; and geographical factors in the histor>' of man. July 5- 
August 12. 

Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. General Geography, Pro- 
fessor E. M. Lehnerts. 

A course planned for stutlents and teachers desiring to review the 
general principles and facts of geography: (1) The fundamental facts 
and principles of mathematical and physical geography and their relation 
to the distribution of life and the industries of man; (2) a detailed 
study of the western hemisphere, with special emphasis on the geog- 
raphy of the United States; (3) the continents and countries of 
the eastern hemisphere and their conmiercial relations with the Unit^ 
States. Lectures, recitations, and laboratory work. June 20- 
July 29. 

The School of Education, The University of Chicago, Chicago, 
111. Fundamental Corieepts in Geography. Associate Professor Zonia 

Topography; development of topogra])hic forms. Climate; elements 
which make climate. Life; relation to climate and topography. 
People; relation to geographic controls. June IH-July 27. 

State Normal Collkcjk, V])sihinti, Mich. General Geography. 
Mr. Isaiah Bowman. 

A course of lectures on the continents, with references for reading. 
The lectures will give an account of the physical and climatic features 
now regarded as most evi(l(»ntly governing human occupation of the 
different ])ortions of the eartli, the more im])ortant political divisions 
and tlieir re hit ion to the physical geograpliy, and the commercial and 
historic or social points of contact with our own national hfe. Four 
hours a week. June 27 August 5. 

Xohthiohn Illinois Stati: Normal School. DeKalb, III. General 
Geogra])hy. .Miss Marion Wellek. 

A course in general geogra])hy from the teacher's point of view. 
Home g<'ography; the earth as a whole; air and water; selected tyi>e 
.studies. Junr 20 .////// 21). 



The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Elementary Mathe- 
matical Geography. Assistant Professor Kurt Laves. 

The form of the earth and its size; how to constnict a map of a 
given area of the earth's surface; the rotation of the earth; the 
earth a member of the solar system; the seasons; climatic coniUtions; 
the tides. July 2S-Septemher 2. 

geography of the land 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Physical Geography of the 
ZAinds. Professor Ralph S. Tarr. 

A course in modern physical geography or physiography of the 
lands, with special stress placed upon the questions relating to the 
origin and life histor}' of land forms and their influences on man. Four 
hours a week. July 7- August 19. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. Physiography. Mr. 
S. H. Ball. 

The course is designed for teachers and students desiring to take 
work in physical geography and dynamical geology. Lectures and 
excursions. June 27-August 5. 

Columbia University. General Geology. Professor CIraijau and 
Miss Maury. 

A course in the elementary principles of geology from the physical 
point of view. The development of topographic forms; their relation 
to life; the making of geologic sections; reading and interpreting 
topographic maps and models; half-day excursions in the vicinity of 
New York. July 6- August 17. 

The University of Chica(jo, Chicago, III. Two courses: 

Physiography. Professor R. D. Salisbury. 

The earth's features, treated with special reference to th(»ir origin 
and significance. Genetic geography. Tlic course will hav(» special 
reference to North America. Jiine IH-July 27. 

Research Course in Physical Geography. Professor R. 1). Sallshuhv. 

Topics will be arranged with students individually, on conference 
with the instructor. 

Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. The Develop- 
ment of Land Forms y with daily field and laboratory work. Professor 
Charles R. Dryer. June 27-August 5. 

Drake University, l)es Moines, Iowa. Physical Geography. Pro- 
fessor E. M. Lehnerts. 


Land forms, and the agents and processes which have produced 
them; the atmosphere and the ocean; scientific weather forecasting; 
principles underlying the distribution of plant and animal life; the 
influence of the physical environment of man. Library reading?, 
recitations, and laboratory work are supplemented by a study of the 
geology and physiography of Des Moines and its vicinity. Five hours 
a week. June 20- July 29. 


Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. Meteorology. 
Professor Charles R. Dryer. 

A study of the atmosphere, weather, and climate, with daily labora- 
tory work and instrumental observations. June 21-August 5. 

Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb, 111. Meteor- 
ology. Professor F. L. Charles. 

A course in elementar}'^ science, with special reference to weather 
phenomena. Recording of local data ; forecasting ; laboratory work 
and recitations. June 20-JuIy 29. 

The ITniversity of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Elementary Meteor- 
ology and Oeeonography. Mr. H. H. Barrow^s. 

An outline course for teachers of physical geography and physiog- 
raphy. July 2H-Sepiember 2. 

Cornell rNivEusiTY, Ithaca, N. Y. Elementary Meteorology. 
i\Ir. Frank Carney. 

The o})ject of this course is to offer enough information to render 
the subject of inetoorologj' and climatology more practical to teachers. 
Lectures (with slides), recitations, and assigned readings. July 7- 
August 19. 

For a laboratory course in meteorology consult the courses men- 
tioned in this paper under the heading Field and Laboratory Courses. 


The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Four courses: 

Elementary Eeology. Dr. Cowles and Mr. Howe. 

Plants in relation to their environment. Field work, laboratory 
work, assigned readings, and lectures. First term, June IS-July 27 

Physiographie Eeology. Dr. Henry C. Cowles. 

Origin, develoj)nieiit, and death of the various plant associations, 
especially such as are found in the United States and Canada. Second 
term, Jxdy 2S-Scptemher 2. 

Researeh in Eeology. Dr. Cowles. 


This course requires special training in ecology, and in related 
lines of study, especially geology and plant physiology. 

Field Zoology, Dr. C. M. Child. 

A study of the fauna of the region about Chicago, with special 
reference to the relations between animals and their environment. 


Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Three courses: 

Commercial Geography. Mr. Philip Emerson. 

A study of important topics in commercial geography, with special 
relation to the position held by the United States in the commercial 
struggle of the present time. The history of commerce and industry; 
the physical controls of commerce; the great commercial staples and 
the development of allied interests; the commerce and industries of 
the United States and the leading commercial nations and regions. 
July 7-August 19. 

Geographic Influences and Relations. Mr. R. H. Whitbeck. 

lectures and discussions designed to show the influence of physio- 
graphic and climatic conditions upon human activities: The influence 
of soil, coast line, mountains and valleys, plains and plateaus, gaps 
and passes, winds, rainfall, ocean currents, altitude and latitude, 
navigable inland waters; geographical causes leading to the location 
and growth of cities, the location and migration* of industries, the 
establishment of transportation routes, and the prosperity of states 
and regions; man's reaction upon his environment, and his conquest 
of natural obstacles. Jidy 7-August 19. 

University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. Economic and Commercial 
Geography. Assistant Professor N. A. Weston. 

A study of the effects of geographical conditions on economic and 
commercial life. The physical features, resources, domestic and 
foreign trade, trade routes, transportation facilities, and industrial 
characteristics of the population of the United States and the leading 
foreign countries. June 13-Aiigust 12. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Commercial Geography. 
Dr. C. A. Herrick. 

A course of lectures, supplemented by class recitations, practical 
demonstration of methods, and excursions. A general outline of the 
subject with enough discussion and demonstration of methods to 
prepare teachers for work in secondary schools. July 5-Augu^t 12. 

The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Commercial Geography 
for Teachers. Assistant Professor H. R. Hatfield. 


The scope and methfxl of commercial geography, its bibliography, 
text-books, and original sources. Special topics will ])e invest igateil. 
June l^September 2. 

For laboratorj' work in commercial geography consult courses 
outlined below. 


Cornell University, Ithaca, X. Y. Nine courses: 

Laboratory Course in Physical Geography, Mr. Carney and 
Mr. Hubbard. 

A practical course to illustrate the methods and materials available 
for laboraton- and field work in high schools. Attention is given to 
the possibilities open to the teacher in schools having limited laboratory- 
equipment. Where desired by a teacher, personal suggestions will be 
made regarding the local field work he may cany' on with his classes. 
July 1-August 19. 

Field Course in Physical Geography. Professor Tarr, Assistant 
Principal Carn?:y, Mr. Whitb?:ck, and Mr. Hubbard. 

One afternoon each week is devoted to the study of physiographic 
phenomena in the field, and two days at the end of the week are given 
to all-day excursioiLs. An excursion to Niagara is also offered in con- 
nection with this course, but attendance upon it is voluntar}'. An 
excursion to the anthracite coal fields is also open to students in this 
class. July 7-August 19. 

Laboratory Course in Meteorology. Assistant Principal Carney. 

A course planned for both grammar and high-school teachers. 
Some of the topics considered, discussed, and illustrated are: Non- 
instnimental observations — when to begin and over how long a period 
to continue the most simple observations; record-tables and methods 
of using them; instrumental o])servati()ns — tabulation of records., 
averages; use of weather maps; filing of these maps and of newspaper 
clippings of notable meteorological phenomena; the equipment of a 
meteorological la])orator}'. July 1-August 19. 

Laboratory Course in Geology. Mr. F. V. Emerson. 

A course intended to furnish an opportunity for the study of such 
geological phenomena as are capable of illustration by specimens, 
maps, and models. July 1-August 19. 

Field Course in Geology. Professor A. P. Brigham, Mr. F. Carney, 
Mr. F. V. Emerson, and Mr. G. D. Hubbard. 

One afternoon each week and two Saturdays are devoted to excur- 
sions in the neighborhood of Ithaca. A voluntary excursion to the 


anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania is offered. Students of this 
course are also permitted to go on the Niagara excursion. July 7- 
Aiigust 19. 

Laboratory and Field Work in Commercial Geography, Mr. Philip 

Methods of teaching commercial geography and of studying com- 
merce and industr}*: (a) In the factories and mills of Ithaca and 
vicinity; (6) in the laborator>^ by means of selected specimens, photo- 
graphs, statistics, Government reports, and other material in print, 
and by the making of illustrative maps, charts, and diagrams; (c) in 
the conservator}' and garden and on the farm. July 7-August 19. 

Advanced Course in Dynamic Geology and Physic<il Geography. 
Professors Tarr and Brigham, with assistants. 

Advanced field and laboratory' work under the supervision of the 
instructors. The work will vary with the needs of the individual 
students. July 1- August 19. 

Five-day Field Excursion. Professor R. S. Tarr. 

An excursion by rail, steamboat, and wagon, with frequent stops 
at points of interest. Its object is to study a large area, interpreting 
the phenomena observed, and noting the influence of physiography 
on the industries. The estimated expense is $40.00. All who desire 
to go are expected to notify Professor Tarr before June 1st. 

The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Four courses: 

Field Geology. Dr. W. W. Atwood (first term) and Mr. R. T. 
Chamberlin (second term). 

Training in stratigraphic, glacial, and other field determinations, 
together with mapping, sketching, and technical description. The 
field is the vicinity of the Dells of the St. Croix, Minnesota-Wisconsin. 

Field Geology. Professor Salisbury and Dr. Atwood. 

Advanced field work, involving the systematic investigation of a 
formation or an area. The fields for 1904 will be in the West, or in 
Wisconsin. Dr. At wood's party will spend the month of September 
in the vicinity of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. Other parties, 
doing more special work, will study the former glaciation of selected 
mountain regions in the W^est, or in Eastern Wisconsin. Second term, 
July 2S-September 2. 

FiM Geology. Professors T. C. Chamberlin, Salisbury, Iddings, 
and Assistant Professor Weller. 

Thorough and systematic work in close conformity to official stand- 
ards, and, as nearly as possible, individual and independent. The 
course may form the basis for a doctor's thesis. 

Field and Laboratory Course in Geology. Mr. L. H. Wood. 


The geography and geologj'^ of Chicago and its vicinity, studied 
in the field and from relief, topographic, and geologic maps. The 
course will include two field trips and three laboratory' exercises weekly. 
For teachers and for those who wish to leani methods of field work. 
First term, June IH-July 27. 

Map Study. Mr. H. H. Barrows. 

An advanced course in the interpretation of topographic and 
geologic maps. P^specially for teachers who wish to introduce labora- 
tory methods into physiographic and geologic work. July 2S~Septem- 
her 2. 

Physiographic Drawing, Chalk Modelimj. Mr. Georg Thorne- 

The primary purpose of this course is to give students of physiog- 
raphy ability to sketch topographic forms on the blackboard. June 
IS-July 27.* 

The School of Education, The University of Chicago, Chicago, 
111. Field Geography. Associate Professor Zonia Barer. 

The class will visit Northern Illinois and Southern Wisconsin; thence 
by the way of St. Paul and the Mississippi River to St. Louis, where 
a week will be devoted to a study of the geographic exhibits of the 
World's Fair. Stops will be made at points of special topographic, 
geologic, or industrial interest. July 2S-Septemher 2. 

University of Missouri, Columbia. Mo. Physiography. Pro- 
fessor C. F. Marhut. 

A course of study in the principles of physiography, taken up from 
the point of view of the noe<ls of the high-school teacher. Laboratory 
work, field work, and occasional lectures and conferences. 

University of Wisconsin. Madison, Wis. Field Geology. Mr. 
S. H. Ball. 

Students work in parties of two. an<l an area near Madison is assigned 
to each party. Each student makes his own topographic map and, 
with this as a base, prepares a geological map and a written report of 
his area. June 27-August 5. 


CoLUMiUA University, New York City. Geography of Xorth 
America. Professor R. K. D(>i)(;e. 

This course will ])e devoted to a topical outline of the geography of 
Xorth America, which will ])e treated in such a way as to bring out 
the causal relation existing between the physical and hfe conditions. 


The needs of teachers in the intermediate and upper grammar grades 
"will be constantly kept in mind, and the endeavor will be to show through 
^lie study of North America how each of the continents may be treated 
in school work. The lectures will be illustrated by maps, models, and 
jDhotographs. Training will also be given in the use of reference books, 
^nd in the organization of subject-matter by ijieans of special papers 
on selected topics to be prepared outside of the classroom and submitted 
f"or criticism. July %- August 17. 

The University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. Economic Geography 
o/ North America. Assistant Professor Goodk or Mr. Wood. 

A study of the natural resources of the continent as factors in its 

economic development. The geologic structure, the physiography, 

»nd the climate, treated as factors determining or affecting the location 

«ind utilization of mineral resources, arable and grazing lands, forests, 

^tc. The influence of these various resources on the settlement and 

development of the continent. July 2S-Septemher 2. 

The School of Education, The Univkksity of Chicago, Chicago, 
311. Continental Study: North America as a Type Continent. Associate 
Professor Baber. 

Effect of the geography of North America upon the development 
of its civilization. Means of study. Methods of teaching. Map 
drawing and sand modeling. June IS-July 27. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Three courses: 
The Geography of the United States. Professor A. P. Brigham. 
A summary study is given of the evolution of the North American 
continent. The lectures are then mainly devoted to the several physio- 
graphic regions of the United States. The origin of the land forms is 
explained, and especial attention is given to the control exercised by 
geographic conditions upon the colonization, social life, commerce, and 
military history of the United States. Under the last head, military 
.movements in the Revolution and selected campaigns of the Civil War 
will be studied. Forestry and forest reserves, the arid lands and irriga- 
tion, and the development of lines of travel and communication are 
among the topics treated. July 7 -August 19. 

The Geography of Europe. Professor R. S. Tarr. 
A consideration of the physiographic features of Europe and their 
influence upon the history and industrial development of the several 
nations. The principal sub-topics are: (1) Physiography of the conti- 
nent and its development; (2) climatic conditions; (3) natural 
resources; (4) influence of these various physiographic features upon 


race characteristics, early movements of people, development of navi- 
gation, modern national development, and location of leading cities, 
both in the past and present. Fully illustrated with lantern slides and 
maps. July 1 -August 19. 

The Geography of Tropical Countries. Mr. G. D. Hubbard. 

This course is designed to meet the demand for a better knowledge 
of tropical lands, a demand made by their growing importance, as 
markets and sources of raw materials, in the industrial development of 
temperate lands. July 7-August 19. 

Indiana State Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind. Geography 
of the United States, Physical and Political y with map drawing on mathe- 
matical projections. Professor Charles R. Dryer. June 21-August 5. 


Columbia University, X(»w York City. The Teaching of Geography. 
Professor Dodcje and Miss Kirchw^ey. 

This course will be devoted to a consideration of the course of 
study in geography for elementary schools, and to the general principles 
underlying good geography teaching. The lectures will consider the 
following topics: The scope of geography in elementarj' schools; the 
present status of geography in elementary schools; the pomt of view 
to 1)0 hold by the teacher of geography: the division of the course of 
study; the knowledge of location and how it should be secured; the 
relation existing between geography and other subjects, especially 
nature study, hand work, and history: excursions and reference work 
in geography: the use of maps and illustrative material; commercial 
geography in the upper grades; the use of a text-book; references for 
teachers and pupils: thought questions in geography; the teaching of 
industries, etc. A course of study will l)e outlined and suggestions 
given as to the material available for presentation in each of the grades, 
as to the general manner of treatment adaptable to pupils of different 
ages: certain to}>ics like home geography and the topical treatment 
of continents will l)c treated fully. Certain difficult problems like the 
teaching of latitucle and lontritude, the understanding of a map, etc., 
will b(^ treated in sucli detail as time will permit. Each pupil will be 
called upon to outline some special toj)ics in order to give training in 
tlie use of references and in the organization of subject-matter. These 
topics will also l>e later outlined as lesson plans to be given in certain 
grades, and a certain number of class hours will be devoted to the criti- 
cism of good and bad outlines and plans. Especial attention will be 


^ven to .ways of teaching the present course of study in the New York 
Oity schools. July 6-August 17. 

University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. The Teaching of Geog- 
raphy. Professor C. F. Marbut. 

A course of lectures and occasional field and library work on the 
"teaching of geography in the grades, with special emphasis of the 
I>ublic-school geography, the methods of teaching, the aim of the sub- 
ject, and the sources of material for properly illustrating it. The 
geography of the whole public-school course will be considered, though 
most emphasis will be laid on the work in the sixth, seventh, and 
oighth grades. 

Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. Methods in Geography, 
I^rofessor E. M. Lehnerts. 

The work in this course includes both a review of the subject-matter 
<z>f school geography and the special consideration of methods of teach- 
ing it. A course for the grades is outlined, and the matter and the 
xnethods of presentation at the several stages are discussed. Lectures, 
x^ecitations, and laboratory work. June 20- July 29. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Three courses: 
Type Studies in Geography for Grammar Grades. Professor Charles 
-A. McMurry. 

The selection of important topics as types in geography; illustra- 
tions of type studies in North America, Europe, and other lands; the 
l^rinciples of method illustrated by such type studies; relation of such 
^atudies to text-books in geography; the course of study in geography, 
^^nd the value of earlier lessons in the interpretation of later lessons in 
^he course; the method of oral treatment of some topics; reviews and 
^:*omparisoiis. July 7- August 19. 

Home Geography. Professor Charles A. McMurry. 
An analysis of those geographical facts and materials which lie 
"%¥ithin the range of the children's senses. The necessity for this study 
3BS a basis for later book and map studies of the large world beyond is 
illustrated. The topics of home geography; study of excursions with 
classes of children; the oral treatment of topics in classroom work; 
the relation of home geography to the later geography studies and to 
text-books; a course of study showing the leading topics in this transi- 
tion from the home neighborhood to the state and the United States; 
leading topics of the home state and their treatment; the study of the 
earth-whole in the early years, and its relation to the child ; means of 
illiistrating the earth- whole and its parts. July 7- August 19. 


Aims and Problevis in Geography, Supervisor R. H. Whitbeck. 

Designed more particularly for grammar school teachers. The 
course consists of lectures, discussions, and laboratory exercises, dealing 
with the actual problems of the classroom. Some of the topics treated 
are: The chief aims in teaching geography; the relative value of differ- 
ent kinds of geographical knowledge; methods of conducting the recita- 
tion; the proper use of the text-book by pupils and by teachers; the 
use and misuse of supplementary^ books; the value of studying things 
instead of about things; map modeling, map drawing, and the use of 
outline maps; written and oral exercises, reviews, tests, and examina- 
tions; the proper scope and limitations of geography. July 7-Aiigust 19. 

Michigan State Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. Teachers* 
Geography, Mr. I. Bowman. 

The course is planned for teachers and advanced students, and 
deals with topics in mathematical geography, map projections, and the 
geography of the atmosphere. Lectures, recitations, and laboratory 
work. June 27 -August 5. 


Professor of Botany, Teachers College, Columbia Universitif 

DURING the summer of 19(X) I undertook a trip to the Delta of 
the Mississippi River and the islands which lie to the east- 
ward, for the purpose, primarily, of studying the vegetation of 
that bit of countr}'. Thoupih but a ver}' amateur in matters of geog— 
raphy, I have to confess that my interest in the Delta well-nigh eclipsed 
my more immediate interest in its plants, until, at least, my mind 
regained its equilibrium. I shall in the present paper attempt to gives- 
an ao(M)unt of my observations of this interesting region, ha\'ing refer- 
once chiefly to that portion commonly known as the Delta, and not' 
to that larger area bordering the lower Mississippi, which in recent 
geological times has been built up by the same processes which may 
now be seen in operation in the Delta itself. (See Map 1.) 

The only practical way of exploring such a region is by means of 
a boat of liglit draft. The waterways, though tortuous, are continuous 
and the water, for a very considerable distance from the land, shallow. 

♦For folding map of the Delta of the Mississippi see inside front cover. 




For this reason the party of which I was a member hired a "scow 
schooner," ordinarily used for oystering. This is the finest kind of 
craft for knocking about such waters. Roomy, unpainted, stiff, draw- 
ing little water, one can creep into the veriest bits of mudholes, and 
get out again; being roughly built and no better finished, a naturalist 
has to take no precautions for the preservation of appearances; and 
being roomy there is plenty of space to sleep on the deck, under mosquito 
netting, and thus be cool at night. A few weeks' cruise on such a boat 
is an ideal experience. 

On approaching the Delta from the east, with still a wide expanse 
of water ahead, and in the distance the low stretch of green marsh 
and a curious, jagged sky-line of willows, reaching far to the north, 
one will, perhaps, receive a suddenly applied demonstration that the 
land is not so far off as it seems. In a word, the boat is aground. 
Instinctively, she is headed up to the wind, if possible, and all 
hands jump overboard, a most comical procedure that never fails to 
evoke laughter and remarks from one's companions. In this concrete 
way we learn that beneath the mud-laden water the bottom extends 
out to sea for many miles at a depth of two or three feet, and less in 
places. Such an experience demonstrates to us what the great river 
is doing. Its water, opaque with sediment, carries most of this over 
the shallow, submerged extension of the Delta. Some of it, however, 
gradually settles to the bottom, and thus slowly raises the level of the 
sea floor, while the rest of the detritus is precipitated farther seaward. 
Deeper channels in this platform are eroded by the currents, which 
extend out from the various mouths of the river. Low, submerged 
mounds are formed by eddies, and the whole vertical contour is modified 
from time to time by storms. The constant change makes navigation 
especially dangerous. You are compelled Uterally to feel your way 
along, even in a small '*scow/' by means of an oar, a man on each 
bow calling off the depth in feet and inches. It is only by the sub- 
merged channel formed by the South Pass current that approach may 
be had by ocean-going vessels, and this calls for skilled pilotage. 

From a considerable distance the Delta appears as a very low 
extent of land, with even, horizontal contour. The color is a uniform 
dark green, the whole landscape being somber and monotonous, espe- 
cially in the failing light of evening. The impression of the contour, 
however, is deceptive, for a closer approach shows that the land is 
broken up into a maze of bays, ** cut-offs," and lagoons, forming necks 
of land and islands of all sizes and shapes. An adequate notion of 





Fig. j. .4 vU^ ktokinii tJ,!^ of south hom the top of thr Soulh Pass Liiththtmst. ; .. - ^^hlu^ui 

Hnf if a board footpath to u boat moortne. The dark tine paralM io th- 
is a sand sfHi ii^xtendinfi wfsh-rty frofH iiir nuyuth oj !h*r river. 

thp cniiiplexity of the luml forms may best be had by getting a view 
from a |KT!iit of vantage at the top iif tlie South Pass Lighthouse. Sucli 
a view is seen in the set-tnid figure aiitl n<> furtiier w^ml of iiescription 
is necessary. How this honzontal contour is brought about is lo be 
explairieil, at least in part, by the sefon<biry action of the waters outside 
of the Ueha. Were it not for tlu* tidal aetion and tlio ptTeets of wind 
and currents, the Delta would be Ijuilt up regularly r as is suggested by 
the more even eontuur hue of its submerged portitni. But, given these 
ffietors and a soft, homogeueuus, flat, low-lying alluvial deposit to work 
upon, together with oeeasional tuu^venuess, due to buried or partly 
liuried detritus of small ami large pieces of tree trunks, branches, ami 
the like, which flr>at down the river and are deposited, we can easily 
imderstand how the irregularities of (^{intonr arise. These help to 
direct the erosive forces, and thus are a factor in prodneing the result 
above described. 

Our entrance to the Delta was made through Cubit's Gap on its east- 
ern side. This is the main channel of a seeondary delta, caused, at some 
period of extraordinary flood, by the main current breaking through its 
low-ljnng bank at a w^eak pcjint. The lateral stream thtia originated wdll 
in time build up a form similar to, Init smaller than, the chief delta. 
At occasional points along the shore are encountered fishermen *s 
houses, btiilt on the low-lying marshes. Their situation is precarious, 
because the muddy surface is frequently submerged, and the run of 
rough water during storms is sometimes disastrous. The danger is 




reduced by building upon long spiles, which lift the house above the 
surface. The experience of entering such a dwelling is certainly novel. 
The fisherfolk are chiefly Italians, who are very hospitable. Their 
boats are single-masted luggers of light draft, well built and graceful. 
Upon entering the main stream of the Mississippi, we follow the stream 
in its southeasterly course. At once the appearance of our surround- 
ings changes. A few minutes previously a whole sea was behind us, 
and the feeling we experienced was that of approaching the land. Now 
it seems as if we are floating on a river inland, its banks clothed with a 
tall grass {Phragmites) , or '* canes,'* as they are locally called, which shut 
out the distant view. (Fig. 3.) Trees of black willow, which form a 
continuous growth farther up stream, are to be seen occasionally along 
the bank, and the *^ canes" are often overgrown by a species of ampe- 
lopsis (Ampelopsis arborea), but more frequently and densely by a 
leguminous vine {Vigna glabra), bearing numerous yellow, pea-Uke 
flowers. Of these plants, the *^cane" is the most interesting, for its 
growth contributes very materially to the stability of the muddy bank. 
It spreads by runners, some of which project out into the stream, 
extending downward with the current as much as thirty meters or more. 
Those which take root contribute to the formation of hunuiiocks, 
which, by their close juxtaposition, make a firm framework to support 
the soft materials of the bank. 

F O. 3. A view of the river bank of the South Pass showing the dense growth of canes (Phragmites.) 




From the western bank of this part of the Delta stretch considerable 
reaches of low, swampy meadow land, clothed with grasses and weedy 
plants, among which a sensitive plant {Mimosa strigillosa) is ver>' 
common, and responds rapidly to the touch by closing tightly its leaf- 
lets and bending down its leaves. 

Continuing the course down stream, we come suddenly to a parting 
of the way in three directions — quite the reverse of the ordinary experi- 
ence in floating down stream. Instead of the tributaries feeding the 
stream, the stream divides its water among its distributaries (here the 
three main Passes) of which the middle, in line with the chief stream, 
is the South Pass, and the way we chose. Once well into this arm of 
the river, the most illuminating evi<lence of the work of the great river 
is l)efore us. 

If we climb the bank in this region, we can look l>eyond a few hun- 
dred feet out upon an (^xpanse of salt water. (Fig. 4.) The highest part 
of this land is beneath us. only a few feet above the level of the swiftly- 
running stream, and an equal distance from it. This low ridge is a 
lateral barrier, built up from the sediment of the river laid down at 
times of flooding, and allowed to maintain a level above that of the 
sea level. In this manner a natural aqueduct of the stream's own 
making guides it to its mouth. From the ridge, the bank slopes more 

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ruVv. ..m:.: .'/v su-. 


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hcUSt' JKJ c 

i.v ■■ 





kc:i,\s ar. 

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.•■V > ^ii'.'n l^--ss.^ I. hi the right one sees the 

'.-.'■•.■ r' .'/'.v cr.yur.J cu the Icf* of ih^ 
•.'. • ■' .-.'.uKd f^.jr: o- ii fi:>her9Kiin's 
:-j tn :'•:•- ;- y;. Tiw r^shcrmen's 
r^::- . : /.Vn: 'r,->ni floods. 


Fig. 5. South Pass, from the lighthouse, looking north. Note the river flowing between the narrow 
irregular strips of land. The picture shows an outgoing steamship. 

gradually away toward the salt water. The canes of the higher level 
give way to a lower, stiff-leaved grass (Spartina). As one walks through 
this bristling foliage, thousands of small amphibious crabs scurry in 
all directions. It is in such low-lying, densely grassy places that the 
alligator builds its nest, consisting of a mass of dead grass packed about 
the eggs, which are laid in considerable numbers. 

At the mouth of the South Pass is the small village and Govern- 
ment station of Port Eads, the seat of the jetty operations. The effort 
of the engineers who are managing these operations are so to control 
and direct the stream as to keep a ship channel open up to and above 
the mouth. This involves a vigilance as eternal as the stream itself. 
From the top of the South Pass Lighthouse may be had a most instruc- 
tive panoramic view. In Figure 2, which is a view looking seaward, 
besides the details referred to above, we see in the distance a long, 
slender spit, which is formed by the deposit brought about by the 
influence of the still ^'back-bay" waters upon the moving waters on 
the outside. This narrow stretch of land outlines most perfectly the 
ideal form of the Delta. In the map (Map 1, Fig. 1) this is seen 
on the western side of the mouth. 

Looking north we see the South Pass with a vessel on its surface, 
and the irregular and, at times, very narrow strip of land which walls in 
the current. 

Once outside, and we bear northeasterly to pass around the N. E. 
Pass on our return to our *^port of departure. *' After passing out of 
the ship channel, we are again in shallow water until we cross the 
channels extending from the other mouths, in the vicinity of which 
there are large numbers of very curious islands, all nameless, well termed 
collectively the *' mud lumps/' They consist of a very compact black or 
yellowish clay, overlaid with a thin top soil. In size they vary from 
a few square rods to perhaps fifty acres, and their surface is three to 


nine feet above sea level. They appear to have an origin quite different 
from the other islands — for their topography suggests very strongly that 
they have been erupted from below the surface of the water. I can not 
say, however, that this is true. The vegetation of these dreary spots 
is sparse, and weedy in character. The lack of natural charm is emphar 
sized by the frequent abundance of flies, which buzz about one in a 
most threatening manner and bite viciously. One very interesting 
little plant we found, which evidently had been brought down the 
stream — a little floating fern, Azolln Caroliniana, This was growing 
in a little cove of a mud lump near Pass A Loutre. On islands near by 
we found immense flocks of pelicans. 

After leaving the North Pass we sail northwesterly for Bird Island, 
a long, slender strip of alluvium overlaid on the seaward side by sand 
in sufficient quantities to be heaped up by the wind into small beach 
dunes. Here we find the beautiful sea oats, IJniola paniculcUaf which 
add a strikingly graceful element to the otherwise monotonous grassy, 
beach dune vegetation. 

The most important grass is Panicum aniarum, since it is a sand 
binder, and is largely responsible for the topography of the beach dunes, 
which are found at the limit of ordinar}'^ wave action. (Fig. 6.) Growing 
chiefly at this point we find the common tropical beach convolvulus, 
Ipoinoca pes-capracj so called on account of the resemblance of the 
leaf to the hoof of a goat. The runners of this plant attain a length 
of 120 meters on the Florida strand, although the longest I found in 
the Delta region were only a fourth as long. The plant has fine reddish- 
purple flowers, seen in their beauty only in early morning. There is 
another similar })laiit, found in Breton Island, with lobed leaves and 
white flowers. 

Bird Island serves as a type of many other islands, such as Breton 
Island and Cat Island, in that the foundation is alluvium. Overlying 
this, on the seaward side, which is also the windward side with respect 
to the prevailing wind, is a layer of sand, more or less deep, according to 
the size of the island. On the largest, enough is present for the making 
of large dunes, in the lee of which stretches of sandy plains are found. 
On these islands the vegetation is composed of pine trees and pahnettos, 
and is v(*r\' similar to the vegetation of the coastal plain of the main- 

( )no other type of island remains to be mentioned, of which there are 
many examples on our course from Bird Island to Cat Island, west of 
Chandeleur Sound. They are similar in origin to the sandy islands, but 
are peculiar in the circumstance that the sand is absent and small shell 





A " sJt£lI-dum\" 

with iis very s^panc, weedy ix'£t:iaiion. On 
nnifonn chthing af a snccuUnt {Batis A/^ 

fragments take its pi are, (Fig. 7.) They are iheretore ai 
called ^^shell islands.'* The shells are always fouud forrninc 
narruw dime on the seaward edge of the island, c|iiite pant 
cent to the very narrow, muddy beach. (Fig. 8,) The : 
muddy, and marshy surface supports a growth of low i=H 
{Saiicornia and Baii^), and, less frequently, of the v 
(Aricennia nitkh), wliich is here at its northern limit 
very interesting on account of its air roots, which proj 
of the mud J and enable the plant to respire. For ft 
the otlier succulent plants have corky outgrowths « 

The shell dunes, on the other hand, produce 
and ver>' scant weedy vegetation of anmranllis, 
trailing vines, euphorbias, and the hke. (Fig. 7.) 

The shallow waters of all the islands are veiy pr' 
.shrimp, and small fish. The latter are caught \\y 

.^fi^^^Pvv^^?;^ — —^ ^ — --^^ — V I — 

Fia. 8. An idt'ni stfcfim oj *t small islind with a shclt-Jutu- 

Th0 form of the dum as sfien in tmns\>*rse Sfct^:' 

dircciimt in which it is moved by ihi> j 


net," a circular net, which, when thrown with skill, brings death to 
dozens of mullet or thousands of shrimp. This form of net is especially 
adapted to shallow waters, although it is used also throughout the 
West Indies. I am told that it is found in the Nile delta also, and I 
have seen it on the Rhine. 

One of the most unique experiences I ever had was on a dark night 
at Breton Island. Taking the skiff, with the purpose of throwing the 

Fig g. Another form of a shell-dune. 

cast net, we saw, as we rowed, thousands of phosphorescent streaks of 
light shooting hither and thither through the water, like comets in a 
black sky. It was almost beyond belief, but all caused by the sudden 
scurry of mullet as the boat frightened them by its approach. 

The limit of space has prevented a more detailed account of what 
we saw upon this delightful and instructive trip. I have tried, however, 
to bring out the salient features of our experiences of three weeks, which 
will never be forgotten. We were fortunate in landing at Biloxi, Miss., 
just in time to escape the terrors of the storm which laid waste the city 
of Galveston. 




Of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 


THE question of the revolution of the earth around the sun is 
quite distinct from that of its rotation on its axis, some of the 
ancient philosophers having held to one theory and not to the 
other. Aristarchus (310-250 B. C.) was the first to systematically 
develop the heliocentric theory, that is, to explain celestial phenomena 
by supposing that the earth and planets revolve around the sun. He 
could give no proofs of its correctness and it was quite generally aban- 
doned. The most celebrated astronomical work of the ancients was 
the Almagest of Ptolemy (100-170 A. D.) which dominated this field 
"f science for fourteen centuries. Ptolemy showed in it that all the 

* Continued from The Journal of Geography, April, Volume III, No. 4, 
p. 150. 





celestial phenomena known at liis ,time could be explained on the 
theor>^ that the earth is the fixed center of the universe, the stars and 
sun revolving around it in circles, and the planets revolving in little 
circles whose centers move uniformly around the earth in large circles- 

Copernicus (1473-1543) developed again the heliocentric theory , 
A^ith references to Aristarchus, but to explain certain irregularities 
of motion he supposed the sun not to be in the exact centers of th^ 
various circles. His successor, Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), returnee*^ 
to the geocentric theory because h£ could observe no changes in t 
directions of the stars at different times of the year, which should va: 
somewhat during the year if the earth revolved around the sun. 
successor, Kepler (1571-1630), returned to the heliocentric theory an< 
discovered the three celebrated laws of planetary motion which bea: 
his name. From his time on the heliocentric theory has been universal! 

These different theories did not arise from any errors in the thinkinj 
of the authors of the contradictory systems. The fact is that they ha( 
no data by means of which they could prove one was right and anothei 
wrong. Their observations, the same as nearly all of ours at the presen 
day, were concerned only with relative motions, and one systei 
explained them as well as another. The only proof that the grea 
Newton (1642-1727) could give was that, by admitting the heliocentric 
theory, a very simple explanation could be given to all phenomena b; 
means of Kepler \s laws and the law of gravitation. 

The first fairly direct demonstration of the motion of the earth was 
through the discovery of the aberration of light by the great English 
astronomer, Jamos Bradley, in 1726. If rain were falling directly 
downward and one were standing still in it, he would be struck squarely 
on the top of his liead by it. However, if he should walk rapidly through 
it, he would bo struck on the forward side, or it would seem to descend 
slantingly, the deviation from the vertical depending both upon its 
velocity of descent and his rate of walking. So, also, light coming 
perpendicularly from a star to the plane of the earth \s orbit seems to 
come in slantingly l)eeause of the earth's motion. The result is that 
the star is always apparently displaced a little in the direction of the 
earth's motion, the amount depending both upon the velocity of light 
and the velocity of the earth in its orbit. The actual amount of dis- 
placement is found by measuring the little circle which the star appar- 
ently describes in the sky in the course of a year. When the direction 
of the star is not perpendicular to the plane of the orbit of the earth 




the results are, of course, somewhat different, but the differences are 
easily accounted for. 

The velocity of light had been previously found by the Danish 
astronomer Roemer, in 1675, from observ^ations of the eclipses of Jupiter^s 
satellites, to be finite and about 186,000 miles per second. The one 
unknown quantity remaining in the problem was the velocity of the earth, 
which came out as it should under the heliocentric theory. Modern 
astronomical observations have given the aberrational constant (20^.47), 
and physical experiments the velocity of light (186,330 miles per second) 
with a high degree of precision. The resulting velocity found for the 
earth not only verifies its motion but also gives the size of its orbit, 
and therefore the distance to the sun. This is, in fact, one of the 
accurate methods of finding the distance from the earth to the sun. 

If one were to deny the revolution of the earth around the sun, he 
would have to admit that all the stars in the sky describe actual small 
orbits, with the same apparent diameter whatever their distances, 
in exactly a year, and in such a manner that they are constantly 
ninety degrees behind the sun in its motion around the earth. 

It has been remarked that Tycho Brahe abandoned the heliocentric 
theory because he could not detect any apparent change in the direction 
(technically, no parallax) of the fixed stars during the year. His 
reasoning was conclusive qualitatively, and failed only because the 
fixed stars are immeasurably more remote than the wildest imagination 
could have suspected, and they have such small parallaxes that he was 
far from being able to detect them. Every attempt at finding a star 
apparently displaced by the motion of the earth failed until 1838 when 
the German astronomer Bessel found that the little star 61 Cygni, 
barely visible to the naked eye, was projected on slightly different 
parts of the sky at different seasons. 

The parallax of a star is the angle subtended by the semidiamet^r 
of the earth's orbit at the distance of the star, and equals the apparent 
displacement of the star due to the motion of the earth through a 
distance equal to the radius of its orbit. The parallax of 61 Cygni is 
0*'.40, an angle which would be subtended by an object an inch in 
diameter at a distance of about eight miles, and one exceedingly difficult 
to measure, involved as it is in the question of parallax with many 
other greater inequalities, such as the aberration, and subject to a vast 
number of possible errors. The distance of 61 Cygni from the earth is 
more than 500,000 times the distance from the earth to the sun, which 
18 93,000,000 miles. The nearest star in the whole sky so far as 


is known, is Alpha Centauri, a bright star in the southern heavens 
which is 275,000 times as far from us as we are from the sun. When 
a star is more than 2,000,000 times as far from us as we are from the 
sun its parallax can not be certainly measured by present processes. In 
spite of the arduous labors of astronomers of many countries less than 
forty stars among the thousands which stud the sky have so far been 
found to have measurable parallaxes. The stars are so inconceivably 
remote that it is meaningless to us to express their distances in miles, 
and astronomers have come to use, instead, the time it takes light to 
come from them to us. The velocity of light is so great that it travels 
nearly eight times the distance around the earth in a second, yet it 
takes nearly four and one-half years for it to come from Alpha Centauri. 
When you look out in the south in the early evening at Sirius, the 
brightest star in all the sky, you see light which left it more than eight 
years ago, and you see light from the north star more than forty years 
after it started on its long journey. 

If one were to deny that the apparent displacement of the stars is due 
to the parallactic effects of the motion of the earth, he would have to 
admit that nearly forty stars describe small orbits of different sizes in 
exactly a year, and that they are constantly on the same side of their 
orbits that the sun is of its orbit around the earth. 

In discussing the rotation of the earth it was stated that relative 
motion in the line of sight may be measured by the spectroscope. 
Evidently this affords an independent means of testing the revolution 
of the earth. Suppose a star in the plane of the earth's orbit is con 
sidcred, and for simplicity that it is at a constant distance from the 
sun. At one time of the year the earth will be approaching it with 
the rate of its orbital velocity, about eighteen and one-half miles per 
second; six months later it will be receding at the same rate. These 
are velocities which can be measured very easily with the powerful 
modern instrunients, and in this way the motion of the earth around 
the sun has been often verified. If the star is in motion with respect 
to the sun the problem is equally simple. For, suppose it is receding 
at any rate, say, ten miles per second. At one time of the year the 
spectroscope will show a relative velocity of 18.5 — 10=8.5 miles per 
second, and six months later a relative velocity of 18.5 + 10=28.5 miles 
per j-econd. If the observed star is not in the plane of the ecliptic, the 
matter is a little different but presents no difficulties. 

The spectroscope has been in effective use in astronomy less than 
fifty years, and the observations of the kind under discussion have 
nearly all been made in the last fifteen years. They show the exact 


motion demanded by the heliocentric theory. If om were to deny 
that the changes in the relative motion in the line of sight of the various 
stars is due to the motion of the earth around the sun, he would have to 
admit that all the stars move toward and from the earth with a period 
of one year and with velocities precisely equal to the components of 
motion in their direction which the earth would have if it did move 
around the sun. 

Each of these three independent methods of testing whether the 

earth moves (by the aberration, by the parallax, and by the motion in the 

line of sight) leads directly to the heliocentric theory, or to alternatives 

which one can not bring himself to believe possible. The question of 

the earth's revolution seems to be definitely settled and it is altogether 

improbable that anything will ever be discovered which will throw it 

in the slightest doubt. It is worthy of note, though, that the actual 

proofs of it are quite recent, in 1726, in 1838, and in the last few years 



The ancients seem to have regarded it as axiomatic that all the 
ci^lestial motions are uniform and in circles. The first dissenting voice 
'^^TBS that of Kepler, who from a most laborious discussion of Tycho 
^^rahe's observations of Mars, announced, in 1609, that this planet 
x^inoves in an ellipse with the sun in one of its foci. The same thing 
'^i'v-as in a few years verified for several other planets, and it was also 
^liown that the radius from the sun to the planet always sweeps over 
^<][ual areas in equal times. These conclusions, drawn without hypoth- 
esis from observations, formed the direct foundation for Newton's 
O.emonstration of the law of gravitation which was published in the 
-f^^rincipia in 1686. 

An ellipse is a closed oval which has the property that the sum of 
"t: lie distances from any point on it to two fixed points within is constant 
^nd equal to its length. Or, it is the apparent shape of a circle when its 
X>lane is not perpendicular to the line of sight. In Figure 2, S and S' are 
^lie foci, and PS' +PS =AB wherever the point P may be. The eccen- 
t:iicity is OS-i-OA, As the ellipse becomes more and more nearly 
<5ircular the foci S and S' approach the center 0. The orbit of the 
^arth is so nearly circular that its eccentricity, which is .0168, can not 
V:>e shown in a diagram. 

To draw an ellipse easily set two pins in the paper, place a loop of 
ti-liread over them of such length that there shall be a little slack, take 
^ pencil with a small groove cut in the graphite near the point for the 


thread to run in, and trace out the curve by moving the pencil so as 
to keep the thread always taut. In the diagram the pencil would be 
at P, the pins at S and S\ the thread reaching from P to S', from S' to 
S, and from S back to P. It follows that if the curve is drawn in this 
way PS' -\-PS is a constant and when P is at A or B it is seen that the 
sum equals AB. 

It is sometimes supposed that the orbits of the planets are ellipses 
because of their mutual attractions, without which they would be 
strictly circular. Nothing is more erroneous, although the proofs of 
this statement and some of those which will follow can not be given 
without conisderable mathematics, and will therefore l)e omitted here. 

Suppose the sun is at the focus *S and that the planet is started 
from A at right angles to the line SA. There is one certain velocity 
depending upon the sum of the masses of the sun and planet and their 

Fl(J. 2. B 

distance apart which will give a circular orbit if there are no other 
forces involved. A greater velocity will give an ellipse such as is 
drawn in the figure, the elongation being greater the greater the initial 
velocity. A lesser velocity will also give an ellipse, but in this case the 
point ^4 will be the one farthest from the sun. Since there is only one 
velocity which will give a circle while an infinity give ellipses it is not 
in the least strange that all th(^ orbits are ellipses instead of circles, 
and according to modern views the lack of circular motion indicates 
no imperfection in the system. 

Another view which is somewhat prevalent and entirely erroneous 
is that the planets are so distributed that a perfect balance of forces 
is kept up. and that any disturbance to the system would result in its 
speedy collapse. The fact is that tlie planets interact upon each other 
to some slight extent, but, i ' every ])lanet except the earth were removed, 
only a somewhat attentive observer of the sky would ever notice 
any difference. 

As has just been stated the mutual attractions of the planets modify 


^heir motions to some slight extent and the result is that no planet 
:Mnoves in an exact ellipse. These deviations from elliptic motion are 
called perturbations. Although the planets do not move in fixed 
-ellipses it has been found convenient, both in analysis and popular 
<iescription. to consider that they always move in ellipses, but in ones 
njvhich continually change in eccentricity, position, etc. The idea has 
T)een aptly illustrated by comparing the motions of the planets with 
that of a bead nmning on a wire hoop bent into the form of an ellipse 
and whose eccentricity, position, etc., continually change. The bead 
is always running on an ellipse, but the ellipse is constantly varying. 

A question of the very highest interest and importance relates to 
the effects of the mutual attractions of the planets upon their orbits, 
particularly whether the present general configuration of the solar 
system ever will be greatly altered or not. This is a question of great 
mathematical difficulty, and has not been answered with certainty for 
an indefinite time, but the conclusions are undoubtedly very nearly 
correct for perhaps several hundred thousand years. The appropriate 
mathematical discussion, due to Lagrange and Laplace at the end of 
the eighteenth centur\% shows that the mean distances from the sun 
and the periods do not change in the long run, although they are subject 
to short period variations; that the eccentricities and inclinations to 
the plane of the earth's orbit increase or decrease for many thousands 
of years and then change in the opposite direction, and have also short 
period variations; and that their lines of nodes (i. e., the lines of inter- 
section of their planes with the plane of the earth's orbit) and the 
lines of their major axes continually revolve in one direction, besides 
having short period oscillations. The amounts of change and these 
long periods of oscillation are different for the different planets. Thus, 
^xi the case of the earth the eccentricity which is now .0168 is slowly 
<iiminishing and will continue to decrease for about 24,000 years when 
it* will be about .003, after which it will increase for about 40,000 years 
"W-hen, according to Leverrier, it will be about .078; the plane of the 
^a,rth's orbit changes through an angle of 2° 40' in the course of many 
"tliousands of years; and the line of the earth's major axis completes a 
dotation in the direction in which the earth moves in about 108,000 

CROLL's theory of the ICE AGES 

One might suppose that the questions which have just been discussed 
^re of importance to the mathematical astronomer rather than to 
One whose interests are primarily in geography or geology, but the 



conclusions arrived at are very far-reaching in their points of contact, 
as will be illustrated by an example in this section. 

The point A (see Fig. 2) is the perihelion point and while in that 
part of its orbit the earth receives more light and heat from the sim 
than at any other time, the amount being about 1-15 more than when 
at B, If the earth's orbit had its maximum eccentricity of .078, the 
difference would be nearly 1-5, and if it had its minimum value of .003 
the difference would be about 1-85. The earth is at A on December 
31st and at B on July 2d (a variation of a day or two in these dates is 
possible owing to the leap year and perturbations). If the angle DSA 
equals 100 degrees, and the angle ASC 80 degrees, then the sun is at 
the autumnal equinox when the earth is at Z), and at the vernal equinox 
when the earth is at C. If the whole year is to be divided into two 
seasons, winter and summer, the northern hemisphere will have winter 
while the earth is moving through the arc DAC, and summer while 
it is moving through the arc CBD. Since the area DAC is less than the 
area CBD, and since the radius from the sun passes over equal areas 
in equal times, it follows that our winters are shorter than our summers. 
The actual count from September 22d to March 21st, and from March 
21st to September 22d shows them to be 180 and 185 days respectively. 
In the southern hemisphere things are precisely reversed. That is, 
our winters are shorter than those in the southern hemisphere, but, 
latitudes and other things being equal, we receive more heat daily 
than is received there because the earth is nearest the sun in our winter. 
Our summers are longer than those south of the equator, but, other 
things being equal, we receive less heat daily. The appropriate mathe- 
matical discussion shows, however, that corresponding latitudes in 
the two hemispheres receive precisely equal amounts of heat in any 
two corresponding seasons or proportional parts of seasons, but, owing 
to their different lengths in the two hemispheres, the heat is dis- 
tributed throughout the year (juite differently in the two cases. 

About twenty years ago James Croll attempted to show" that the 
six or seven ice ages which have followed one another in the continents 
of the northern hemisphere were due to the very unequal distribution 
of heat throughout the year, which would occur at the epochs when 
the eccentricity of the earth's orbit is great, and the earth at perihelion 
in our summer. According to this theory the glacial epochs have been 
separated from each other by immense periods of time, in fact, much 
longer than any other considerations seem to indicate. For this and 
other reasons which can not be entered into here, the theory' is now 
generally regarded as incompetent, although it can not be doubted that 


the causes which Croll pointed out have had considerable effects on 
tihe climate of the earth in the ages that are past, and that they will 
^xert sensible influences in time to come. 


As everything on the earth, even the "eternal hills," is subject to 
change, so also in the heavens everything changes. The fixed stars are 
only relatively fixed, the configurations of the constellations being 
greatly altered in the course of thousands of years. With modern instru- 
ments the relative drifting of most of the bright stars and many faint 
ones can be detected in a year or two. These observations imply 
relative motions among the stars, and as the sun is a star it is only 
reasonable to expect that it moves with respect to the other stars. 

Over one hundred years ago Sir WilUam Herschel found that the 
stars in one part of the sky were apparently getting a little farther from 
each other, while in the opposite part they were apparently closing 
together. Although these motions were very slight and found only by 
taking averages, he boldly interpreted it as meaning that the whole 
Solar system is moving toward that part of the sky where the spreading 
out occurs, and he fixed the point toward which we move as in the con- 
stellation Hercules. This constellation is almost at the zenith in our 
latitude the 1st of April at five o^clock in the morning, being in the 
^^stem sky immediately before daylight. The work of one hundred 
3^^ars along the line of HerscheFs investigation has verified his conclu- 
sions even to almost the precise point in the sky designated by him. 

In the last few years the spectroscope has been applied to test the 

^*^^otion of the system. It would be a simple matter if the stars were 

^*>^t moving with respect to each other. As it is, the spectroscope gives 

"^Vie combined components of motion of the star and earth in the line 

J twining them. From a large number of observations it is found that, 

^^-»i t?ie average, the sun and the^ stars in the direction of Hercules are 

^-pproaching each other, while the sun and the stars in the opposite 

direction are receding from each other. Therefore this method leads 

'^o the conclusion that the sun is moving toward the constellation 

liercules with respect to the fixed stars. The spectroscope also gives, 

V>y averages, the velocity of the sun^s motion, which turns out to be 

^bout eleven or twelve miles per second. The earth is thus describing 

^ spiral around the fine of the sun's way as an axis. 

Some of the stars and the sun are approaching each other or receding 
from each other at astonishing velocities. Thus, Sirius and the sun 
Hre receding from each other at the rate of more than twenty miles 


per second, or more than 300,000,000 miles annually. Although this 
has been going on indefinitely no observable change in the appearance of 
the star has taken place since scientific observations of it have been 
made. The reason is that this distance, great as it may be, is but an 
extremely small part of the vast distance between the star and us. 
Although Sirius is comparatively near us, as the distances to the stars 
go, it will be more than 800 years before a velocity of twenty miles 
per second will increase its distance by one per cent. Vega, the brightest 
star in Lyra and (piite near the apex of the sun's way, and the sun, 
an^ approaching each other at the rate of about fifty miles per second. 

Probably the sun is nu)ving in a sensibly straight line, for the stars 
are so extremely remote that their attractive influences are quite 
inappreciable. It is not necessary to assume, as is sometimes done, 
that its motion is due to the attraction oi other bodies, for this implies 
that it was originally at rest, an as.sumption which is by no means 
necessary, and not even probable. 

(.>ne possible consequence of the sun's motion remains to be men- 
tioned, and that is that it may some time encounter meteoric matter 
or even coHide with a star. In fact, this outcome seems to be almost 
inevitable, ultimately. If a collisii>n sht)uld occur, it would result in 
the destruction of the pn^si^it system by the enormous amount of heat 
generatinl in the impact. The combineil mas? would become nebulous. 
after which it would undoriri> an evv»lution o\ looling and shrinking. 
lndiH\l. it may be that our present system has evolveil from a nebulous 
mass srenerated by collisions oi earlier and smaller bodies than the 
sun. It i> fairly pnU^ai^le that temporary stars owe their sudden 
intense lun.inosity to tlie heat irenerati^l i\v the impact of eoDisions 
of <ome sort. 




•:> w :: : : w. iii vxr: vu ? vr-ivv 

1^ riH I 11^ :v^ -.:< l.wos: :or:r.s. i\iv.o:i::.':. O'T.sists in giAing to 
"^ t'v ::\ ;;\i '^i::^ e\:vr*e::.r< \\h:o:; shal* ::\ • "ify his future adjust- 
r..o:'.:< \v.::: ri^:\r\:.oo :.^ oer:.*iir. -'■.;":* ^^r ly.oral ends. Such r ,s\ Iv r. ..\tr:t\: i;:-;vr ::rtv:ly :hr v.irh the indixidual's 
ivrs\>:\A! vvv,;.iv*. \x.::*. ::.o er.v:r^. :.:v.ov.: i^r ir.iirwtly (through Ian- 
jCV.Aj^" .^r >o:vv .*::vr <v:v/:\^V.o :...^;:\::v. f^r :he transnui^on of experi- 


^nce). Such experiences may function either automatically (as habit) 
or consciously (as judgment or reason). The problem of the science of 
educational values is to determine the part which the various items 
of the curriculum play in this process. Given any subject of instruc- 
"tion, for example, the question must be answered: In what different 
'Ways will this knowledge be likely to function in future adjustments? 
This question answered, the detailed problems of method can then 
be attacked: How shall we teach this subject in order that it may 
efficiently fulfill its function? How much time and energy shall be 
allotted to this subject in comparison with other departments of instruc- 

The increasing importance of geography in all stages of education 
^renders the question of values especially important. Why has this 
subject so suddenly assumed a position of great importance, not only 
in the elementary schools, Vjut also in the high schools, the colleges, 
^nd the universities? What has caused so marvelous a change in the 
status of a discipline which, only a few years since, was derisively 
termed 'Hhe sick man of the curriculum ''? An answer to these ques- 
tions immediately suggests itself: A knowledge of geography has been 
^ound to be of service to its possessor. What this service is, and how 
the **new" geography has come to render it efficiently, when the **old'' 
geography was inadequate for this purpose, are questions that certainly 
^ifierit careful consideration. 

It is obvious that one's estimation of the vahic of geographical facts 
depends entirely upon one's connotation of the term ^^geographical." 
If we include under this term only those facts that were commonly 
^Tiade the subjects of geographical instruction twenty years ago, we 
^i^ust say in all candor that such facts have but a minimum of utility 
^Or their possessor — unless, indeed, he chance to be a sailor. If, how- 
^v-er, we mean by geographical facts all the knowledge which man 
*>.as accumulated conceniing his environment and its relation to his 
life, then the question obviously assumes a different aspect. Thus 
defined, geography becomes the nucleus of all the sciences that deal 
'^'v^th natural phenomena. But geography is something more and 
Something less than a mere blending of these various departments of 
•knowledge. It is both more and less than astronomy plus geology 
t>lus botany plus zoology plus anthropology. Twenty years ago this 
statement would not have been true, at least in so far as the geography 
of the schools was concerned. Geography at that time was but a mosaic 
of materials borrowed from the various sciences of nature. This 
itiosaic was not in itself a science, because it lacked a unifying principle. 


The ver}' looseness of the old definition betrays this weakness: 
"Geography is a description of the surface of the earth and of its 
countries and their inhabitants." 

The unifying principle which has made geography a science is Man. 
Not all the facts of botany are important in geography, but only those 
that are directly connected with man's welfare. This does not imply 
that a complete treatment of geography would not p)erhaps involve 
all the facts of botany, but these would be arranged and classified with 
reference to this unifying principle. The pure science of botany, on 
the other hand, takes no account whatsoever of this principle. To 
all intents and purposes, a pure science is a closed system. 

This distinctively human view of geography was first clearly enun- 
ciated by the great German geographer, Karl Ritter, who died in 1859. 
It has only been within recent years, however, that the principle has 
come to be generally adopted, and even to-day there are some author- 
ities who refuse to recognize the hmitations which it imposes; but even 
the latter would probably agree that, for educational purposes, this 
view of geography is the most satisfactor\\ Mr. Red way has summed 
up the matter in the following words: "The question of the nature of 
geography is gradually settling itself into one that inqxiires into the 
pro|)er basis and scope of the subject. During the past twenty years 
we have seen public opinion throw aside the notion ... of geography 
as a 'description of tlie earth's surface/ and substitute therefore a verj- 
broad idea, 'the study of the earth as the home of man.' ... If I 
felt called upon still further to add to the literature of definition, I 
should put it as Mho study of man and his environment/ or. perhaps, 
Mife and its environment/''* 

If. then, we look u})on geograi)liy as a study of the environment in 
its relation to the life of man. the utilitarian value that attaches to 
this subject is ()l)vious from the outset. Broadly speaking, all life is 
adjustment to an environment. Anything that tends to render this 
adjustment more efficient is of value from the standpoint of utility. 
Whatever reduces waste, whatever saves time, energj', labor, whatever 
increases wealth and material pros[)erity may be looked upon as utili- 
tarian in its value. That the facts of geography, as we now understand 
that term, possess such utilitarian value in a degree sufficient to war- 
rant their \i'ide dissemination is easily demonstrated. A few concrete 
instances will suffice to illustrate this point. 

The prooen ^ ^Utnha&m that is continually going on, tending to 
relieve ^ of the earth's surface and to populate the 

^ p. 155. 




landeveloped areas, can take place either blindly or intelligently. In 

the former case, lack of accurate information concerning the condi- 

tiions of different regions — their relative productivity, healthfulness, 

^tc. — leads to a chance or fortuitous selection of favorable environ- 

i:xients; that is, under conditions of geographical ignorance, migratory 

niovements frequently entail a tremendous material waste, to say 

^:xothing of human suffering. Inadequate knowledge of climatic con- 

<iition8, for example, led to the misfortunes that followed the wild rush 

xnto the semi-arid regions of Kansas and Nebraska in the early 80's. 

"Xo-day the work of the various scientific bureaus of the national Govem- 

^K^ent is devoted to the gathering of accurate information regarding the 

temperature, rainfall, fertility, and salubrity of various parts of the 

<2ountry. Annually a vast mass of information is collected, digested, 

-^nd published — information which is, in its very essence, geographical 

Iscxiowledge. The pupil in the upper grades of the elementary school 

^^oiild and certainly should be made acquainted with the sources of this 

information and trained in its interpretation. The expense which is 

irnvolved in the collecting of this data would be repaid in a generation, if 

"^he schools would see to it that their pupils know where to get at it 

"^nd how to use it. In fact, a more intimate connection between the 

I^epartment of Agriculture and the public schools is earnestly to be 

'^^ired. In some instances a start in this direction has been made 

^Ixrough the medium of the State agricultural colleges^ but, as yet, it 

^^ only a start. The only possible objection that could be urged against 

^Vi^ch a correlation would come from wild-cat land companies that 

^^tempt to colonize unproductive regions. An examination of the 

"^civertising pages of recent magazines will demonstrate that such com- 

^>^nies exist even to-day. 

The merchant engaged in the export trade has no longer to send 
■^Vis vessels to distant shores on the chance that a market may there be 
^^ir^und for his goods. The Consular Reports published by the Govern- 
^^^^^>ent give accurate information concerning the conunercial geography 
^^:C foreign countries — what goods are in demand, at what profit they 
^^«in be sold, what duty must be paid for their importation, what com- 
'^Xiodities will not find a sale, and a host of other valuable facts which 
^^perate to reduce losses and increase profits. All this geographical 
knowledge is important, from a utilitarian point of view, to many differ- 
ent classes of people. It is knowledge which the merchant, the farmer, 
tilie manufacturer, and the legislator may frequently use to their advan- 
t;age. And the laborer seeking a market for his labor may be just as 
ixiaterially benefited by such knowledge as the manufacturer seeking 


a market for his products. Here, again, is a suggestion toward the 
making of geography practical in the elementary school. The writer — Dt 

once proposed this question to an eighth grade class that had been ^— iv 

exceptionally well prepared in commercial geography: The Great c*^,^ 

Northern Railroad recently sent a representative to Asiatic Russia to <z^ .-^ 

study the Trans-Siberian Railroad; what motives led the management n^^^^rm 

to take this step? A variety of answers were obtained, nearly all 
showing commendable acumen of thought. These were criticised by 
the class with the aid of suggestive questions, and finally the conclusion 
was reached that the Great Northern directors were anxious to know 
whether they could compete with Russia in supplying wheat for the 
oriental market. It is obvious that such a question of commercial 
geography is of vital interest not only to the stockholders of the Great 
Northern Railroad but also to the entire population of the northwestern 

/ We have spoken so far only of the utilitarian value of detailed facts 
of geography. But the new geography, like all tnie sciences, renders .?=:S-:k"^3b 
deductive processes possible. From the facts are induced great prin- — m:^:mi 

ciples which can, in turn, be applied to particular instances with rea- .^x^a 

sonable certainty that the conclusions will be justified by actual facts. — ^^^^t^ 
''All knowledge," says Professor Ostwald, "is prescience"; that is, ^ ^siis 
the ultimate value of knowledge, as such, lies in the fact that with it one ^^ ^rxm 

can forecast the future on the basis of the past. The value of the prin- -^'^■^ -'i- 

ciplos of geography, from a utilitarian standpoint, is as unmistakable ^^X^e 
as the value of detailed geographical facts. To-day we not only know, « ---^^^^ 
as a matter of direct observation, that certain regions are unsuitable .-«^^-t«e 
for agricultural pursuits, but, given the contour of a certain region, .^ -^^^ ''^^ 
given other facts of its topography, given a few hints as to its geological ^ -^^^ '^' 
history, given the prevailing winds, and its distance from the sea, we '^^ ^.^'e 
can determine a lyriori its suitability for agriculture. There is, of "^ ^^^^o\ 
course, a possibility of error. Actual test may overthrow the results of "^ ^::i^of 
our theoretical considerations; but the chances are greatly in favor of 
their validity. An interesting example of a gigantic enterprise, based 
upon a priori reasoning from geographical generalizations, is furnished 
by the recent exploitation of the water power of Sault Ste. Marie. All 
precedents seemed to justify the assumption that a great manu- 
facturing and commercial center should grow up at this point. Its 
situation near the wheat fields of the Northwest, near the immense 
virgin forests of Ontario, near the unrivaled deposits of iron ore in the 
Lake Superior region; its facilities for water communication with the 
most populous centers of the continent ; its proximity to the labor market^ — 


—all these conditions supplemented the extensive water power devel- 
oped by the rapids of St. Marys River in warranting the rosiest pictures 
of the future. A large corporation was organized for the purpose of 
developing these resources. A canal was dug on the Canadian side — 
cut through the solid rock — to bring the water to the turbines at a 
convenient point. Factories were constructed on a scale hitherto 
unheard of in the business world. Steamer lines were operated on 
the lakes, and a railroad was pushed north into the forest to bring 
down pulp wood and iron ore. For a time everything went as antici- 
pated, but a few months ago the entire organization collapsed. Some 
important factor, no one seems to know just what, had been overlooked. 
Possibly the results were expected too quickly; time was not allowed 
Tor natural development. But that the fundamental conclusion was 
valid — that a great city will sometime grow up at this point — no one 
seems to doubt, even after this disastrous failure. 

Does the utilitarian value of geography justify the importance 
xvhich this subject has assumed in education? Is it of value to special 
olasses rather than to the average citizen? Should the study of geog- 
X"aphy be left, in the main, to the higher institutions? Every one must 
l<now how to read and write, how to compute, how to express himself 
effectively; could not the time of the elementary school be spent more 
j)rofitably upon such subjects as these? Upon the basis of the above 
considerations, and bearing in mind the fact that the majority of chil- 
dren never get beyond the elementary school, these questions must 
1)6 answered in favor of geography. The utilitarian value of geography, 
lowever, would not justify its preeminence in the elementary school 
'to the neglect of these other branches. Nor is the utilitarian value the 
only value that accrues to its study. It adds an increment, and a 
large increment, to the total value of the subject, but very few disciplines 
rest upon utility alone. It is only necessary here to point out that the 
utilitarian value of geography is extremely important, and that our 
methods of teaching must be modified in some degree by this fact. 
To what extent they should be modified can be determined only by 
a comparison of the utilitarian value with the other values which geog- 
raphy may possess. 

We know that the prominence of certain items of the curriculum is 
justified, not by the utility of their facts and principles in actual appli- 
cation to the problems of life, but rather by the condition that ignorance 
of these facts and principles brands a person as uneducated, and hence 
serves to militate against his maximal eflftciency in society. The study of 
grammar is, perhaps, the best instance of a subject of formal instruction, 


the 'main value of which is conventioncd. A sentence that is gram- 
matically incorrect may express one's thought just as clearly as a 
sentence that is grammatically correct, yet habitual use of incorrect 
forms — disregard of conventional requirements — will distract the atten- 
tion of one's auditors from the thought to the form, and hence will 
militate against the maximal efficiency of one's expression. The 
question now arises: In what degree will conventional requirements 
justify the teaching of geography in the elementary schools? 

Geographical knowledge is certainly "assumed" as part of the 
intellectual equipment of every one who would claim for his thoughts 
and opinions the consideration of the average man. The man who 
does not know that the earth is round will surely be handicapped in his 
dealings \\'ith others ; for, in social intercourse, men and women generalize 
upon slight baseS; and the man who has proved himself to be ignorant 
upon so common a branch of knowledge as geography will receive scant 
attention upon other matters. The elementary school owes it to the 
y individual to furnish him with those geographical facts and concepts 
that " ever>' one must know." In this day, when " learning by heart " has 
been practically banished from orthodox pedagogy, it is especiaUy 
necessar>' to emphasize this point. A number of facts must certainly 
be memorized for this reason if for no other. 

In addition to the value of its facts in direct application to the 
needs of life, and in addition to its conventional value, geography 
has a peculiar value as a preparation for other subjects. A knowledge 
of geography is especially important in the successful study of (1) his- 
tory- and current events. (2) literature, and (3) natural science. 

(1) "Histor}' is not intelligible without geography," says a recent 
Nvriter.* "This is obviously true in the sense that the reader of history 
nuist learn where the frontiers of States are. where battles are fought 
out, whither colonies were dispatched. It is equally if less obviously 
tnie that ixei^graphical facts ver}- largely influence the course of history. 
Even the constitutional and social developments within a settled 
region an^ scarcely indejx^ndent of them, since geographical position 
affects the nature and extent of intercourse with other nations, and 
thon^fore of t he intluenco exert eil by foreign ideas. All external relations, 
luv^tile and |>eai*eful. are baseii largely on geography, while industrial 
progn^ss de|HMuls primarily, though not exclusively, on matters described 
in every giH\craphy lHM>k — the natural products of a country and the 
facilities which its structure affonls for trade, both domestic and for- 

H« K Qeoiltr: The RtkUiom of Gto^raphy and Hittcnry, Oxford. 1901 , p. 1 . 


It should not be overlooked, however, that the relation of geography t^ 
to history is, in some measure, reciprocal — that, while geography is 
essential to the understanding of history, history is sometimes no less 
important in the rational study of geography. It is perfectly obvious 
that the significance of many geographical facts depends in no small 
measure upon historical conditions. Boundaries between countries, 
for example, are important geographically, yet they frequently have 
no adequate geographical explanation and must be interpreted entirely 
from historical bases. This point is also illustrated by the location of 
certain cities, although here a geographical influence may often be traced 
through historical media. For example, the capitals of the South 
American republics in the Andes region (including also Venezuela) are 
all situated away from the seacoast in all but inaccessible mountain 
regions. The cause of this phenomenon must be sought, not directly 
in geographical, but rather in historical conditions. For generations 
the neighboring seas were infested with pirates, and cities on the coast 
were constantly subject to pillage and sack at the hands of these out- 
laws. Nevertheless, that this historical condition should have arisen 
is undoubtedly due to the operation of geographical causes. 

Admitting the reciprocal nature of geography and history, however, 
it is plainly apparent that geography is the more fundamental, hence 
its grfiatezLprepacatory value in connection with history. 

The study of geography is also essential to the rational understand-*' ' 
ing of "current events." Not to evaluate current tendencies with some 
ciegree of intelligence is certainly not to prove oneself efficient in society. 
In this day when an occurrence on the other side of the globe may 
immediately and directly influence the humblest citizen on this side, 
'^he ability to read newspapers intelligently needs no elaborate argu- 
^K^nent for its defense. And the ability to read newspapers intelligently 
^iertainly involves not a superficial but a thorough knowledge of geog- 
^^*aphy, as the contemporary happenings in the Orient abundantly 

(2) Geography stands in an intimate relation to the study of litera- 
"tiure. The classics commonly read in the elementary schools — Robinson ^ 
<!ruBoe and Evangeline, to name only two — could not be adequately 
appreciated without a prior knowledge of geographical facts. Just 
"what weight should be attached to geographical study upon this ground 
'is necessarily indeterminate, but this factor certainly adds an increment, 

«nd a large increment, to its total value. 

(3) Rather more tangible is the relation of geography to the natural^ 
sciences. As pointed out above, geography borrows many of its facts 


from (lifT<»ront fields of natural science — from geology, meteorology, 
UHtroiioiny, botany, zoology, etc. In the high school and college each 
of th('S(» sri(Mic(\s is treated in and for itself as a pure science — that is, 
without (explicit reference to its economic or human relations. It is 
ol)vi()Us, liowover, that the initial study of a science should be from 
the human side. The child should be introduced to facts and principles 
in tlieir relation to his life. This is what geography attempts to do. 
In a s(Mise it might be looked upon as an introduction to all the sciences 
of natun*. It is here that the child must get that first large view which 
sliould precede all detailed and abstract study — abstract in the sense 
of b(Mng consid(»rod apart from its human relations. Educators are 
now coming to believe that the curriculum should include geography 
not only as a preparation for the sciences, but also as a culmination 
of all scientific study; that is. an advanced course in geography 
should form the capstone of the science work in high school or college. 
The student should bring together the facts and principles that he has 
acipiiriHl in tlie ilet ailed study of the various sciences, and discover 
their Halations to human life. This is only a consistent application 
of the giMieral principle that mind begins with large wholes, passes 
fn^n\ these Xo detailed parts ami then back again to the wholes — 
analysis fi>llowiHl by synthesis, differentiation followed by integration. 
In any case, however, we can i\ot doubt that get>graphy has great value 
as pivparatory to ilie study of science, and that, if the student is to 
iiet the most from tl\o study oi scionoe in high schcK^l or collie, he 
must Iv thonniiihly irnnuuKHl in ir^Hyirrapliy in the elementary' school. 
Uen\ hvnvovor. wo atv ^|vakini: for the few rather than for the many. 
To the majority of our pupils ti\e initial study oi geography forms 
the sum total of tlioir scientific instruction. Therefon^ the preparatory- 
\ aluo of coocraphy ca!\ iiot Iv u!\di;ly pn^s-sovi as a justification for its 
p:x\ r.iiv.o:;co in t!\e oleir.c.rvary sc!\oo;.* 

riie v;i\iiii:\c: H:.c Iv:n\iv!\ p-*.:*:;V';.' aiui c\!:ural values is indeter- 
v.'.;r.a:o \\ l.,r. wo !.:n viiscv.^so; r.v.vior :!\o lioad of utility is beyond 
V U ^ V. *:^ ; " * ; v:» V : . i- :i 1 ' i : . : ; *. o : ^. a rr\ ^ w os : so : ; <<^ « ^ f : lie won.! . Hut con ven- 
v.ov,;r. N .r./.os l\\\^v..o i^rai'tio:**. wi.ov. wo !vv»k a: them from a certain 
s:ar,x;i\^::.: w'.or. wo rv^:r.o:v.lvr ::\a: oonvor-V.-^i-aliy valuable fact;? aid 
v^r.o w, v^v»o'< >ov::i* ;Vvi;r.s::v.ov.:s The i^rt^par^itorv values are practical 
v.'.:.:v.:4:i '.\ . i^rv^\ ;.1<nI :•.,*»: :V.o sr.l\\v:s w:.-cV. :hoy \vk forwarvl to an? 
;:-. : '<:*.M AC-* v--^"*^''^- 1 --^^ v;\*v.o< wV/.oh wo h.^vo now to viisciiss 


^11 doubtless appeal to one as ultimately practical, although with 
more intermediate steps than is the case with those considered above. 
IBecause of this distinction we may class the following as cultural 
values, remembering, however, that the distinction between practical 
^nd cultural is one of degree rather than of kind. 

Acquisitiveness in man is an instinct. Like all instincts it owes its 
existence to the forces of natural selection working upon fortuitous 
variations in nerve structure. It has been good for man to be curious 
about his environment, to study his environment, and to determine 
the laws that govern it. Primitive man did not realize, probably, 
that his inordinate curiosity was good for him. In his own rude way 
he investigated things for the mere ''fun of it" — for the pleasure which 
it afforded him. Later in his development he came to find out that 
many of the facts which he discovered and many of the laws which he 
worked out were "good" for him — that the knowledge which he had 
gained helped him in solving the problems of his life. But this appre- 
ciation of the value of acquisitiveness came only after a long lapse of 

The desire to satisfy curiosity is thus seen to be at the basis of 
knowledge. The child evinces this desire. His curiosity is boundless, 
and upon this native instinct the educator may build. It is clear, 
however, that he can not trust to it entirely, for the very fact that it 
is an instinct means that it runs its course in passive attention. It is 
Hot sustained, directed, organized. All these things mean active 
^it/tention, mean work. Curiosity soon tires, but any measurable addi- 
tiion to knowledge involves persistent effort. 

It is the problem of the educator, then, to replace this instinctive 
o\iriosity with a higher mental process. The desire to obtain knowledge /.^ 
for the sake of knowledge is not to be discouraged, but it is to be held 
ti^o a definite line until results follow. Wherever possible, the child's 
oxiriosity should be directed along fines that will help him most in his 
fxiture adjustments. There are times, however, when this curiosity 
^^iiay be directed toward ends the practical significance of which is not 
Once apparent, and it is these cases that we must discuss under the 
liead of cultural values. 

In the first place, some children may be curious in certain special 
directions. They may evince a desire, perhaps, to learn all that they 
can about Arctic exploration. The facts that they obtain from various 
sources may not be applicable to the problems that they nmst solve 
in later life, yet no sensible teacher would attempt for a moment to 
curtail this interest. He has here the opportunity to replace instinctive 


curifmity with a hif^hcr Hcntiment, namely, intellectual interest. This 
iH (rloHoly akin to other forms of sentiment, such as appreciation of art, 
mimic, and lit^iraturc. None of these is, in itself, "practical." yet 
(?ach Hu)mMyvH a very practical end. Without some form of pleasure, 
life would be imfK)ssible. If the higher forms of pleasure — the senti- 
ments — fiVi; not developed, the individual will be thro\\Ti back upon 
the primitive pleasures. He will follow the instincts, the lines of least 
resiHtanci!. In our s(;hool work to-day we are trying to develop the 
aesthetic sentiments — to cultivate an appreciation for art, music, and 
literature. We shoidd certainly not neglect the intellectual senti- 
ment the pleasure that conies from knowing. It is for this reason that 
the wise teacher would never think for a moment of curtailing interest 
in such a subji'ct as Arctic exploration. The opportunity is too 
valuable to l>e lost. With a little trouble he may lead the child to take 
delight in an intellectual pursuit, as with a little trouble he may 
lea<l tlu» (^hild to see the beauty in a great picture, or a classical musical 
composition, or a world epic. 

In the second place, items of knowledge which have little or no 
significance in the practical affairs of life may nevertheless be necessary 
to a HjfHtvm of knowhnlge. It is a well-known fact that systematic 
arrangenuMit or organization is an extremely important factor in the 
'*(»Hici<Mit r<M»all " of itcMus of experience at times when they are needed.* 
Very frtMiuently in making a system of knowledge — in arranging the 
itiMus of experience in an orderly fasliion — it is necessary to insert 
many facts and principles whicli have in themselves little practical 
value. Thus the imlividual may never l)e called upon to apply his 
knowledge o( the .Vrctic regions, but such knowledge is necessarj' in 
onler to make his world view conipix^hensive. Without it there would 
Iv a distracting gap. 

The briefest e\an\ination o( tlie curricula of the secondary' schools 
and colleiics will serve lo demonstrate tl\e importance of the "cultural'" 
valuoN \\l\iol\ we liave discussed in t!ie two {^receding paragraphs. The 
larvi^M' part of these curricula is made up o( subjects which sul>?en*e 
one or the o{\wr of tliese two functions: tending either to develop 
ititelUvttial ituoivsts or to make mon^ compn^hensive and complete 
the bod\ of knowledge. The science, the mathematics, the language 
:\\u\ literatmv. w hioh so prvMuinent a place in the higher education, 

* t'ho •.;\usxr;,*v.vv ot * :houcht-vV. r.*v!uv.>"' ir. rwall has been (kfiM>n$tni;<d, 
t\'.^\,- :\y.y\ M\^\\\. h\ \\w '\w^\^\\< o: oxjvrKuov.ta': p<vohvA\i^-. Cf. The ino>ri: of 


can be justified only upon these grounds. In the elementary school, 
on the other hand, the cultural values are not so prominent. The 
bulk of the time is given over to the study of arithmetic and language, 
the latter including reading, writing, composition, and grammar. 
Literature and geography divide most of the remaining time between 
them. Arithmetic and language are justified principally because of 
their utilitarian values. Literature is prominent chiefly because of its 
conventional and cultural values. Geography might be said to occupy 
a midway position, being important from all sides. 

If the foregoing analysis of the aims and functions of geography 
as an integral part of the elementary school curriculum is valid, it 
follows that our methods of teaching must be organized with these 
points in view. If possible, the various aims should be classified with 
reference to their relative importance in fulfilUng the general end of 
education, namely, the production of the socially efficient individual. 
We should know with approximate accuracy just what facts and prin- 
ciples are to be impressed because of their utiUtarian value, what are 
essential from the conventional standpoint, what from the preparatory, 
and so on. In many instances the groups will, of course, cut across 
one another, but it seems tolerably clear that methods of impressing 
facts and developing principles will var>' according to the function 
which the facts and principles are to subserve. 

These are problems which it must be left for educational research 
to solve. From the standpoint of the practitioner, at least, this suggests 
a field of investigation infinitely more promising than those which con- 
temporary educational experts are attempting to exploit. 


Wind-Blown Trees. — The communication on Wind EffectSy by Prof. 
M. S. W. Jefferson, in your January number, interests me much, as it 
concerns a subject to which I have given some attention for several 
years. Observations of the kind to which your contributor refers are 
easily made, and add much to the interest of the study of meteorol- 
ogy* because they give it life. If any of your readers cares to pursue 
this subject further, he will find an instructive discussion of it in a recent 
paper by Prof. J. FrQh, entitled Die Abbildung der vorherrschenden 
Winde durch die Pflanzenwelt {Jahresber, Geogr. Ethnogr. GeselU.y Zilrich, 
1901-02,97 pp.). In this study Professor Friih classifies the effects 


of wind action on trees, names the most sensitive trees, and gives 
observations from different parts of the world. Savage tribes often 
make use of tree wind-vanes to guide them on their wanderings. 

Apropos of wind-blown trees, I have somewhere heard a story of a 
gardener who, when shown a large number of trees which had been 
blown by the prevailing wind, and not appreciating the fact that what 
he saw was the result of wind action, said he could not take the place, 
because he could never keep all those trees trimmed at that particular 
angle. — R. DeC. Ward, Harvard Ihnversitji^y Cambridge , Mass. 

Our Proportion of the World. — **ln area possessing one-four- 
teenth of the entire earth, in population one-twentieth, and increasing 
more rapidly than that of the rest of the world: in wealth one-fourth, 
in international conunerce one-nintli, in banking power more than 
one-half, in savings deposits nearly one-third, in Government revenue 
one-tenth, in stock of gokl nearly one-fourth, in stock of silver one- 
sixth, in amount of life insurance two-thirds, in railway mileage over 
one-third, in coal production one-third, in copper production one-half, 
in zinc production one-fourth, in iron and steel production more than 
one-third, in wheat crop one-fifth, in corn crop two-thirds, in cotton 
crop eight-tenths, in wool crop one-tenth, in outpiU of newspapers 
and [periodicals over one-third —tliis is the achievement of the United 
States after a century and a i|uarter of existence." — Wall Street Journal. 

Primary Geography. — \ears ago. as many teachers remember, 
such subjects as botany, zoology, and chemistry were taught from the 
written descripti(>n in tlie text-i>(>(>k. but wo have progressed in such 
a degree that any one attempting to teacl\ now. other than objectively, 
would be considered on tlie verjre of huiacy. (Vography was taught 
in the same maiuuT. bnt each succeeding year places it, too, more and 
more on an objective l)asis. We iiave advanced to a stage where 
objectiv(» teacliing of every subject seisms imperative. Verbal descrip- 
tions are inadequate, for. no matter how graphically you describe a 
place or tiling, each listener is forming a different mental image, and 
no imagination, however clear, can create a mental picture at all correct, 
ludess then^ is alrt\idy in the mind suitable exjierience gained from 
actual observation of the thing liescrilx^l or from pictures of the object. 
So little do business men dejHMui on verbal descriptions that, if they 
wish to construct a building, l>efore entering into a contract for the 
samei they must see on paj>er a complete picture, that there ma\- be no 



misunderstanding. They realize ^Hhat a greater amount of informa- 
tion and a more lasting impression is gained from a single picture than 
from pages of description." We as teachers are slowly adopting busi- 
ness methods. We are beginning to realize the importance of securing 
^ood mental images. 

We know the best means of doing this is to visit the object itself; 
bxit since we can not charter an airship and travel with our little flocks 
from pole to pole, nor can we import mountain peaks, seas, or rivers at 
oxar convenience, the next best means is to model them on the sand 
ti^^ble, and at the same time present the best pictures on the subject 
titiat can be secured. Dr. Red way says that in the teaching of geog- 
^i^^phy climate is fundamental, and the first topic that should be consid- 
^x-ed, as its influence has every^thing to do with the food, shelter, and 
<^lothing of the inhabitants of the earth. To illustrate the power of 
^liis influence, I know of nothing better than the story written by Jane 
-«?Xwndrews of the '^ Seven Little Sisters,'* which should be in the hands 
<^"f ever}' primary teacher. It is easily illustrated and dramatized and 
<^»^ates a desire for the further study of geography in children of every 
^i ze. — Nebraska Teacher, February-, 1904. 

^i^urrent Articles on Commerce and Industry. — 


Bulb Growing in America (Illus.), Country Life in Am. 
Camphor from Turpentine, Paint, Oil and Drug Rcv.j February 10. 
China, Commercial, in 1904, Mo. Summary of Commerce and 
f^inancej January. 

China, Railways of (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 
Coal Mining, Short History' of, BradstreeVs, February 20. 
Cod Liver Oil Industry, Paint, Oil and Drug Rev., February 24. 
Cotton-Boll Weevil (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 
Cotton Culture in Foreign Countries, Crop Reporter. 
Fire Curtains, Asbestos, Making of (Illus.), Sci. Aim., February 6. 
Flour Milling (111.), Sci. Am., February 27. 
Fruit Ranch in California (Illus.), Country Life in Am. 
Indigo, Early History of, Paint, Oil and Drug Rev., February 24. 
Korea, Commercial, in 1904, Mo. Summary of Commerce and Finance, 

Lumbering by Machinery (Illus.), World's Work. 
Maple-Sugar Industry (Illus.), Country Life in Am. 
Panama Canal and the Mississippi Valley, World's Work. 


Peanut Crop, Comm. B\dL and N. W. Trade, February 6. 

Peru (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 

Philippine Tobacco Cultivation, Mo. Summary of Commerce of the 
Philippine Is. f August, 1903. 

Philippine Mineral Deposits, Mo. Summary of Commerce of the 
Philippine Is., September, 1903. 

Porto Rico, Mineral Industries of, Census Bulletin, No. 6. 

Power for the World, World^s Work. 

Rose (larden Under Glass (Illus.), Country Life in Ain. 

Shipping and Organization (IDus.), System. 


Abyssinia, Our Mission to. The Manufacturer, March 15. 

Advertising, Bradstrcct's, March 26. 

Asia, Economic Changes in, Century. 

Electric Inventions and Human Activity (Illus.), Engineering Mag. 

Farming I'nder Olass (Illus.). World's Work. 

India. Old and New (llhis.). World To-Day. 

Irrigation in the Far West (lUus.), Kvv. of Revs. 

Jew. Russian. Americanized (Illus.), World's Work. 

Korea. Japan and Russia (Illus.). World's Work. 

Labor Savers of the World (llhis.). Engineering Mag. 

Lampblack. Manufacturing of, PniiU, Oil and Drug Rev., March 23. 

Manchuria ami Siberia, Lumber Industry in. Consular Report. 

Manchuria, Wheat (Irowing and Milling in, Consular Report. 

Natural (las. History of. in the V . S., Paint, Oil and Drug Rev., 
March 16. 

Negro. The. McClun \n\ 

Pacifies. The Two (^Ulus.). Booklorcr's Mag. 

Panama and its People illlus.V Riv. of Rivs. 

Paris Bourse (^lllus.V (\ntury. 

Pei>ia. Trade and Commerce in. Consular Rc}wrts. 

Prime Miuer and its Inthienco i^n World's Progress (Illus.).. 
Enginttring Mku:. 

Railroading. Ten Years' Advance in (Ilhis.), World's Work. 

Ru.ssia's Coal Supplies. Bradstntrs. March 19. 

Santo Pomingo vHlus.\ Rtv. of Rtvs. 

Texas Panhandle. Transformation oi, Bradsirect's, March 19. 

White licad Manufactun\ Paint. Oil and Drug Rev,, March 30. 

E. D. J. 




^"^HE opportunities for enlarging and improving one's geographic 
knowledge during the coming summer vnW be exceptionally 
varied and alluring. In fact, no such combination of geographic 
possibilities has ever before been possible. The numerous summer 
schools in the larger universities and normal schools of the country 
offer facilities for geograpliic study valuable for t^'achers of all grades 
of work, detailed announcement of which will be found in our columns 
i;his month. 

It should not be forgotten, however, that much geographic training 
of exceeding value can be secured without tuition and that the cheap 
rates to the St. Louis Exposition will make it possible for many teachers 
to secure a wealth of information of daily use in their class work, at 
an expense less than would be incurred in a six weeks' summer school. 
The exhibits of industries and mankind at St. Louis will be exceptionally 
fine and will form a school of geography of an unicjue character. The 
trip to St. Louis will also give opportunity for personal study of the 
topographic and climatic conditions of a region of great interest to 
any one living amid the varied surroundings of the Eastern States. 
To make such a trip of geographic profit the Journal will be devoted 
next month to the geography of the Louisiana Purchase, and will be 
particularly valuable as a guide book, to be read before leaving home. 
People may pass through the most interesting region without seeing 
or appreciating the geography about them. Teachers anticipating a 
trip to St. Louis should therefore prepare their minds for what is to be 
seen by securing a preHminar\^ knowledge of the geographic possibilities 
during such a trip. 

The studying of geography first hand, either in the field or the 
classroom, is obviously the best means of increasing one's power in 
this field. It should be borne in mind, however, that there is no single 
means of securing inspiration and a due appreciation of the depth and 
significance of geography like coming in personal contact with the men 
and women who are leading in geographic thought and work. This 
unusual opportunity will be given this summer at the meetings of the 
International Geographic Congress, announcement of which has been 
already made in these columns. This is the first meeting of the 


Congrcfss in this coiiiitr}^. and one of the first opportunities there has 
been for securing the presence of geographers from abroad. Neither 
have there been, in the past, many chances for an assembly of the geog- 
raphers of this country. All enthusiasts should attend some of the 
meetings of the Congress without fail! All interested in the subject 
will gain inspiration and help from listening to the papers and meeting 
their fellow workers. 

Thus, in at least three different ways, opportunities for growth in 
geography are possible this summer. It is to be hoped that every 
teacher will therefore take advantage of these conditions, which may 
not be duplicated again for many years. Summer schools increase 
in number and worth constantly; World's Fairs, cheap cross-countrj' 
trips, and assemblies of geographers are rare. They therefore must be 
taken advantage of at the moment. 


New PhjTsical Geography. Hv Halph S. Tarr. Pp. xiii. 4.57. The Macmillan Co., 

New York, 19(H. 

Tarr's New Physical Cieogniphy is. as ihe author announces in his preface, a 
** new lK>ok*' as comparcti with his earhor texts: and, as we should expect, is in 
most resjxvts a distinct iniprovenicnt \i}x>n them, ahhough their excellence is 
attt^sttnl by the numlK?r of ciiitions throiicli which each of them hrts passed. 

Tliis icxl .'iciMns l>est adaptcil t<. tlic l:i>t years of the high school, where the sul>- 
ject is mon* anil mon» fimling plue; aiul the author has evidently adapted his 
treatment alike to the retjuircment*; of those who exjKvt to go to college, and to 
the murh larger class who get their only training in earth-science in the high school. 
S<i we find hen^ nuirh thai, in the opinion of the strict tH>nstructionist. would not 
iH'long to physical gtM>graphy. 

Hy his ••Tt>pifal iMitlincs,'* " l^ut^tions." "Sugi^fStions," and l»sls of " Reference 
lVn>ks.*' giving pul^lishcrs anil prict^. at the end of each chapter, tin* author has 
done an invaluable scr\ ice fi»r the vast army of teachers who are called upon to 
te;irh plu>iral s;ci>graphy. but who have not Invn spivially trained for the woric. 
Thi'M^ will th.nik him :ilso tor hi** su^gestior.s as lo '* Laln^ratorv R^uipment'* and 
•' Kiclvl Work." apivridiivs J an^i K 

ri'c lopii-al sn'.innarit's. cxrclleni astlicy ar.\ can r.oi be considered an unmixed 
ad\antagc. ;»s they :»ri^ an c\ cr prt\<ent temptation to neglect the longer eonsidera- 
tii^n that prcivdc^ tliom Many tcachci^. tin*, prefer to have .heir scholar? make 
tlifir own ^vumuanc< 

rhc illu^;r:ition> arc bo;h apprv^priaic atid aiiraitivc: but iNinsidering the size 
and weigh: of the book, po^-il^ly tix^ niimon^us In a few instances they are not 
as near their appn^pr.atc ic\t> as iv.iM iv ii«Mn\l. :ind the exivssive number of 
iMTnekot n^fen^uvs to theni >ccn!> *o!if using A siwial word of praise is due the 
block drawing>. and nu»rc of tlu^c .oif.d ha\c I een pn.>titably used. 


The treatment of the Land before the Atmosphere is not logical, nor does the 
author's reason for it seem sufficient. Such treatment must be either empirical, 
which the book before us is far from being, or to the scholar unintelligible. The 
study of physiographic features in their evolutionary development presupposes a 
knowledge of the air. It is unfortunate, too, that the author has seen fit to give 
even less space to his consideration of the air than he gave in his " First Book." 

Most of the appended matter might better find place under its appropriate 
topic in the body of the text; and a fuller treatment, at the end of each chapter, 
of the response of organic forms to their physical environment would make un- 
necessary their separate treatment in chapters XVII and XVIII, which are too 
largely biological. 

There is not the logical arrangement of topics in sequence that one would expect, 
and in some cases topics are considered out of what would seem their proper setting. 
Thus superimposed and rejuvenated rivers, and river piracy are considered under the 
subject of plateaus rather than under rivers. 

A few unfortunate omissions occur, as on p. 45 where gravity is omitted from 
the agents of erosion, and p. 50 where slope of the land is not mentioned among the 
factors determining the amount of nin-off. 

The author's of " divide" is at unusual, and leaves no place for undivided 

The treatment of tides and ocean currents are alike unsatisfactory; and the 
mistake is made of considering risiyig and flood tide coincident in period, and likewise 
falling and ebb tide. 

A very small number of typographical errors have crept in, as on p. 259 where 
"southeast trades" and ** trades" should l)e interchanged, and in Fig. 
325 where -35 is evidently not intended. 

Chapters XV, XVI, and XIX are distinct additions to the excellence of the book. 

In spite of these minor roughnesses, many of which can be remedied in a later 
edition, the New Physical Geography will ea.sily take its place among the very best 
texts on physical geography availal)le. W. R. C. 

A Laboratory Manual for Physical Geography. Bv Frank W. Darling. Size 
9i X 8i. Exercises 32. Chicago: Atkinson & Mentzer, 1903. 
The growing emphasis laid upon laboratory work in physical geography is 
evidenced by the steadily increasing number of laborator>^ manuals. The breadth 
of the field and the lack of unanimity in regard to what the essentials in laboratory 
work really are is clearly shown by the radical differences which these various 
manuals present to the laboratory' teacher. 

The manual under consideration contains thirty-two exercises; of these, six 
illustrate various problems in mathematical geography, seven treat of the atmos- 
phere, while nineteen pertain to the lands. The apportionment is certainly unfor- 
tunate. The topic of the ocean has been entirely omitted, and that of the atmos- 
phere, which lends itself so admirably to laboratory uivestigation, has received 
scant attention. While no one can (juestion the importance of the land as a subject 
of study, the causal relation existing among the various elements of climate and 
weather may be so clearly demonstrated that this topic seems plainly entitled to an 
emphasis approximately equal to that which the lands receive. In this book, 
however, the author disposes of the subject of climate summarily — a single exercise 
on planetary winds being practically the extent of treatment. The topic of the 



weather is studied by means of daily weather observations, with the addition of one 
or two exercises on cyclonic stomis. 

The treatment of the lands is excellent — adequate in scope, det>ailed in character, 
and of a nature requiring careful observation and clear thinking. 

The exercises deaUng with mathematical geo.s^raphy are so suggestive that one 
can not help wisliing for an amplification in this case also. The relation of the earth 
to the other heavenly bodies becomes more a matter of fact and less a matter of faith 
to the pupil, who makes direct though simple observations of the heavens, accord- 
ing to the plan outlined by the author, than to one whose knowledge of this field 
is gained through laboratory e<iuipment and text-books. 

While the omissions in the volume under consideration are of a serious nature 
and greatly impair its usefulness, its strong points and it^ valuable suggestions 
should reconnnend it to every teacher of physical geography either in a secondary 
or in a nonnal school. C. B. K. 

The Yellowstone National Park. By Hiram M. Chittenden. Fourth edition, 
revised and enlarged. Pp. vii, 355. Cincinnati: The Robert H. Clark Com- 
pany, 1903. 

Chittenden's well-known volume on the Yellowstone National Park has lately 
appeared in a new and up-to-date edition, which forms one of the best guides to this 
"Wonderland." The book is abnost eciually divided into an historical and a 
descriptive section. The historical portion is extremely interesting, and gives the 
salient points in the hi.stor\' of this region in a small compass. For any one who is 
unfamiliar with the current beliefs in reference to the veracity of the early explorers 
in this region, Chittenden's volume will form a welcome introduction to some inter- 
esting histor>'. 

Moat people who use the volume will, however, get the greatest help from the 
descriptive portion of the Ijook. The descriptions are written in clear, accurate, 
unassuming language, in strong contrast to the railroad folder style so common in 
descriptions of the indescribable. This portion of the l>ook is also practical for the 
tourist, as it includes a detailed account of the customary "tour'' as well as descrip- 
tions of the animals, plants. geolo;2:icMl hi.story, and hot .springs. In fact the volume 
is one of the necessities to the visitor. 

The illu.strations are exc-cllcnt, and the statistical material well selected. Unfor- 
tunately, however, the author has referred but infrequently to the work of the many 
noted scientists who ha\e unraveled the story of the histor\' of the Park, and then in 
such a careless way that no one could readily find the original articles. This Is a 
serious defect in a book descriptive of a National Park, and written by an officer 
of the I'nited States army, especially when most that is known about the Park 
has been tlue to the indefatigable energies of Government officers, some of whom 
have practically given their lives to the task. R. E. D. 


The Philippine Islands, 1-193-1808. Edited and annotated by Emma H. Blair 
and James A. Robertson. Vol. X, 1597-1591), pp.318. Vol. XI, 1599-1602, 
pp. 318. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1904. 
Like the preceding volumes in the series, these volumes are of especial value to 

students of historical geography. 


Newest and Best Text-Books 



T^orton*s Geographies 

By Eliza H. Morton, Member of the National Geographic Society. 

^^Slementary Geogp-aphy $0.55 

^ y% dvanced Geography 1*20 

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By Jacques W. Redway and Russell Hinman. 

^^Slementary Geography f 0.60 

^^dvanced Geography x.25 

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Z I arbeirs Geographies 

By Horace S. Tarbell, A.M., LL.D., formerly Superintendent of 
Schools, Providence, R. I., and Mar i ha Tarbell, Ph.D. 

^introductory Geography f 0.50 

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M MW All 


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151% Peovylrute Atc^, WsAImIm, Jb 

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and colleges supplied with Teachers 
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Address the Manager 

W. G. CROCKER. Editor Westland Educator, 

Lisbon, N. D. 



The Auditorium, Chicago, 

Established 20 years. Positions F 
Specialty — The Best Teach 


THIS is the day of Special Teachers. Those who can teach any subject well, 1 
better than it is usually taught, are in demand at good salaries. There is i 
only for teachers of Geography, but for teachers of Physical Geography 
mercial Geography as special subjects. If you will write to 'us we shall be gli 
you evidence that we have opportunity to place superior teachers by RECOMMI 
There is no other Agency lo which so many applications are made for teachers. 

The School Bulletin Agency, c. w. Bardeen, Syracuse 

Editor has tauj^ht Twelve Years and Superintended Eleven 

Carefully ^aded Selections, Language Studies for Composition Work, Nev 
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Free sample. Better still : Send ten cents for a five months' " Trial Trip*' 

^he ROTARY, Lisbon, North i 

Vou have solved the book problem 

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259ma Fifth Avenue, New York 

You Ought to Look Into This 


fit-rat Atfl Sn, I : 

THE LITTLE CHRONICLE .^!,';aKl \?!.,;Si' 

uf ihp Sehof-lofKdiirnithjD. riilreiaro rnllvi'rftlfv, ><i4yp of Tiik Lnri.n 
I ii|[ii\fri,K: ^ ^iii-h II |iiiTM?r wj4« iiJtifli pet?drd 111 ihK EducnitlMUal Sya- 
i-nii n[itl wii« hiMjii^ t"i I'Oii]'"/' 
(ai't'iii Aid 'S*^* *■£ I 

TUC CTCDCnCPriD^ '" ■* S'^'i'^i't urils'ltf m\ th^ um- nf m*.t* .-ti-t»|*ir Vli'w> in 
lllL OldldlMWUlt ^'arhltiK lri?it|fTtit'ii.v nmi JlUrury, t^r. JstrfjiitHi W. |(:«air«y 

jkit It fhlrtv wihI jii-iiiH^ AiMl Mil' vi'ry i'ljenrfHt vk*w# ivmilil Fni^t you i2..*i ; with vtfWi Infi-rlur 
t<r iMirnfliip, iiu<l. ^vUh hl^Eli iiriri.^.l vlt^w* m* NMti<r ttiHii uiiih.9;i.^i. 

iiwhim't4> ^'iTiii' iJiiiiHiiiil rlrr>irii«Taai.'e<-^ uudiu U'rtli'r(<i Iiiti-udiii''C The Littlb CnEi^xirLE, ve 
o,rv vUckLih'd Ht iikuki' ihf ruili>i» [im 


liEiii !ii'Bi-'n *UE>MrHi»th»n I** TnH LtTii.K ( iiu-nvM'i.t; m Unr- l,!-|'iii:i' m-ekly, Iteniitirullv lllu*- 
r'Mii'fli. It ^i : uut^^trTrnncmin^ nUU iiUiinlriiiiii In^jd, [PiittlE-i iliii|*t|i'd. haii^l i^n^ruvrrK ptuidi iMijimd* 

V^ili^iil fl'trk rlKinilMT^ wurHi ♦IJ't'H t[]r«"H' dii'A^'ii L';iri'Trrtl> pm1c^:^hm| ufaji hi'^\nUM\ly RuWlwil f*Xtti^>- 
f^r^apli^ \1<"i^K friiiii d!lffun'l4,l jj^lirtAUl Tfir %i. 4 >]'•']. lAOE'tli P].l4» jut dn?;ifi4. l^lMI;, liiiikjl);;.^ n IfiXAll ^lIUP 

iir«4i.iitJ ALL r>prrI.Vi. ITyou wImIi 10 [L villi viiiirMfirtj'rtliiM opiiitrtiiuiiy, |<vu MhQ«l4 
pi lie r your order an prom pi ly hm poHnibliv 

For 10 r*?iiti In vtiiitinfl wc vJll fwrward upr^iimcri nnd roiiiiilrtf! lUl nf vii^wrn, ? implM rripy of 
TfiK LiTTLK iJiiBitsfii {.K.'Hxr IIl*T«4HiH' *nj. tlu' ii«t uf t utrrHi Ku'iilH III Tnittiliiif, "iUr"Frvc Irlnl 
i>frcr«"' mid tka rwnE'riK-si-wi'-i'k jdj^ii f**v [nitok^. 

Atri'i][4 mil lit ^li^l 111 !«'>.3 t^rr wi^fli. "^1 riir inr Ternim. 




, / Oitarttrh' ^ftJi^a^ in e of Xtjt* 
R ( 1 1 <//>/_{; ,¥ , Ri'i tiai it *tfs, ^f//tr- 
/f/iffirr S/or/ts, /'riuffttt/ , it/i'/it 

AO C£nls a > ear . iscentsa nqubcf. 

thin little tiMUiiJtJnc Mipplii*s Uio 

ffimiiiiv, April, liilv, ami ^.d/tMbnT. K 
Is tilu-^l Uv Wllllkm E, Watt. A, 
M», Ph. D.,. -ivh" .-vp^'^'iaHy kii^ws tlu- 
ri.-(|Luri'iiiL'i)th lit <iM|>Lkl;Lr ^jH^ikrrH nnil 

WfiN l-i ilHllht'll Miib' 1 4' llu- llln^t tiollKhT 

K^'-tlU'cr-i Mtul !A,!'tt r-diiiTier lalikurs ill 


40 Kandtjjph Strtut 
CtiiCcigOt HI, 


I!y WILLIAM K. WATT. A. M., Pti. D, 


IliH* A Hi-hfKtl pntprtalnmcDt noltiliiir ''an 
i i^rniiii rhiri, for li: «tlM»»'si up III** *-hi m 
ijiiiHly In ifh-^lki^n] Pill wrll )'i»ii wtiqkl [tilnic 
ilir LkijiluM' h?kil rlK^iii In ndncL It liel^** 
I fM' tt'iilnT rn ki'rp It t^iKpri »rlj(K)|. T<i<p luwl 
jii 1-^ "d tin- ju^pfide wliik Irv Ut iatcffvt>' With 
I 111' smiifi nork cpf tlio BirlMMa an* m* wpil jire- 
hiiin-d in-ri* IIijit tNiTf wfil im IrnA ir+*uh)ufor 
J i':tn. Mill f ft ijiiH ln'i'ii [i1vrn+ TIip Ini'ld^ni** 
1 Mr joKt''^. till* rimiiy tliiiijrri, aEiit tlir- lanicuiir^ 
ri<i|iiL<'ri«-4l Willi ilie Lihiifm art* takuci FrnTii llii^. 
'i lit' liiMiiiir" where 5Iin. <;it9it Ik ref^meil to 
\hv I MinarUiNM' tm Ui'pii\VH tu ts^f bpr Mttle 
iHiy'n MiniH'fK nii'mh'd Jirtjipi'n^il in ^'hlcaj^K 
M ( , 1; nil?''" I'lndi'iiiiictl Inn ijf titp tf arU^r In the 
jinC'Ciiri^ ill lih hikii wh'olie'* TTnifiitcdIy tabim 
Jtud I hi'' tl'^b^'luT und Im t'XlHtM-d iHi thi'^ RtNit: It 

iM t-ii 1 1 1 at>|i'('ii.l:nk% And rfit^rf urt?' nibctii InkPD 
ir^i'iN I'imI llii' [hi- rfMirH ar ttpem-li and tbe 
JiinndirTi In ii4«-K uri:^ ri''*l unt'ft. 

Thli* t'lHv niik\ lit' irhvn wUh fewer rehears- 
a tit trian utiv kHiit futi v^t^nLuf^'fl I'ntertiiiii- 
iiii'nT. Till* '^l'I•|.lnl^^fn|lC limy Ik' L'^medtmliv 
>Hi'Vi'r;|] h-a^Mirrs VLOfKlu>! With IttdlvldUBl* 
t"']i;iriii4 Ih. TLree ifptirm) nh^JiivAli will 
Midiiv, Tm'lve ta i-lvty-rour iHerlurmerv, 

iJ U ir i' *J I ► J: . ifj *! ►-m 5 ^ #1 S , m hI *1> 


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Some Geographical Publications 
Made Out West 

Bill Good EVer^Whe^e 

Havt l>aHfir QrVirtrtl fV(»rfctrrflnll'ii' By HA flU WAGNER. ThU fli^w 0«'«frr*nfer 

10 tbe tCMclaFn ia CALLfomlB Jt »ui>pliit:ii tujin> i>f tfur ft^a turf's tUaX art' luck luff Jd ntlHT ^^oiEr^plilrii 
bstra dtKCtJofU fot d»w(D^ ibu tiiiif» ot thv ^mu- or i allfurhliiirunlilbnTriJ Ityl*. U, Am^bnrjf i, 
latheitarrof CHltfu ■ '- ' -- — -.^ . ^-^_.. _ .. 

NM«iit«lii>, !be Inkf 

ia the itarr of CiiHfnrnls. it prvfji ;i brief tilt^t^ir^c^Al ulit'tch; fir ikt^Iw* in ft ()«*anJte iisftmirr liu 
-- '-' — - - iiftm^ tlK' rivrr HjiifrntH. llu* cllmatri ibc Hfiil. niv pronluclrt. tin* 

,-. .. „ .-. -^..jnerrif, ihp rducfittsii. tilt! an I in a 1 and tilaal tlfp*^ iHc eouiiliri^ mid 

dtle*. Tbere vrv ni^.i six tiaePii on the etjiiuiliJiKj (if Kn'^ifrmplilcK] nbiiiet oT the Wi<^t, liu luiHinif 

■ HftrlriH tbPtPffinH 

KTenl |M«n nii th«- ^timiiftb aii 1 Indlmi nanin* of tftlirnnilii. i:vefv sraifEDt^ut It UioruDi^ttiy 
Vp^o^dA^- U liu been wdtifd ami (n t gmni'] nintn tiir rt^UP^ui «iis1litii m nl 1!MM 

Tberears ftl«o »i't-cliiil niAti*« mT ih-- J^^tHrKJ^^ '-r iht* rHL-LQc juid aliMi lit^oriHutlon cm ttii* cottuoetci? 
■od Induitrletof tliu dlw t'aelf^ii . it Im ieiii^irtiid Ij) tbu Irndlni educiitar^. Frii'd net, Sl>0O't 


oiones or uiir moiaer £,Bnn. Viuijvt- iu»i f^ iiartu uinns- rich in iiiii#trative 

WBterLfti for tba ttudy <>r muTKunto nature, iMit up tn ihu itmi^ lltike bdK hi-co iiiii tu liticli Mimpc m« 
io be »r9i)«hiv tor the ui»ci \t( rcliuuli^. In tb« nirMint^iiuoim ri'i^iiiiA o«r^rlMll)\ wlien^ intnln^ ^a 
sucbmUJmptirtiiit iDclDftrv, iind pikyrtiiTal imciirc iefeinc tif ivuifk munp piiensmrnliv, iHj* parti^u- 
imrlf d«Alfkhlf! Iiiat ibu cnildren ihuuid pi* out fpttiin ^rhinU wUh«niiii? Hvliiff »tijnwlf?dg^ of their 
■arroaiuUiiKH. It ban N-t'^n iisv jmrpfmo in ihtj pn<|^MfHEj{)n of fhp fojfcowlnjr i hiptcrH to pre)<«ii[ in a 
•Imple mmiDer K^nno eU'raeniary rorut prions to ceulntQ'. HUneTmlogy, "Ud iiby»ii:Al ffBugmphy.— 
£zTB4CTT TJtoM Fbkfaik. prke. n«!t, JIO Cuuta, jioj'tpsira. 

JuPt pBlilltbed lb our WeHtcrn Kdaratluuai Help Berle^ ftpovnttililciil llnndbook of 
I*«c&l Cteanniilir* FrCee. out, tl5 Ctfntn. 

Fond for eomplete c^ulu^«' of < lur iVeatern Fiib11ciitloii». 

THE WHITAKER & RAY CO,» Publishers 


"TAe On^y tD^y" 
On a stormy day 

im to iravvl antl 
Mhifi hy C^ 4* -«- 

TniElts rls* hj^ih m-'l rlrjf »''o*'e i 

■^^^^gaaViJllUvt of riK li. TUtt ri^jlil of way It 
s^^P^t^troledbvdiiy uid by nSglrC AKAin«r 
faviirff eicmentx ttie "AUTON" itanns jn [*rfett 
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^•ACiAtf Girl Calendars 

will be promptly mailed upon receipt of 2-'i 
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Opens Juii« 20, I aOi 

AJt Siiitiiuer fii'lioolft united Tntn nnis In Che 
inUTi'i^let nf NtrotLK furiiity, law tuition, nad 
Dleciivc »tudl«A. 


rolU'Rfl. Kt^ruiai. uTid rrepiimtori ur Ktgh- 
^ubMul TKurk: L'uliurBfty creiiUi K^vt*u in 
varktUii puiiji-ct*. 

^Si'tn-m] Ftdugtigy and Methudi furteftcliert 
Dfnli Kradea. 

I'riiiinrj, Complt'tc ItneH nndfr rcjfuinr 
t r jif b r a f I if i'miuen i upcr I ni iHlfl. Iliif I vl nut ruf t- 
or [jn^ciit during tlie vaiiri' tcmi^ 

SiiliJt'ctB prvparaiury tw miy *rnide of qer^ 

C4i^oiim|iltr. Four cpurwen ktj- om- uf the 
f e *v' (^1*0 r I II ] 1 ntft 1 n t h In coum r>". Kfti' 1 1 utniri« 
ixHiMiiitliL4^ i*lx wtjc'kn. 

i:i«iuf-iilH or AgrlcallBrcr, Itama, 

ill iihIc, Rls weeHi for trftcbcr^ n'Cshitig 
CCe^iU'iaL w.^rkE thrra wt^uki for nLiiierviii£>rn. 

S h o rfli II I mI . 'P V ji** «' r It i ntr, 1* e n ina w- 
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All ciJis'^'cH m no dally Lljrouirbouttbo term. 

Lt'cUiri'A i>v pniniiui-tit I'diJCJitorUp 

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EiFbiHiuaiLluii for itaU ceriiHeiitt] July IH, 
39, ibd 3i>. 

rur uiiniiuncohieut'i' and complete litf^mno^ 
tlon, aUdreiifl 

W. F. BABR, Conductor 
Dei Moinei, Jow« 


New Elementary Agriculture 

By Dr. Chas. E. Bessey^ Prof. Lawrence 

Brunery and Pro/. G, D. Swezey 

of the 

University of Nebraska 

hn •I§0iwitar9 ttxt-book for tht tmMnth and •tghtk 
gradat or tha High Sehool. 


Some time ajfo I received a copy of 
your delifi^htful little book on Element- 
ary Agrriculture. I am delighted with 
the step you have taken. I have been 
urjfing the necessity of this for some 
time. The beginning should be made 
in the common school, or, probably, it 
should begin farther back than that — in 
the normal school, with the fitting and 
preparing of teachers, so that when 
thev take up the common school work 
they can introduce this delightful and 
beneficial study. Every child would be 
benefited by a course of study in this 
book and instruction regarding it in the 
class room. Hon. J.ames Wilson, 
(/. S. Secretary of Agriculture. 

Published in October, 1903, but already 
in use in 114 different schools. 




Flexible Binding. iSc 

A real gem. Teachers fall In lore witii \% 
and pupils want to read It through as soon em 
they begin It. Appropriate for Scliool and 

It Is the story of the experience of I>elina 
and Harold who went to their grandfather'a 

the birds. 


Birdies at Thetk Trapes: Mason-^ 
Swallow, Basketmsker — Crlmsonflncti. 
"Weaver— Oriole, Fuller— Goldfinch, Carpen- 
ter—Woodpecker. Tatlor — Tallorblrd. 

Birdies and Their Sonos : In the Gsrden 
-Robin. In the Wood-Thrush. In the Field 
-Bluebird, in the Sky - Lark, In the Home — 
Canary, In the Grove — Mockingbird. 

Birdies on tub Wixo: Huinnilngbtrd. 

TiiK Birdies' Farewell: Jack Sparrovr 
and Jenny Wren, GoodBye. 

The book Is very prettily Illustrated by 
IkTtha L. Corbi'ft. the artist of Snnbonnei 
Babies. The author Is Ida S. Elson. of Phila- 
delphia, formerly a prominent KIndergartner 
of Bethlehem, Pa. 

William G. Smith & Company 
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Higher Mental Arithmetic 

The most difficult, well-^aded and 
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A monthlv paper devoted to the expla- 
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in tlK'v'onunon SsIumU studies Its "Prac- 
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LessMS ia liatlieaatical GeorraDfey 

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SvppleacaUry Ussoas ia Gcorrapiy 

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The Mississippi Valley was destipteJ 
to become the core of the nation as it 
was of the continent. Its fertile soil 
would support a demise population, and 
its cheap waterways were to prove of 
inestimable value for a yoiaig, agri- 
cultural people. The acquisition of 
the new West prolonged greatly the 
fnost distinctive feature of American 
anthropO'geograph ic conditions — the 
abundance of free land, A nation is 
influenced 7tot only by the topography, 
but by the size of its territory. The 
presence of the new West reacted most 
wholesomely upon the East and the old 
West; the stimulating effect of inex- 
haustible opportunity never allowed 
American energy to abate, and the 
democratic spirit of the ever youthful 
frontier fostered the spirit of democ- 
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An Important Book of Travel 





Author of '' Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa/' 
^With Numerous Illustrations reproduced from Photo- 
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Major Gibbons' ik.<tnptmi of his irai'eh thmugh the ^*uk&k kn^th cf 
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To JOHN LANE, Pub/ishcr, 

6y Ftjih .Ivcnue^ A'i^^l* ] 
Ptease send me "AFRICA 


— m — H 

ork City. H 

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this is only the beginning, for we go south and find Arkansas, Okla- 
homa, the Indian Territory, and Louisiana, another group that would 
make a kingdom. And again we have the higher plains of Kansas, 
Nebraska, and the Dakota?, and most of Montana, Wyoming, and 


The Mississippi River system, showing the vast area and 
watered surface included in the Louisiana Purchase. 

Colorado. So ran the new possession, from the Gulf to the 49th 
parallel, from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, 
distances that are bewildering, areas that we travel over but never 
truly appreciate, an empire in which an average European state 
might be lost. 

To many doubting citizens of New England the settlements beyond 
the Cumberland Gap seemed far away and of doubtful worth, while 
the nation, the wealth, the intelligence, and the sound judgment 
in public affairs were east of the Appalachians. Viewed with their 
perspective, the Mississippi was hardly so big as the Connecticut and 
it is not strange that their world faced eastward. But long before 
Alaska was bought, or American abodes were found in the Pacific, 
the geographical center of our territory had migrated to Northern 
Kansas. And now our population center is in Indiana, and the center 
of manufactures follows hard on in Ohio, and if there is in America 
a pivotal area, it is in the upper Mississippi Valley. 

When Illinois and the balance of the old Northwest were won, we 
were assured of respectable fields of wheat and corn, but we could 




not have entered the markets of the world. For this we must have the 
prairies beyond the river, as well as on the hither side, and run on 
a thousand miles to the plateau of Oregon and Washington and the 
valleys of CaUfornia. In any reckoning of the values of the Louis- 
iana Purchase, we must not forget that it made possible all that lay 
between its zigzag western boundary and the Pacific Ocean. Across 
it was the path to Texas, to the Mexican Territory, and the waters 
of the Oregon; and this northern path was trodden without delay 
by Lewis and Clark, though forty-three years were to pass before 
Britain finally yielded her claim to Oregon. 

If ever figures could be quoted without dulling the edge of truth, 
it would seem that we might do it here. The wheat production of 
the Louisiana tract alone in 1900 was more than half that of the entire 
United States. The corn crop of that year came up to forty-eight 
per cent of our total, the two grains amounting w^ithin the area to 
$464,000,000. This says nothing of oats, barley, rye, potatoes, hay, 
and cotton. In 1900, also, this area raised more] than one-third 
of the wool of the United States, and adding sugar, and live-stock 

Fig. 2a. A scene on a Dakota cattle ran^e. Thousands of similar herds scattered over the 

western prairies and crazing areas, make the Louisiana Purchase region 

a rich cattle country. 

products, the census expert affirms that one per cent of the farm prod- 
ucts for that year would meet the price agreed upon by Livingston 
and Monroe and sanctioned by Congress. 

Without Louisiana, Chicago might be an Indianapolis or a Toledo, 
and New York herself, we need not fear to say, would not be the second 




eit}^ of the world ami iiiii^ht l>e running a rat-e with Montreal or New 
Orleans for the priinacy of North Amerieu. Witlioiit the herds and 
harvesters of Prairies and Plains » who should feed the East and where 
woidd the sons of New England have liad a ehanre to ^row up, or the 
colonizing energies of the eastern seaboard a f)laee to ilisport themselves? 
We have not merely a country by so iiuieh bigger, but a land of more 
men, more mills, more variety of industry* autl of intenser life. 

The lumbernien (jf the Southern Appalachians are slashing the 
forests with ruinous hand; every hamlet shows its sawmills and stacks 
of lumber, and the washed and banen slopes tell of the tardy hand 
of the national government, which might stay the ravage. Outside 
of this disappearing wealth of forest, the great reserves are largely 


.<tufi>r"^ -' 


Coppi^ ♦«MU4, BHid, AhffiUHt>i 

found in Arkansas, in Louisiana, and in Texas; or, leaping again past 
the Rocky Mountains, they cover the slopes of the Sierras, and mantle 
with the densest forests of North America parts of the Cascade and 
Olytwpic ranges. We should ruit have any of these but for Louis- 
iana. We will not say that all lunged on the bargaining of a particular 
year, or of nne adnimi strati on, for the westward current of American 
life was too strong to be long ciiecked. It liad within a generation 
rolled over the Appalachians, and was in no danger of being perma- 
nently restrainetl from the long incline that leads np to the Rocky 
Mountains. The particular deeds of histor}- that make most of wliat 
is put into the books are liut euhninating expressions of the larger 
life that dtics not de|>end on accidents or persons. 

To speak of Muntana, South Dakota » or Colorado is to name a syno- 
nym for the wealth of the mines. In 1901 Colorado yielded more 
than $27,000,000 of gold and above $18,000,000 in silver, while the two 


There are no Better 

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The Geography of Chicago and Its En- 
virons, by liollin D. Salisbury and Will- 
iam C. Alden. Illustrated. 8vo. 64 
pages. Price, 35 cents. 


The Plant Societies of Chicago and 
Vicinity, by Dr. Henry C. Cowles. Illus- 
trated. 8vo. 76 pages. Price, 50 cents. 

> Historical Development of Chicago In 
Its Relation to the Geography. 
4- Stony Island. 

5. Post-Glaclal Erosion About Chicago, 
with a Special Study of the ''North Shore.'' 

6. The Drainage Canal. 

7. The Barrlngton Region. 

8. The Local Fauna. 

9. The Quarries and Rock Exposures 
About Chicago. 

10. The Blue Island Ridge. 


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Methods Is Primary RradiHi both for >b 1 •UU 

D. H. Cook, Mgr. .••• .•/ Syr.\cuse, N.Y. 




fectly logical, if Louisiana and New Orleans were not to belong to 
the United States. Those early days made experiment of dividing 
the Mississippi along its course and failed. Later years down to the Civil 
War made trial of cutting the Mississippi into upper and lower halves. 
The simple and eloquent words of Lincoln in 1863 — *The Father of 
Waters now flows un vexed to the sea** — might have cast their meaning 
back over all American history', for now first in our own time does the 
physical unity of the valley begin to find expression in social and his- 
torical solidarity. Galveston, Kansas City, and Omaha, or Chicago, 
Memphis, and New Orleans, more and more will point the way along 
the lines of social and commercial interchange. 

We can hardly suppose that Jefferson, or his diplomats, or his ex- 
plorers even dimly knew that they were transforming the nation into 
a world power. After Lewis and Clark had accomplished their mission, 
almost nothing was known of the riches of the Columbia basin and 
fifty years were to pass l^efore railway surveys toward the Pacific 
were well in hand. The Plains were the Great American Desert of 
every schoolboy's geography, and not imtil 1849 did the greatness 
of California begin. And it has been left for the last ten years to tell us 
"the meaning of our Pacific shore line. A friend whose wife is at this 
moment visiting in Los Angeles tells the writer that lie was looking 
\ip her proposed journey thence to a point in Oregon. It had seemed 
like a run from Boston to New York. He found it was nearly a thou- 
sand miles. Doubtless half of the l:)oys and girls in our high schools 


5. Shipping wharf on the Mississippi River levee at Xcw Orleans. This port has 
grown rich from the outflow oj products through it from the Louisiana 
Purchase territory. 


would be surprised to find that if California were reversed and super- 
imposed on the Atlantic coast, it would stretch from Boston to 

But the Pacific coast has its meaning not so much in its length, 
as in the Golden Gate, in the estuary of the Columbia River, and in Puget 
Sound. These are the gateways that lead out to Alaska, to Hawaii, 
to Manila, China, and Japan. Not less does Louisiana find its logical 
outcome in the Isthmian Canal, in preponderant influence in the West- 
ern Hemisphere, and in more complete use of the highw^ays and resources 
of all Pacific lands. The Pacific outlet puts us in easy communication 
in the near future with at least 500,000,000 of people, and opens possi- 
bilities that outrun the most daring imagination. 

Three of the seven greatest ports of the United States belong to the 
territory which was foreign until 1803; these are New Orleans, Galves- 
ton, and San Francisco, and it requires no seer to place the lower 
Columbia River and the cities of Puget Sound among the first centers 
of foreign commerce. Our great territory has given us room for all 
kinds of people and for many millions of them. We have had open doors 
tow^ard Europe and acres enough to receive her children. The number 
and the cosmopolitan breadth of our population have been possible 
through the expansion which made its vastest stride in 1803. Adding 
to the weight of adequate nimibers the variety and bulk of our natural 
resources, we became a nation largely sufficient to ourselves and able 
to reach out and hold what the unfolding of the years puts into our 
hand. For nations as for men, "To him that hath shall be given" is 
law inevitable. 

That wo should have more land, more men, more corn and wheat, 
silver and gold, that we should l)e many and rich, has flowed from the 
bargain of 1803. But beyond all this and higher, is the unfolding 
genius of our people, which was in no small way then determined. We 
were then assured of the long possession of a frontier, which means 
toil, danger, plasticity, and free evolution of institutions. We have 
had a hundred years of migrating frontier, marking an epoch from 
which wo are now passing, l)ut whose consequences we shall not soon 
outrun. We have had daring exploration, we have sketched in the 
outlines of a new civilization on fresh ground, and this new creation 
is now to be perfected in detail. We have had the discipline of long 
distances, the strain of diverse chmates, the appropriation of untried 
resources, and we are now to watch the growth of new types of society, 
industry', and, it may be, of letters and the higher life. 


Jefferson did not shrink from saying that they had done something 
outside of the Constitution, but the Constitution grew by interpreta- 
tion rather than by formal amendment. Events and not theory 
develof)ed the corporate life of the nation then as to-day. It was then 
that the first notes of secession were sounded, and they were heard — 
from Massachusetts! The great New England Commonwealth was 
more interested in fisheries than in a continent, but we must not judge 
her in the light of our knowledge. She said that the original balance 
of power was broken, that Virginia was all in all, that the South was 
outweighing the North in the counsels of the nation, and that the new 
slaveholding states that would arise across the Mississippi would leave 
her a cipher in the Union. We can hardly wonder at her fears, but 
looking backward we can see that the Louisiana Territory did indeed 
precipitate the struggle over slavery, but that it was also the great 
Northwest, the wide north end of old Louisiana, which turned the 
scale at last on many bloody fields for freedom and the Union. 

We need not believe, without limit, that Jefferson was *'the broad 
statesman who saw beyond the Mississippi, over the Rockies to the 
Pacific, and over the Pacific to the cradle of the world. ^' We may 
hail him not only because he was wise, but also because he was wiser 
than he knew. 


Of the United State's Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

STRETCHING from north to south entirely across the middle 
United States, the region of the Louisiana Purchase naturally 
presents great diversity of surface configuration and climate. 
There are lowlands and mountains, hills and plains, prairies and forests, 
with climatic conditions var^^ing from cold to warm, and from moist 
to nearly arid. The mountains rise to altitudes of over 14,000 feet 
and the lowlands extend to tide water in the Gulf of Mexico. The 
plains and prairies occupy over a million square miles, and range in alti- 
tude from 200 feet and less in the lower Mississippi region to the high 
plains of Colorado, of which the more elevated portions reach 7,000 
feet. The dominant features of topography are the products of depo- 
sition and erosion by the western tributaries of the Mississippi River. 



This river drains all of the region excepting its northeastern corner, 
out of which flows the Red River of the North, a stream emptying 
into Hudson Bay. 

Mountains. From the Arkansas Valley in Colorado, northward 
through Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, the western portion of the 
Purchase includes the Rocky Mountain Range which rises steeply 
6,000 feet and more above the Great Plains extending far eastward 
from its foot. The high front range of these mountains trends nearly 
due north and south through central and northern Colorado and south- 
central Wyoming, passing a short distance west of Colorado Springs, 
Denver, and Cheyenne. Though several of its peaks rise to over 14,000 
feet above the sea level, it is not the main continental divide between 
the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, for branches of the 
Platte and Arkansas head behind it. In Wyoming the front ridge 
is known as the Laramie Range and it is crossed by the Union Pacific 
Railroad at Sherman west of Cheyenne, where its altitude falls to 8,251 
feet. The elevation increases again northward in Laramie Peak, 
north of which it soon sinks into high plains or off-sets west to the Wind 
River Range. The latter, merges into the Shoshone and Absaroka 
ranges, which extend north through northwestern Wyoming on the 
east side of Yellowstone Park. Thence through Montana the Rocky 
Mountains continue as a high range to and into Canada, forming the 
divide between the headwaters of the upper Missouri and Columbia 

The Rocky Mountain Range thus forms the northwestern bojindary 
of the Louisiana Purchase region, a huge rampart of high, rocky ridges 
interrupted by a high, wide valley in central-southwestern Wyoming, 
but elsewhere crossed only by elevated mountain passes from 8,200 to 
12,000 feet in altitude and a few deep canyons through the Front 
Range in Colorado and southern Wyoming. These mountains have 
not had the effect of halting the tide of western progress, as in the case 
of the Appalachian ranges, for railroads and highways were extended 
across them in the earliest days of the great movement westward. 
and a large proportion of the settlers and miners pressed forward to 
the western slope without stopping at the foot of the mountains. The 
growth of the great city of Denver is due more to the presence of the 
mineral deposits in the mountains just west than to a halt in westerly 

The Bighorn Mountains are an outlying range of the Rocky Moun- 
tains in northern Wyoming, rising to an altitude of over 13,000 feet 


World's Fair 

and National Educational 

Association Number 


The June number of TA^* Journal o/Gedohafhv will be a WorM'si Fair aRd 
a Hatianal EducBtionol AssociRtirm Numth?r. It wtll be devt>lt?d unlirely to 

^he Geography 

of the Louisiana 


Amnnfc thc5 numerDii!i articles that may be expected are tlie fnJlowm^ i 


lly PKOKKsstJH A. P BkiGllAM, if Ct^ij^aff Uftwersiiy 


ih' K. H- ilAHiE^N, lij tfit I'ntfi-tl Sfafts Geoj^rapkuai Sttrirv 



Nv Dr. A. C. H'.>vvi.S%'i»^ iif (he lt\tclii>{\i CtJlifge, Ct?/tiftifiia Uftive^rit/y, 

Xt'ii' Vt^rJi tffy 


/iv PKfH KssoR SPEXCKH Tkottf,w. oJ Suarthmi^ft' ioii,-^, Swarfkm&rt'^ 

Pa. aiifhiff tf^'A Comfn^t'ciai (ftv^rafi/iy''^ 


//v Geu. 11 Hi] I. LIST BR. AsSiUiafi' /ii/f/tr t'/ /7ir Jduntiif *}/ tMig^rafAy , 

ffydrtf^rnph^r f*r /A*' L'tnleti Staie^ Gtvlo^Atii SHn*ey 


By ¥aa.vs C. SEMJ-LF., of Lou/srtl/r'. A>.; an/k&r if '\hnttiCiifi J/tsUry 

atiii G^ttfj^f-jfAtt' L'i*fidief\>fis*' 


By £HAHLm E. CI I Ate, Kv, Asjstjfattt Sttfcrintend^nl tf ike DtHVer^ 

Citii-vradtii Sc^tfh 

Tlii' iirtifles will be iliu^trateO t'Xl;i?nsli'C'lv hv phuiu^'^faphs untl n]apt» ; 
thert* will bu u lurKt? fuklin^ ini%|i t>f tlit Lnuisuiha Pvirehase insvrleiJ, anil 
the iiuttiber will be irtvahisiblt- Ui all HL?at:her-'« wlio intend iii viail *SL Luiii!* gii 
IJ^J^*i^^ whi* wi^h tn hove v%f U Htkiiictl i;i'ii>;riiplijcal nuitirial on thtf Oruai 
Weist and especially uf llu* Louisiana PurehH?»t. available far vIa&& ii*ie. The 
n umber will nls*i indude a brief selected bjblii>g;ruphy i*n ihe jfeoffrophv uf 
the LDUisiuiia Purchase, (ind sLntjstieal m^ivm ^hnvfink ils piipulatian, eum- 
mcrcei induslrie?*, ;ind relaiive en'^onymic irnpfirluncf. 

The price i3 2Qc» postpaid 

This remark nble Special Issue should \nr in Ihe hnnds of c%'crv teacher 
before attendinKf the Cfsnvenliim, lis pubKfftti<m U of dedded JniportanL^ 
in the Keo^rnphicol w*irld. f^rder miw and he surf nf « copy. 

ijiibscriptums and advertisiemonts i^hould be sienl to 


Riiiim s/fl, !6o Adams St., CinCAGO, ILL. 




ami local areas of bad-lanil?^. Wide dij^tricts i^f sand hills surmount 
the plains in some localities, notably in northwei?tern Nebraska, where 
high sand dunes occupy an area of several thousand S(juare miles. 
The pn>vince is developed on a great thickness of soft rocks, sands, 
clays, and loams, generally spread in thin but extenisive beds sloping 
gently eastward with the slope of the plains. These deposits lie on 
relatively smootli surfaces of the older rocks. The materials of the 
formations were deriA^eil mainly from the west and were depositee!, 
layer by layer, either by streams on their flood plains or in lakes and, 
during earlier times, in the sea. x4side from a few very local flexures, 
the region has not been subjected to folding, but has been broatily 
uphfted and depressed successively. The general smoothness of the 
region to-tlay was surpassed by the almost complete planatious of 
the surface during earlier epochs. (Hving to the great breadtli f>f 
the plains and their relatively gentle declivity, general erosion has pro- 
gressed slowlVj notwit list audi iig the softiu*ss of the forouitions, and, 
as at times of freshets many of the rivers bring out of the niountams 
a larger load of setliment than they can carry to the Mississi|>pi. they 
are now building up their valleys rather than deepening them. 



Sam's Hancht in tiw Bad Lands. A iypicM view p; //»<* Grmtt Plains and catttt ranch in 
central SoHih Dakota, 


Here /v a list of ixrth ies thiit are soon to appear in THE 
JOURXAL OF Cl-J HiRAPUV. Will these help jv •/ /;/ the 
j^eo^raphitiil 'n'ork of your ela^^ .' 

The Functions of Geography in the Elementary School. 

Geography in the United States. 

The Delta of the Mississippi River. 

A Noteworthy Cave in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. 

Weather Lore. 

The Scope and Content of Geography. Two articles. 

Map Drawing. 

Studying the Sun, Moon, and Stars. 

Transportation. A scrios of articles. 

River Study. 

Geographical Education. 

The Geography of the Louisiana Purchase. A series of 

ten articles. 
Practical Exercises in Physiography. 
The Geography and History of Chattanooga and Vicinity. 
Geography in the Civil War. 
The Conduct of Excursions in Elementary Geography 

The Growth of Wheat in the United States. 
The Geography of the Fall Line. 
Geographic Influences of Government. 
Mathematical Geography. A series. 

Geographical Course of Study in the Following Normal 

Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Los Angeles, California. 

Oswego, New York. 

Wcstfield, Massachusetts. 

Suf'SKfif't' Jor this } urnal, .in J c z* //f'" u^i'*.\f fitt'ii' artiiltS 

Talk The 


Doom 560. 160 Adams Street. Chicago, ilU 


,M^ ■> T^V ,»^ =^£ 

Ji im^" 

Twin yttsUn j typical Imttt iti Hanncr Connty, Xebrniku, fkntt tluiniiL 

i.oui;*. Its average volume of water a day at its mouth is ten hillioa 

cubic feet. The longest affloent of the Mist^ouri River h tlic Platte:^ 
Kiver whirh rises in the R*>rky MnniitMins in .soiilhem Wyoinitig and 
northern Colonulcj arnl eTn[)ties iiiio the Missouri River at Platt.suKmtiL 
a few uiiles Ih>1ow Omaha, Its daily flow averages nearly a half billion^ 
cuhie feel. The Yellowstt*iK*-Hi^horn River s^^steni ik the next longest- 
affluent, flawing north out of northwestern Wyoming anrl north- 
ea?^1wiirfl acrc»s8 the southeastern corner of Ahnitana, U has a larger 
volume than the Platte i>nt the anK>unt of flruv has not lux'n ai^eertainetl 
The Kunsu.s Kiver, wliieh flows across th** northern portion of Kansas. 
is a large fitreani, anrl in the spring of 1903 this river was the principal 
t'anse of the ^^vphX flood in tht* lowrr portion (»f Kansas City, The Mis- 
souri Kiver receives but rt^lativeiy little drainage from the east, the Big 
Sifuix Kiver hrint- it^ [irincipal affluent on that side. Its larger branches 
mostly rise in the innnntains and firing vast vohnnes <if water from 
the melting snow and great watershe-iw. The Missouri River and 
lower Mississi|>]>i Kiver as one great stream have a length of 4^2(K) 
miles, tiie longest in tin* world. 

The Arkansas Kiver is the third in size of the affluents of the Missis- 
sippi River, rising in the niitldle of the Rnt'ky Mountains in central i 
Colorado and draining a large watershed area in Kansas, Oklahoniatj 
Indian Territory rnid Arkansas. Its length is 1,514 miles and it rarrie^ 



to the Mississippi River a volume of neaHy six billion cubic feet of water 
a day. The Red River of the South rises in the southern end of the 
Rocky iMovintains in northern New Mexico, flow*^ across the panhandle 
of Texai?, the j^outhern portion of Oklahoma and Indian Territories, 
and through Louisiana, joining the great river near its mouth. Its 
length is l,20f) miles and its average daily discharge is five billion 
cubic feet. These volumes of discharge represent a vast amount 
of water going tu waste, nmeh of whieh in the western portion of the 
Purchase will eventually be husbanded for irrigation. 

The rivers of the (Ireat Thiins present many interesting problems for 
students of physiography. They are not all of the same age and pre- 
sent many features of diversity. Some of thosie which rise in the high 
mountains to the west bear a heavy loa<l of se<liments, especially dtiring 
freshets, which they can only varn' in the regions of greater ileclivity, 
and as their velocity diniiiiishes in the Plains eastward, they deposit 
a portion of their burden. In this way the Platte is filling u{> its pres- 
ent trough, especially in eastern ('oloradi> and througli Nebraska. The 
Arkansas and portions of the hnver ^lississippi present similar con- 
ditions of overloading and de[)osition. For several hundn*d miles 
in its lower portion the Mississippi flows on an embankment wliich 
it has built up ten to twenty feet above the adjoining lowlands. 

.7. The \prih Platte River at ihi SttbraskQAVyi>nn»g ^taU* hnt, laoktng dcnLfi 
Slrtatn^ siuruit^X shfunkctt condition of tlut rwer in mid-suwtwer. 


In North Dakota and South Dakota the Missouri River has a rela- 
tively new course, the waters having originally flowed down the James 
River N'alley. During the Glacial Period, the river was displaced 
from this valley by the advance of \he continental ice sheet alon^ 
the western margin of which the outlines of the present course wer^ 
incised. The new valley was cut so deep during this period that, 
when the ice retreated, the old channel could not be regained and th^ 
river has remained in its new valley, cutting it down gradually to it^ 
present level. One of the most striking contrasts between an over — 
loaded and an eroding stream is in southern Nebraska, where thc^ 
Platte is filling up its valley and its neighbor on the south, the Rcpubli — 
can, a branch of the Kansas, is deepening its valley. This is due to 
the fact that the Platte is overloaded with sediments from the moun — 
tains, while the Republican, fed by springs in eastern Colorado, received 
relatively little sediment, besides having a slightly greater mearrfc 
declivity, so that erosion preponderates over sedimentation. 

Climate. The Louisiana Purchase region presents a general reg — 
ularity in its variations in climate from north to south and east tc:> 
west. This is most marked in the annual precipitation. At the south — 
ern extremity of the region, the mean annual rainfall is slightly oveX* 
sixty inches and this amount diminishes gradually to the northwes'*> 
to less than fifteen inches in the Great Plains of Eastern Colorado, Wyo^ — 
ming, and Montana. On the Rocky Mountains, Bighorn Mountains; ^ 
and Black Hills there is locally increased precipitation to from twenty^ 
to thirty inches a year, due to the influence of these highlands iir>- 
arresting moisture passing ac^ross the Continent. 

In thermometric range there is a regular diminution of mean annuarl- 
temperature to the north. In southern Louisiana the mean is slightl>^ 
over 70°. In Arkansas it is 57° to 65° and then the diminution i^ 
regular to considerably below 40° in the northern portion of Nortln^ 
Dakota and on the high mountain summits to the west. 


Volume III. JUNE, 1904 Number 6 

Copyright, 1004, by E. M. Lchucrts. 


The Geographic Importance of the Louisiana Purchase 243 

The Surface and Climate of the Louisiana Purchase, N. H. DARTON 251 
Explorations within the Louisiana Purchase A. C. ROWLAND 261 

Present Industries within the Louisiana Ptirchase 270 

The Value and Development of Irrigation in the Louisiana Purchase 


Geographic Influences in the Development of St. Louis .... 290 

Denver, the Queen City of the Plains . . . . C. E. CHADSEY 300 
Geographical Notes : 

Area and Popiilution of States and Territories within the Louisiana Pur- 
chase, 304— Rank of Principal Manufactures in the Several 

Purchase States. 1900, ^04 Agriculture in the Louisiana Purchase, 305 — Graz- 

urchase, \o^- 
Current Articles on Commerce and Industry, j*./). 

ing in the Louisiana Purchase Territory, nyx., 305— Localization of Indus- 
tries in the Louisiana Purchase, 305 — HiblioKraphy <»f the Purchase, 305 — 


The Louisiana Purchase, 307. 

Recent Publications 308 

IVews Notes 309 

Autlwrs are personally responsibh^ for opinions ami statements expressed 
in the JOURNAL 



7he Journal or Geography is an Illustrated Monthly Magazine devoted to the interests 
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to American authority was made, Jefferson, now in a position to give 
effect to his eariicr plans, organized an expedition to explore the coun- 
try, and early in 1803 obtained from Congress the necessary' authority 
and an appropriation of money. His objects were varied. Primarily 
the expedition was to seek for the best practicable route for commerce 
from the Mississippi \'alley to the Oregon coast. At the same time 
the nature of the country was to be determined, its soil and produc- 
tions, the plant and animal life, the course of the streams, the mineral 
productions, and the Indian inhabitants and their characteristics. 

In selecting leaders for the exploring party, Jefferson exercised 
great judgment. He chose two young men, Virginians and originally 

Map 2. .'1 ntap shawinfi the Ixwis and Clark Expedition. 
(From Murf's Iltstory of the I'nlted States.) 

neighbors of his own, Ciipt. Meriwether Lewis, his private secretary-, 
and Capt. William Clark, brother of (len. (Jeorge Rogers Clark, who had 
won the Illinois country from the l^ritish during the Revolution. They 
were acconipanietl by a party of thirty, including two French Canadian 
interpreters and an Indian s(juaw, wife of one of the latter. The 
winter of 1S03 4 was spent in camp on the eastern bank of the Missis- 
sippi and in the following spring. May 14, 1804, the little expedition 
crossed the river and set out on their dangerous journey. Their plan 
was to proceed up the Missouri River to its source, there hide their 
boats, and then, passing over the mountains by the easiest trail, descend 
the Coluni])ia to the ocean. This plan they carried out successfully. 
The journey up the Missouri was long and tedious. The current was 
swift and their canoes often were inipedetl by snags and sand bars. 
The banks fro(iuently crumbled in or were covered by brush and 
bushes so that towing was almost inipossiljle. They made frequent 
stops to hold councils with the Indians and distribute presents from 


the Great Father in Washington, now heard of for the first time by 
most of these savages. Finally after nearly six months of weary labor 
they reached at the end of October the villages of the Mandan Indians, 
situated 1,600 miles from the mouth of the river, near the present 
Bismarck, North Dakota. These Indians, whose peculiar character- 
istics differentiated them from all other natives of the northwest, 
proved on the whole ver>' friendly, and here Lewis and Clark passed 
the following winter. 

On the approach of spring the expedition once more set out. Work- 
ing their way slowly and with difficulty up the Missouri, they reached 
the mouth of the Yellowstone, April 26th, and on June 3d the Marias 
River, which is so considerable a tributary that the travelers were in 
doubt which was the main stream of the Missouri and cast about for 
some time making careful measurements before deciding. It was 
a matter of much importance, for the wrong course would have taken 
them far away from their tme objective, the nearest branches of the 
Columbia. Finally, against the judgment of the majority of the 
party, Lewis and Clark decided to take the more southerly stream, 
which proved the correct one. On the 1 3th of June they came to the 
falls of the Missouri. Here they had to make their first portage of 
eighteen miles, which consumed some time and required great labor on 
the part of the whole party. It was not till July 25th that they reached 
the second forks of the river where the same decision confronted them 
as before. There were three streams to choose from, but they rightly 
selected the northern one, naming the other two Madison and Gallatin 
after the Secretary' of State and the Secretary of the Treasury. 

The party were now well within the mountains and it became neces- 
sary to find and make friends with some of the Indians of the region 
who might guide them across the divide to the headwaters of the 
Columbia. The Indian woman of the party, squaw of one of the inter- 
preters, was fortunately a native of this district, having been captured 
by one of the enemies of her tribe some years before and sold into the 
lower country. By her aid the explorers soon met a party of Shoshones 
and persuaded them to show the way through the pass. They came 
out on the Lemhi River, a tributar}^ to the Salmon which flows into 
the Snake River and thence into the Columbia, so that the course of 
the explorers seemed clear before them. But as a matter of fact, 
they had arrived at the most difficult part of their journey. The 
Lemhi and Salmon rivers proved impracticable and they were forced 
to abandon them and strike off to the north over an almost impassable 


trail leading through the Bitter Root Mountains along the great con- 
tinental divide. Game became scarce and they almost starv^ed, being 
forced to kill and eat some of the horses they had procured from the 
Indians. From August 30th to Sept^mper 20th, they struggled through 
these mountains, but finally emerged in the valley of the Clearwater, 
where they encoimtered a band of Nez Perc6 Indians from whom 
they procured food and further imformation as to the way. They 
built and launched canoes on the Clearwater and paddling down this 
and the Snake River at last reached the Columbia on October 16th. 
Notwithstanding the dangerous rapids of this river, they passed safely 
through in their boats and on November 7, 1805, came out on the 
shores of the Pacific. 

The winter was passed here in camp near the mouth of the Columbia, 
and the following spring the party set out on the return trip across 
the mountains. On their way back they discovered the Willamette 
River, which had escaped their notice on the descent, owing to the 
islands at its mouth, and then retraced their st^ps to their old camp 
among the Nez Percys, on the Clearwater. Obtaining guides here, they 
plunged into the intricacies of the Bitter Root Mountains, and on 
the 1st of July found themselves at a point near the mouth of Travel- 
ers Rest Creek, where the party was cUvided into three sections in 
order to fmd if possible an easier route through the mountains than 
the one they had followed coming out. Lewis was to proceed by the 
shortest trails to tlie falls of tlu^ Missouri and explore Marias River 
while waiting for his comj)anions to come up. Another party was to 
follow the old route to the headwaters of the Missouri and, collecting 
the stores left there, join Lewis at the falls. Clark was to accompany 
these men to the three forks of the Missouri and then ascend the Galla- 
tin River, pass over to the head of the Yellowstone, and follow this 
down to its junction with the main stream. All these plans was success- 
fully carried out and after many adventures with Indians, grizzly 
bears, and buffalo, as well as dangers incident to the wild countr}" 
through which they travelled, the entire party was once more united 
on the 12th of August, a short distance below the mouth of the Yellow- 
stone. Two days later they came to the Mandan villages where they 
had spent their first winter and on the 23d of September, 1806, reached 
St. Louis after an absence of nearly two years and a half. 

One of the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition, John Colter, 
had turnetl back before reaching St. TiOuis and joined a ])arty of trappers. 
He spent several years in the mountains and in the winter of 1807 



he crossed what is now the Yellowstone National Park, the first white 
man to behold the wonders of that region. 

While the way to the Pacific was being blazed, another officer of 
Captain I^wis' regiment, I.ieutenant Pike, was associating his name 
with the Louisiana Purchase. In 1805 he was sent to explore the 
headwaters of the Mississippi, where he made careful observations and 
supposed he had found the source of the river in Leech Lake. The 
following year he was sent with a party to discover the headwaters of 
the Arkansas River. Leaving St. Louis he traveled overland through 


Drawn from an old print l»y H. ^V, Coll>y. 
riu- city of St. Louis iu the early fur-trading days 

Kansas, turned south to the Arkansas, and then pushed on into 
Colorado, where he discovered the famous mountain peak that bears 
his name. In endeavoring to reach tlie head of Red River he came 
upon the upper waters of the Rio Grande and trespassing on Spanish 
territory was arrested, and taken to Mexico, whence he was later sent 
back to the United States. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition and the exi)lorations of Pike led 
to the estabhshment of two trade routes through the western part 
of the continent known as the Oregon trail and the Santa ¥6 trail. 
The former owed its existence to John Jacob Astor, who established 
a fur company to operate on the Pacific Coast and sent out an expedi- 
tiion in 1811 under W. P. Hunt, to estabHsh posts along the route 
followed in 1S04-6. Instead of following the great bend of the Mis- 
souri so far to the north, however, Hunt turned west some 1,300 miles 
from its mouth and passed by way of the Black Hills and Green River 


through the mountains and thence to the Columbia. The War of 
1812, however, broke up Astor's trading post on the Pacific and when 
the route was reopened, a somewhat different course was followed 
still farther to the south. Commercially the Santa F^ trail was more 
important than the Oregon. The year after Pike's expedition the 
first trading journey was made from the Mississippi to New Mexico, 
but the real history of the trail l)egins with the trading operations 
of William Becknell, shortly after 1812. P>om that time to the intro- 
duction of railroads the Santa Fe trail was the most important land 
route in America. 

The road over the mountains followed by the Astorians was not 
satisfactor}', and in 1819 the government sent out Major Long to search 
near the sources of the Platte River for a more southern pass through 
the mountains. In this he failed through following the South Branch 
of th? Platte instead of the North. He made many important dis- 
coveries, however, within the state of Colorado, including Long's Peak, 
and explored the canyon of the Arkansas. His journey had pointed 
to the valley of the Platte as the shortest route to the mountains and 
it was but a few years before the Great South Pass in Wyoming was 
discovered, it is said by Alexander Henry, a Canadian fur trader, in 
1823. Through this pass afterwards ran both the Oregon trail and 
the Overland trail to California. 

In the third and fourth decades of the century the fur traders con- 
tributed most to the histor\' (^f oxj^loration within the Ix)uisiana 
Purchase. Gen. W. II. Ashley of St. Louis organized the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Coni|)any in 1S22, and established many trading posts. 
He led several expeditions into the interior, explored the Green River 
near South Pass, and visited Groat Salt Lake, which had already been 
discovered by the famous guide and tra])per, James Bridger. Another 
trader was Nathaniel J. Wyeth, who led two expeditions to the Colum- 
bia in 1S32 and 1S34, and did much to attract the attention of the 
East to the Oregon cc^untry and thus lead to its occupation by Amer- 
ican emigrants. Captain Bonneville, l'. S. A., was also interested 
in tITe fur trade and traveled much through the Rockies from 1832 
to 1S35. Ho crossed over into California by way of Great Salt Lake 
and is said to have discovered the Humboldt and San Joaquin rivers, 
althou»rh he was i)rocedod in the overland journey to California by 
a St. Louis fur tra<lor named Pattio. who is supposed to have been 
the first white man to cross the continent in this direction. 

Durintr this period a number of sciontifio men added to our knowl- 


?(lge of these parts. Among them may be mentioned Bradbury, 
the naturalist, Nuttall, the botanist, Townsend, an ornithologist, 
Nicollet, a French astronomer and .^.^eographer, and Maximilian, Prince 
of Neuweid, a German naturalist. Nor should Schoolcraft's excellent 
descriptions of the Indians of this region and Catlings Indian portraits 
be forgotten. 

In 1843 began the great emigration to the Columbia country. In 
that year about a thousand people followed the Oregon trail to the 
Pacific Coast, and thereafter for a number of years the exodus steadily 
increased. It was important that fuller information regarding the 
routes of travel across the mountains should be obtained and laid before 
the country and therefore the government determined to undertake 
an official exploration. At the head of the expedition was placed 
Lieut. J. C. Fremont, son-in-law of Senator Benton of Missouri. 
Fremont's work was of great importance in opening up the Rocky 
Mountain country for travel, and from the passes he discovered and 
the number of routes he demonstrated to be practicable he became 
known throughout the country' as the ''Pathfinder." His first 
expedition, undertaken in 1842, led him to South Pass and the Wind 
River Mountains in western Wyoming. The second, in 1843-4, took 
him first into Colorado where he found a new pass through the moun- 
tains, and then north through the basin of Great Salt Lake and on to 
the Columbia. All this region he carefully mapped out and then, 
aft^r resting for a short time in Oregon, proceeded south through an 
entirely unknown country-, into the Sacramento Valley of California. 
He returned by way of the Utah basin. In 1845 Fremont again started 
out, this time to find the best route for a railroad to San Francisco, 
then a Mexican town. Shortly after reaching the coast news came of the 
outbreak of war and he led a successful revolt of American settlers against 
the Mexican authorities. Two more exploring expeditions were or- 
ganized by Fremont, one in 1848 in which he discovered a practicable 
route along the upper Rio Grande to the coast, and the other in 1853 
when he opened new passes through the mountains between the 38th 
and 39th degrees. 

In 1849 began the stampede for the California gold fields and there- 
after all energies were turned for some years to a quest for the pre- 
cious metals. The mountains were penetrated in every direction 
by the gold diggers, and the demand arose for railroad lines across 
the continent. Subsequent exploring expeditions were mainly confined 
to railroad surveys, among which may be mentioned the government 



surveys of I. I. Stevens, in 1853-4, from St. Paul to Puget Sound, now 
largely followed by the Northern Pacific ; of Lieutenant Beckwith, in 
1854, through the region of the South Pass, the route of the Union 
Pacific; and of Lieut. John Pope, in 1854, along the line subsequently 
followed by the Southern Pacific. Besides these there were many 
surveys undertaken both by the government and private corporations 
in the Rocky Mountain region between 1850 and 1860. 



Pro/eHnor of Biology^ Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania. Author of the 
"^ (ieography of Commerce"* 

INDUSTRIAL Development of the Region. The eastern border of the 
I^ouisiana Purchase was, during the first half of the nineteenth 
century, the western frontier of settlement. The vast expanse of 
rolling, grass-covered "plains" that stretched away westward from the 
frontier to the Rocky Mountains was the then little known "Indian 
Country" and the pasture land of the great bison herds. The first 
commerce of the region was in the hands of Rocky Mountain trappers 
and the traders of the Santa F^ trail and the Missouri. Pelts were 
the earliest commodity, and St. Louis, from its location on the Missis- 
sippi-Missouri waterway, was the focal point of this trade. St. I^uis 
was the gateway to the "Far West" as Pittsburg was to the Ohio traffic 
and Buffalo to the Lake Region. Here expeditions fitted out for the 
long traverse of the "plains" and the wharv-es, piled high with goods, 
were lined with the flat-bottomed steamboats of the Missouri naviga- 
tion and the hirger craft of the Mississippi. Parkman gives a vivid 
picture of St. Louis trade in the summer of 1846. 

The trapper and the trader were essentially a part of the Indian 
life of the Great Plains and gradually disappeared as the frontier 
moved farther westward. The fertile prairie lands of more abundant 
rainfall in the area now embraced by Missouri, Iowa, and the eastern 
parts of Kansas and Nebraska were rapidly settled as the danger from 
Indians grew less, and the great farms of corn-land spread to the 
borders of the arid plains. To the north, in western Minnesota and the 
Dakotas, the wheat was advancing westward. The Coastal Plain 

♦The statistical diagrams that appear in this article are from Dodge's 
Advanced Geography, and are used by special arrangement with the author and 
the publishers. 



and its upland borders in Louisiana and Arkansasjwas a cotton-growing 
country with river facilities for shipment of the crop to the port of New 
Orleans. The western extension of the railroads gave further impetus 
to settlement and trade. In the decade from 1870 to 1880 the last 
traces of the picturesque frontier period vanished from these prairie 
lands which had become the home of an agricultural people. 



United States 
North Dakota 








Fig. I. The production of wheat in 

millions of bushels, in IQ02, in the 

leading wheat- producing states. 

The deficient rainfall over the Great Plains determined an industry 
essentially pastoral and nomadic in character. While scattered bands 
of Indians still pursued the rapidly dwindling|herds of buffalos, the 
cattlemen invaded these hunting grounds and pastured their droves 
of "long horns*' on the wiry buffalo grass. Then followed the years 
of the cowboy, the range, and the round-up and the estabhshment of 
ranch Ufe from end to end of the region. With cattle came sheep 
and, as the railroads reached out, wool became an item of growing 

The industries of the area embraced by the Louisiana Purchase are 
essentially agricultural, although considerable mining is done in certain 
localities, notably that of lead and zinc in the Mississippi Valley, and 

United States. 


Missouri . 
Nebraska . 
Kansas . . . 

i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Fig. 2. The production of corn^^in 
hundreds of millions of bushels, 
in 1902, in the leading corn- 
producing states. 

^^^ mining operations of the Black Hills district of South Dakota, 
^^op growing and stock raising and the industriesjdependent thereon 
^'I'e the leading features of the region. 

Some notable facts are available which indicate the vast importance 


of this area in relation to national growth. That the westward expan- 
sion of population found an abundant opportunity in this fertile land 
is well illustrated by the increase of farms in several states during 
the decade from 1870 to 1880. Thus in Iowa the percentage of increase 
of the total number of farms was 59.4% ; in Missouri, 45.3% ; in Dakota, 
(then one State) 913.7% ; in Nebraska, 415.3% ; and in Kansas, 262.7%.* 

o / 2 s 4 J 7 ^^ 9 fo 

I I I I I I I I I ! I I |.| I I I ! ■ 

United States 






Fig. ^. r//^ Production of oats in hund- 
reds of millions of bushels, in 1902^ 
in the leading oat-producing 

An equally significant fact is seen in the westward movement of 
wheat cultivation, the center of which at present is in southwestern- 
Iowa, having advanced to the Missouri River from a point just east^ 
of the Mississippi within the past twenty years. In 1850 the greatest 
wheat-producing area was in the Genessee Valley, in New York State. 
In the last decade (1890-1900) the movement has been up the Mis- 
souri, under the influence of the rapidly increasing growth of the hard- 
grained wheat production and the milling industries of the Dakotas 
and Minnesota. The center of corn production to-day is in south- 
western Illinois, just above the junction of the Missouri and Mississippi 
rivers and not far from St. Louis. The center has shifted scarcely 
at all in the last decade, owing undoubtedly to two facts — (1) the 
unavailability of land for corn growing to the west of the 100th meri- 
dian due to increasing aridity, and north of the parallel of 42® north, 
due to increasingly low temperature, and (2) the centrallizing of the 
live stock industries (fattening of cattle and hogs, meat-producing, 
etc.) on the Missouri and at Chicago. This second factor is due largely 
to transportation facilities. Although the corn center has not advanced 
to within the hmits of the Louisiana Purchase its present position 
close to the eastern border of that area is in large part the result of the 
immense territory of grazing land to the west, the live stock of which 
is shipped east to fatten on the farms of the corn belt. 

In reviewing the present industrial features of the territory embraced 

* Tenth Census, 


by the Louisiana Purchase the predominant industries will be consid- 
ered from the standpoint of the several commodities which form their 
basis. The commodities may be grouped under three main heads — 
(1) Crops (including corn, wheat, and other cereals, forage crops, 
cotton, and crops of minor importance); (2) Live Stock (including 
cattle, hogs, and sheep, and the meat-packing industry' and wool); 
(3) Mineral Resources and Mining Operaiions. 

Crops. Iowa produced 14.4% of the total United States production 
of com for the year 1899; Kansas produced 8.6%; Nebraska 7.9%; 
and Missouri 7.8% of the total. All other corn-growing states, with 
the exception of Ilhnois, rank below these four which are included 
within the domain of the Louisiana Purchase. The yield per square 
mile throughout the greater part of these states was over 3,200 bushels, 
as high as in any part of the corn belt. A large proportion of the com 
grown in this area is fed to stock, the amount varying with the greater 
or less demand for meat products. Another considerable portion 
finds its way to the distilleries at Peoria, 111. Still another portion 
enters into starch and glucose manufacture, and a fourth considerable 
portion into domestic economy. A comparatively small amount finds 
its w^ay into the export trade of the country. 

The wheat-growing area reaches much farther to the northwest 
than that of corn, as a result of the lower temperature relations 
of the former cereal. The Twelfth Census reports that four-fifths of 
all the farms in Minnesota during 1899 produced wheat. South Dakota 





20 ,fO 40 _U 

1 1 1 1 

United States 









The number of millions of hogs, 
I go J, in the leading hog- 
raising states. 

came second with nearly the same proportion, and North Dakota 
third with almost three-fourths. These three states are in the Spring 
Wheat area. The Census of 1900 reports Minnesota as contributing 
14.5% of the total wheat production of the country, over 5% more 
than any other wheat-growing State. The great milling industry 
of the upper Mississippi is a direct result of the expansion of the 


wheat-growing area in the Northwest and the demands of the mills 
even overreach the vast supply from the contiguous United States 
territory and draw wheat from the harvests of Canada and from 
Washington and Oregon. 

Other cereals are grown in this eastern area of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase, but to a small extent compared with corn and wheat. Wheat 
creates an enormous traffic movement from its areas of production 

United States 


Wyonting — 
New Mexico . 



10 20 ^^ 40 JO ttO 

I I I I I I I I I I I I 

Fig. 5. The number of sheep in millions, 

in IQ02, in the leading sheep- 

raising states. 

to the mills and to the disbursing points of Duluth, Superior, and 
Chicago, and forms a vcr>' large proportion of the whole export trade 
of the country (breadstuffs, of which wheat and wheat flour form 
the major portion, constitute 20% of the total export value of the 
United States, being second only to cotton). 

In the low-lying coastal lands of the state of Louisiana the sugar 
cane has long been an important crop. I^ouisiana is practically the 
only state producing the cane, its output of sugar for 1901-1902 amount- 
ing to 275,000 long tons. The production of sugar beets has developed 
as an important industr}^ in Nebraska and Colorado, where several 
large factories are located. The more important centers of beet 
sugar production, however, lie outside of the Louisiana Purchase area, 
in California and in Michigan. 

Cotton, the largest item in the export trade of the United States 
(22% in the raw and unmanufactured state), is grown to a consider- 
able extent within the southern area of the Louisiana Purchase. The 
entire State of Louisiana, the greater part of Arkansas, Indian Terri- 
tory, and a portion of Oklahoma are all cotton-producing areas of 
more or less importance. Of the total increase of cotton acreage 
in the last decade, Indian Territory and Oklahoma, together with 
Texas, contributed 8S.796» each of the former two adding 371,987 
and 239,569 acres respectively to the entire cotton-growing area of 
the country'.'" 

♦Twelfth (ViK<iis. 



The hay crop of the country outside of New York State, which led 
in the last decade, is contributed largely by Iowa, Kansas, and Mis- 
souri. The two former states produced 4,649,378 and 4,337,342 tons 
each; while Missouri and Nebraska each produced over 2,000,000 tons, 
with Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Illinois as their only rivals above 
this figure. 

Live Stock, The dry character of the high '^plains" has precluded 
crop growing on any large scale, save where irrigation has been estab- 
lished, and has made this western area of the Louisiana Purchase 
pre(?minently a group of ^^range states." Montana, Wyoming, and 
Colorado are the great ranch states of the section that lies within the 
limits of the Purchase. Notwithstanding the great ranges, the char- 
acter of the pasturage is against fattening for market purposes. As a 
consequence a large number of cattle are shipped into the western corn- 
belt section along the Missouri River and, apart from Texas, which 
is the greatest cattle state in the I'nion, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska 
report the largest numbers, over five million, four million, and three 
milhon head respectively. Iowa, also, stood second in the number of 
dairy cows, being exceeded by New York. 

On the other hand sheep thrive well on the dry pasturage of the 
high "plains" and foothills. Montana and Wyoming led all other 
states in the number of sheep, each contributing over 4,000,000 head. 

United States 






I I I 

I I I I 

Fig. 6. The number of millions of horses 

and mules, in iQo^, in the leading 

stock-raising states. 

and Colorado over 2,00(),0()() head, out of a total of over 61,000,000 
head for the entire country. Most of the wool produced in the United 
States is used in domestic manufacture. 

Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, and Kansas, together with Indiana and 
Illinois, raise nearly two-thirds of all the swine produced in the country, 
Iowa ranking first as a hog-producing state with 15.5% of the entire 

The centralizing of cattle, hogs, and sheep in the western portion 


of the corn belt, as a result of the enormous food supply raised there, 
has given rise to an immense meat-packing industry. This industry, 
outside of Chicago, is chiefly centered along the Missouri River at 
8t. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, and St. Joseph. At these five centers 
the rate of concentration of live stock for one week during the year 190O 
reached the enormous figure of 844,000 head (cattle, sheep, and hogs). 

Mineral Industries. Mining has been an important factor in the 
industrial development of the Louisiana Purchase, notably in the^ 
Cordilleran Mountain region, in the Black HilLs, and in certain localitie?!^ 
in the Mississippi Valley. The smelting of metallic ores is a prominent- 
feature throughout the mining districts. 

Colorado is the only state that produces iron in any quantities,^ 
though Iowa adds a small percentage of brown hematite ore to ther- 
total United States product. The iron ore mined in the vicinity o] 
Leadville, Colo., on the western border of the I^rchase, contain: 
varying amounts of manganese which is used in the manufacture-^ 
of spiegeleisen and as a flux in the silver smelters. The steel industry- 
is being rapidly developed in Colorado with a consequent increasing 
demand for the manganiferous ores. 

Montana leads in copper, with the enormous total of 270,738,489 
pounds (1000) representing 44.7% of the entire United States product. 
Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and South Dakota are all gold and 
silver producing states. Colorado's gold output increased $2^846,600 
for the year 1000, while South Dakota increased its silver output for 

/<> JO ,\) Jl* <lt (kt 

J \ I ; I \ I I L I \ L 

United Suites. 





Vie. 7. The number oj millions oj cattle, 
in /^(\?, in the Icadinii cattle- 
raising states. 

the same year §390,600. Important lead and zinc centers occur in 
southeastern Missouri, in the Joplin-Galena district of Missouri and 
Kansas, and, locally, in the Dubucjue district of Iowa. Lithia ore is 
mined in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The only United States 
locality when* nickel and cobalt are at present mined is the Mine 
Lamotte, Missouri. Some antimony ore is mined in South Dakota 
(Black Hills) and tin -ore (cassiterite) is mined to a limited extent 
in the same ren^ion. 




Vast areas of coal exist in parts of the Louisiana Purchase; a strip of 
98,000 square miles extends, in detached fields, from Iowa to the Mexi- 
can border. Petroleum occurs in Colorado and some asphaltum in 
the bituminous limestones of Indian Territory. Missouri ranks high 
as a producer of building stones, and Arkansas is a noted center for 
the production of oil stones of fine grain. 

United States 
Wisconsin . . . 


Minnesota . .. 


— L_ 





Fig. 8. 77/c value of the lumber product 

in millions of dollars, in igoo, in the 

leading lumber-producing states. 

Concluding Remarks. From this very brief review of the leading 
industrial features within the area of the Louisiana Purchase it is 
evident that the region is preeminently the great food-producing sec- 
i;ion of our national domain. No other area witliin our boundaries 
could supply the live stock and the grain that this region supplies 
to-day. Its effect on national growth and the development of the 
people has been most remarkable. Without this contiguous western 
area as an outlet to a growing population the conditions east of the 
Mississippi must have remained for a long time cramped and undevel- 
oped. If the area had continued in the possession of a foreign power, 
our record as a people would have been written small upon the pages 
of history, even though we had acquired the Pacific Slope. The astute- 
ness and foresight of Jefferson and the statesmen of his time cannot be 
overestimated. More than the mere question of wealth, the effect 
of this land upon the character of the people has been far-reaching. 
Within the past thirty years it has become the home of an industrial 
population that has helped to weld the land into one great national 
unit. As we stand to-day gazing out over the immense vistas of 
waving corn and wheat and beyond to the vast cattle ranches, and 
see the long trains moving the wealth of this land to the consuming 
and disbursing cities; as we view the manifold inventions that gather 
in the harvest of the prairies, and hear the hum of industry from hun- 
dreds of towns with their thousands of pleasant homes, we catch the 
sure note of progress — the sign of a virile people that has responded 
to the opportunities of its environment. 



llydntgi'apher U. S. OeoJtipicnl Survey, n'oshinytou. />. C. 

DRAW a line from the Canadian border to Texas along the one- 
hundredth meridian and you will have approximately the 
boundan' between the arid and humid regions of the United 
States. This line will pass through North and South Dakota, Nebraska, 
Kansas, Oklahoma, and strike the panhandle of Texas. Eastward the 
rainfall amounts to twenty inches annually and over; westward to 
twenty inches annually and less. Of course the location of this line is 
not absolutely fixed, it swings back and forth with seasons of increased 
or diminished ])recipitation. It is, indeed, rather a belt on which 
there are years of rain and years of drought. The belt can hardly be 
called arid, it is certainly not humid, so for convenience it is knowTi as 
the semiarid tract. 

This imaginary' division, however, is a real boundar}-. West of it 
dry farming, that is farming without irrigation, as practised in humid 
climates, can not be carried on, and nature has here set a barrier 
more absolute than any sea or mountain. The cause of this peculiar 
condition, as already indicated, is found in the difference in rainfall. 
Twenty inclies annually is the least amount suitable for farming under 
ordinary conditions. When the precipitation becomes less, artificial 
means of increasing it must be resorted to and farming is conditioned 
wholly by the amount of water which can be controlled from streams 
and underground sources. Thus the territory' of the original Louisiana 
Purchase is divided into two distinct regions agriculturally, one moist 
and the other dr>'. On the one hand the rich prairies of Iowa, eastern 
Kansas, Nebraska, and Minnesota offer the acme of fertility and pro- 
duce with a minimum of labor the wonderful grain crops which have 
added so much to the wealth of our country; on the other hand the 
dry and parched stretches of the high plains in western Kansas, Neb- 
raska, the Dakotas, and Montana, and the equally drj' but fertile valleys 
of Colorado and Wyoming demand the utmost care and vigilance 
and large outlays of money in engineering works to supply the natural 
deficiency of rainfall. And yet, when the proper conditions are met 
in the arid section, that is, when sufficient water is provided, the fruits 



and vegetables, as well as the grains which reward the patient tiller 
of the soil, are the wonder of the farmers of the East. 

My purpose is to oiitUne briefly the more important aspects of the 
value and development of irrigation in the arid and semiarid Louis- 
iana Purchase tract and show how regions practically worthless so far 
as farm values are concerned, without^water, have become in many 
places veritable garden'^ spots by the intelligent application of the 
wat€r other than that from direct rainfall. 
To do this, attention will be called to a 
number of problems which characterize the 
irrigation movement in different sections of 
this area, a region so diverse in physical 


Although the natural rainfall in North 
and South Dakota comes perilously near 
the twenty-inch mark and even falls beneath 
it in the western portions, nature has pro- 
vided for certain sections of this state a 
seemingly inexhaustible supply of water as 
a substitute. This water is contained in a 
series of rock strata known as the Dakota 
sandstones, which underlie the entire area 
of these states. The Dakota sandstones are 
a series of soft and porous strata which are 
capable of containing a large percentage 
of their weight in water. The great uplift 
which produced the backbone of the Rocky Mountain chain and 
also the peculiar crustal blister known as the Black Hills raised 
this series with others and brought them to the surface high up on 
the eastern flanks of the Rockies as well as on the sides of the Black 
Hills uplift. The streams from these upland areas flow across the up- 
turned edges of the Dakota sandstones and a very considerable portion 
of their waters is absorbed by the porous rock. It passes by slow perco- 
lation down under the Great Plains states, sinking with the strata 
many hundred feet, and obtaining in this way an enormous head 
or pressure. The rock is not accessible from all portions of the Plains 
because the overlying material is too thick to be penetrated by wells 
at economical cost, but through central North and South Dakota, 

Fig. I. Town well, W'oonsocket, 
South Dakota; 725 feet deep; 
fields 1. 1 50 gallons per minute ; 
is throwing a stream 97 feet, 
under a pressure of 130 pounds 
per square inch. 


especially along the greater river valleys where the streams have cut 
into and carried away a portion of the surface, wells have been suc- 
cessfully driven and reach the water-bearing beds at depths of from 
one to two thousand feet. The residt of striking water is most 
interesting. A true artesian flow is reached, and the wat^r, impelled 
by the great head above referred to, is forced sometimes as high as 
ninety feet or more into the air. So great and constant is the pressure 
that the wells in the Dakotas have been used as a source of power 
for manufacturing purposes, the generation of electricity, and for 
numerous other uses of this nature. But especially important are these 
wells for domestic purposes and irrigation and considerable areas are 
annually cultivated by means of them. In 1899, over 5,000 acres 
were irrigated from wells in these states. 

While the artesian supply is indeed phenomenal, it reaches only 
certain portions of the region and irrigation from the rivers is practised 
along the valleys, chiefly on pasture and wild hay lands. By water 
from all sources more than 4,800 acres were under irrigation in the 
Dakotas when the census was taken, in 1899, which showed the remark- 
able increase of 994 per cent in ten years for North Dakota and 
177 per cent for South Dakota, while the value of the crops thus raised 
amounted to almost $236,000. 


Kansas is a frontier state, agriculturally speaking, for, w^hile the 
eastern portion enjoys a rainfall sufficient for plentiful crops, its pre- 
cipitation decreases steadily toward the west until, somewhat more than 
two-thirds of the distance to the Colorado line, the fatal twenty-inch 
zone is reach(»d. To the west of this lies a region of magnificent fertility 
known as the High Plains, with conditions ideal for farming in level 
expanse of surface, deep loamy soil, and proximity to transcontinental 
railroad lines. A rich carped of nutritious grass covers the land, 
promising yet more luxuriant stands of wheat and corn, and this, with 
other conditions found l)y earlier travelers and herdsmen, gave the 
impression that the region only awaited settlement to yield the phe- 
nomenal returns of the prairie lands lying nearer the Mississippi River. 

No mistake could have been greater. In spite of the really unusual 
soil conditions, the region was found to be as treacherous to farming 
interests as many a desert valley in the admittedly arid states. Hence 
it has follow(Ml that the High T^lains are associated with a most inter- 
estin«r chapter in the economic development of the West, and formed 




the setting in the decade from about 1885 to 1895 of a veritable tragedy 
of settlement. The great fertility and apparently perfect conditions 
for farming tempted multitudes to settle and to endeavor to procure 
a livelihood through agricultural pursuits. Towns sprang up and 
communities were formed, and for a time there was partial prosperity. 
This was because there happened to be an' unusual amount of rain- 
fall. In many instances the profits were good and farmers enlarged 


A stnall reservoir in westertt Kansas, fed by windmill, which makes it possible for 
large herds of cattle to live at threat distances from a natural water supply. 

their acreage, built additional structures, and bought machinery 
for which purpose many of them mortgaged their property. For several 
years these conditions continued, the speculative side being fostered 
not a little by unscrupulous agents of real estate and banking com- 
panies who vied with each other in placing loans for money supplied 
by eastern capitalists. It was but a few years, however, before the 
period of excessive rainfall was followed by conditions more normal 
to the locality and the sweeping hand of misfortune fell upon the region. 
Many could not believe that the drought conditions would continue 
and mortgaged their farms more heavily to tide over what they thought 
would be a temporary dry spell, but, when year after year the crops 
withered away and large sums of money were lost, the population 
deserted the region as rapidly as it had come, leaving unharvested 
crops in the field, deserted houses on the farms, and often entire 


towns depopulated. The High Plains to-day are dotted with the 
remains of this exodus. The settlement as made has been likened 
to an invasion; its sequel resembled a precipitate and disastrous retreat. 

Since this time, an effort has been made to locate a water supply 
sufficient for the region, but thus far it has not been found. The land 
lies at too high an elevation above the river valleys for irrigation from 
them, even if there were a sufficient supply to be obtained from this 
source. On the other hand, no great imderground supply has been found, 
so that it does not seem likely that any considerable area of the High 
Plains can ever be utilized for farming purposes. There is to be found 
a limited amount of water from shallow wells, and it may be possible 
to impoimd for use some of the spring rains in the numerous sinks 
and saucer-like depressions which pit the High Plains area. 

But the prospects of western Kansas are not all dark. Considerable 
water in the aggregate may be secured from the shallow wells for pur- 
poses of stock and irrigation, which will make it possible to raise by in- 
tensive farming on small holdings enough produce to support a family 
and maintain a herd of cattle. 

The future of the tract seems to lie in stock raising, unless crops 
capable of thriving under dry weather conditions are found. 

Irrigation by means of water taken from the streams of the state is 
carried on to some extent. The Arkansas River has been the chief 
source of water sui)ply for this ])urp<\so, and some of the early irriga- 
ting systems (^f the country- drew their water from it. The physical 
peculiarities of the state make it rather difficult and expensive to con- 
duct water from the rivers to the bench lands. The streams, often 
broad, have trenched their valleys far below the general level of the 
surrounding country-, and. while large in the springtime, frequently 
dwindle to insignificant proportions or disappear altogether in the 
summer season. The census statistics, however, show that in 1899, 
23,630 acres wore under irrigation, an increase in ten years of 
13.5 per cent, with a crop valuation of 8226,453. 


The conditions existing in Nebraska closely resemble those of Kansas. 
In the east, the state is coini)aratively moist; in the west, it is dry; 
in its northwestern portion is foimd a waste of barren sand hills 
which almost completely defy cultivation on account of their shifting 
character. Like Kansas, Nebraska is a typical Great Plains State, 
a vast and n(»arly level region swept in the summer season by strong 




and steady winds. These winds have been taken advantage of by 
the farmer and have become the source of not a little wealth by skillful 
management. The windmill, a device used to some extent with success 
in the East, is a necessity on the Plains. It is found in all the states 
of this region, but, as its development in Nebraska has become spe- 
cialized and somewhat typical, it is particularly called to the attention 
in connection with this state. By it is made possible the profitable 
raising of stock, as well as the successful cultivation through irriga- 
tion, of many acres otherwise practically useless. By it, also, are fre- 
quently insured comforts and conveniences of the farmer's house, in 

Fig. 3. Raising su^ar beets by irrigation tn Nebraska. This now 
important western crop has been developed during tlie last ten years. 

the way of running water, found only in the city or the houses of the 
wealthy. The windmills are of every variety, but they may be briefly 
divided for our purposes into two distinct classes, the shop-made and 
home-made mills. Of course, the shop-made mill is more efficacious 
than the home-made, and the hundreds of them in use add greatly 
to the water supply of the plains, but the home-made device is of 
greater interest not only on account of its surprisingly high efficiency, 
but also from its low cost of construction and the interesting ingenuity 
employed in its manufacture. Frequently one runs across a mill 
pumping water for the use of all the cattle on the farm, providing the 
house with its supply, and furnishing a limited amount for irrigation 
the entire cost of which, to the farmer, was probably not more than 
three or four dollars, exclusive of the time it took to assemble the 
parts. Perhaps the low cost of the home-made windmill, as found 
on the Plains, is its greatest recommendation. It virtually has its birth 
from the scrap heap which is found on every farm and is composed 


of such odds and ends as the sides of boxes, the chains and sprockets 
of old bicycles, discarded buggy axles, or other articles for which the 
ingenuity of the farmer finds a place in the strange ensemble. 

These windmills are found scattered over the Great Plains in several 
distinct varieties. There are the Jumbo and the Baby Jumbo, which 
resemble the paddle wheel of a Mississippi steamer, the lower blades 
being protected from the wind by a box or otherwise. These mills 
are usually set facing in one direction and take advantage only of 
the prevailing wind. The Battle-ax is another variety of mill patterned 
more after the shop-made devices, with boards nailed to the end of 
revolving arms; and there are the Merry-go-rounds, Turbines, and 
other varieties, each individual likely to be of weird and surpriising 
constniction. But the remarkable fact which must not be lost sight 
of is that these homely devices, though crude enough in themselves, 
add a total benefit in the way of increased wat^r supply to the Great 
Plains region far in excess of their cost, and form a positive means 
of agricultural advancement. 

As in Kansas, the rivers in Nebraska lie in deep trenched valleys, 
making the inigation of the bench lands difficult and expensive. The 
chief irrigated districts in Nebraska are located along the valley of the 
North Platte to its junction with the main stream, and also in the 
valley of the South Platte. A serious difficulty, however, to the in- 
crease in irrigation, especially along the Soutli Platte, is that so much of 
the water is used in Colorado for irrigation purposes before it reaches 
the Nebraska line that, in the summer season, the stream in Nebraska 
is practically dry. The census reports show that in 1899 about 148,000 
acres were under cultivation by irrigation, a remarkable increase of 
1,164 per cent over the number cultivated in 1889. The value of 
the farm products raised by irrigation in 1899 was nearly $130,000. 


The enormous mineral wealth of Colorado is the feature most prom- 
inent in the popular estimation of the state, and yet there is a larger 
acreage under cultivation by irrigation in Colorado than in any other 
state in the I'nion, California not excepted. In 1899 over 1,600,000 
acres were irrigated — nearly 200,000 more than in California. The 
Colorado climate, however, favors the growth of cereals and forage 
crops and particularly vegetables, while that of Cahfornia is peculiarly 
adapted to the growth of high-priced citrus fruits, so that the total 
value of the California irrigated product is somewhat greater than 



that of Colorado, Nuwhore in the eouritryj however, except in Maine, 
are potatoes grown in such ahiuulance or of such superior size and 
quality as in this state. The j>eaches of Canon City, raised by irri- 
gation, are considered among the finest in flavor in the United States, 
and the watermelons, and particularly the cuntalnufyes grown near 
Rocky Ford, have a national repmtation. 

In the year 1S50, Horace Greeley, while on his Umr in Coloradtj» 
was greatly impressed by the idea that the lands lying to the east 






Fh. 4 i'-!tt vj ii 40O'Urf*- irrit;ati:d jarm at Gardt^ City, KntiJ-m J tuii. i>t:tiitabU\ and aijiilfa 

.ft ps irrtfo^rj jrcm the rcscrtyjtr in the fcrrctiround, SMPpUfd hy wutdmiils. By thtt cCfttstrMctUfU 

(*! thi:. irri^yitittc systtm tiw vahtr of the Uwd was ratted jrom oftc to fifty dollars ptt aire. 

of the Rocky Moontaiujs were susceptible of irrigation. .Vfter he had 
returned to New York, he discussed the matter with pronunent citi- 
zens and o!;ave the proposition great publicity tlu'ough the columns 
of the '*New York Tribune/' The colonization plan there suggested 
Fmally materialized in the Uninn Colony which settled in the Cache 
la Poudre \*alley and founded Ihe town of (xreeley. A few settlers 
were already located in this region, who found a precarious existence 
in harv^esting wild hay and securing pasture in the moister lands of 
the valley bi*ttonis. These people regarded with scorn the idea which 
the new colonists entertained of cultivating the bench lantls located 
at greater altitudes along the rivers by the use of water, but ditches 
were const rufted and canal systems laid out, and, in a few years, the 


faith of the far-sighted leader of the enterprise and the energy of the 
settlers were rewarded by plentiful returns. To-day the Greeley dis- 
trict, embracing a number of different irrigation systems, is one of 
the most successful in the state and is noted all over the country for 
the excellence and large amount of its agricultural produce. The 
engineering difficulties to be overcome in building these works were 
great. The settlers were obUged to go into the mountains, build large 
reserv^oirs to impound the flood waters of the stream upon which 
they had settled, and, as the resources of that stream became 
exhausted, their engineers contrived means of diverting the waters 
from streams of adjoining watersheds and carrying them across low 
divides to supplement the flow of the original stream. 

The products which were at first raised and the cultivation of which 
is continued to the present day, with the addition of other crops which 
have been found profitable, were the great forage crop, alfalfa, and pota- 
toes. Alfalfa is generally considered one of the most valuable of 
irrigated crops by virtue of its great nutritive quality as feed for cattle, 
and because of its remarkable rapidity of growth. In the East, the 
farmer is satisfied with one good crop of hay a season; sometimes he 
gets two. But alfalfa under irrigation yields five crops during the 
growing period, though usually not more than three in Colorado. 

Potatoes are usually planted in Colorado after ploughing under 
alfalfa. Two crops can often successfully be produced. Under irri- 
gation, potatoes in the Greeley district grow to proportions unknown 
in the East. An idea of the great value of the potato crop in this 
one district may be had from the record of the year 1894, w^hen, in 
one part of the district, over 600,000 sacks were produced, valued at 
$330,000. After paying all expense of planting and harvesting, the 
resulting profit was sufficient to pay the entire cost of the reservoir 
under which the crop was raised. This was an unusually good year. 

Another product successfully grown under irrigation in Colorado 
is the sugar beet. In 1899 there were 1,094 acres planted in this crop 
and over 6,600 tons sold at a value of $26,700. Beet raising is com- 
paratively new in Colorado but figures for the present time, were 
they available, would show a great increase in the industry. 

The Greeley district, while the largest and probably the most success- 
ful irrigated portion of Colorado, is but one of a number of similar 
sections in that state, for much land favorably located along the upper 
branches of the Platte and Arkansas rivers is being reclaimed in this 
manner. The 1,160,000 acres under irrigation in 1899 was an increase 


of 80.9 per cent over that irrigated in 1889. The value of the crops 
raised in 1899 was striking, being $15,100,690, and the cost of con- 
struction of irrigation works, $11,758,000. These figures are especially 
suggestive, showing that, in one year, the value of the irrigated crop 
was about one and a half times greater than the entire cost of the 
irrigating works which produced them. 


Wyoming is another of the great irrigation states and ranks fifth 
in the list, though its possibilities lie rather in the direction of grazing 
and stock raising. The average altitude of the state is high, 5,000 
feet or more, it is wind-swept, and the climate cool and dry; every- 
thing must be grown by irrigation. In one respect, it bears a peculiar 
relation to the other irrigation states, for within its boundaries 
rise nearly all the great streams of the West from w^hich water is used 
for reclamation. The headwaters of the Columbia, the Colorado, 
and the Missouri are all found among its mountains, but the phy^sical 
conditions are such that but comparatively little of this supply is avail- 
able for use in the state. 

Wyoming is prei'minently a grazing state, but the last census figures 
show that 600,000 acres were under cultivation by irrigation in 1889, 
an increase in ten years of 163 per cent, producing crops worth nearly 
$2,900,000. In spite of the fact that live stock interests are so large, 
irrigation is of growing interest, for it is coming to be recognized as 
a necessary adjunct to the grazing interests. The public range, on 
account of overgrazing, is rapidly deteriorating in quality so that 
it is not possible for it to support as large a number of cattle as in for- 
mer years. This fact is recognized, and it is further understood that 
the remedy lies in the cultivation of the forage crops by irrigation to 
supplement as nuich as possible the deficiency. This is most strik- 
ingly illustrated by the fact that in 1899, of the 600,000 acres under 
irrigation. 560,000 were devoted to hay, alfalfa, and other fodder crops. 


Montana stands third in irrigated area. Although needing less 
assistance from irrigation than other states in the arid West, it seems 
destined to surpass them all in the amount of land which will eventu- 
ally come under the ditch. At the date of the last census, the state 
had over 950,000 acres under irrigation, showing the notable increase 
of 171 per cent in ten years. Montana contains vast areas of fertile 


land and is so situated with respect to the sources of a number of large 
streams that its water supply is more plentiful than that of any of 
the Western States. Economically, it has had a most interesting 
history. During the period between 1870 and 1900, it witnessed a 
remarkable change in agricultural values. In the former year, the 
value of live stock in the state was at least three times that of all farm 
land and buildings. In the latter, the live stock interests had gained 
enormously and were nearly forty times as great as in 1870, but farm 
values had also increased with such rapidity that they were worth 
$10,000,000 more than the total live stock interests. At first farming 
was incidental to stock raising, but. within the thirty years above men- 
tioned, the conditions were completely reversed. This great increase in 
farm wealth is due largely to the rapid settlement of the valleys and 
the changed methods which followed the successful application of irri- 
gation to the cultivation of forage and other crops. The interesting 
statement has been made that, in the course of a few years, the value 
of the agricultural products in Montana will be greater than those 
of the mines. 


It is too early to state how the future of irrigation in the Louisiana 
Purchase tract will be affected by government irrigation. Under 
the Irrigation Act of June 17, 1902, the engineers of the Reclamation 
Service have been making a thorough investigation in this region 
to discover irrigation possibilities. 

In the region particularly under consideration a number of projects 
have been found which seem to be feasible, but, until the surveys are 
completed and a great variety of facts obtained not only regarding 
the engineering features of the projects but also concerning; business 
questions, such as the possibility of securing needed lands for reservoir 
and other purposes, the organization of water users' associations and 
other matters which require much time to work out, it will be impos- 
sible to make any definite statements regarding them. 

In a general way, however, it may be said that it appears to be possi- 
ble to reclaim considerable land in Soutli Dakota from streams rising 
in the Black Hills; in western Nebraska along the North Platte, in 
Wyoming, in the valleys of the Shoshone and Snake rivers, and along 
a number of streams in both northern and southern Montana. 

If these projects are found to be feasible and are constructed, the 
result will be several hundred thousand acres added to the cultivated 


land in the section. The chances are that much of this land wiU 
be reclaimed. What this will mean in the great increase of population 
that is sure to follow, the increase in business and in land values, the 
social and political changes that will take place, it is difficult now to 
predict, but the reclamation of these desert lands by the Government 
can not but have a profound influence not only on the development 
of the West but also upon the destiny of the entire country. 


lA)uisL'iUe. Kentucky 

THE development of St. Louis has been characterized by a sort 
of staccato movement; it has been stimulated by a close succes- 
sion of distinct economic impulses, each quite different in its 
nature but each nearly related to the geographic environment of the 
city. The word environment in this connection is a big term, as under- 
stood by the anthropo-geographer; it includes not only the city's 
location and immediate surroundings, but also remote features in 
the topography, climate, and natural resources of the wide Missis- 
sippi Valley. The long westward-reaching line of the Great Lakes 
with their short portages to the Mississippi streams, the vast system 
of navigable waterways occupying this central trough of North America, 
the cold, bleak climate of our Northwest and upper Rockies thickening 
the fur on the backs of their early four-footed inhabitants, the breach 
in the western mountain wall just east of the old Mexican city of Santa 
F6, the grazing lands of the arid plains, the mineral belt of the Ozark 
Mountains and of the Appalachians at the sources of the Ohio, the 
tobacco fields of Kentucky, and the seaport of New Orleans at the 
terminus of the Mississippi highway, have all been so many conspicu- 
ous factors in the environment of St. Louis, potent to modify its his- 
tory. Now one, now the other, geographic influence has been in the 
ascendant. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, it was the 
Rocky Mountain sources of the western rivers with their wealth of 
beaver skins, while in these recent years it has been the headstreams 
of the (.)hio and Illinois rivers with their wealth of coal. Or the same 
geographic factor has operated under different guises at different times. 
The arid plains were, in early days, the feeding ground of the buffalo 


whose skins and dried tongues were staples of the St. Loiub trade, 
and these same plains, now divided up into ranches, supply the cattle 
for the great meat-packing establishments there to-day. 

The cities of any new or imdeveloped country are primarily commer- 
<5ial centers, markets where the crude commodities of its natural 
resources can be exchanged for the manufactured wares of some more 
advanced industrial section. The rapidity of their growth depends 
always, first, upon their command of an extensive system of inland 
navigation, because rivers and lakes are the sole highways of a new 
country; and second, upon the productivity of the country for which 
they serve as a commercial outlet. When such cities have outgrown 
the first or purely commercial phase and begin to add industries to 
their other activities, they necessarily possess many quahfications of 
successful manufacturing centers. The converging routes of commu- 
nication which they command insure abundant raw materials and the 
best faciUties for marketing their finished products. Moreover, the 
capital and labor necessarj^ for large industrial enterprises are either 
at hand or readily attracted. Hence the geographic influences favor- 
able to the earlier or commercial stage of a city's development con- 
tinue to operate advantageously in the later stage when industries are 
<;ombined with commerce. We shall follow the working of such geo- 
graphic factors in the history of St. Louis. 

In the early winter of 1763 Pierre Laclede Liguest, with a party of 
men and a goodly store of merchandise, came up the Mississippi from 
New Orleans to the French settlements between the mouths of the 
Ohio and lUinois rivers, to establish somewhere in that vicinity a trad- 
ing post whence he might exercise his right, formally granted by the 
French authorities in New Orleans, to the exclusive trade of the Mis- 
souri and uppermost reaches of the Mississippi. But hearing that 
France had ceded to Great Britain all this territory between the Ohio 
and the Great Lakes, he located his station on the west bank of the 
Mississippi where St. Louis now stands, at a point nearly opposite 
the earUer settlement of Cahokia, which had been a gathering place 
for the French traders of the Mississippi basin. 

The fact that impresses the student of early American history is 
the remarkable insight displayed by the pioneers of this western wil- 
derness into the geographic conditions of the country and into the vast 
possibiUties of certain favored points. Laclede had all the keen scent 
of his breed; he ran down the one spot destined by nature for the 
•development of a great commercial center. Twenty miles below the 


mouth of the Missouri, where the vohune of the Mississippi is almost 
doubled by the muddy tide of its great western tributary and where 
therefore navigation was assured even for the growing river craft 
of a remote future, Laclede built his little town — in this respect 
**builded better than he knew." The particular site which he chose 
w^as a Hmestone bank extending for about two miles along the river 
some twenty feet above its flood wat^r, and rising by natural terraces 
to yet higher ground in the rear. This was a rare advantage on the 
Mississippi, because that great stream is generally bounded by high 
perpendicular bluffs, inhospitable to commerce, as one sees them at 
Vicksburg, Natchez, or Memphis; or by low alluvial plains, exposed 
to inundation from the annual floods and at all times teeming with 
malaria. Hence Hutchins, soon after St. Louis was founded, spoke 
of it as "the most healthy and pleasurable situation of any known 
in this part, of the country. '^ A few years later (1796) General Victor 
Collot, a Frenchman traveling in the West, found the new settlement 
to be endowed **with more facility, more safety, and more economy 
for trade and navigation than any other given point in North America." 

Its location for commanding the commerce of the country was indeed 
unsurpassed. A central position in the highly fertile basin of the 
Mississippi insured abundant raw products as the basis of its exchanges, 
and an active selling market as the inevitable population should 
respond to the call of these tempting valley lands. Here too was the 
great river (Tossroads of the country, affording a navigable course from 
the falls of St. Anthony to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the forks of the 
Ohio at Pittsburg to the (Jrcat Falls of the Missouri at the first terrace 
of the Hookies, two thousand miles from north to south and as far from 
east to west. Short, easy portages or swamp-covered watersheds 
connected the northeastern tributaries of the Ohio and Mississippi 
with the (Ireat Lakes, and enabled St. Louis to lay tribute upon the 
furs of the C^anadian North. At this central point of the Mississippi 
Valley was the meeting of the waters. Besides the Missouri and Ohio, 
the Illinois opened the way to the Chicago portage of Lake Michigan, 
and the Tennessee and Cumberland served as primitive highways 
from the southern Appalachians to the mouth of the Ohio. Here 
were 15,410 miles of navigable waterway available for large river 
craft, when steamboats had come into use; but the mileage was far 
greater in the days of the voyageur's canoe and the keelboat of the 

When St. Louis was founded, a tide of l^>ench immigrants from the 


eastern side of the Mississippi, fleeing from British dominion there, 
gave the little settlement its first marked forward impulse. By 1780 
it was a town of over a hundred stone-built houses with a population 
of eight hundred, almost all French. It drew to itself much of the fur 
trade north of the Ohio, all that of the upper Mississippi and of the 
Missouri. As settlement expanded from the east across the Mississippi 
Valley, the fur trade migrated farther west and was confined for the 
most part to the Missouri system ; but St. Louis derived continually 
greater advantages from its water conmiunication, with the rapid 
settling up of the valley and the increasing distances to be covered 
in collecting raw products and distributing finished merchandise. 
Through the Ohio it maintained trade connection with Philadelphia 
and Baltimore; through the lower Mississippi with New Orleans; and 
through the Illinois and Great Lakes with far-away Quebec. 

In the territory east of the Mississippi, St. Louis had competitors 
in the various Ohio River towns, but in the vast area of the Missouri 
basin she ruled supreme. It was the fur trade of this country that 
especially encouraged the development of the city from 1790 to 1840. 
The hundreds of hunters, fur traders, Indian agents, and military 
officers scattered over the wild trans-Mississippi country came down 
from trapping camps or frontier posts in the mountains to St. Louis 
every spring, when the melting of the snows swelled the volume of the 
scanty western rivers and made them navigable. Their canoes and 
pirogues, laden with rich skins, the harvest of their winter hunt, found 
a ready sale in this bustling market of the West, and went to purchase 
the comprehensive outfit for the next seas()n\s operations. This 
included the more luxurious articles of food, like coffee (selling before 
the purchase of Louisiana at two dollars a pound), clothes, ammuni- 
tion, and cheap wares for barter with the Indians. The sale of these 
supplies and the incoming peltries greatly augmented the commerce 
of St. Louis. The skins brought in were beaver, otter, deer, bear, 
fox, raccoon, wildcat, marten, and lynx; and these served as legal 
tender in all commercial transactions. 

The western fur trade required capital, so big companies were 
organized in St. Louis — tlie Missouri Fur Company in 1808, the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company in 1822, and the Western Department of 
John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company also in 1822, besides 
numerous other smaller organizations. Under their control opera- 
tions expanded. The Missouri River and its straight-flowing western 
tributaries made many paths to the rich fur fields far in the heart 


of the Rocky Mountains, and to the passes which led over the Con- 
tinental Divide to the sources of the Pacific rivers. Hence at an 
early date furs from traders' stations and trappers' camps on the head- 
streams of the Columbia and the Colorado, on Utah and Great Salt 
lakes, on the upper Missouri, Yellowstone, Big Horn, and Platte rivers 
found their way to the Missouri, and came down this common high- 
way of the Far West to the growing city just below its mouth. 

Though the fur trade was a potent factor in St. Louis' development 
till 1845 or even a little later, its glor>' had passed by 1834. But 
this date had already seen the sturdy l^eginning of another commer- 
cial movement along a different geographically determined line which 
greatly stimulated the growth of the city. This was the Santa Fe 
trade, which began about 1822 and initiated the next step in St. Louis* 
growth. Far to the west of St. Louis and just beyond the eastern 
range of the Rockies in the high valley of the Upper Rio Grande lay 
the old Mexican city of Santa F^, a territorial capital in the days of 
Spanish supremacy and an active trading point under the less arbi- 
trary rule of independent Mexico. The commerce of the place was 
considerable, for it supplied all the population up and down the Rio 
Grande Valley and carried on a busy trade some three hundred and 
fifty miles to the south with Chihuahua, an important town of north- 
ern Mexico. It bought extensively of American merchandise from 
the markets of St. Louis, which, because of a peculiarly favorable 
geographical location, controlled the Sante F^ trade. St. Louis lay 
on the direct hne of water communication from the manufacturing 
eastern states, whose wares it got by the cheap steamer carriage on 
the Ohio, and then forwarded again by river to the great elbow of the 
Missouri. Here began the Santa Fe trail, a wagon track eight hundred 
miles long, which followed the upper course of the Arkansas and 
Cimarron rivers across the arid belt of the Great Plains, and rose by 
imperceptible ascent to the gateway in the Rockies leading to Santa 
F^. The outfitting point for this trade was naturally at Independ- 
ence, where the ]Missouri boat had to be exchanged for the packhorses 
and ox-wagons of the trail, but St. Louis supplied Independence with 
merchandise and was the market for the furs, gold, and silver brought 
in from New Mexico. 

At the time the Santa F6 trade opened, the introduction of steam 
navigation on the western rivers enabled St. Louis to reap the full 
benefit of her peculiar location and to increase her commerce with 
the growing demands of the West. By the methods of poling and 


rowing and cordelling on the old flatboats and keelboats, freight 
up-stream from New Orleans cost fifty cents a pound. The first steam- 
boat reached St. Louis in 1817; twenty years afterwards freight charges 
for the same distance had dropped to two cents a pound, while over 
a hundred and fifty steamboats were entering the port of St. Louis 
in a twelvemonth. As this city had been an important exchange 

Fig. I. .4 typical Mississippi River steamboat. These light draft 
vessels have a large carrying capacity, and it was through the 
use of fleets of these vessels that commercial suprem- 
acy of the Mississippi River came about. 

point in the old keelboat days from 1780 to 1830, so its commercial 
activity grew in the days of steamboat supremacy from 1830 to 1860. 
Below St. Louis the depth of the Mississippi is six feet or more, above 
it is only from three to five feet. This fact differentiated transporta- 
tion on the upper and lower river and made St. Louis a point of reship- 
ment. Thus it had a natural monopoly of the trade of the upper 
Mississippi as well as of the Missouri. 

As population poured into the central valley of the continent between 
1840 and 1860, the lines of St. Louis commerce increased in number 
and extent, and river transportation, not yet feeling the competition 
of railroads, was at its height. In 1845 over two thousand steam- 
boats, aggregating 358,045 tons, besides several hundred keel and 


flat boats, drew up along the St. I^ouis whan-es in the course of a year. 
Of these 250 came from New Orleans, bringing fine merchandise of 
foreign or New England manufacture to exchange for the flour and 
bacon of the more northerly states; 406 came from ports along the Ohio 
or its tributaries, laden with agricultural products for the St. Liouis 
market or with manufactured goods which had come in from the 
Atlantic seaboard by the canals and the Great Lakes. Its increasing 
commerce, due to the stimulating effect of st«am na\'igation on the 
western rivers and to the rapid growth of settlement in the vast coun- 
try tributary to it, is reflected in St. Louis' population, which rose 
from six thousand in 1830 to over sixteen thousand in 1840 and over 
one hundred and eighty-five thousand in 1860. 

With the rapid decline of river transportation after 1865, follow- 
ing the introduction of railroads, St. Louis had to adjust herself to 
the new conditions. Though the geographical advantages which she 
had enjoyed over other western cities now seemed annulled, and Chi- 
cago was beginning to win supremacy in the Mississippi Valley, these 
years saw the beginning of the industrial development of St. Louis. 
Railroads came into the trans-Mississippi West, but they followed the 
lines which the river trade had determined; and more than this, in 
the arid belt of the plains, where shifting, shallow river beds had made 
water transportation impossible, they supplanted the creeping pace 
of packhorse and caravan by the express train, and with the settUng 
of the far western states, gave St. Louis a larger and more active market 
in the wide baok-countr}' reaching to the Rockies and beyond. 
To-day twenty-three great railroads enter the city and two bridges over 
the Mis>^issippi secure connection with eastern lines, so that few points 
in the middle Wc^st possess superior facilities for rail transportation. 
These advantafi^es, together with the Mississippi and Ohio \vateirways, 
still the most economic means for bringing in raw materials of large 
bulk, have stimulated the industrial development of St. Louis, while 
extending the area of its commercial field. 

St. Louis had no manufactures of a systematic character prior to 
1860. Pork packing and flour milling, those first industries of an agri- 
cultural community, were carried on with some activity in those early 
days; their products, which went to feed the towns and plantations 
on the lower Mississippi, were packed in barrels and kegs, which were 
therefore turned out in considerable (juantities by the local cooper 
shops. These industries were closely related to the city's location 
in the fertile lands ni the middle West, in ck)se proximity to the mar- 

^i» .;^-! t.»' "^ v-v. 

TTii .-.v^er 'T T^*~ I li- 1 \ .-i"- J-- iC:L".".>" •"':• ■. " ^ x\ " .v^ x'i\vV>. 

irv. 3I>jS''-;Ti > * : -- : :;-: ^"T:,-." ' ~.\* .■.*''• i'^o^^**\^:^ >..*,xNv X* 
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t*rr«iueei oLe-hiJ: : -.:• - r^-v r. : : : i^ I :vuv. <*.,sv>nn ^^ *AV 
Louisville, th*^ r:vil of ^:. I • v/>. > :V.^' .,sn;x^s: >,s: ^x^a-^snv ^v.^^^vo*, *n 
the world, bu: vHI r^>er::*y r.a> '.^.k-.v. :-.o tAp::,i* tuswv^^N ;x^^ owo*^ 
sive manuiact'^re. A :>-.v yt:ir- ncv\ '.v won or, ;V.o Tv^xvuvx^ INv,>\ 
bought up the chief :i.ii:;;fao: ir^i.u ;^'a:\:> ;r. l\^;i\ v*\;:o>. j^i\a \\\0\ 0\o 
eye for economic pnxiucTivr. oh:\rao:orisTio o! all >\;o)\ Im< \nv\\i'\u;U 
combinations, it is shiixiiii! iho iv!^.:er of its pi\vi\u'iuM\ t'i\m\ s\ \ ^Mn^ 
to Louisxille, nearer ti-e supply of :ho raw tnaiovial Thot^Mv^v \\\\' 
next census report oi tobai-oo protluoiion in St. 1 o\u^ n\a\ -how j^ 




In another Ipiuling industry of the .Mitklle West, that of slaugh- 
tenng and nietit packings St. Louis has na tielive share. The localiza- 
tion of this industr>^ is determined in general by the presence of a 
climate and soil especially adapted to the protluction of the corn and 
hay necessary for feeding eattle, and by the factor n{ mere area or 
abundant land, wliich can be found only outside of the older settled 
regions with their denser populations. The industiy is most highly 
developed, therefore, in the corn belt of the iMid<lle West, near the 
cattle ranches of the Great Plains and the stock-raising section of the 


... T^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 




Alotix the ivaUf jronl, St. Louis, as ti is fa^day. 

upper ^lississippi A^dley, The meat products of Illinois^ Kansas^ 
Nebraska, Indiana, ami Missouri constituted nearly three-fourths 
of the country's total in 1900. These figures indicate the broader 
localization. Taken more narrowly, we find that this industry must 
be centered in cities, because it is depemlcnt upon ample railroad 
facilities for its refrigerator ears, and hence has reached its greatest 
development in Chicago; but it is steadily migrating westward, follow- 
ing the withdrawid of stot^k farms and ranches to the abunilant lands 
of tiie trans-Mississippi auil Missouri country before the growing popu* 
lation of the old West. St. Louis has taken advantage of this trend. 
The products of its slaughter houses have increased in value almost 
fifty per cent in the last decade and will probably rank yet higher 
in 1910. 

Proximity \i\ the great central curn area and to the barley fields 
of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and northern Illinois has l>een a potent 
factor in the brewing industry- of Chicago, Milwaukee, and St, Louis, 


while the steady demand from the large German population in each 
of these cities has contributed also to the same end. The manufac- 
ture of malt liquors is widely distributed in the United States, because 
the transportation of the finished product, especially in bottles, is 
relatively expensive, so that breweries are Ukely to spring up wher- 
ever the demand is great; but pccuHar advantages stimulate produc- 
tion on a large scale to supply something more than the local demand. 
St. Louis ranks fifth among the brewing cities of the United States^ 
and sells its finest beers in a wide range of markets in the Mississippi 

The other active industries of St. Louis include the manufacture 
of foundry and machine shop products, boots and shoes, flour and grist, 
bread and other bakery products, paints and oils, and men's clothing. 
All these tell of proximity to an abundant supply of the raw mate- 
rials. For instance, the manufacture of paints and oils has thrived 
because of the soft lead, barytes, and other minerals of choice quality^ 
found in the southwestern part of ^lissouri. Sometimes the demand 
has been the stronger agent in determining the supply. Back in the 
early decades of the nineteenth century, the Rocky Mountain trappers, 
the Santa F6 traders, and, a little later, the throngs of settlers moving 
westward over the Oregon trail to the Pacific, made a great demand 
for patent medicines. St. Louis, as the center for this valuable west- 
em trade, responded to the demand and manufactured medicines. 
This industry naturally grew into the manufacture of chemicals and 
drugs, and as such takes an important place among the activities of 
the city. 

St. Louis now ranks as the fourth city of the United States both 
in population and in the value of its manufactured products, according 
to the figures of the latest census; and yet these figures do not tell 
the whole story, because St. Louis has overflowed across the Mis- 
sissippi into Illinois and there developed the towns of East St. Louis^ 
Madison, and Granite City. Located just across from their mother 
city at the eastern termini of the two great bridges over the dividing 
stream, they occupy favorable sites for transportation and fuel, are 
operated by St. Louis capital and enterprise, but escape St. Louis taxes. 

The rapid growth which always accompanies marked industrial 
development in a city is evidenced in St. Louis by the increase of 
its population from 310,864 in 1870 to over 600,000 in 1903. This 
advance in population and industries is intimately connected with 
the rapid development of the extensive country to the west, souths 


and southwest of St. Louis, where the city finds its natural markets. 
The construction of the embryo state of Oklahoma and the opening 
up of successive strips in Indian Territory have alone contributed 
no little to the commercial activity of St. Louis. All this broad 
area is engaged primarily in agriculture and stock raising, except for 
the mining in certain favored localities; it therefore makes a steady 
demand for manufactured wares of all kinds, and for these St. Ix)uis 
is the nearest producing and selling point. Hence the city commands 
this commercial field as Chicago does the Northwest, and its growth 
and prosperity will therefore advance with that of the wide territory 
which constitutes its market. 


Su}>eiuaiendent of Sch<H}lii, Denver, Colorado 

IT is said that there are few cities which impress the casual visitor 
favorably. The uni)leaRant features of a city are generally among 
its most prominent ones. The smoke, the filth, the tumble-down, 
ramshackle buildings, generally prove to be the most forcible impres- 
sions received by a stranger arriving in a city for the first time. 

Seldom, if ever, is this true of the visitor to Denver. Things ordi- 
narily seoni to conspire to produce favorable impressions of Colorado's 
metropoUs. The wonderfully clear atmosphere, the panoramic view 
of the rufi:ge(l, snow-capped Rockies, many of whose peaks, plainly 
visible, are from seventy to one hundred miles distant, the varicolored 
foothills risintr from the level prairie ten or twelve miles from the city, 
give a setting unsurpassed and of untiring interest. (See Fig. 1.) 

This favorable impression is increased w^hen the tourist inspects 
more closely the city. Denver is so young, its growth has been 
so rapid and its building ordinances forbidding the erection of frame 
houses so sweeping that in spite of the large area included within the 
limits of the city, one can find little of the slovenly or unsightly. 

One accustomed to the spacious grounds and stately trees of some 
eastern cities may wonder why when there was so little apparent need 
for restricted grounds so few seem to have profited by the opportu- 
nity, but the care taken almost uniformly by the householders of their 
rather limited lawns results in a most pleasing general effect. 

Denver lawns, like all Colorado lawns, exist only through careful 


irrigation, involving more attention than found necessary in eastern 
cities blessed with more generous rainfall. This doubtless in part 
accounts for the comparatively small number of spacious lawns found 
surrounding the average Denver residence. 

As compared with the average eastern city, Denver has little in 
the way of history, but as an example of how in the territory added 
to our country through the far-seeing statesmanship of Jeflferson prosper- 
ous, solidly built cities have sprung up where fifty years ago only a few 
trappers' cabins could be found in the entire territory, its history is 
of surpassing interest. 

For nearly half a century after the cession of the Louisiana Terri- 
tory to the United States that portion known as the Pike's Peak 



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Fio. 1. A panorama view of the city of Denver, showing the rugged snow-capped Rockies, over 75 

miles distant. 

country attracted little attention. Some fur companies were early 
organized and their trappers began to establish stations in Colorado, 
along the South Platte perhaps in the early twenties. In 1832 a 
trading post was established near what is now Denver, and while this 
was followed by other similar settlements in the neighborhood, it was 
not until the discover\^ of gold in Colorado that immigration of any 
consequence commenced. Many stories concerning the first discovery 
of gold in .this territory arc in existence, and it is difficult to determine 
the real origin of the movement westward. Hunters and trappers from 
as early a date as 1832 had occasionally found gold in the sands of the 
streams, and probably reports of these findings were circulated in the 
eastern states for years before they gathered sufficient momentum 
to secure any serious attention. Probably Colonel Gilpin's report 
of his observations, made in 1849 through an address given in Inde- 
pendence, Mo., furnished the first really reliable basis for the rumors 
concerning the existence of gold. These reports, verified by various 
returning adventurers during the succeeding years, produced the 
traditional gold excitement as a result of which the city of Denver 
was founded. 


The story of the early attempts to found a city in the vicinity of 
Denver is of considerable interest. In the fall of 1858 a number of 
families established a little settlement about six miles from the center 
of the present city of Denver. About twenty houses were erected 
and gold digging was attempted in the sands of the Platte at this point. 
The town was named Montana, but was short-lived as the venture 
proved unsuccessful and the entire settlement moved down the river 
in the following spring. About the same time, farther down 
stream within the limits of Denver, another town named Auraria was 
established. This settlement proved quite successful and grew with 
great rapidity. For some time it seemed to be destined to be the lead- 
ing town of the Pike's Peak country. Here were established churches, 
newspapers, lodges, and all the organizations ordinarily found in the 
active western town. A short distance away a rival towii company 
attempted to establish a town to be called St. Charles and prepared 
articles of incorporation. This venture did not flourish and was soon 

A little later a new town company was organized and established a 
town on the site of St. Charles and in honor of the ex-governor of the 
Kansas territory named it Denver. The date of organization is given 
as November 17, 1858. (Sec Fig. 2). 

For some time this town was a rival of Auraria, but the founders 
of Denver were vigorous, energetic men and succeeded in more than 
holding their own in spite of bitter animosity. The village prospered 
and in April, 1860, the two towns were united under the name of Denver. 

The first census of Denver taken in 1860 seemed to indicate a popu- 
lation of 4,749. It is evident, however, that even at this early date, 
knowledge of how to pad census returns was entirely equal to the task 
of producing this remarka])le result. 

The first railroad running into Denver was in operation in 1870; at 
which time the city had a population of 4,759, an apparent increase 
of only ten over the returns for 1860. Since 1870, however, the growth 
of the city has been most remarkable. In 1900 the census showed 
that Denver contained a population of 133,359. In 1902, as a result 
of wiiat was known as the Rush Amendment to the Constitution of 
Colorado, a number of suburban towns were annexed to Denver, and 
the entire corporation, now known as the "City and County of Denver/' 
contains a population considerably in excess of the above mentioned 
figure. This amendment is popularly known as the "Home Rule 
AnuMidment^' and Denver is, under its provisions, blessed with a degree 



of home rule possessed by perhaps no other city in the United States. 

The remarkable growth of Denver has been due chiefly to the develop- 
ment of the great mining camps of Colorado for which it is the natural 
supply center. In addition, however, to these groat resources a very 
rich agricultural and stock-raising region is found in the territory to 
the north of the city which adds greatly to the resources of the state 
and furnishes a stability to the city which a mining region alone 
could not give. 

As a result of Denver's early prominence as a commercial center 
for the Pike's Peak country, it followed that when the railroads began 

The s'att capital bt4ilJtfit: at Denver. 

to form their network of communications through the Rockies, the 
chief railroad center proved to be Denver. More than one western 
city owes its prosperity as a railroad center to an apparently fortu- 
itous combination of circumstances. In this case, however, the loca- 
tion was eminently suitable for such a development and it is now well 
established that Denver will remain the chief railroad center of the 
Rocky Mountain Region. 

The climate of Denver is one of its chief glories. Its winters are 
mild and open. Little snow falls and there are few days during the 
year when the sun doe^ not shine and outdoor life is not pleasant 
and agreeable. The air is dry and possesses a tonic quality due to 
the elevation above sea-level — about one mile. The rainfall is very 
light, the annual precipitation being about fifteen inches. 

As a natural result of these conditions Denver in common with all 
CJolorado has come to be recognized as a highly desirable place "of 
residence for those who suffer from mild pulmonary troubles. Thou- 




sands of Denver's citizens originally came to Colorado in search of 
health, and thousands more come each year for the same reason. 

The mean annual temperature of Denver is about 50® Fahrenheit, 
and the average number of clear and partly cloudy days is 309. 
Although Denver owes its great growth to its favorable location as 
a commercial center for the mining districts of the state, it has, 
through its proximity to the coal fields, come to be quite a manufactur- 
ing and smelting center. There are in operation in the city about 
fifteen hundred manufacturing plants with an aimual output of over 
forty-two million dollars. This statement often creates some surprise, 
even among Denver residents, as few have been accustomed to think 
of Denver as in any Avay a mamifacturing city. It is altogether 
probable that the future growth of the city will depend to an increas- 
ing extent upon the development of its manufacturing interests. 



STATK Area Pop. 1900 Chief City Pop. 1900 

Arkansas 53,850 1,311,564 Little Rock 38,307 

Colorado 103,645 539,700 Denver 133,859 

Indian Territorv 31,000 302,060 Ardmore 5,681 

Iowa 55,475 2,231,853 Des Moines 62,139 

Kansas 81,700 1,740,495 KansaaCity 163,752 

Louisiana 45,420 1,381,625 New Orleans 287,104 

Minnesota* 79,205 1,751,394 Minneapolis 202,718 

Missouri 68,735 3,106,665 St. Louis 575,238 

Montana* 145,310 243,329 Butte 30,471 

Nebraska 76,810 1,066,300 Omaha 102,555 

North Dakota 70,195 319,146 Fargo 9,589 

South Dakota 76,850 401,570 SioiLx Falls 10,266 

Oklahoma* 38,830 398,831 Oklahoma City 10,037 

Wyoming* 97,575 92,531 Cheyenne 14,087 

♦Included in part in the Purchase. 


Hank in Products. 

Arkansas 3 in cotton ginning, 6 in lumber and timl)er products. 

Colorado 4 in coke, 5 in copper smelting, 1 in lead smelting. 

Iowa 3 in butter and cheese, 4 in food preparations, 8 in planing mill products. 

Louisiana 3 in cotton seed oil. 

Minnesota 1 in grist mill products, 3 in lumber and timber products, 3 in linseed oil 

Missouri 4 in coffee ana spice washing, 5 in confectionery- and railway cars. 

Montana 2 in copper and lead smelting. 




Rank in Total Value 
Union of Crops 
in 1900 in 1900 

Arkansas 20 56,803,494 

Colorado 34 16,857,533 

Indian Territory . 32 16,691,142 

Iowa 2 192,286.098 

Kansas 5 112,684,696 

Louisiana 27 

Missouri 7 


Minnesota 4 113.092,602 

Montana 35 

Nebraska 8 

North Dakota ... 13 

South Dakota ... 16 

Oklahoma 24 

Wyoming 48 


Principal Crops with Rank in each in Union 

Com 14; cotton 6; sugar 8. 

Wheat 28; oats 30. 

Com 25; cotton 10. 

Com 2; oats 1; barley 3; hay 2; potatoes 5; 

flaxseed 4. 
Com 3; wheat 5; oats 12; hay 3; potatoes 10; 

flaxseed 5. 
Com 22 ; rice 1 ; cotton 7 ; sugar 1 . 
Com 4; wheat 9; oats 11; hay 4; potatoes 12; 

flaxseed 6. 
Wheat 1; oats 4; com 21; bariey 2; hay 7; 

potatoes 6; flaxseed 2. 
Oats 28; wheat 36; hay 20. 
Com 5; wheat 8; oats 5; hay 9; potatoes 11 . 
Wheat 2; oats 14; flaxseed 1. 
Wheat 3; com 24; barley 5; hay 13; flaxseed 2. 
Wheat 16; com 23. 
Oats 41 ; wheat 39; hay 35. 


Cattle Horses Mules Sheep Hogs 

Arkansas 166,267 (8) 1,713,307 

Colorado... 1,164,169 (15) 

Indian Ter. 1,263,269 (13) 

Iowa 4,077,351 (2) 1,268,046 (1) 9,723,791 (1) 

Kansas. . . . 3,567,616 (3) 907,156 3,594,859 (6) 

Louisiana 141,645(9) 

Minnesota.. 1,305,331(12^ 1,440,806 

Missouri... 2,345,272(6) 908,860(4) 242,095(2) 4,524,664(3) 

Montana 4,215,214(1) 

Nebraska. . 2,421,743 (4) 728,542 4,128,000 (4) 

N.Dakota 331,323 

S. Dakota . 1,203,659 433,644 

Oklahoma. 1,409,627 

Wyoming 3,327,185(3) 



KMisas, slaughtering and meat packing (2) 76,829,139 — Kansas City, Kan. (2) 




(3) 71,018,339— South Omaha (3). 

(5) 42,229,127— St. Joseph (4), St. Lou- 

(7) 25.296,518 ' is (6) 


Annual Reports U. S. Geological Survey. 

Annual Reports U. S. Weather Bureau. 

Brigham, Albert Perry, Geographic Influences in American History, 

Boston: Ginn & Co. 
Chittenden, Capt. Hiram M., American Fur Trade of the Far West. 

New York: Harper & Brothers. 
Gannett, Henry, United States, Stanford's Compendia, Chapters I, II, 

IV, VII, XI. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 


Gilbert, Grove Karl, and Brighani, Albert Perr>', An Introduction to 

Physical Geography, pp. 163-165. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 
Hitchcock, Ripley, The Louisiana Purchase. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1903. 
Hosmer, James Kendall, History of the Louisiana Purchase. New York: 

D. Appleton & Co. 
Inman, Col. Henry, The Old Santa Ft' Trail. Topeka, Kan.: Crane 

& Co. 
Inman, Col. Henn-, and Cody, William Frederick, The Great Salt 

Lake Trail. Topeka. Kan.: Crane & Co. 
Irving, \Va.shington, Astoria. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
Johnson, Willard I)., High Plains, Annual Report of U. .S. Geological 

Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Mill, Hugh Ro])ert, International Geography, pp. 750-760. New York: 

D. Appleton & Co. " 
Newell, Frederick H., Irrigation in thi United States, Chapters II, VI, 

VIII, XII. New York: T. Y. Crowell & Co. 
Ogg, The Opening of the Mississippi Valley. 

Parkman, Francis, The Oregon Trail. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 
Statesman's Year Book. New York: The Macmillan Co. 
Semple, Ellen C.. American History and its Geographic Conditions. 

Boston: Houghton. Mifflin & Co. 
Thwaites. Reuben Gold. Rocky Mountain Exploration. New York: 

D. Appleton & Co.. 1904. Exj)ansion of the Republic Series. 
Trotter, Spencer, Geography of Commerce. Chaj)ters \-XI. 

Current Articles on Commerce and Industry. — 


Bermuda Garden-Farming (Illus.), Country Life. 

Camphor Trade of the World, Paint, Oil. and Drug Rev., April 6. 

Chile and the Panama Canal (lllus.). Engineering Mag. 

Japan, Rise of Modern (lllus.). World's Work. 

Japan, Commercial, in 1904, Mo. Summary of Cojnjn. and Finance, 

Malting and Browing on Scientific Principles (lllus.), ^Sc/. J w., April 9. 

Manchuria, Conditions in (lllus.). Consular Rep. 

Marconi's Work in Europe (lllus.), World Tn-Day. 

Mississippi : " The Great River.'' Part IV. (lllus.). World To-Day. 

Negro Problem. Parts I.-\'., incl.. World To-Day. 

Paper Manufacture, The Beginning? of, Success. 

Russia. Conuiiercial, in 1904, Mo. Summary of Comm. and Finance 


Russia's Civilizing Work in Asia (Illus.), Rev. aj Revs. 

Siberian Railway (Illus.) , Century. 

Yellow-Pine Lumber Industry in the South (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 


Cattle-Raising: "The Fight for Free Grass '' (Illus.). Success. 

Climatic Features of the Field of the Russo-Japanese War, Rev. of 

Clothing Manufacture (Illus.), Sci. Am., May 21. 

Cotton: '' Making Cotton Pay'' (Illus.), World's Work. 

Cotton-Oil Industry, Paint, Oil, and Drug Rev., May 18. 

Cut-Glass Manufacture (Illus.), Sci. Am., April 30. 

German Merchant Marine, Consular Rep. 

Japan, Fifty Years of (Illus.), Rev. of Revs. 

Mississippi: "Rise and Fall of the Steamboat Business " (Illus.), 
World To-Day . 

Northwest, Boom in (Illus.), Sat. Eve. Post, May 21. 

Porto Rico, Americanization of (Illus.), TFor/rf'.s Work. 

Siberian Railway in War (Illus.), World To-Day. 

Woman Unemancipated (Illus.), World To-Day. 



'"TT^HE Great Louisiana Purchase Exposition now open at St. Louis 
I has been the means of arousing a deep interest in the signifi- 
cance of the Louisiana Purchase in the political and economic 
history of our country. When this great region of possibilities was first 
brought to public notice a century ago the geographic significance and 
importance of the area were imperfectly realized, and since that 
time few people have fully appreciated the part that geography has 
played in determining the history and development of this vast domain. 
This number of the Journal has been planned to present a brief 
and concise summary of the past and j)resent geographic conditions 
of the Louisiana Purchase tract, in order that teachers may have 
at hand a good working reference volume, which shall be available 
in their teaching of this important portion of our country, not only 
during the present period of popular interest in the area, but also 
after that interest has subsided. 

The authors of the several papers here presented are recognized 


authorities in the phases of geography and histor>' which they have 
severally treated. Of course only the briefest outline of the vast geo- 
graphic conditions presented on such an enonnous scale in this area 
can be given in the limited space available. For a fuller and more com- 
plete statement the interested reader should consult the several volumes 
and monographs mentioned in the brief selected bibliography. Yet 
the papers here presented have a distinct value above any larger trea- 
tise, inasmuch as only the salient features pertinent to the require- 
ments of teachers have been selected for treatment, and the needs 
of teachers have been kept constantly in mind, not only in the planning 
of the number as a whole, but also in the variety of the several papers. 

It is hoped that this number may be of distinct value also to those 
who are planning to visit St. Louis during the coming summer, and 
particularly to those who, living amid the varied landscapes of the 
Eastern States, have never seen the vast and impressive long distance 
views to be gained in those regions of gentle relief which make up 
the larger part of the Louisiana Purchase territory. 


Lectures on Commerce Delivered Ijefore the College of Commerce and Adminis- 
tration of the University of Chicago. Edited by Henr>' R.* Hatfield. Pp. viii, 
388. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1903. 

A series of lectures on Railways, Trade and Industry-, and Banking and Insur- 
ance delivered by experts in the several fields. Full of infonnation on little under- 
stood problems m conmiercial life. Helpful to teachers and the general reader. 
Valuable for the school library, especially where commercial g(.K)graphy is empha- 

Early Western Travels, 17 18-1846. A series of annotated reprints of some of 

the lx»st contemporary volumes of travel during the periocl of early American 

settlement. To l)e completed in 31 volumes. Vol. I, 1748-1764, pp. 328; 

Vol. II, 1768-1782, pp. 329. Cleveland. Ohio; The Arthur H. Clark C\)., 1904. 

The volumes of this series of reprints of early travels will be of great value 

to all students of the early geography and history of the Western States. The first 

volume consists of a scries of notes of expeditions into the west. The second volume 

presents John Long's notes on his life among the Indians of the St. Lawrence Basin 

and Northeni New York. Very interesting for the descriptions of Indian life and 

customs and vahial)le for history and geography classes. Inviting reading for 

any one who is hit crested in early conditions as contrasted with the present. Well 

annotated and attractively printed. 

Geology. Hy Thomas C. Chaml)erlin and Hollin I). Salisbury. Vol. I, Geologic 
Proccss'cti and Their Result.s. Pp. xix, 654. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1904. 
An inclusive and clearly written volume on the more familiar phases of geology. 
E.bpecially valual>le 1o teachers of physical geograpliy or geology. Superbly illus- 
trated and typograj)hically pleasing. To l)e reviewed later. 


A Text-Book of the Physics of Affriculture. Bv F. U. King. Pp. xvi, 604. thinl 

edition, 1903. Published by the author, \fadison, Wis. 

Although primarily for the student or worker in agriculture, the book includes 
much of value to the teacher of geography or nature study. The chapters on soils, 
the uses of soils, soil moisture, relation of air to soil, on ground water, farm wells, 
farm drainage, and the atmosphere are simple and extremely valuable. 

The Louisiana Purchase and the exploration, eariv histor\', and building of the 
West. By Ripley Hitchcock. Pp. xxi, 349. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1904. 
A brief and interesting account of histor>' of exploration and development in 
the Louisiana Purchase. The appendix contains a ver>' adequate series of statistics 
and is accompanied by a useful index. The book is jMuticulariy timely and per- 
tinent to the scope of this number of the Journal. 

Around the World in the Sloop Spray. Bv Captain Joshua Slocum. Pp. xiv, 

213. New York : Charles Scnbner's Sons, 1903. 

An abridgment for school use of the author's well-kuo\%ai volume, describing his 
trip around the world in a thirty-sLx foot sloop. Interesting for adults and children. 
First hand in formation, clearly and forcibly expressed. An excellent geographical 
reader describing the ways of people in distant lands. 


The Eighth International Geographic Congress. — Mention has 
already been made in the Journal of the Eighth International 
Geographic Congress which will convene in Washington on September 
8th, where meetings will be held on September 8th, 9th, and 10th. 
On September 12th the Congress will be the guests of the Geograph- 
ical Society in Philadelphia. On September 13th and 14th sessions 
will be held in New York under the auspices of the American Geo- 
graphical Society and on September 15th an excursion on the Hudson 
will be given by that society. September 16th will be passed at Niag- 
ara. On September 17th the Congress will be the guests of the Geo- 
graphic Society of Chicago. On September 19th and the following 
days the Congress will take part in the sessions of the geographical 
sections of the Congress of Science and Arts at the World's Fair, St. 
Louis. After adjournment, about September 24th, an excursion is 
planned to Mexico and the Grand Canyon of Arizona. 

It is particularly desired that many American teachers of geogra- 
phy should take part in the Congress. It is believed that the time 
thus spent will be profitable, not only from the value of papers and 
discussions during the sessions of the Congress, but in no less degree 
from the advantage of personal intercourse with the geographers of 
Europe and America, whom the Congress will bring together. One or 
more sectional meetings will be devoted to the educational aspects 
of geography; contributions on this branch of the subject are desired 

Dodge's Geography 


By Richard Elwoud Dodge 

Profgssor pf Geography, Ttachers Cottege, Cffiumbia Cntvtrstfy^ New York City . 

C0-edti0r of the Journat of G^^^raphy : au/Aor of ^'-A Reader in 

Pity si cat Geography for Bt^nners^' etc^ 

niuslrated with half-tone illustrations, text maps, diagrams, and maps in 
colors. Each: Cloth, square 8 vo, (3x lo mches). 

Book 1. Home Geography and World Relations - 35c. 

Book IL Elements ol Continental Geography . . . 55c. 

Book IIL Principles of Geography 00c. 

Book IV. Comparative Geography of the Continents 00c. 

RAND, McNALLY & CO., Chicago mnA New York * 

I'l .. 2f>, A view of fftountains and highland imlleys with a maun fain rangi and 

peak in the distant e. 






Excelsior Skries, 20 maps, size 46x62 in. 

Price on common roller $2.25 

Price on spring roller and enamel cover 3.00 


CtRaxi) Seriks, 74 maps, size 42 x 50 in. 

Price (m commcm roller S-.25 

Price on spring roller and enamel cover 3.00 
Price on spring roller, veneer case . . 3.25 

District vSchool Series, 34X 28 in. 

Price on common roller §1.25 

Price on spring roller and enamel cover 2.00 

Stanford School Maps, 13 maps, 52 x6o in. 

Price on common roller $4.00 

Price on spring roller and enamel cover 4.50 



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L Sllaa Mamer. 7. trAnhnp. IX rdmiii, 

t, SfrRiiiiFfrdp Coverlir Papfra. P. i'arhlr'» K!«4''iiv cph Uunm. 14. t.^rlda*. 
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fi. The VleiT of Wnlt^iieiii, ii. MaHn-th. IT. >lrtc'»iiiiiT> lUaa/un Addln^ti. 

1L The Afuieiit Mariner; 13* L'Allc^roanail PeajiepiKo. IS. i^onnPctliiK LloKa foT ifto Col 

Bhe Palmer Company, publishers. S'o'stc(nI''ma"s: 

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Send to anv of the foiiovlDg tddrenet for Agency Kania] Free 

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6S5 Stiuoa Block, hm Ai«»1m. Cal. 

FRED DICK, Ex-State Superintendent, 


1543 eitnann Strtft, DENVER, COLO. 

Teachers Wanted 

We need at once a few more Teachers. 
Good positions are bcinj< tilled daily 
by us. We are receivinj? more calls 
tliis year than ever before. Schools 
and colleges supplied with Teachers 
free of cost. Knclose stump for reply. 

American Teachers* Association 

J. L. CrRAllAM, LL. D., ManuKfer. 
153-lM Randolph Buildinjf, Memphis, Tenn. 


npEACHERS wlshlnff to prepare for exmmlna. 
J- tloHB Hhould write, at once, to I'ROF. .1. L. 
«RAII.\M, LL. I).. 1W-1.M Randolph BuIldlnK. 
Meinphlfl. Teun.. for particulars concerning bla 
Hpedal Teachers' Examination Course. 

This course Is tau»rht by mall, aud prepares 
Teachers for examination In every Sute In the 
Unlun. Leading educators pronoance It the best 
rour»e ever offered to the Teaching profession, 
and all Tcacherh wIshtnK to advance in their pro- 
fession should Immediately avail themselves of 
it. Enrlose stamp for reply. 


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Address the Manager 

W. G. CROCKER, Editor W'cslUiud Educator, 

Lisbon, X. 1). 


September Jacecies 



The Auditorium, Chicago, III. 

Established 20 years. Positions Filled^ by^foo. 
Sfcciatty The Just Teachers. 


'T^HIS is the day of Special Ttachers. Those who can teach any subject well, noticeably 
J^ better than it is usually tau>^ht, are in demand at j^ood salaries. There is a call, not 
only for teachers of Cicoj^raphy, but f(.r teachers of Physical Geography and Com- 
mercial Ge<>),craphy as si>ecial subjects. If v«»u will write to us we .shall be ^lad to send 
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There is no other Ay^ency to which .so many ai)plications are made for teachers. 

The School Bulletin Agency, c. w. Bardeen, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Uhe IvOTAIvY^feSS? 

Published. The 
Editor ha^ taufrht T-wvlre Years and Superintended Eteven Years. 
Carefully {.graded Selections. Lanxcua^^e Studies for Composition Work, News Items 
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Free" sample. Jietter still : Send ten cents for a five months' "Trial Trip" to 

^he ROTARY, Lisbon, North Vakota. 

An Important Book of Travel 




Author of '* Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa/' 
^With Numerous Illustrations reproduced from Photo- 
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Major Gibbons' dest'riptwn of hh fratteis through the 'mhoie iength of 
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important features in the 7L*ork is an account of the tracing of the 
Zambesi I^ii.fer to its source, u^hich haft hitherto remained uHitiscoztered. 



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THROUGH MAROTSELAND " for which I enclose $ 

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Merely the!.e ihinf^s : 

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TUC I ITT I C PUDilMIPI C ^''^'''' nt^inh^d in imr 

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Vnu**?iict,«t '"Stir'ti a ^tm^er wiu much ninfdi'4 lb the Kdiicillluiu] fc^f«- 

tem Mud vms houDil t*3 conm."* 

Grent Atd No* '2i 

TUC CTC D C nCf^flDC ^^^ • fcccnt nrtiele on tlie uic uf hUTi-oKtiinic Vie** Lii 

myn *' TJii' ^teriiu«€ujM' 1h ah luilruuicbt utid^tHtfii^ uect^^ 
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But a f:tlrly fifMtA ^otic and lUr veT>' rhfrn^PKi vk-w» wLmld co*l fou #0^1 ; witb rluirt lafrrtof 
10 Miift H,iii» AtnL Willi h[«ti plrtffd view* uu ttvuer itmb oum. ITHL 

t^wltiif If' ver^ eitiijmjHi r1hiiin*l«iji.f"', «uil lii unlrr i-- Intfuilnre Tiim Littlk CaBoaciCLi, wa 
ftn- e iihIj l<'c1 tu u ■ ak e 1 1 h ■ r < » 1 1 > » * 1 n jf 


Oni? y^ar'n »auiK'rlptl4iD lu TiiK I.itti.k «'uKfi.vii'i.E i n lurwi' l'J'|iHiL*f? wi-ekly. NfHiitl'fiiiljf lUit^ 
trACt'ilK 13 %; utic S^tere>»Hi'i}(it' h lih ]iiuii]Jii[iiiii bood, »iAt1ik nntnlicd. lidnU riDfrAV^dn nttii^h iioiind^ 
luau^nt di*rk phaiiirii r. wiirih #1^^*': rim i^ ilui'i^u i-nrrrun^ ♦'^li'ripd ami iH-autlfuih riiJiilH d t^t^r«<cv 
itc*<ip!c Tlcwa frnni 41tTerrfn tmrin of Uiti w.»rld, wt>rni tl'im h'T il4i£t-rM£l ii'i^ inal^lniz a tuf*! vnMm 
itfi^tiik ALL forrl^i. It'jou %tiHli la II vn II yotiriAt-iroi ibifii upiiorcuultv* fou ■baald 
l^lnce roiir ordrr om prfiiiit»tly im puRHllilr. 

ForlOr<"iit» in iitam|>it we will forwird upcrlineii end rotnpTt'^tr ir*r uf ilevn, uiupln cupy of 
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lifter/" and ihe rw-j-tvin ji wivk pun fur [M»|ni!.. 

^%ifi'iii«4 make ^Ih3 m «*i.l p^r «ccli. 

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,-f Quarteriy Mnga^mt of X^ti^ 
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Uinfter S/otit^s, Pravrkai Ativitr 
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50 cc at5 a 1 car, ISccfltSiia rber. 

THE 1>est recent utierantc in whnt 
tbi» Lutlt^ mH^KCAxinp sinpplirH the 
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lanuarv\ ApriL Juilv, and Octribcr. U 
U editu'd br Willikm E. Witt, A. 
M.p fh. D.. who HpecialJiy knuw^ thu 
requirements of popular speakers iintl 
who is him&elf one ai the most iii»ur<ht 
lecturers and ftfter-dinner talktrs in 


40 Randolph Street 


By WILLI.VM E. WATT, A. M.. Fh- D. 


171011 » w;hts>| entertalnTiH^nt not h lag ^an 
T euual tidii. fur U ^^Mf^wj^ fi[i tliR wiir^^r 
fHiutIv lu ii'luhjii wn wt'l] yoii wii<iild eIiIeiIii 
tlie auih^^r had ttieni in mind. It belpii 

I he ipauin'^r i*t ke<'|Hi |{i>ml m-IkhiK The hwl 
«-'ii» of ihe r»roide wht* try to Inlfrfert- with 
file tftwkl work 1*1 tlic* iM'buo) are no well pre- 
peiHi^ here Miiit tfsi-re wfll he leum i rouble fyr 
yesiru aficr It tiiw Ih-i'ii iETvGii. Tlie lucldfUU^ 
the JoKPii, tl]i- fuDtiy tmntiTfi, Aiid tlie lati|^&ire 
eomi Pried wHh tbe Olufsvsrip tnkeiL from life. 
ThP lOHtftncri" where Mr«» Gluic Ir rffeired Co 
(ho t ummfti^e «a Rep^Jm to K"r toer ifttie 
bui'V trounera mended lia|tp4'n»*d tn t'hlru^u. 
Mr. (;Eutf> I iMtdeiiLUHilotiof M^e teacher In the 
Iire^enre or hli* unn why Ilea Teiipstedly tJLthtm 
ttud I he [eiirNrranxl iN^expoiied on th*' sihihIj* 

II real ha |ipi*i tl n jT, And r he re a r* o i h« ra f alteo 
(rtmi r€»l life- ihi- erF*r* t?l apecchaad the 
hlunderp III i-ljua are real utien. 

Thli» play niaf J*e K'ven wJtli fpwerrebeftr*- 
iil« [iijiti any ofMer fiili ok'" ''mcTi**1ii- 
meot. Tin* r«'bi*ar*JUK nmy lu* (arrled on l>y 
neviTuI teacher* wiprklxiK wtUi liiil.hT4ii«li« 
veparaiidv. Three fmit'Fal rL'UcarvaIn will 
fiiiltltt*. 1 welve lo M sty four ]»erfoniLer«« 
younic or old. 


40 Randolph St. Chtoago, III. 

Some Geographical Publications 
Made Out West 

But Good Everywhere 
Npiv Pnrifir 5^rViAn1 (It^ntrravkhjr ^y harr waoner. This n«w Oooin«ptay 

new iraCUlC OCUOOI IreOgrapiiy ha* many attractive features that win appeal 
to the teachers in (.'allfornla. It supplicH many of the features that are lacking in other geographleii. 
Itglyes directions for drawlnK the map of the State of California (contributed by I>. It. Augaburgi. 

In the story of California, it kIvcs a brief historical sketch: describes in a definite manner the 
monntains, the lakeH« the rivpr HyntemH* the climate, the nolU the prodacts^ the 
indnstrled, the commerce* the edncation. the animal and plant life« the coanttefi and 
ciileii. There are also six pages on the etymology of geographical names of the West, Including 
Keveral pages on the Spanish and Indian names of California. Krery statement la thoroughly 
up-to-date. It has been written and prepared upon the census statistics of 19UU. 

There are also special maps of the islands of the Pacific and also information on the commerce 
and industries of the new racillc. It is Indorsed by the leading educators. Price, net, Sl>##f 

Qfnriae nf Our MnfViAr PaH-Vi By HAROLD W. FAIRBANKS, Ph. D. Tlie 
OlOneS OI UUr mOUier r^ana PaclAc coast is particularly rich In Illustrative 
material for the study of inorganic nature, but up to this time little has been put in such abape as 
to be available for the use of schools. In the mountainous regions especially, where mining Is 
nnch an important industry, and physical nature seems to work more energetically, it Is particu- 
larly desirable that the children should go out from school with some living knowledge of their 
surroundings. It has been my purpose In the preparation of the following chapters to present in a 
simple manner some elementary conceptions In geology, mineralogy, and physical geography.— 
ExTBACT FROM Pbkpa(;b. Prlce, net, 50 Cents, postpaid. 

Just published in our Western Educational Help Series, Ideographical Handbook of 
Local Geography. Price, net, 25 Cents. 

Send for complete catalogue of our Western Publications. 

THE WHITAKER d RAY CO., Publishers 





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Journal of Pedagogy 

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EDITORIAL — College Work in High Schools — Advantages of an Advanced High 
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Frederick E. Bolton. 




Published Quarterly. Subscription Price^ $1.50 per year. Single numbers^ 
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Journal of Pedagogy * Syracuse, N. T. 



JULY 7th TO JtUGUST 19th, 1904 


PhyHlcal Geoffraphy of the liands, Lerturen, Professor R. 8. Tarr (Professor of 
Dynuuilc Geology and I'hypfcal Geoirraphy. Cornell rnlverslty;; Lnborntom^ Assistant Prtudpal 
Carnry dthaca lllfrh School) and Mr. (i. I>. Iltibliard ( Asslstaut In Physical Goo^rapbr, Cornell 
Unlvprniiy;; Fifld Work, Professor Tarr. Mr. Carney, Mr. Whlttieck, ancl Mr. IIubbaM: 

Elementary Meteoro1offy« lectures and Ltibomittry , Assltitant Princlnal Carney. 

IlyuamicalGeoloffy, Ltfctureti, Professor A. P. BrlKliam (Professor of GeoloRT andNatoral 

Histoid, Colgate Unlverultyj; Laborntonj, Mr. F. V. Emerson (Assistant In Gcoion', Cornell 
University); Field Work, Professor Drlgliam, Mr. Carney, Mr. Emerson, and Mr. Hubbard. 

The Geoffraphy of the 1'nited HtateH. l*rofessor Brlffham. 

The Geofrraphy of Europe, I*rofcssor Tarr. 

Geoffraphic IntlucnceH and Relations* Mr. K. 11. Whltbeck (Supervisor State Normal 
and Model ^cnouls, Trenton, N . .) .; 

The Geoffraphy of Tropical C-onntrien. Mr. Hubbard. 

Oooaaaercial Geoffraphy* IjectureHamilLctboratory and Field ITorX:, Mr. Philip Emerson 
(CoblH't Sehool, Lynn, ^lass.; 

ilooae Geoffraphy. I*rofes8or Charles A. McMurr>' (Director of I»ractice Department, 
Northern Illinois Normal School, DeKalb. 111.) 

Type StudlcN In Geoffraphy for l-rammar Gradeii* Professor McMurry. 

AlmH and ProhleioH in Geoffraphy, Mr. Whitbeck. 

Round Tahic Conference. For consideration of topics of (geographic Interest; all the 
teachers and such students as desire to attend. 

Advanced Coume in Dynamical Geoloffy and Physical Geoffraphy, Professors 
Tarr and Brlgbain, with asHistanls. 

Flve-Hay Field ExcurHion to the seashore, the Appalachians, and the coal mines of 
Pennsylvania, conducted by Profrssor Tarr and other members of the faculty. 

The Reffular Hummer HeHsion also includes courses in Nature Study. Education^ 
History, Economics, Botany. Zoology, and other subjects with a bearing on geographic work. 

For further information write THE KEGISTKAIi. Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.. for 
special circular of School of Geography. 



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1" r'^Atmif'l t.i iiu't 1 1 he m-^ii* wf that l-uifi- [jiiinbi r 

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kriinw, lniW Lo tirt Ab'inl Ibmt ►>►!, It irtvew m f4.f>i»ri- 
npL-U'it wHj thii priTirL^iAl rt-^nlrpi no li^T obtAtntLi. 
ri-ktrit t>iM i^ludy^ uf fhlliiit-n. (11141 AD|7irc^tH mrKnii 
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r>6^ JOURNAL^/ 

jfn IttMUtrated Magarine DeVoted to the Interests of Teachers of 
Ceographp in Elementarp, Secondary, and in Normal Schools 

THE JOURNAL of GEOGRAPHY is an illustrated maga- 
zine devoted to the advancement of Geographic education. 
It is the only journal in America devoted particularly to the 
cause of teachers of geography, and there are but two other simi- 
lar journals in the world. 

The JOURNAL, in succession to the JOURNAL OF 
seventh year, and is endorsed through usage, not only by teachers 
of geography, but by some of the most eminent geographers of 
the world. It has subscribers in all parts of the world and many 
of its articles are reprinted in geographic and educational journals. 
Thus its usefulness has spread beyond the expectation of the 

The JOURNAL stands for progress in geography teaching 
and welcomes all contributions towards that end. It supports no 
particular method or theory, and its field includes all grades of 
work. Teachers, from the Elementary school to the University, 
find the JOURNAL almost indispensable, if they would keep in 
touch with that which is best in geography teaching. 

Included in the JOURNAL are articles dealing with geograph- 
ical facts and the teaching of geography ; notes summarizing the 
best and most helpful advances in geography reported in current 
literature ; brief notes on recent publications in the bcH)k and map 
world, longer and frank reviews, from the standpoint of usage, of 
the most important publications ; and news notes including recent 
events of interest and forthcoming educational meetings at which 
papers on the teaching of geography will be presented. All geo- 
graphical publications are noted as soon as received, so that 
teachers can keep in touch with the latest literature. Each num- 
ber also contains an editorial on some important and pertinent 
phase of geography teaching. 

A special feature is the reprinting, in part or as a whole, of 
articles of teaching value that appear in the many reports of the 
United States Government and are not readily accessible to 
teachers. Numerous illustrations, diagrams, and maps are in- 
serted, and wherever possible, diagrams are used that can be 
readily transferred to the blackboard or made into lantern slides 
by the teacher. 

/ufr a partial list of articles that have appeared and will appear during 
the school year of iqoj-iqixf. see next page. 


H^re fs a h'si t^f arittivs i/iai art ut&n f& appear m THE 
JO URN A L OF GEOGRA PH i : IViU tkest kelp yon m ikt 
geQgrnphhitl xvork of your einss / 

The Functioas of Geography in the Elementsnr SchooL 

Geography in the United States. 

The Delta of the MissUsippi River. 

A Noteworthy Cave in the Coastal Piain of Georgia. 

Weather Lore^ 

The Scope and Content of Geog^raphy. Two articles. 

Map Drawing. 

Studying the Sun, Moon^ and Stars. 

Transportation, A series of iirtides. 

River Study. 

Geographical Education. 

The Geography of the Louisiana Purchase* A serios of 

ten articius. 
Practical Exercises in Physiography. 
The Geography and History of Chattanooga and Vicinity. 
Geography in the Civil War. 
The Conduct of EiECursions in Elementary Geography 

The Growth of Wheat in the United States. 
The Geography of the Fall Line. 
Geographic Influences of Government* 
Mathematical Geography, A scries. 

Geographical Course of Study in the Following Normal 
Schools : 

Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Los Angeles^ California. 

DswegOj New York, 

Westfield, Massachusetts. 

SiihA% yiN' for this jiftattai, dtttf jr*'^ ihe use ttf these ariidei. Talk Tktt 
Jjnntdf of tlt.i*t^^riSpUy A* y^^ttr tfttckitif^ frtertds. 


Ro^m 569, 16Q Adams Stfvtt, Chicago* flK 


Volume III, 


Number 7 

3tn iUnmivateb tttonttilu ntagaflne toettateb to th^ 
tnetttarB, ttjecottbar^ij attlr normal 0jci}ooi0 

Edited by RICHARD E. DODGE, Professor of Geog| 
rapliy, Teachers College, Columbia University^ New Yorl 
City, and EDWARD M. LEHNERTS. Professor o 
Geography^ State Normal School, Winona, Minnesota 

^0nU%tt& for §*vtemUcr 

The First American Geography . CLIFTOH JOHNSOIT 311 

The School Exctirsioa and the School Museum as Aids in the Teachieg of 

Geography .,.,.,,, D. C, RIDGELEY $22 

The Human Response to the Physical Environment 


Geographical Notes ^ 

"SenMibk' Temperatures,'* 343 — Pi^bUc Sc-hor.i!*! in Russia, i^a -- Cost of Cun struct i cm of 
the Trans-Si buHttn Railwuy, 348 — Advisfibli; Umissians frnm ibe Klemiifltnry Ctirrieu- 
lum, 149-- Currunt ArtlclfJ^ un Commerrd iind Industry, j^i} — Kcitnnmit.' Tmpartancc of 
the Coff4.'e Industry. 351 —The Climatt of ttie Arffenlinc KcpubliCi 553 — Map Drawltig 
in Hiitory, 353 — Cotnmerdal Jiii,t*in in h/tuj, iS4. 


The EmphA«ts of DetAils in School Ocogruphy. j^. 

Tlie IndiaD.'^ of thy Paintt'd 


GeoUigy. Chainbi^rUn unJ Saliiibur;% WA. L i j J*. Tr.K 556 
Deiier t Region. J a nies, j jfi . 

Recent Publicationfi ,,.,., - 3S7 

News Note . , . 358 

A Iff /wry a t*it personally r^sp£fnsiMe ftyf ir/^iHumx ixaJ sfatemeftts {•x/ri'ssri/ in fltt' JOU^\AL 



Ci/7'7{7' ,>F PL'f^'lJCATiOX 


i^oom 56q^ ife Adams St>, QhUn^D, Illifiait 

M»b l« i»(r! Ri * l^^rtIP. 111. u M-xFiil^ltttf mattTT. ^wHic ^f f^iMwn^ ..f Ww*'h >. 11711 



Copyright y jqo^ by R. M. Lehnerts, 



An ittttstratwd Magasinw DtVoted to thw Interwsts of Teachers of Ceographp in 
Etementarp, Secondarp, and ^format Schools 

Successor to the Journal of ScJwol CeojErraphy, Vol. V., and the Bulletin of the 
American Bureau of Gcog^raphyy Vol. II. 



Professor of Geography^ Teachers Collegey Columbia University^ New York City, 


Professor of Geography^ State Normal School ^ Winona^ Minnesota, 


CYRUS C. ADAMS Geogrraphical Editor^ N. Y, Sun 

OTIS W. CALDWELL . Professor of Botany, State Normal School, Charles ton. III 
JAMES F. CHAMBERLAIK, Prof of Geography, State Normal School, LosAng^les^ Cal. 
HENRY C. COWLES . . . Associate in Botany, University of Chicago, Chicago^ 111, 
W^ILLIAM M. DAVIS. Professor of Geology, Jlarz'arct University, Cambridgre, Mass, 
N. M. FENNEMAN . . Professor of Geology, Uniiwrsity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis, 
J. PAUL GOODIC, Assistant Professor of Geography, University ofChicagCj Chicago, JIL 
GEORGE B. HOLLISTER, Hydrographer, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
M. S. W. JKFFKRi^OK, Professor of Geography, State Normal School, Ypsilanti,Mich. 
EMORY R. JOHNSOX, Asst. Prof of Transportation and Commerce, Univ. of Penna, 
EDW. D. JONES, Asst. Prof of Commerce and Industry, Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor 
VERNON L. KELLOGG, Prof. ofEntotnology, Leland Stanford Jr. Univ., Palo Alto, CaL 

CHARLES F. KING Master of Dearborn School, Boston, Mass, 

S. J. Maclean, Asst. Prof of Economics, Leland Stanford Jr. Univ., Palo Alto, Cal, 
FOREST RAY MOULTON, Assistant Professor of Astronomy, University of Chicago 

JACQL'ES W. REDWAY Author, Mount Vernon, N. Y, 

ELLEN C. SEMPLE Writer in Anthropogeography, Louisville, Ky, 

FREDERICK STARR, Associate Prof of Anthropology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, III. 
RALPH S. TARR, Professor of Physical Geography, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y, 
SPENCER TROTTER ...... Professor of Biology, Srvarthmore College, Pa, 

ROBERT DkC. ward . . Assistant Professor of Climatology, Harvard University 

A. J. HI^RBERTSON, Lecturer in Regional Geography, Oxford University, England 
JOHN A. DRESSER Prince Albert School, St. Henry de Montreal^ Quebec 


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Vol. III. SEPTEMBER, 1904 No. 7 




IN colonial days geography was spoken of as **a diversion for a 
wint<5r's evening/' and acquaintance with it was considered an 
accomplishment rather than a necessity. Some rudimentar}'' 
instruction in the science was occasionally given at the more advanced 
schools, but the topic was not taken up in the elementary schools 
until after the Revolution. A knowledge of it was first made a condi- 
tion for entering Harvard in 1815, and a dozen years more elapsed 
before Massachusetts named it among the required studies in the 
public schools. To begin with, it was not introduced as a separate 
study, but the books were used as readers. The same was true of the 
early school histories. However, geography presently won a place 
of its own and kept it in spite of the protests that the scholars' atten- 
tion was thereby being taken away from ** cyphering.'' 

The pioneer of American authors of school geographies was 
Jedidiah Morse. On the title page of most editions of his books his 
name was appended with *'D. D. Minister of the Congregation in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts." He was born in 1761, graduated from 
Yale in 1783, and the year following published at New Haven his first 
geography. Later he put forth several other geographies, large and 
small, became a compiler of gazetteers, wrote various important his- 
torical and religious works, was one of the founders of Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, and for more than thirty years served as pastor of 
the First Church in Charlestown. He won fame not only in his own 
country but was recognized abroad as a man of distinguished attain- 
ments, and a number of his books were translated into French and 
German. His Geography Made Easy, a small leather-bound 12mo 

• Reprinted by permission from Old^Time Schools and SchooUBooks, published 
by The Macmillan Company, New York. 


of about 400 pages, was for many years by far the most popular text- 
book dealing with this sul:)ject. My copy, dated 1800, is dedicated 


Young Masters and Misses 
Throughout the L'nited States 

Two maps of double-page size are the only illustrations — one a map 
of the world, the other of North America. 

The earlier pages treat of the ''Doctrine of the Sphere. Of Astro- 
nomical Geography Of Olobes and their Tse/' etc. But soon we 


come to the Histortj oj the Disrorcrj/ of Amerini, and then to a General 
Description of Afmrico. In the latter chapter is much that is inter- 
esting and pictures(juo. It includes, as do all the early geographies, 
a good many imaginative travellers' tales j)icked uj) from newspapers 
and other chance sources without any pains being taken to verify 
thcMu or to inrjuin^ as to the relia))ility of their authors. In fact, it 
sonu^times seems as if the moie fal)ulous the story the better its chance 
lo be recorded in th(^ school text-l)ooks. We get very entertaining 
glimpses of th(^ Hmitations of geographical knowledge at the time in 
the following extracts from Morse: 




-4 Heading from the edition of iSoo 

The AndeSj in South America, stretch along the Pacific Ocean 
from the Isthmus of Darien to the Straits of Magellan. The height 
of Chimborazo, the most elevated point in this vast chain of moun- 
tains, is 20,280 feet, above 5000 feet higher than any other mountain 
in the known world. 

North America has no remarkably high mountains. The most 
considerable are those known under the general name of the Allegany 
Maunimns. These stretch along in many broken ridges under dif- 
ferent names from Hudson's River to Georgia. The Andes and the 
Allegany Mountains are probably the same range interrupted by the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Who were the first people of America? And whence did they 
come? The Abbe Clavigero gives his opinion in the following con- 
clusions: — 

'*The Americans desce!ide<l from different nations, or from different 
families dispersed after the confusion of tongues. No person will 
doubt the tnith of this, who has any knowledge of the nudtitude 
and great diversity of the American languages. In Mexico alone 
thirty-five have already been discovered." 

But how did the inhabitants and animals originally pass to America? 

The quadrupeds and reptiles of the new world f)assed there by 
land. This fact is manifest from the improbability and inconsistency 
of all other opinions. 

This necessarily supf)oses an ancient union between the equinoxial 
countries of America and those of Africa, and a connexion of the 
northern countries of America with Europe on the E. and Asia on the 
W. The beasts of cold climes passed over the northern isthmuses, 
which probably connected Europe, America, and Asia : and the animals 
and reptiles peculiar to hot countries passed over the isthmus that 
probably connected S. America with Africa. N'arious reasons induce 
us to believe that there was formerly a tract of land which imited 
the most eastern part of Brazil to tlie most western part of Africa; 
and that all the space of land may have been sunk by violent earth- 
quakes, leaving only some traces of it in that chain of islands of which 


Cape de Verd Ascension, and St. Matthew's Island make a part. In 
like manner, it is probable, the northwestern part of America was 
imited to the northeastern part of Asia, and the northeastern parts 
of America to the northwestern parts of Europe, by Greenland, Ice- 
land, etc. 

QUADRUPEDE ANIMALS vnihhi the United States: 

Mammoth. This name has been given to an unknown animal, 
whose bones are found in the northern parts of both the old and new 
world. From the form of their teeth, they are supposed to have 
been carniverous. Like the elephant they were armed with tusks 
of ivory; but they obviously differed from the elephant in size; their 
bones prove them to have been or 6 times as large. 

A late governor of N'irginia, having asked some delegates of the 
Dela wares what they knew respecting this animal; the chief speaker 
informed him that it was a tradition handed down from their fathers, 
"That in ancient times a herd of them came to the Big-bone licks, 
and began an universal destruction of the bears, deer, elks, buffaloes, 
and other animals which had been created for the use of the Indians: 
that the Great Man, above, looking down, and seeing this, was so 
enraged that he seized his lightning, descended to the earth, seated 
himself upon a neighboring mountain, on a rock, on which his seat 
and the print of his feet are still to be seen, and hurled his bolts among 
them till the whole were slaughtered, except the big bull, who, pre- 
senting his forehead to the shafts, shook them off as they fell; but at 
length, missing one, it wounded him in the .side; whereupon, spring- 
ing round, he bounded over the Ohio, the Wabash, the Illinois, and 
finally over the great lakes, where he is living at this day." 

Sapajon, Sagoiv. There are various species of animals said to 
inhabit the country on the lower part of the Mississippi, called Sapa- 
jons and Sagoins. The former are capable of supporting themselves 
by their tails; the latter are not. They have a general resemblance 
to monkeys, but are not sufficiently known to be particularly described. 

The sapajon and sagoin are not as mythical as might be fancied 
from what the book says of them. They l)oth belong to the monkey 
tribe, but dwell in South America instead of on the lower Missis- 
sippi. Another curious item is this: — 

Grey scjuirrels sometimes migrate in considerable numbers. If 
in their course they meet with a river, eacli of them takes a shingle, 
piece of bark, or the Hke, and carries it to the water; thus ecjuipped 
they embark, and erect their tails to the gentle breeze, which soon 
wafts them over in safety; but a sudden flaw of wind sometimes pro- 
duces a destructive shipwreck. 

Fifty "<piadrupe(le" animals are described in all, and then we 
have a section devoted to "Jiirds." Next "Amphibious Reptiles" 
are considered, after that '^ Serpents," and finally "Fishes.'' Here 
are .sample ])aragraphs: — 


The Wakon Bird, which probably is of the same species with the 
Bird of Paradise, receives its name from the ideas the Indians have 
of its superior excellence; the Wakon Bird being in their language 
the Bird of the Great Spirit. Its tail is composed of four or five 
feathers, wliich are three times as long as its body, and which are 
beautifully shaded with green and purple. It carries this fine length 
of plumage in the same manner as the peacock does his, but it is not 
known whether, like him, it ever raises it to an erect position. 

The Whitsaw is of the cuckow kind, being a solitar}' bird, and 
scarcely ever seen. In the summer months it is heard in the groves, 
where it makes a noise like the filing of a saw. 

Of the Frog kind arc many species. Pond frog, green fountain 
frog, tree frog, bull frog. Besides these are the dusky J3rown, spotted 
frog of Carolina; their voice resembles the grunting of swine. The 
bell frog, so called, because their voice is fancied to be exactly like 
that of a loud cow bell. A beautiful green frog whose noise is like 
the barking of little dogs, or the yelping of puppies. A less green 
frog, whose notes resemble those of young chickens. Little gray 
speckled frog, who make a noise like the striking of two pebbles to- 
gether under the. surface of the water. There is yet an extremely 
diminutive species of frogs, called by some. Savanna crickets, whose 
notes are not unlike the chattering of young birds or crickets. They 
are found in great multitudes after plentiful rains. 

The Alligator is a very large, ugly, terrible creature, of prodigious 
strength, activity, and swiftness in the water. They are from 12 to 
23 feet in length; their bodies are as large as that of a horse. The 
head of a full-grown alligator is about three feet long, and the mouth 
opens nearly the same length. The upper jaw only, moves, and this 
they raise so as to form a right angle with the lower one. They open 
their mouths while they lie basking in the sun, on the banks of rivers 
and creeks, and when filled with flies, musketoes and other insects, 
they suddenly let fall their upper jaw with surprising noise, and thus 
secure their prey. 

The Rattle Snake may be ranked among the largest serpents in 
America. If pursued and overtaken, they instantly throw themselves 
into the spiral coil; their whole body swells through rage, their eyes 
are red as burning coals, and their brandishing forked tongues, of 
the colour of the hottest flame, menaces a horrid death. 

The Joint Snake, if we may credit Carver's account of it. is a great 
curiosity. Its skin is as hard as parchment, and as smooth as glass. 
It is beautifully streaked with black and white. It is so stiff, and 
has so few joints, and those so unyielding, that it can hardly bend 
itself into the form of a hooj). When it is struck, it breaks like a pipe- 
stem; and you may, with a whip, break it from the tail to the bowels 
into pieces not an inch long, and not produce the least tincture of 

Other snakes mentioned are the ** Water Viper, with a sharp thorn 
tail, Hog nose Snake, Coach Whip Snake, which the Indians imagine 


is able to cut a man in two with a jerk of its tail. Ribbon Snake, Glass 
Snake, and Two-headed Snake/' 

In the list of fishes are noted the ''Skip jack, Minow-, Shiner, 
Dab, Hard Head and Mummychog/' Of the Lamprey it is affirmed 

After the spawning season is over, and the young fry have gone 
down to the sea, the old fishes attach themselves to the roots and 
limbs of trees, which have fallen or run into the water, and there 
perish. A mortification begins at the tail, and proceeds upwards to 
the vital part. Fish of this kind have been found at Plymouth, in 
New^ Hampshire, in different stages of putrification. 

When the general characteristics of the United States have been 
dealt with. New England is taken up. and we are informed that in 
this portion of the republic — 

Learning is more generally diffused than in any other part of the 
globe; arising from the excellent establishment of schools in almost 
everj' tow^nship and smaller district. 

A very valuable source of information to the people is the News- 
papers, of which not less than thirty thousand are printed everj' week, 
in New England. 

Apples are common, and cider constitutes the principal drink of 
the inhabitants. 

Eacli state is described in detail, inoluding such topics as ** Religion, 
Military Strength, Literature, Curiosities, Constitution, and Histor>'.'' 
Hridges are constantly referred to — even those over the smaller rivers. 
We learn, for instance, that across the Piscatacjua in New Hampshire ' 
a few miles above Portsmouth "has been erected the most respectable 
bridge in the I'nited States, 2G00 feet in length," at a cost of nearly 
seventy thousand dollars, hi Massachusetts ten bridges are listed 
that "merit notice,'^ and, it is added. "These bridges are all supported 
by a toll." 

Harvard rnivc^rsity, the book says, "consists of four elegant 
edifices," and we are told that "In Williamstown is another literary 
institution started in 1790, partly by lottery and partly l)y the liberal 
donation of gentlemen of the town." P»oston had seven schools sup- 
ported wholly at the public expense, "and in them the children of 
vrcrj/ class of citizens freely associate." Three of these were *' Eng- 
lish grammar schools in which the children of both sexes, from seven 
to fourtecMi years of ag(* are instructed in spelling, accenting, and 
reading the English language with propriety; also in English grammar 
and coni])osition together with the rudiments of geography." In 
thr(»(» schools "the same children are taught writing and arithmetic. 



?he schools are attended alternately, and each of them is furnished 
rith an Usher or Assistant. The masters of these schools have each 
, salary of 666 2-8 dollars per annum payable quarterly/' Lastly 
here was the '* Latin grammar school'* to which '*none are admitted 
ill ten years of age/' 

The inhabitants of Boston at this time numbered 24.937. As 
isual in speaking of important places a list is given of the ^'pubhc 
mildings." There were *'18 houses for public worship, the state 
louse, court house, gaol, Faneuil Hall, a theatre, an alms house, 
,nd powder magazine." The principal manufactures of the town 
ir'ere **rum, beer, paper hangings, loaf sugar, cordage, sail cloth, 
permaceti and tallow candles, and glass." 

The final states to be c()nsidere<l in the New England section acp 
'Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," and Connecticut, 
^erhaps the most interesting bit in this portion is the statement that 
o Hartford, at the head of ship navigation on the Connecticut River, 
V8is brought in boats the produce of the country for two hundred 
niles above. Railroads were as yet undreamed of. and right through 
he book' navigable streams and canals are treated as of far more 
mportance than they would be at present. 

Morse in his first edition devoted a paragraph to the ''Connecticut 
nhabitants." Whether he abandoned it because it gave offence, I 
lo not know. It says: — 

The people of this state are generally industrious sagacious hus- 
)andmen ; generous and hospitable to strangers, and good neighbours, 
iut they are characterized for being intemperately fond of law suits 
ind little petty arbitrations. The ladies are modest, handsome, and 
igreeable, fond of imitating new and extravagant fashions, neat and 
;hearful, and possessed of a large share of delicacy, tenderness and 
lensibility. The above character may with justice be given to the 
adies of the four New- England Stjites. 

Now we come to ''The Skcond (Jr-and Division of ///r United 
States." It comprised New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, and ''Territory N. W. of the Ohio." Special attention 
8 paid to the climate of this tract, which the book says has 

>ut one steady trait, and that is, it is uniformly variable. The changes 
)f weather are great, and fretiuently sudden. On the whole, it appears 
:hat the climate is a compound of most of the climates of the world, 
it has the moisture of Ireland in spring; the heat of Africa in summer; 
:he temperature of Italy in June; the sky of Egypt in autumn; the 
mow and cold of Norway in winter; the tempests (in a certain degree) 



of the West Indies, in every season; and the variable winds and 
weather of Great Britain, in every month in the year. 

From this account of the climate, it is easy to ascertain what 
degrees of health, and what diseases prevail. As the inhabitants 
have the climate, so they have the accute diseases of all the countries 
that have been mentioned. 

Concerning New York City, the book says: — 

A want of good water has been a great inconvenience to the citizens; 
there being but few wells in the city. Most of the people are supplied 
every day with fresh water conveyed to their doors in casks, from a 
pump at the head of Queen-street, which receives it from a spring 
almost a mile from the centre of the city. This well is about 20 feet 
deep, and 4 feet diameter. The average (quantity drawn daily from 
tins remarka})le well, is 110 hogsheads of 130 gallons each. In some 
hot summer days, 216 hogsheads have been drawn from it, and what 
is very singular, there is never more or less than about three feet of 
water in the well. The water is sold commonly at three pence a hogs- 
head at the pump. The Manhattan Company was incorjjorated in 
1798, for the purpose of conveying good water into the city, and their 
works are now nearly completed. 

New York then had a population of sixty thousand, which included 
about three thousand slaves. 

In describing the "Territory X. W. of the Ohio" a list is given of 
its forts *' established for the ])r()te(*ti()n of the frontiers/' and we 
are told that 

both the high and low lands j)roduce vast quantities of natural grapes, 
of which the settlers universally make a sufficiency, for their own 
consumption, of rich red wine. It is asserted that age will render 
this wine preferable to most of the European wines. Cotton is the 
natural ])n)(luction of this coinitry, and it grows in great perfection. 

Helow are fragments of inforniation about the Southern States, 
'^Thv TiiiKD anti much the InrtjcM (iuand Division of the United 

The city <^f \VAsniN<;T<)N stands at the junction of the rivers 
Patomak and the Eastern Hranch. The situation of this metropolis 
is upon the great post road, ecpii-distant from the northern and 
soutliern extremities of the Tnion. The jniblic offices were removed 
to this city in the summer of ISOO, and here in future Congress will 
hr)l(l their sessions. 

In the fhit country near the sea-coast of North Carolina, the inhab- 
itants, (lining the summer and autumn, are subject to intermittent 
fevers, which often prove fatal. The countenances of the inhabitants 
(luring these seasons, have i^enerally a pale yellowish cast, occasioned 
by the prevalence of bilious symptoms. 


A few years since, Tennessee abounded with large herds of wild 
cattle, improperly called Buffaloes; but the improvident or ill-disposed 
among the first settlers, have destroyed multitudes of them, out of 
mere wantonness. They are still to bo found on some of the south 
branches of Cumberland river. Elk or moose are seen in many places, 
chiefly among the mountains. The deer are become comparatively 
scarce; so that no person makes a business of hunting them for their 
skins only. Enough of bears and wolves yet remain. 

In Maryland, N'irginia, and North-Carolina the inhabitants are 
excessively fond of the diversion of horse racing. Every spring and 
fall they have stated races for three or four days, which collect the 
» porting gentlemen from every part of the country from 100 to 200 
iniles. Every poor peasant has an horse or two and all the family in 
ruins, with scarcely any covering or provisions; while the nag, with 
t:. wo or three Negroes rubbing him, is pampered with luxuries to the 
extreme of high living. 

This last item is from the edition of 1784. 1 make one more quota- 
tiion from that edition under the heading, ''Spanish Dominions in 
oN. America,'' — that is, Florida and Mexico, — and then resume con- 
sideration of the later book. 

In California, there falls in the morning a great quantity of dew, 
"vvhich, settling on the rose-leaves becomes hard like manna, having 
i^ll the sweetness of refined sugar, without its whiteness. 

The greatest curiosity in the city of Mexico, is their floating gar- 
^iens. When the Mexicans, about the year 1325, were subdued by 
^he Colhuan and Tepanecan nations, and confined to the small islands 
<:>f the lake, having no land to cultivate, they were taught by necessity 
\^o form movable gardens, which floated on the lake. Their con- 
struction is very simple. They take willows and the roots of marsh 
iDlants, and other materials which are light, and twist them together, 
si,nd so firmly unite them as to form a sort of platform, which is capable 
of supporting the earth of the garden. Upon this foundation they 
lay bushes and over them spread the mud which they draw up from 
the bottom of the lake. Their figure is ([uadrangular; their length 
and breadth various, but generally about 8 rods long and 3 wide; 
and their elevation from the surface of the water is less than a foot. 
These were the first fiekls that the Mexicans owned, after the founda- 
tion of Mexico; there they first cultivated the maize, great pepper 
and other plants necessary for their support. From the industry of 
the people these fields soon became numerous. At present they 
cultivate flowers and every sort of garden herbs upon them. In the 
largest gardens there is commonly a fit tie tree and a little hut, to 
shelter the cultivator, and defend him from the rain or the sun. When 
the owner of a garden wishes to change his situation, to get out of a 
bad neighborhood, or to come near to his family he gets into his 
little boat, and by his own strength alone, if the garden is small, or 
with the assistance of others if it be large, conducts it wherever he 



Among the islands off the coast of South America that are de- 
scribed is "Juan Fernandes 300 miles west of Chili," famous for its 
connection with Defoe^s Robinson Crusoe. The book tells how 
Alexander Selkirk dwelt there and how he was finally rescued, con- 
cluding with: — 

During his abode on this island he had killed 500 goats, which he 
caught by running them down ; and he marked as many more on the 
ear, which he let go. Some of these were caught 30 years after, their 
venerable aspect and majestic beards discovering strong symptoms 
of antiquity. 

Selkirk upon his return to England, was advised to publish an 
account of his life and adventures. He is said to have put his paf)ers 
into the hands of Daniel Defoe, to prepare them for publication. 
But that writer, by the help of those papers, and a lively fancy trans- 
formed Alexander Selkirk into Robinson (^rusoe, and returned Sel- 
kirk his papers again; so that the latter derived no advantage from 

Part I of the geography closes with '*New Discoveries,*' which it 
declares ''have been numerous and important. '* Here is one: — 

The Northern Archipelago.] This consists of several groups of 
islands situated between the eastern coast of Kamtschatka and the 
western coast of America. 

The most perfect eciuality reigns among these islanders. They 
feed their children when very young, with the coarsest flesh, and 
for the most part raw. If an infant cries, the mother immediately 
carries it to the sea side, and. whether it be sunmier or winter, holds 
it naked in the water \nitil it is (juiet. This custom is so far from 
doing the children any harm that it hardens them against the cold, 
' and they go barefooted tlirough the winter \\ith()Ut the least incon- 
venience. The least affliction prompts them to suicide; the appre- 
hension of even an uncertain evil, often leads them to despair; and 
they put an end to their days with great apparent in.sensibility. 

A little farther on we find this about the people of the Friendly 
Islands: — 

Their great men are fond of a singular kind of luxury, which is, 
to have women sit beside them all night, and beat on different parts 
of their body until they go to sleep; after which, they relax a little 
of their lal)our, unless tliey appear likely to wake; in which case they 
redouble their exertions, until ihev are again fast asleep. 

Part IT is devoted to the eastern hemisphere. I quote two para- 
graphs about Lapland:--- 

The enij)loynient of the women consists in making nets for the 
fishery, in drying fish and meat, in milking the reindeer, in making 



cheese, and in tanning hides; but it is understood to be the business 
of the men to look after the kitchen, in which, it is said, the women 
never interfere. 

When a Laplander intends to marry a female, he, or his friends, 
court her father with brandy; when with some difficulty he gains 
admittance to his fair one, he offers her a beaver's tcmgue, or some 
other eatable, which she rejects before company, but accepts of in 

The father evidently enjoyed his part of the courting and was 
loath to end his free supply of licpior. "This prolongs the courtship 
sometimes for three years," says the book. 

I expected when 1 turned to the pages devoted to Asia that 1 
would find rats named as an article of Chinese diet, but the rat myth 
seems to have been of later growth. None of the geographies refer 
to it until Peter Parley in 1«S30 shows a picture of a pedler '* selling 
rats and puppies for pies." In spite of this lack Morse's information 
about the Chinese is by no means uninteresting, as will be seen by the 
cullings w'hich follow: — 

The Chinese have particular ideas of beauty. They pluck up the 
hairs of the lower part of their faces by the roots with tweezers, 
leaving a few straggling ones by way of beard. Their complexion 
towards the north, is fair, towards the south, swarthy; and the fatter 
a man is they think him the handsomer. 

Language.] The Chinese language contains only 330 words, all 
of one syllable: but then each word is pronounced with such various 
modulations, and each with a different meaning, that it becomes 
more copious than could be easily imagined, and enables them to 
express themselves very well, on the common occasions of life. 

The Chinese pretend, as a nation, to an anticjuity beyond all 
measure of credibility; and their annals have been carried beyond 
the period to which the scripture chronology assigns the creation of 
the world. Poan Kou is said by them to have been the first man; 
and the interval of time betwixt him and the death of the celebrated 
Confucius, which was in the vear before Christ, 479, has been reckoned 
from 276,000 to 96,961.740 years. 

The descriptions of Africa in Morse's book lack definiteness, except 
as regards Egypt and the north coast. The rest of the continent, 
"from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of Good Hope," is handled 
in a single lump. Of the inland countries Abyssinia receives most 
attention, and we are told that — 

The religion of the Abyssinians is a mixture of Christianity, 
Judaism, and Paganism; the two latter of which are by far the most 
predominant. There are here more churches than in any other 
country, and though it is very mountainous, and consequently the 


view much obstructed, it is very seldom you see less than 5 or 6 
churches. Ever>' great man when he dies, thinks he has atoned for 
all his wickedness, if he leaves a fund to build a church, or has one 
built in his life-time. 

The churches are full of pictures slovenly painted on parchment, 
and nailed upon the walls. There is no choice in their saints, they 
are both of the Old and New Testament, and those that might be 
dispensed with from both. There is St. Pontius Pilate and his wife; 
there is St. Baalam and his ass; Sampson and his jaw bone, and .so 
of the rest. 

It makes the beginning of the nineteenth centur>' seem very bar- 
baric when we read a few pages farther on that — 

In the Guinea or western coast, the English exchange their woolen 
and linen manufactures, their hard ware and spirituous liquors, for 
the persons of the natives. Among the Negroes, a man's wealth 
consists in the number of his family, whom he sells like so many cattle, 
and often at an inferior price. 

One page near the close of the volume estimates the number of 
inhabitants in the world and forecasts the probable population of 
the United States a century later. It supposes that the number will 
double every twenty years, and that therefore in 1904 we should be 
a nation of 160 millions. 

In this forecast and in some other respects our author fails to hit 
the mark, but whatever the book's shortcomings, it was not dull, and 
it did admirable s(»rvice in introducing an important study into the 
old-time schools. 

(To be folloircd by '^ Ldtcr G(0(fraphics^' bj/ the sa7nc axUhor.) 




Profeaaor of Geography, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, III. 

IT is my purpose to consider the advisability of using some of the 
helps in the presentation of the subject of geography which will 
require the teacher and pupil to go beyond the confines of the 
schoolroom to obtain them. These helps are not intended to supplant 
the tinie-lioiiored text-hooks and wall maps, but to put new and fuller 
meaning into them, to make the book and the map the servant, not the 
master of teacher and pupil. 

* Ueprinted, by permission, from Normal School Quarterly, July, 1904. 



Geography is one of the foremost subjects in the curricuhim in 
the study of concrete material. Its subject-matter is objective. It 
considers the earth in its relation to man. It includes a study of the 
practical things of everyday life at home and abroad. 

To give to the pupil the necessary first-hand knowledge in the study 
of geography requires that the pupil and the thing to be studied be 
brought together face to face and at short range. This can be done 
in one of two ways: by taking the pupil to the thing, or by bringing 
t lie thing to the pupil. The first is the most effective way of studying 
t lie various topics of home geography and leads to the intelligent and 
frequent use of the school excursion. The second is the most effective 
A.%-'ay of giving first-hand knowledii:e concerning the geography of 
^•^gions beyond the home locality and leads to the building and con- 
stant use of the school museum. 

I wish to speak of each of these aids in the teaching of geography 
xr^ot from the theoretical standpoint, but as 1 have made use of them 
i 11 classroom practice. AFy experience with the school excursion has 
V:>een with classes from the third year through the remaining years of 
"tihe grammar school in a public school of a thousand pupils in the city 
^^f Chicago and in the lower grades of the Training School of Normal, 
^Iso in the high schools of Chicago and in two of the state normal 
Schools of Illinois. Classes have ranged in numbers from half a dozen 
"^o eighty. My use of the school museum has extended over the same 
x^ange of the curriculum with the addition of the first and second grades. 


The school excursion is an expedition made by tiie i)U|)ils of a class 
\inder the immediate direction of the teacher for the study of some 
particular topic in the school work. The pupils are responsible to the 
teacher for attention, interest, and good behavior to the same extent 
as in a class exfercise in the schoolroom. 

Successful school excursions depend upon the hearty cooperation 
of school officials, princijnil, teacher, pupils, and parents. All must 
believe that it is a good thing and work harmoniously and earnestly 
to make it as successful as other school exercises. The school board 
and 8Uf)erintendent nuist recognize the value of such work: they and 
the principal must willingly permit the use of school time to the extent 
of a half day at most for the work. The teacher must be as enthusi- 
astic in this work as in any other if she expects to reap educational 
results. She must have studied the field of investigation previous to 
the time of the class exercise and carefully planned the steps of the 


lesson. To fail to <lo so moans great loss in the net results of the lesson - 
The pupils must feel that an outdoor lesson is of as great importaneeE'' 
and value as any other school exercise. Its importance is evident tr :■ 
the puj)ils when it is clearly brought before them that the board oE^ 
education, superintendent, and princi|)al have permitted school time^ 
to l)e used for the lesson. 

Much l)etter spirit is manifest and nuich better results obtained 
when attendance of each pupil on any particular excursion, esjjerialh*^ 
if at considerable distaiu'e from school, is left to the voluntary' decisioit, 
of the parent. The excursi<ui is not as effective as it should be if Xh^ 
discussion of n^sults in class does not nuike every one who did not go 
wish that he ha<l gone. 

In Chicago the rules of the board of education re(|uire that no excur- 
sion l)e undertaken without the consent of the superintendent or dis- 
trict su]>erintendent of schools, and that no pu])il shall be permitted 
to go on any (>xcin'sion without the written consent of the parent or 

Many of the teaching force of the Chicago schools read this rule of 
the board and say that then* are too many restrictions and too much 
red ta|)e to do anything in the line of excursions. I was inclined to 
the same o|>inion until 1 learned by trial that each requirement instead 
of being a hindrance was a very decided help in arranging for and 
carrying out each excursion. 

If the i)Upils said t<» tiieir parents tliat Mr. C'ooley. our superintend- 
ent, nr Mr. ban<\ onr district superintendent, had grante<l permission 
to hnveaii outdoor lesson in geography, it imuK (Uately lent dignity to 
the event. It was not so likely t(^ be con^idcTed a plan of the teacher 
and |)U]>il< to iiave a |ncnic. 

The written consent of tiie |)areni saves the teacher from any 
criticisin of having taken tiie i)Ui)i] off on a usc^Iess trip which did not 
in any way meet with tlie ]>arent's ai)proval. In order to save trouble 
to the parents, the pui>il< carrfully copied a letter of request j)laced on 
the blackboanl by the t earlier, carri(Ml it home and were remarkably 
>nccf>-i"ul in obtaininir ^iirnature ancl ne«M»<sary car fare. 

( Mie liuii'lr-.-d an<l ninety-tive pupils out of a mendjership of 200 
in fourth :ind fifth yrar work W(^n' taken in sections of twenty-five to 
fifty to Thr Des Piainc^s River, seven miles away. The five renuuninar 
]HH)il> wen- ill Mr had work at hr)ni(' imniciliately after school. All of the 
forty-riiriiT pnj)iK nf rlir -fvrnih year, save one who had nuide the trip 
])revioiivly. w.MU 10 the- sitH'kyard> and ."^wift's Packing House. Ninety 
per cent or more (»f i^ach class in th(^ iiigh school went on the excursions. 


I feel that all excursions taken in connection with the various 
classes from the third year through the normal school have been more 
effective as lessons in geography than the same time spent in class- 
room instruction. Each excursion furnishes the best possible material 
for class-room instruction for several days or a week after the trip. 
The region visited need not be peculiar or striking to the ordinary 
observer. The almost featureless region of Chicago and vicinity is 
i^ch in topographic forms in miniature. So is almost every locality. 

I will now indicate some of the particular trips taken by classes of 
various grades and the scope of the work considered in some of these 

In excursions of the third year, classes were taken to examine the 
laying of the cement walks about the school building. They observed 
"the material and its use, also the work of different men engaged. 

In another instance wliilo studying the building of homes third-year 
pupils made trips to a house in process of construction, examined the 
:ffoundation of brick and mortar, learned that mortar is made of sand 
»nd lime, examined the studding, weather-boarding, rafters, roof, 
arrangement of rooms as indicated by stu(hling, and went to the gravel 
pit to see how sand is screened and removed from the pit. P]n route 
"they noted a valley with its divides, slopes, and stream. 

While standing at the bottom of the valley by the stream this 
ciuestion was asked: ''How many slo])es has this valley?'' About 
half of the class said. ''Three*': the others, '*Two." One who said 
"Three" was asked to explain. She said, "It has two slopes this 
way," bringing her hands together to indicate the side slopes, "and 
it must slope that way,'' pointing down stream, "or the water could 
not run off." All o