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Full text of "Modern etching and engraving"

MODERN ETCHING 
AND ENGRAVING 

Edited by Charles Holme 

n i^ 




OFFICES OF ,THE STUDIO,' LONDON, 
PARIS, NEW YORK MCMII 



ERINDALE 

COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

AN editor, when reviewing an important work which has just been 
brought to completion under his guidance, cannot but be sensible of 
the disparity existing between a thing done and a thing sketched 
out vividly in projects — in " enchanted cigarettes " as Balzac called 
unrealised schemes ; for in books, as in all other works of art, many 
unexpected difficulties and disappointments interpose between con- 
ception and execution, limiting the scope of the aim in view, and 
lowering, more or less, the quality ot craftsmanship. The fact that 
several modern workers of repute are unrepresented amongst the 
illustrations is one cause of regret ; the large but unavoidable reduc- 
tion in size of many of the illustrations is another ; also it is felt 
that the absence of the raised line of the original plates causes a loss 
of distinction in the half-tone plates, which no amount of care in the 
selection of paper and in the printing could entirely remedy. There 
are, however, other sides of the question in the light of which the 
very faults of the volume become virtues ; and, in spite of inevitable 
shortcomings, the hope is entertained that the publication will add 
something to the general knowledge of the subject of etching and 
will give an impetus to the revival of interest in one of the most 
delightful and personal forms of artistic expression. 
THE Editor, having received much valued sympathy and help from 
many quarters, desires to express his cordial thanks to his foreign 
correspondents, to the artist-contributors, and also to the various 
publishers who have sanctioned the reproduction of copyright 
etchings, especially to Mr. C. Klackner and Mr. Frederick Keppel 
of New York and London, Mr. R. Gutekunst of London, Messrs. 
Frost and Reed of Bristol, M. E. Sagot, M. C. Hessele and M. 
Andre Marty of Paris, and Messrs. Amsler and Ruthardt of 
Berlin. The American Section owes much to Mr. J. M. Bowles, 
of New York, and to the historical notes supplied by Mr. Louis A. 
Holman, of Boston. 



TABLE OF LITERARY CONTENTS 



MODERN ETCHING AND ' 
ENGRAVING IN 

GREAT BRITAIN - 

AMERICA- 

FRANCE - - - - 

GERMANY 

AUSTRIA - - - 

HUNGARY 

HOLLAND 

BELGIUM - - - - 

DENMARK & NORWAY - 

FINLAND - - - - 

ITALY - _ - - 

SWITZERLAND 



By A. L. Baldry 
„ Will Jenkins 
„ Gabriel Mourey 
„ Dr. Hans W. Singer 
„ Wilhelm Scholermann 
„ Anthony Tahi 
„ Ph. Zilcken 
„ Fernand KhnopfF 
„ Georg Brochner 
„ Count Louis Sparre 
„ Dr. Romualdo Pantini 
„ Professor Robert Mobbs 



ETCHERS AND ENGRAVERS : 
INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



BRITISH SECTION. 

Baker, Oliver, R.E. 
Ball, Wilfrid, R.E. 
Bayes, A. W., R.E. 
Bolingbroke, Minna, R.E. 
Brangwyn, Frank 
Burridge, Fred., R.E. 
Burridge, Fred., R.E. 
Bush, R. E. J., A.R.E. 
Bush, R. E. J., A.R.E. 
Cameron, D. Y., R.E. 
Cameron, D. Y., R.E. 
Cash, John, F.R.I.B.A. 
Charlton, E. W., A.R.E. 
Copeman , Constance G. , A. R 
Crawford, Susan F., A.R.E 
Dicksee, Herbert, R.E. 
Dalgliesh, T. Irving, R.E. 
East, Alfred, A.R.A. 
East, Alfred, A.R.A. 
Ellis, Tristram, A.R.E. 
Finnic, John, R.E. 
GofF, R., R.E. 
Goolden, Fred. W. 
Haig, Axel H., R.E. 
Hartley, Alfred, R.E. 
Herkomer, Prof. H. von, R. 
Herkomer, Prof. H.von, R, 

AMERICAN SECTION. 

Aid, George C. 
Backer, Otto H. 
Bauer, W. C. 
Beal, W. Goodrich 



Plate 


25 


j> 


52 


>» 


9 


>> 


7 


>) 


46 


>> 


28 


>> 


29 


» 


13 


It 


14 


ty 


32 


>» 


33 


» 


S3 


)> 


4 


•E.„ 


34 


J) 


2 


>> 


47 


» 


40 


» 


15 


it 


16 


a 


41 


>> 


3S 


» 


17 


)) 


31 


» 


12 


9) 


II 


A.„ 


5 


A.„ 


6 


Plate 


12 


)) 


6 


>j 


3 


}) 


18 



Herkomer, Prof. H. von, R. A. 
Hole, William, R.S.A., R.E. 
Holroyd, Charles, R.E. 
Holroyd, Charles, R.E. 
Huson, Thomas, R.I., R.E. 
Kiddier, William 
Knight, Joseph, R.I., R.E. 
Legros, Prof. A., R.E. 
Menpes, Mortimer, R.E. 
Meyer, A. C, A.R.E. 
Murray, J. G., A.R.E. 
Paton, Hugh, A.R.E. 
Phillips, L. B., A.R.E. 
Pott, Constance M., R.E. 
Raalte, H. B. van, A.R.E. 
Raalte, H. B. van, A.R.E. 
Reason, R. G. 
Robertson, Arthur, A.R.E. 
Robinson, Sir J. C, C.B. 
Roller, George, R.E. 
Rowe, T. Trythall 
Short, Frank, R.E. 
Sloane, Mary A., A.R.E. 
Slocombe, Fred, R.E. 
Waterson, David, A.R.E. 
Waterson, David, A.R.E. 
Watson, C. J., R.E. 



Plate 8 

38 
21 
22 

39 
44 
10 

I 

30 

23 
24 

48 

27 

19 

20 

54 
26 

51 

49 
42 

45 

3 

43 

36 

37 
18 



Burleigh, Sydney Richmond, Plate 1 7 
Duveneck, Frank „ 21 

Getchell, Edith Loring „ 20 

Ho vend en, Thomas „ 16 

5 



American Section — continued. 



Lathrop, W. L. 
Lewis, Arthur A. 
MacLaughlan, D. Shaw 
Merritt, Anna Lea 
Mielatz, C. F. W. 
Moran, Peter 
Moran, Thomas 
Oakford, Ellen 
Parrish, Stephen 

FRENCH SECTION. 

B6jot, Eugene 
Bejot, Eugene 
Besnard 

Bracquemond, Felix 
Chahine, Edgar 
Chahine, Edgar 
Dupont, R. 
Dupont, R. 
Helleu, P. 
HeUeu, P. 
Huard, Charles 
Jeanniot 
Lafitte, A. 
Leheutre, G. 



Plate 



Plate 



» 
>> 



9 

24 

II 
19 

25 
7 
8 

4 
5 



25 
26 

20 

27 

17 
18 

13 

15 
6 

7 
3 

19 

22 

2 



Pennell, Joseph 




Plate 13 


Piatt, Charles A. 




„ 22 


Piatt, Charles A. 




» 23 


Rix, Julian 




„ 15 


Stetson, Charles 


Walter 


„ 10 


Weber, Otis S. 




„ 14 


Whistler, James 


McNeill 


» I 


Whistler, James 


McNeill 


51 2 



Lepere, Auguste 
Lepere, Auguste 
Lepere, Auguste 
Lepere, Auguste 
Monvel, Bernard de 
Paillard, Henry 
Paillard, Henry 
Robbe, Manuel 
Robbe, Manuel 
Schuller, J. Charles 
Steinlen 
Steinlen 
Viala, E. 



Plate 8 
10 
II 
12 

5 
9 

H 
I 

4 

16 

23 
24 
21 



GERMAN SECTION. 

Fischer, Otto 
Fischer, Otto 
Gambert, Otto 
Graf, Oscar 
Graf, Oscar 
Halm, Peter 
Hegenbart, Fritz 
Hegenbart, Fritz 
lilies, Arthur 

Kalckreuth, Leopold Count 
6 



Plate 22 Klinger, Max 

„ 24 Klinger, Max 

„ 1 1 Kollwitz, Kathe 

„ 5 Leistikow, W. 

„ 6 Liebermann, Max 

„ 23 Meyer-Basel, C. T. 

„ 19 Meyer-Basel, C. T. 

„ 20 Overbeck, Fritz 

„ 25 Pankok, Bernhard 

„ 4 StaufFer, Karl 



Plate 12 

13 
16 

I 

18 
8 

9 
21 

17 
15 



German Section — continued. 

Stuck, Franz Plate lo 

Thoma, Hans „ 3 

Ubbelohde, Otto „ 2 



Ubbclohde, Otto 
WolfF, Heinrich 



Plate 7 
» 14 



AUSTRIAN SECTION. 

Cossmann, Alfred 
Cossmann, Alfred 
Cossmann, Alfred 
Jettmar, Rudolph 
Lopienski, Ignaz 



Plate 



3 


Orlik, Emil 


Plate 


7 


4 


Orlik, Emil 


» 


8 


5 


Schmutzer, Ferdinand 


yy 


2 


10 


Schmutzer, Ferdinand 


M 


9 


6 


Unger, William 


»> 


I 



HUNGARIAN SECTION. 



Aranyossy, Akos F. 


Plate 4 


Raiischer, lajos 


T^ndsinger, Zsigmond 


9 


Raiischer, Tajos 


Landsinger, Zsigmond 


„ 10 


Sz6kely, Arpad 


Olgyai, Viktor 


I 


Sz^kely, Arpdd 


Olgyai, Viktor 


2 


Tahi, A. 



Plate 



DUTCH SECTION. 



Bauer, M. 


Plate 


^ 


Nieuwenkamp, 


W. 


0. 


J- 


Plate 


6 


Becht, Ed. 


>^ 


9 


Reicher, A. F. 








» 


4 


Bosch, E. 


»> 


II 


Witsen, W. 








» 


2 


Gravesande, Storm van 


)) 


10 


Zilcken, P. 








» 


7 


Houten, Miss B. G. van 


» 


3 


Zwart, W. de 








n 


I 


Koster, A. L. 


» 


8 















BELGIAN SECTION. 



Baertsoen, A. 


Plate 


7 


Mar6chal, F 


Plate 10 


Cassiers, H. 




I 


Meunier, H. 


» 5 


Coppens, 0. 




9 


Romberg, M. 


„ 4 


Danse, A. 




2 


Rysselberghe, T. van 


>» II 


Gailliard, F. 




3 


Titz, L. 


w 8 


KhnopfF, Fernand 




13 


Wytsman, R. 


6 


Laermans, E. 




12 







DANISH SECTION. 



FrOlich, Lorenz 


Plate 


lO 


Liind, Soren 


Plate II 


Hansen, H. N. 




3 


M5nsted, Peter 


7 


Hou, Axel 




2 


Niss, Thorvald 


» 4 


Krause, E. 




9 


Schwartz, Frants 


„ 12 


Kroyer, P. S. 




I 


Schwartz, Frants 


» 13 


Locher, Carl 




5 


Skovgaard, Niels 


» 8 


Liibschitz, J. 




6 







NORWEGIAN AND FINNISH SECTION. 

Edelfelt, A. Plate 
Edelfelt, A. „ 

Flodin, Hilda „ 

Flodin, Hilda „ 

Gallon, A. „ 

Nordhagen, J. „ 



8 


Sparre, Count Louis 


Plate 


5 


TO 


Sparre, Count Louis 


» 


9 


4 


TheslefF, Ellen 


i> 


3 


6 


Zorn, Anders L. 


» 


I 


7 


Zorn, Anders L. 


)j 


2 


II 









ITALIAN SECTION. 

Beltrami, Luca Plate 1 1 

Biseo, Cesare ,, 6 

Chessa, C. „ 2 

Fattori, G. „ 9 

Fortuny, Mariano, Jun. „ 15 

Grubicy, Vittore „ 4 

Kienerk, Giorgio „ 10 

Miti-Zanetti, G. » 7 



Nomellini, P. 
Savardo, Dino 
Sezanne, Augusto 
Turletti, C. 
Vegetti, Enrico 
Vetri, Paolo 
Vitalini, Francesco 



Plate 


8 


>> 


13 


>» 


14 


>> 


12 


» 


5 


» 


I 


» 


3 



SWISS SECTION. 

Amiet, Cuno Plate 8 

Beaumont, Pauline de „ 4 

Burnand, Eugene „ 10 

Forel, Alexis „ 9 

Muyden, E. van „ i 



Muyden, E. van 
Muyden, E. van 
Piguet, R. 
Ravel, Edouard 
Vallet, E. 



Plate 2 



» 


3 


a 


6 


» 


7 


a 


S 



MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN GREAT BRITAIN. By A. L. 
BALDRY. 




N exact definition of etching is not easy. In 
the narrowest sense of the term it would pre- 
sumably be limited only to work which is 
scratched with a pointed tool upon a metal 
plate, to line drawings upon copper which, 
when rubbed with ink, will give an impression 
on paper. If this definition is accepted, there 
are but two kinds of etching, that in which 
the lines made by the point are deepened and 
strengthened by being bitten in with an acid which will eat away 
the copper, and that known as " dry-point," in which there is no 
accentuation of the lines by the use of the acid. From plates treated 
in either of these ways prints can be obtained which have character- 
istic technical qualities and reproduce exactly the original touches of 
the tool ; and these prints are probably entitled to be regarded as 
illustrations of the purest form of the etcher's art. 
BUT it is questionable whether it is quite permissible to draw so 
sharp a line between etching and other kinds of engraving. There 
are processes allied to it which differ from it only in minor details, 
and there are others in which it actually plays some part in producing 
the final result. It is better to make the definition as broad and 
-comprehensive as possible, and not to insist upon distinctions which 
only hamper the etcher's activity. That the workers themselves 
desire full freedom to express their ideas in any way that suits them 
best is proved by the readiness of the Royal Society of Painter- 
Etchers to encourage all forms of engraving which give opportunities 
for the display of originality of invention and accomplishment. One 
of the rules of this society declares that " all forms of engraving on 
metal, whether by the burin, the etching-needle, by mezzotint or 
aquatint, or by whatever other form (of engraving) the artist may 
choose as a means of original expression, are understood to be in- 
-cluded in the term 'painter-etching.'" This inclusiveness is no doubt 
due in some measure to the anxiety of an exhibiting association to 
make its shows attractive and varied, but it comes also from an ob- 
vious desire on the part of the artists themselves to be allowed a free 



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choice as to the particular technical method which will best interpret 
them. 

INDEED, if such a society, founded professedly to develop the art 
of etching and to popularise it among all lovers of interesting accom- 
plishment, were to attempt any exact regulation of executive processes, 
it would lose the greater part of its authority and would practically 
destroy its right to existence. Its real mission, which it seems from 
the first to have judiciously recognised, is to gather together all men 
who take an intelligent view of their artistic responsibilities and to 
bestow approval upon all types of production which are plainly 
inspired by a legitimate desire to break away from the beaten track* 
To ignore anything which bore the stamp of serious originality 
would be as mistaken a piece of policy as to extend encouragement 
to mechanical and commercial substitutes for the artist's work* 
Every man who has something fresh to say is entitled to a hearing ; 
it would be foolish to try and silence him because he does not use 
exactly the same idioms as his predecessors, or because he happens to 
have hit upon an idea which had not occurred to them. 
OF all the experts who have given an opinion on the question of 
terminology, perhaps the most catholic in his views is Professor von 
Herkomer. He declared, in one of the lectures which he delivered 
during his tenure of the Slade Professorship at Oxford, that he is 
disposed to apply the term " etching " to every form of work on 
metal, whether bitten with acid or indented with a burin or needle^ 
so long as this work in its character strictly represents the freest 
expression of an artistic nature. He would make the distinction 
between what is and what is not properly called etching a matter of 
esthetic sentiment rather than of technical manner, and he would 
exclude from the category of etchings all laboriously wrought plates^ 
even though the methods of working followed in them might conform 
absolutely to executive precedents. At the same time he admitted 
that there is no measurement and there are no rules by which thc: 
right thing can be recognised off-hand. Personal feeling must 
necessarily play an important part in the guidance of the men wha 
practise this subtle art, and it must equally have a supreme influence 
over people who are honestly anxious to understand what maybe the 
type of production that has the strongest claim upon their apprecia- 
tion. Of course there can be no precise standard if so much scope- 
is allowed to individual conviction, and inevitably there must be con- 
flicts of taste on many more or less vital questions, but there is in 
these very conflicts something stimulating and encouraging to th^ 
active mind. 



British 

IF we accept, as a basis ror argument, the Professor's broad statement 
as to the comprehensiveness of etching and adopt his standpoint with 
regard to the functions of the art, it may fairly be said that there is 
within the artist's reach no executive device which is at the same 
time capable of giving so much enjoyment to producer and observer, 
and so full of exciting possibilities. The etcher's successes, the 
achievements of a man who has secured for once an absolute agree- 
ment between mind and hand, are exquisite things which will 
fascinate every intelligent thinker, because the process by which 
they have been brought into existence is one that allows the most 
complete realisation of great imaginative ideas. It abounds with 
subtleties which are infinitely suggestive to the possessor of the true 
artistic temperament, and it will lead him on to heights of expres- 
sion unattainable by any other mode of practice. So many ways of 
arriving at his results are, moreover, open to him that he need never 
fear that he will be hampered by the unresponsiveness of the medium ; 
the limitations which he has to fear are those of his own personality ; 
nothing will check his progress more than any inability on his part 
to perceive the direction in which he should turn in his striving 
after success. 

BUT, at the same time, etching in all its form is an uncertain art, or 
rather it is uncertain when it is used by an artist who is ambitious. 
If its processes are made mechanical and kept in regular sequence by 
a code of rules, it will give only mechanical results which will satisfy 
no one but the man who is cursed with commonplace instincts and an 
unimaginative nature. It will cease to be spontaneous and will 
become merely mannered and pedantically correct, losing thereby 
some of its noblest qualities and gaining nothing but an aspect of 
superficial completeness. In the hands, however, of an artist who 
willingly risks failures in the hope that he may achieve something 
of memorable importance it is capable of endless surprises, for it will 
vary strangely in response to his moods. Its results may be fantastic, 
exaggerated, contrary to all precedent, but even when they are 
obviously wrong, they will be neither tame nor stupid, and when 
they are right they will probably be exquisitely attractive. At least 
they will never have the smug and soulless perfection of mechanism 
which the unaspiring craftsman is content to attain. 
THE reasons for this uncertainty are to be sought partly in the 
temperament of the etcher, and partly in the technical complexities 
of the art itself. The first essential for success is enthusiasm, a love 
of the work for its own sake, and a resolve to be daunted by no diffi- 
culties that may arise to hamper the worker's progress. The 

3 



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enthusiast, when the fit is on him, will attack cheerfully the most 
complicated problems, and will triumph over them by sheer brilliance 
of inspiration and strength of will, but even a momentary slackening 
of his determination, or the slightest yielding to a feehng of dis- 
couragement, will suffice to put him hopelessly off the right track 
and to involve him in a maze of perplexities from which there is 
no escape. Even when his enthusiasm is at its highest, there may 
come difficulties which he cannot surmount, and he has to confess 
himself beaten. Some etchers, indeed, profess to regard their art as 
one that is made up of accidents, happy and unhappy, and to find its 
very unexpectedness a source of delight. But such an attitude 
towards it is a little too fanciful ; there is beyond doubt a very con- 
siderable amount of knowledge of its peculiarities to be obtained by 
serious study, and there are many practical details which can be 
reduced to order by a man who makes reasonably methodical investi- 
gations. How he applies his practical knowledge must, of course, 
depend upon himself. If he is of a wavering temperament and 
inclined to stray about, he may meet with more than a fair proportion 
of accidents, but if he has a passably stable disposition he will know 
well enough what lapse in his own judgment has caused him to fail, 
or what keying up of his nervous energies has brought success within 
his grasp. 

IF, then, the personality of the etcher has so much to do with the 
character of the plates that he executes, it is possible to give the 
English school credit for the possession of an unusual number ot 
members who are liberally endowed with the right mental qualities. 
During the last few years there has been produced in this country 
a very considerable amount of etched work which satisfies all the 
necessary conditions of spontaneity, originality and sympathy with 
nature, and has besides a large measure of admirable technical 
strength. Some of this work is worthy to rank with the best that 
has come from any school, much of it is decidedly above the average, 
and even among those examples which have to be reckoned as 
failures there is unquestionable evidence of well-intentioned effort to 
avoid the easier commonplaces that content the mere journeyman 
engraver. Of course the good things have to be sifted out of a mass 
of stuff which makes no pretence of being original in even a minor 
degree, but quite enough of them can be found to repay the trouble 
of investigation. 

ONE excellent point which must be noted about our native school 
at its best is that it covers a very wide ground. The variety of 
invention which is shown by the men who belong to it, and their 

4 



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readiness to seize upon all kinds of material that seems susceptible 
of artistic treatment, are worthy of the highest praise. They do not 
merely follow in the track of one or two masters, nor are they 
content simply to repeat what others have done ; their obvious desire 
is to give fair play to their own independence of thought and their 
particular individualities of expression. Even those etchers who 
plainly reflect the practice of the teachers from whom they received 
their grounding of technical knowledge show in a number of cases 
that they are capable of giving new readings of the facts that they 
have learned. Generally, indeed, there is to be perceived a whole- 
some spirit of originality which, despite occasional aberrations, has 
called into existence an array of sound and interesting works of art 
illustrating with complete adequacy most of the worthier applications 
of the craft of etching. 

IT is in figure drawing, perhaps, that English etchers are least 
successful. We have no one in this country who approaches 
M. Paul Helleu in graceful elegance of design and supple freedom 
of expression, and certainly none of our artists can be compared to 
him as a brilliant exponent of what is most attractive in the modern 
type of humanity. Nor have we a master like Mr. Anders Zorn who 
combines in perfect proportion certainty of draughtsmanship and 
masculine confidence in the use of the best devices of etching. But 
at least we can claim, by virtue of his long residence amongst us, 
M. Legros as one of our chief art leaders, and we can point to an 
important group of younger Englishmen who owe to his example 
and instruction some of the best qualities of their practice. Such 
artists as Mr. W. Strang, Mr. Charles Holroyd, Mr. Gascoyne, and 
others who were trained by M. Legros at the Slade School or at 
South Kensington, take high rank in this country and illustrate in 
their methods of working some decidedly original views about the 
application of aesthetic principles. 

THEN there is another group of the pupils and followers of Professor 
von Herkomer, which includes several of the most prominent of 
present-day workers in various forms of engraving. The Professor 
himself, by his own performances as an etcher and a mezzotinter, and 
by his invention of a process of " plate painting," which makes 
possible the exact reproduction of an artist's own handiwork, has 
earned an indisputable right to be reckoned as one of the most 
versatile and capable masters of the craft, and by his ability as a 
teacher he has made upon the art of this country a mark which can 
never be effaced. He has done much to simplify the complicated 
processes of etching by ingenious adaptations of the older technicalities; 

5 



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he has devised various short cuts to results which were previously 
attainable only by prolonged and often uncertain labour ; and he has 
imparted to others a full share of his well-directed and intelligent 
enthusiasm. From these two groups is coming annually a great deal 
that is very significant and decidedly promising artistically. 
INDEED, though there arc among the etchers of figure subjects 
only a few who are entitled to be placed in the first rank, the list of 
capable craftsmen who deserve to be seriously considered is by no 
means a small one, and it is in its way thoroughly representative. 
There are Mr. Mortimer Menpes, Mr. Jacomb Hood, Mr. R. W. 
Macbeth, Mr. D. A. Wehrschmidt, Mr. Norman Hirst, Mr. A. W. 
Bayes, Mr. George Roller, Mr. William Hole, Miss Cormack, 
Mr. E. G. Hester, Mr. J. C. Webb, Mr. J. B. Pratt, Mr. Macbeth- 
Raeburn, and others whose understanding of different forms of 
engraving is displayed in a long series of plates, some original and 
some reproductions of pictures. Every now and again there comes 
from one or other of these artists something of real excellence, 
something to remind us that the great ideals which were respected 
in past generations are still being kept alive, and that the desire for 
admirable achievement is as active as ever. 

THE number of etchers who occupy themselves principally or 
entirely with landscapes and studies of architectural motives is 
notably large, and their record is memorable for its compre- 
hensiveness and for its revelation of true sympathy with nature. 
Much of the work which comes into this class is inspired by 
unusual understanding of refinements of line composition and by 
a delightful appreciation of subtleties of atmospheric effect, and is 
especially happy in its translation of gradations of tone and colour 
into suggestive black and white. What may be called the common- 
place view of nature, with its exaltation of trivial detail and its 
neglect of decorative arrangement and fine adjustment of masses 
of light and dark, is not often taken by the men who can be 
regarded as representative of our landscape etchers. They aim by 
preference at a nobler treatment of the motives which they select, 
and if they fail it is because they chance at times to attempt what 
is beyond their powers of expression. Theirs is the honourable 
failure which can be forgiven readily enough on account of the 
splendid ambition which prompted the effort ; it does not come 
from want of courage or from a disposition to be satisfied with little 
things. 

BUT it would not be difficult to collect instances of the fortunate 
realisation of really great intentions. In the work of Mr. Frank 
6 



British 

Short, with his excellent draughtsmanship and sound sense of style> 
Mr. F. V. Burridge, with his large freedom of touch, Mr. D. Y. 
Cameron, Mr. E. W. Charlton, Mr. C. J. Watson, Mr. Wilfrid Ball,. 
Mr. Thomas Huson, Mr. Alfred Hartley, Sir J. C. Robinson,. 
Colonel GofF, Mr. R. E. J. Bush, and Sir F. Seymour Haden, the 
combination of sensitive study and strong expression is wholly 
fascinating ; and a not less correct appreciation of the etcherV 
mission in the art world is to be credited to artists like Mr. T. Irving 
Dalgliesh, Mr. Fred Slocombe, Mr. J. G. Murray, Mr. Oliver Baker,. 
Mr. Alfred East, Mr. John Finnie, Mr. Arthur Robertson, Mr. 
Lawrence B. Phillips, Mr. F. Laing, Miss C. M. Pott, Mr. H. 
Van Raalte, Mr. T. T. Rowe, Miss C. G. Copeman, Mr. David 
Waterson, Miss M. A. Sloane, Mr. H. R. Robertson, Miss M. 
Bolingbroke, Mr. F. W. Goolden, Miss C. M. Nichols, Mr. W. 
Kiddier, and Mr. Joseph Knight. Then there are men like Mr W. 
Hole and M. Legros, who handle landscapes and figure-subjects with 
almost equal power. In all directions can be found good things 
which are worthy of attention from all students of contemporary art 
history and from all lovers of unaffected and earnest endeavour. 
IT is an encouraging sign that there should be now among the 
members of the English school a widespread belief in the importance 
of a generous interpretation of the technical responsibility of the 
etcher. Every worker is at liberty to choose the mode of practice 
that suits best his point of view and will aid him most satisfactorily 
to convey his impression of nature to other people. He is not 
rigidly bound down to observe narrow rules, and he need not fear 
that he will be denied recognition because he is impatient of all 
restrictions likely to limit his freedom of expression. Many of the 
older conventions have disappeared, and with them the pedantic 
insistence upon the idea that every one who might have the will 
and the ability to strike out for himself a new way apart from the 
beaten track must necessarily be a heretic and an unbeliever. This- 
widening of opportunity has not, however, led to anything like 
extravagance. The sincerity of the better type of artists who 
practise the craft is quite beyond question ; they have not relaxed 
in the smallest degree their respect for Nature's authority, and plainly 
they value their freedom most because it helps them to realise 
something of her infinite variety. 

A. L. Baldry. 




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"IN WEST PRINCE'S STREET GARDENS, 
EDINBURGH." FROM THE ETCHING BY 
SUSAN F. CRAWFORD, A.R.E. 

Plate a 



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Plate 3 — "a roadway in flanders" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY MARY A. SLOANE, A.R.E. 



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FROM the etching BY E. W. CHARLTON, A.R.E. 



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"STUDY OF AN ARAB HEAD." FROM 
THE HERKOMERGRAVURE BY PRO- 
FESSOR H. VON HERKOMER, R.A. 

Plate 5 



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Plate 6 — "wild weather 



FROM THE DRY-POINT BY PROFESSOR H. VON HERKOMER, R.A. 




Plate 7 — " in the furrowed land 



FROM THE ETCHING BY MINNA BOLINGBROKE, R.E. 



British 




"JOHN PHILLIP, R.A." 
FROM THE ETCHING 
BY A. W. BAYES, R.E. 
Plate 9 



British 




Plate io — " the cloud " 



FROM THE MEZZOTINT BY JOSEPH KNIGHT, R.I., R.E. 




Plate i i — " an essex stream 



FROM THE ETCHING BY ALFRED HARTLEY, R.E. 



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"WESTMINSTER ABBEY." FROM THE ETCHING BY AXEL HERMAN HAIG, R.E, 



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"EVENING, MOUSEHOLE HARBOUR" 
FROM THE ETCHING BY REGINALD 
E. J. BUSH, A.R.E. 

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Plate 17 — "dordrecht' 



FROM THE ETCHING BY R. GOFF, R.E. 




Plate 18 — "vespei 



FROM the DRV-POINT BY C. J. WATSON, R.E. 




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"THE PHILOSOPHER." FROM 
THE DRY-POINT BY H. B. van 

RAALTE, A.R.E. 

Plate 20 



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"NIGHT." A DRY-POINT 
STUDY OF A HEAD BY 
CHARLES HOLROYD, R.E. 
Plate 21 





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"GUN AND SHOT WHARF, SOUTH- 
WARK." FROM THE ETCHING BY 
CONSTANCE M. POTT, R.E. 

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"THE MILL IN THE WIRRAL." FROM the etching by FRED. BURRIDGE, R.E. 



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Plate 30 — "on the moors" 



FROM THE MEZZOTINT BY A. C. MEYER, A.R.E. 

(jBv termission of the Publishers, Messrs. Frost and Reed, Bristol) 




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FROM THE ETCHING BY FRED W. GOOLDEN 



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ROSLIN." FROM THE ETCHING BY D. Y. CAMERON, R.E. 



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Plate 34 — " every little helps a little " from the etching by Constance g. copeman, a.r. 



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Plate 35 — "a bend in a mountain stream' from the mezzotint by john finnie, r.e. 

(By permission of the Publishers, Messrs. Frost and Reed, Bristol) 



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Plate 36 — "the little copse" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY DAVID WATERSON, A.R.E. 




Plate 37 — "a piping shepherd" 



FROM THE MEZZOTINT BY DAVID WATERSON, A.R.E. 



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Plate 39— "drizzle" 



DRAWN, ETCHED, AND ENGRAVED BY THOMAS HUSON, R.E. 




Plate 40 — "the hill side' 



FROM the DRY-POINT BY T. IRVING DALGLIESH, R.E. 










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Plate 44 — " on the way to port " 



FROM the etching BY WILLIAM KIDDIER 







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FROM the AQUATINT BY FRANK SHORT, R.E. 



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"A DOCKYARD ON THE THAMES" 

FROM THE ETCHING BY FRANK 

BRANGWYN 

Plate 46 



British 




Plate 47 — " the king " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY HERBERT DICKSEE, R.E. 

{By fermission of the Publishers, Messrs. Frost and Reed, Bristol) 




Plate 48— " on the grand canal, venice" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY L. B. PHILLIPS, A.R.E. 







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"PORTRAITS OF THE LATE CECIL 
RHODES." FROM THE ETCHINGS 
BY MORTIMER MENPES, R.E. 
Plate 50 




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"A STREET IN PERUGIA.'VFROM 
THE ETCHING BY R. G. REASON 
Plate 54 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN AMERICA. By WILL 
JENKINS. 



HE many and varied artistic possibilities of line 
have each year been more intelligently practised 
by the American artist and better appreciated 
by the general public, and a brilliant school of 
wood engravers followed by a yet more brilliant 
school of pen draughtsmen whose work has 
appeared in well printed periodicals of large 
circulation, has produced a better public taste and 
a rapidly increasing interest in the graphic arts. 
A DEFINITE revival of interest in etching means a move towards 
raising the standard of public taste by a wider diffusion of things of 
real beauty and of sufficient monetary value to prompt a careful 
consideration of their merits. Again, a good etching besides being a 
thing of beauty is always an intellectual treat ; it is so " autographic," 
so closely characterised by the artist's actual touch that the student 
of it is almost able to feel the charm of the studio circle and to 
understand something of such a subtle atmosphere. 
MR. WHISTLER has said that " in Art it is criminal to go beyond 
the means used in its exercise." This is a canon which he has not only 
preached but conscientiously practised, and by so doing he has exerted 
very great influence on the work of American etchers. Many- 
sided worker and enthusiast, he has by sheer virtuosity, coupled with 
jiobility of conception and conscientiously serious aims, triumphantly 
reached and maintained a higher position as an etcher than any artist 
of his time. He has not reached his position without opposition. It 
has been given to few modern artists to meet such unfair and bitter 
criticism from the highest in authority (at one time in England) as 
he has in years past had to battle against. Now happily his great- 
ness is fully acknowledged, and no modern artist can justly claim so 
many appreciative and devoted admirers. He has earnestly striven 
with the greatest devotion to his ideals, unhampered by weakness of 
conception or lack of power, to express the full realisation of any 
message he has desired to impart. To the artist or connoisseur his 
works are the highest examples of lofty purpose and graceful poetic 
expression in modern etching. Equally versatile as painter, etcher or 
lithographer, he seizes with supreme and masterly grace the innermost 



American 

character of his subjects, and powerfully projects his statements with 
invariable refinement and by the most economical and effective means. 
He is sometimes almost epigrammatic in his manner of saying so 
much with so few lines or touches, and his work glows with the 
dramatic intensity of rich masses. It is now more than forty years, 
since the " French Series " — The Cabaret^ The Unsafe Tenement^ 
and others — were followed by the better known " Thames 
Series," each plate of which is a veritable gem of " portraiture " of 
the picturesque river subjects of that time. These first groups,, 
masterly as they are, were but the beginning of the most remarkable 
number of plates produced by any modern etcher, to which year 
by year he has added something from many and diverse motives. 
Shipping, buildings, figures, portraits, canals, docks, streets of 
London, Paris, Venice, Holland, Belgium, or the French Provinces, 
have all been subject to the magic of his touch. The total number of 
pages here available for American work would not afford sufficient 
space for even a briefly annotated catalogue of his important 
achievements in etching, to say nothing of the other branches of 
art in which he has with so much distinction exerted his personality. 
Happily he is to-day as vigorous and as active a force in art as ever. 
IN the foremost group of American painter-etchers stands the work 
of Charles A. Piatt. Distinguished alike for vigorous brilliancy and 
richness of effects, it shows that he has every variety of technical 
means at his disposal, and is a master of each in some special way. 
Exceptionally gifted with versatility, he has employed his skill in many 
different directions. 

STEPHEN PARRISH is an etcher whose work teems with interest 
regardless of the particular subject dealt with. Whether he is 
rendering the clear sunlight of Pennsylvania or the deeper notes of 
the lower Canadian Provinces, his style is always full of interest and 
rich in every line and mass. No American's work shows more 
forcibly how their country abounds in good subjects. There is a. 
certain paucity of native subject in the work of most American 
painters and etchers, probably due to lack of example such as the 
European artist has constantly at his elbow. If the European be 
painting this or that phase of a landscape, he can with little trouble 
study masterly examples and traditions of how to solve his problems.. 
He may see how Daubigny did this or Rousseau that ; how carefully 
Constable studied the various stages of the growth of a tree from 
month to month throughout the seasons, or with what decisive 
strength he painted a cloud form or a bit of foreground. The 
American etchers have had to look for technical example in work 



American 

based on subjects foreign to their own country, and have in conse- 
quence greatly neglected possibilities nearer at hand. Mr. Parrish is 
one of the men who has been able to both see and feel the greatness 
of the old master-etchers, and to grasp their technical methods with 
sufficient understanding to enable him to practise on any theme with 
equal force and enthusiasm. 

THAT brilliant pen-draughtsman illustrator. Otto Bacher, has 
practised etching with accomplished skill and with a simplicity 
of execution which gives his work unusual force with no lack of 
effectiveness. His Venice plates are among the best performances 
by any American. His grip of locale and ability to manage with 
ease the complicated groupings of boats, masts, cordage and the 
dazzling, fascinating undulation of water reflections in brilliant sun- 
light, have enabled him to produce plates that are never lacking in 
either pictorial or technical interest, 

FRANK DUVENECK is an artist who has accomplished many 
important plates. Versatile to a degree both as painter and etcher, 
he has a masterly command of line and is always able to express 
himself with intense dignity and polished grace of handling. Much 
of his best work has been done in Italy. 

SEVERAL members of that talented family, the Morans, have found 
a distinguished position as painter-etchers. Thomas Moran may be 
styled the artistic discoverer of the beauties of the south-west of 
America. His dramatic pictures of the Yellowstone Region have 
earned him an unique position in American art. A dreamer like 
Turner, he has painted Venice and the Orient with imaginative 
fervour. His etchings are conspicuous for technical facility and 
rhetorical force. His line has a wonderful quality of nervous 
vitality that adds interest to all his plates. Peter Moran has 
also devoted himself to the south-west, and has painted much from 
the picturesque life of the Pueblos. In most of his work animals are 
an important part of his subject. His landscapes with cattle are 
happily rendered and conspicuous for good drawing. The late 
MRS. NIMMO MORAN also attained a position of distinction 
as an etcher. Her work is a striking example of how much can be 
accomplished with simple undisguised line, softened only by such 
mellowness as the paper and the glow of rich inks will give. 
WALTER L. LATHROP is an etcher who knows how to make 
the most of line, and in handling it to show much versatile grace 
and variety. His splendid series of Connecticut country landscapes 
are teeming with both technical interest and the charming atmosphere 
of a picturesque native locality. 

s 



American 

JOSEPH PENNELL has not only shown his ability as an etcher, 
but also as a writer. As a black-and-white draughtsman few men 
have equalled his output for the past twenty years. At the last 
Paris Exhibition the only gold medal of the ist class awarded in the 
American section fell to him as an etcher. 

MRS. ANNA LEA MERRITT first attained distinction as a 
portrait painter, and afterwards as the writer of the life of her late 
husband, Henry Merritt, artist and author. She turned her attention 
to etching as a means suited to the illustration of her own work. She 
has executed many charming plates, principally portraits of dis- 
tinguished men and women of the time, with an occasional plate ot 
river scenery, landscape, or interpretations of her own paintings. 
Her vigorous portraits of Miss Ellen Terry and a large head of Mr. 
Leslie Stephen are striking examples of good etching. 
ELLEN OAKFORD has done much that is good in landscape 
etching ; strong in tonality, her work has much of the subtle glowing 
charm of moist growth and outdoor atmosphere. More of an 
exponent of painty masses than of flowing, sparkling lines, her work 
is always satisfying and charming in its own especial way. 
ESSENTIALLY a practitioner of the briUiant uses of Hne, the 
work of Edith Loring Getchell is vigorous, original and effective 
without affectation. She has practised dry-point with much success, 
and found her motives in Holland and France, as well as in her own 
New England scenery. Her hand is particularly sympathetic to all 
that is beautiful in foliation and growth of trees, atmospheric or 
climatic conditions of light, and those subtleties of nature best adapted 
to expression with the point. 

D. SHAW MACLAUGHLAN is an accomplished young artist 

who first studied in the usual academic courses, but has found in the 

art of etching a form of expression far more suited to his artistic 

bent. Deeply conscious of the towering greatness of Rembrandt, 

Durer and the older masters of line, he has set himself the task of 

learning all in his power of the good that appeals to him in the 

works of such great men. It follows that such devoted enthusiasm 

to an ideal is bound to produce good work; Mr. MacLaughlan has 

proved this already by his many charming and vigorously original 

plates. A well-known exhibitor both in America and Europe, 

honours and medals have already begun to come to him. In such 

an acomplished artist and conscientious student of good etching, great 

things may be expected from his clever hand in the years to come. 

ARTHUR A. LEWIS is another young artist who is devoting his 

talents to the best ideals of pure etching. Strong in his use of line, 

4 



American 

he is also most happy in achieving a velvety richness in his work 
with very conscientious and clever style in his composition. He is par- 
ticularly happy with figure subjects. Keenly grasping all the essentials, 
he draws them with charming grace and striking originality of style. 
GEORGE C. AID strikes a modern, graceful note in his work, 
permeated with much artistic thought and sympathy with nature. 
A thorough student of his art, he has most consistently studied the 
subject, and practises with conviction and much promise for the future. 
IT is not surprising that so talented a water-colour painter and 
illustrator as Sidney R. Burleigh should turn his hand to etching 
with conspicuous success. With unusual refinement of draughtsman- 
ship and brilliancy of handling such as he possesses in all mediums, 
Mr. Burleigh might be among the foremost of American etchers. 
CHARLES W. STETSON is an artist who is exceptionally gifted 
with individuality and power as a colourist. More strongly imaginative 
than most men of his school, whatever he touches is at once marked 
with those indescribable qualities which make such works stand 
alone. He is voted a " genius " among his friends, and so he is ; no 
school, no teaching, nothing but a natural fund of deep originality, 
can do what he has done with rich, deep, glowing, radiant colour. 
THE late Thomas Hovenden, who reached such a prominent position 
as a painter of American genre, practised etching with much success. 
Essentially an exponent of character, his figure plates were always 
handled with both breadth and richness of detail. 
JULIAN RIX as an etcher has done many clever plates, always 
handled with much fertility of line expression and with sympathy for 
tone and rich colour. 

W. C. BAUER is strong in his grasp of landscape drawing in all its 
different phases. Dignified in composition, with an intimate know- 
ledge of his subjects, his plates are always seriously managed and 
pleasing in final effects. 

OTIS WEBBER'S work, rich in tonaHty, is handled with a 
sympathetic line well expressing the different moods of nature. 
C. F. W. MEILATZ possesses a power of rendering a great variety 
of subject-matter with success. Bulk and masses of architecture, 
characteristics of streets, people and buildings, he sets down always 
with grace and conviction. 

THE late W. Goodrich Beal was most accomplished in his land- 
scape plates ; every tree, rock, hillside, cloud, or bit of foreground 
found conscientious consideration from him as to its placing, size, 
relation and character. His compositions were always managed with 
a keen grasp of the relation of all the parts to his motive. 



American 

J. A. S. MONKS has done excellent work with the etching needle. 
A brilliant painter of landscape, sheep and cattle, his etchings are 
based on solid knowledge and are handled with skill and taste. 
EDMUND H. GARRETT, painter, author, illustrator, and 
designer, has devoted himself to etching as a means of illustrating 
a certain beautiful series of books, and has achieved his purpose with 
marked artistic ability. 

R. SWAIN GIFFORD has done many excellent plates, as has also 
J. D. Smillie, who has successfully devoted his ability to many pro- 
cesses — line, soft ground, aquatint, mezzotint, and dry-point. One of 
the classes at the National Academy is employed in etching from life 
under his able direction. 

THOSE excellent painters, Robert Blum and W. Chase, are both 
accomplished etchers, but have produced nothing recently. 
ROBERT F. BLOODGOOD has done some very artistic plates, two 
of which he was good enough to contribute to this number. These, 
together with one by E. H. Garrett, it was found impossible to 
reproduce satisfactorily, and they were regretfully omitted. That 
clever marine painter, Carlton Chapman, also sent some excellent 
things, as did Frederick W. Freer and J. A. S. Monks, all of which 
unfortunately arrived too late to be included. 

IT is not possible to include here the names of all those who might 
justly claim mention under the title of American etchers, neither 
would it serve any definite purpose to do so. The following artists, 
in addition to those already mentioned, have been more or 
less prominent as etchers at various times in the past decade, 
and their examples and teachings will be a powerful influ- 
ence towards the revival of this art, a revival which now seems more 
possible than was the case a few years ago. 

J. M. GAUGENGIGL, Alfred Brennan, J. W. Twachtman, 
Charles Corwin, C. A. Vanderhoof, Bernard Walter Priestman, 
George L. Brown, T. W. Wood, J. M. Falconer, F. S. Church, H. 
Farrer, J. C. NicoU, F. Dielman, H. P. Share, Walter Saterlee, Otto 
Schneider, B. Lauder, Hamilton Hamilton, Ernest Haskell, James S. 
King, J. Lauber, Samuel Coleman, Frank Waller, C. Volkmar, 
Ernest C. Post, C. A. Walker, Charles H. Woodbury, H. D. Murphy, 
W. G. Glackens, W. H. H. Bicknell, Frank Bicknell, Sidney Smith, 
H. R. Blaney, G. G. McCutcheon, Frank Waller, G. D. Clements, 
Elliot Dangerfield, Katherine Lewin, W. H. Skelton, J. Fagin, 
Krausman Van-Elten, J. J. Calaghan, J. G. L. Ferris, Frank M. 
Gregory, J. F. Sabin, W. St. J. Harper, Stephen J. Ferris, Herman 
Hyneman, W. E. Marshall, C. F. Kimball, Eric Pape, and R. Coxe. 

Will Jenkins. 



American 




"CAMEO NO. I." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY J. MCNEILL 
WHISTLER 

Plate 2 



American 




Plate 3 — " a wintry evening " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY W. C. BAUER 
(By permission of Mr. C. Klackner) 




Plate 4 — " twilight " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY ELLEN OAKFORD 

(By permission of Mr. C. Klackner) 



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Plate 6 — " lido, Venice " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY OTTO H. BACKER 




Plate 7 — " the hour of rest " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY PETER MORAN 

(By permission of Mr. C. Klackner) 




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Plate 14 — " an ebb tide " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY OTIS S. WEBER 

{By permission of Mr, C. Klackner) 




Plate 15 — "autumn on the passaic river' 



FROM THE ETCHING BY JULIAN RIX 

(By fermission of Mr. C. Klackner) 



American 




{By permission of Mr. C. Klackner) 



" DEM WAS GOOD OLE DAYS." 
FROM THE ETCHING BY THE 
LATE THOMAS HOVENDEN 

Plate i6 



American 




Plate 17— "study of a head" 
from the etching by sydney richmond burleigh 




Plate 18 — "on the merrimac" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY THE LATE W. GOODRICH HEAL 
{By permission of Mr. C. Klacktier} 



American 




Plate ig — portrait of louis agassiz 

FROM THE ETCHING BY ANNA LEA MERRITT 




Plate 20 — "a fisherman's fortune' 



FROM the etching BY EDITH L. GETCHELL 
(By Permission of Mr. C. Klacftner} 



American 




Plate 21 — '' desdemona's house 



FROM THE ETCHING BY FRANK DUVENECK 




Plate 22 — " Williamsburg 



FROM THE ETCHING BY CHARLES A. ii..».i 




{By permission of Mr. Frederick Keppel) 



"THE MARKET SLIP, ST. JOHN, N.B., 
AT EBB TIDE." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY CHARLES A. PLATT 

Plate 23 








< 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN FRANCE. By GABRIEL 
MOUREY. 



URING the past few years engraving on metal 
in France has been going through an evolution 
analogous to that in lithography. Etching in 
colour is gradually and almost entirely replacing, 
in the esteem of connoisseurs, etching strictly so- 
called, dry-point etching in monochrome, and 
the work done with the burin or graver. Nor 
has it been otherwise with lithography ; public 
taste has recently veered round to drawings on 
stone, of which the more or less audacious, and more or less rich 
polychromatic effects, constitute the sole merit, so that the studies in 
monochrome of a Steinlen or a Willette impress many as belonging 
to a time long gone by. 

IN the course of two articles on Coloured Etchings in France, 
which appeared in "The Studio" for February and March 1901, I 
endeavoured to define in a few words the different methods followed 
in the technique of this special branch of art. May I be permitted 
to revert here to a question interesting for so many reasons not 
only to artists themselves but to connoisseurs and collectors ? I 
was, moreover, at considerable pains to make the information I 
gave last year complete, by addressing myself to the man who is 
best acquainted in France, if not in the whole of Europe, with 
the secrets of etching in colour. I allude to Eugene Delatre, the 
engraver and printer, son of Auguste Delatre, of whom Castagnary 
justly said that if he had lived at the time of Rembrandt, that great 
etcher would not have had to take impressions of his engravings 
himself; Auguste Delatre, to whom Felicien Rops wrote that 
curious treatise on Gravure au vernis mou^ or etching on a soft 
ground, which serves as an appendix to his Eauforte^ Pointe-Seche 
et Vernis mou (etching, dry-point, and soft-ground etching), which 
every etcher or engraver ought to read. 

M. EUGENE DELAtRE was, with M. Charles Maurin, one of 
the first engravers to yield to the fascination of etching in colour ; 
he it is who has struck off the greater number of etchings in colour 
which have so far appeared, for at the present day artists who print 
their own etchings are quite in the minority. 



French 

THERE are three distinct processes of etching in colour. In the 
first only one plate is used, the colour is laid on in the manner 
known as a la poupee*^ and the number of impressions that may be 
taken is practically illimitable. 

IN the second process two plates are used, one for the outline and 
the shadows, the other for the colour or colours, care being taken to 
print from the plate with the colour first, and that with the outline 
and shadows last. 

IN the third process one plate is required for each colour, and as many 
impressions are taken as there are plates ; but I was told by M. Delatre 
that with four plates every combination of colour can be obtained. 
THERE still remains the so-called monotype process, which is, as is 
well known, a painting on metal, generally on copper, which is passed 
through the press before the colour is completely dry. It would 
appear that monotypes can also be produced on zinc. The drawing 
is done with lithographic chalk, and similar colouring is used as in 
etching in colour a la poupee. The chalk drawing can only bear the 
taking of five or six impressions at the most, for the outlines become 
more and more eff^aced in each proof. 

FOR reasons which will be readily appreciated I will not dwell 
longer on these technical questions. Those who actually practise 
any craft have, of course, an experience impossible to an outsider, and 
the critic who pretends to bring his personal opinion to bear on the 
subject, lays himself open to a charge of pedantry. And after all what 
do the processes employed matter ? it is the results which count, the 
results which speak for themselves, and it is our mission to state what 
those results are. The art of the engraver is indeed of all the graphic 
arts the most involved in mystery, the most unique, and, at the 
same time, on account of its infinite resources, the most wide reaching 
in its results. What a gulf yawns between the style of a Meryon and 
a Gaillard, a Lepere and a Rops, a Jacquemart and a Whistler, a 
Braquemond and a Helleu. "Men achieve good results," says Felicien 
Rops in the letter to Auguste Delatre, alluded to above, " by the use 
of the most diverse, the most opposite means. That which suits one 
will not suit another. I think much the same may be said of all 
dogmas, academic formulae and recipes for success as the dictum of a 
celebrated doctor, who, after giving it due trial, declared of a remedy 
for cholera that it was excellent for masons but utterly bad for 
cabinet makers." 
AMONGST the engravers who have devoted themselves most exclu- 

* The poupee or doll is a bunch of rags used in this process. 



French 

sively to monochromatic etching a first place must be given to 
Auguste Lepere. I have no fear that any artist or connoisseur will 
reproach me for naming him as one of the masters of French etching, 
if not the master par excellence of the day. Lepere is incomparable 
in his knowledge of how to express motion and life, he is a draughts- 
man of the highest rank, and has a most admirable grasp of technique. 
Every fresh plate engraved by him proves him to be a yet more 
complete master of his craft, and shows that his outlook is ever 
widening, his execution ever gaining fresh ease, his art becoming 
ever more and more original and personal. The series of etchings 
he brought back from Holland last year is an illustration of the 
constant progress I have described. However great the excellence 
attained by Lepere in his wonderful engravings we are quite sure to 
find him taking one step further in advance in his next productions. 
How exquisitely beautiful are his views of Amsterdam ; what life, 
what go, there is in them ; what decision of touch, what variety of 
effect in the biting in ; what intensity of colour they display. 
WE discussed so recently in ** The Studio " the talent of M. Edgar 
Chahine that it is not desirable to say more here than is necessary 
to do justice to the more recent plates of that very original artist. 
His Portrait of Mdlle. Dehair, of the Comedie Fran9aise, which is 
full of refinement and insight into character, the Feather Boa and 
yaby, the last representing the exquisite face of a young girl leaning 
on her elbow and resting her chin on her hands, her beautiful light 
hair crowned by a big grey hat, prove him to be endowed with the 
greatest versatility. But however sensible he may be of the charms 
of the women of the day, Edgar Chahine is no less successful in his 
study of typical scenes in popular resorts. 

THERE is, perhaps, less sharpness and distinctness about the Paris 
scenes of Eugene Bejot, but they are even more pleasing. He excels 
in catching momentary effects, especially on the banks of the Seine, 
which are full of unexpected surprises in colour and perspective. 
GUSTAVE LEHEUTRE is another artist devoted to characteristic 
city scenes : the old streets and quaint old houses, &c., which he 
sees with the true etcher's eye, with the dry-point, so to speak, and 
he has produced a number of etchings full of charm. A conscientious 
draughtsman, he wields the etching tools with a delicacy of execution 
combined with a decision of touch which often result in the pro- 
duction of real masterpieces. How delightful, for instance, are his 
Maison de Garde ^ Tanneries a Montargis, U Impasse Gambey, Troyes, 
Ecluse du Treport, and Bateaux parisiens a Auteuil, full as they are of 
audacious effects of perspective. 



French 

HELLEU is as ever the fascinating wielder of the diamond-point 
whom we all know so well, the masterly interpreter of the grace 
:and elegance of the fashionable woman of the day. We are never 
"weary of admiring him, for he is always, as has been justly said, 
«equal to himself; nay, even superior to himself What could be 

more exquisite than his recent studies of the Duchess of M , one 

of the great ladies of the English aristocracy, especially that of 

La Duchesse de M Endormie, with her favourite fox terrier on her 

knees; or, to quote another tx2im^\t,thtsi\xdiy oi Mme. Madeleine C , 

full of typically Parisian distinction ; or, again, that most admirable 
scene of maternal affection, Jean Helleu embrasse par sa Mere, and 
Les Saxes, which is a fitting pendant to the celebrated dry-point 
called the Dessins de Watteau au Louvre. 

GREAT indeed and full of strange fascination is the contrast when 
we turn from Helleu to consider the work of Steinlen, full as it is 
of profound melancholy, even tragedy ; for, with his deep insight 
into the life of the people of Paris, he transports us into the very 
atmosphere of the faubourgs, revealing the vice and misery under- 
lying the brilliant society of the capital. 

STEINLEN is, in my opinion, especially successful in his etchings 
in black and white. His Amour eux de Village, Pauvre Here, Le Bouge, 
Rentree du Travail, A Concert in the Street, and certain of his land- 
scapes, such as the Lffet de Soleil couchant sur un Pont, are especially 
noteworthy, so full are they of entrancing charm. These etchings, 
in fact, simply palpitate with truth and emotion ; their drawing and 
composition are alike excellent. 

VERY different in style, but equally sincere in their interpretation 
of nature, are the engravings of the Dutchman, M. P. Dupont, who 
resides in Paris, and on that account has a right with the Armenian, 
M. Chahine, to be noticed here. 

M. DUPONT has assimilated the technique of the German masters 
in engraving of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with rare skill 
and intelligence, but at the same time he has given a thoroughly 
personal impress to his own work. Except for one Amsterdam 
scene, the Groote Toren, I have scarcely seen anything of his but 
studies of horses — all strong dray or farm animals — notably The 
Fallen Horse, UOutillage, and the Cheval mangeant. In them the artist 
has shown himself thoroughly in touch with his subjects, interpreting 
in each case expression, gesture, attitude — in a word the special ego 
of every one of his models with a really touching tenderness ; for 
his horses, whether in the open country or on the quays of 
Paris, are full of individual life and character. M. Dupont is, 

4 



French 

in fact, an artist of the first rank and his name deserves to be 
remembered. 

IN his etchings in black and white and in colour Charles Huard 
continues to interpret with great success the life of fisher folk, 
sailors, old country women, and other types of provincial life, 
observing their peculiarities with infinite care. His Vieille Femme 
reprisant pres d'une fenetre and In the Snow at Bel- Air are amongst the 
best of his signed works. 

M. GASTON EY'CHENNE has also produced some studies of 
animals which are really little masterpieces. His L.a Carpe, Papillon 
jaune^ and Petite Panthere are specially noteworthy. He is a thorough 
lover of delicate and subtle effects of colour, an earnest student of 
nature, and everything from his hand has a permanent charm of 
its own. — [As we go to press we have heard, with the greatest 
regret, of the death, at the early age of twenty-nine years, of this 
very talented and sympathetic artist. — Editor.] 

M. CHARLES HOUDARD confines himself more and more strictly 
as time goes on to the effects of sunset, in which he has attained such 
wonderful richness of colouring. 

M. MULLER is an artist of considerable power and versatility. 
His portraits of actresses, especially that of Cleo de Merode, are very 
quaint. For myself, however, I prefer his Baigneuse sous les Saules ; 
Rue St. Vincent — a winter snow effect full of force and charm — Port 
du Pollet, and his Promenade a Hyde Park, etchings in colour in 
which he has obtained effects of rare delicacy and subtle refinement. 
M. CHARLES MAURIN is one of the very few artists who has 
attempted to treat the nude figure in the medium of etching. His 
morning and evening toilettes of young girls, his studies of girls or 
women bathing, chatting together in deshabille in the privacy of 
their own rooms, and scenes from the home life of mothers and 
children, are full of the greatest charm. The only fault I have to 
find with them is that they are, perhaps, too precise in drawing and 
in colouring, but some few of them have all the interest of the most 
charming genre paintings, notably the Ruban de Coi^ure, Nouvelle 
education sentimentale. Premiere Toilette, and the Bain de lajillette. 
M. MANUEL ROBBE possesses in the very highest degree the 
same mastery of technique as M. Charles Maurin, but he is less 
perfect as a draughtsman. Some of his signed proofs are full of 
incomparable charm, especially, in my opinion, those in which there 
is the least colour — La critique, for instance, in which a young woman 
is standing in a delightful pose in front of an easel. The Dame a la 
chaise longue also pleases me greatly. The versatiHty of M. Robbe's 

5 



French 

talent is just as clearly displayed as in his scenes of intimate home 
life in hjs landscapes with figures, such as the Marche a Montmartre^ 
Dans Je Parc^ Lever de Lune, the Vieil Arbre, and Aux champs, all fine 
renderings of typical outdoor subjects full of admirable effects of light. 
THE scenes of Parisian life of M. Richard Ranft are full of humour 
and imagination. In such typical works as his Marche a la Volatile 
and La Charrette anglaise he delights in striking schemes of colour, 
full of cheerful harmony. 

M. FRANCIS JOURDAIN continues to seek his effects by 
contrasting masses of d^k tone, achieving ever more striking and 
impressive results, but at the same time always retaining the decorative 
character of his work. As an etcher in colours he occupies an unique 
position, and 1 know nothing more charming than his Femme dans 
r Ombre, Femme lisant, or his Femme au can^e, the last a charming 
study in grey and pink, relieved by the dull gold pf the hair and the 
soft black of the velvet collar. 

M. BERNARD DE MONVEL has produced itltle during the last 
year. If I am not mistaken only two plates, namely, the Bar — one 
of those curious studies to which he owes his celebrity — and his 
Before the Storm, which resembles a little too much his Haleurs, 
although the colouring is different. 

THE plates engraved by M. Eugene Delatre are simply perfect, so 
wonderfully strong is his technique. In my opinion, it would be 
quite impossible for any one to attain to greater delicacy, refinement, 
softness, and depth of tone. It is an absolute delight to turn over his. 
series of Landscapes, vibrating with the light of early morning with 
the mists of the dawn still clinging to them. To cite but a few, 
how charming are the Entree du Village de Saint-yulien-le-Pauvre, the 
Moulin de L'Epais, the Pommiers, and the Brumes sur la Sarthe, Very 
different, but equally striking, are the Pont Solferino, a night effect, 
with the lights reflected in the humid gloom of the reddish fog ; and 
most charming are the two studies of cats, Moumoune and Marquis, 
whilst in the Vieille Femme aux Chats is displayed in an equal degree 
the wonderful insight into character and power of observation which 
distinguish so many fine works from the hand of M. Eugene Delatre. 
AMONGST the more recent plates of M. Jacques Villon, all of 
whose work bears the impress of distinction, the most pleasing are 
those in which he contents himself with simple effects of colour, in. 
other words those which are the least polychromatic. Specially 
noticeable are his Parisienne seated in a pink armchair, with her face 
turned away from the spectator, the whole subject veiled in a kind of 
grey haze, from which emerges the exquisitely delicate and refined 

6 



French 

profile of the young girl, and that most dainty study, full of the 
elegance of the Second Empire, Les Premiers Beaux yours, with the 
figure in the blue — such a ravishing blue — costume ; very amusing too 
are the plates to which the artist has given the names of the Negre 
en bonne Fortune, the Cabaret de Nuit, and the Ombrelle rouge, 
THE impressionist painter M. Dezaunay endeavours, with marked 
success, to give to his etchings the same freshness and brightness of 
colour as distinguish his canvases. His studies of Breton women, 
such as the Paysanne de Rosporden, the Petite mendiante de Pleyben, and 
the Femme etjillette de Ploogastel Daoulas, are simply delightful. 
TO M. Dubuc we owe some very powerful studies in etching of sea 
effects. Now he renders with rare skill in his Mourillon the gleam- 
ing luminous Mediterranean, as a scintillating stretch of blue water, 
now he becomes tragic and grand in his Vaisseau de Guerre, 3. mighty 
man-of-war, breaking the huge waves of the ocean at night, with its 
smoke trailing behind it and its lamps all aglow. 
EQUALLY highly must be commended the landscapes of M. E. 
Viala, etchings in black and white, or very slightly tinged with 
colour. They are all characterised by broad masses of tone, and 
there is about them a certain mystery reflecting their artist's peculiar 
mode of looking at nature. The plate called Humbles Terres is a 
noteworthy example of M. Viala's special excellences. 
M. ROUX-CHAMPION sees his subjects in a less romantic and less 
cheerful light. His Pardon is one of his most successful efforts, and, 
in my opinion, there is much to admire in the colouring of the Robes 
rouges, the Moulin, and the pleasing impressionist view of the Jardin 
du Luxembourg. 

M. HENRI PAILLARD, the illustrator of Bruges la morte, is 
evidently not very much in love with the process of etching in 
colour. His Quais de la Seine, however, is a very pleasing plate, but 
it is easy to see that the artist is more at home in black and white 
engraving. 

M. L. PI VET'S Coq is a successful bit of decorative work in 
harmonious colouring ; M. Schuller in his Deux Coqs, and M. J. 
Angelvy in the two plates called Debuts and Fin d'un Maraudeur, have 
turned the resources of polychromatic etching to very good effect 
in their renderings of animals. 

MANY other works deserve recognition and examination, full as 
they are of interest alike from the point of view of their artistic and of 
their technical value. I must be content, however, with mentioning 
the fine studies of women by M. Gaston Darbour, especially the 
Parisienne in a red dress looking at a drawing ; the Dame au Hibou ; 



French 

the Inter leur forain a la Foire de Neuilly by M. Betout, displaying 
considerable observation and skill of execution; the exquisite Scene 
d'Interieur of M. V. Dupont, in which a mother is seated sewing near 
her child perched in a high chair; the fine studies of flowers by 
Mdlle. Voruz, which are perhaps rather too Japanese in style ; the 
series of typical inhabitants and scenes from the street by Sunyer, 
notably the Place de r Ahreuvoir a Montmartre^ Groupes as sis au Luxem- 
bourg^ which recall not very happily the manner of Steinlen ; the 
landscapes of M. A. Lafitte, such as Soira Onival ; the Promenade apres 
la Course by M. R. Canals, a characteristic Spanish scene ; the land- 
scapes of the south of France by M. Ralli-Scaramang, which 
vibrate with life and character ; the studies of women by M. E. 
Roustan, interesting although the execution is rather feeble; and the 
Pay sage du Bourbonnais of M. P. Maud. Lastly, 1 must not omit to 
mention especially the recent engravings in colour of M. Auguste 
Delatre, the Solitude Marais^ the beautiful Moonlight Effect in Scotland^ 
and above all the Storm Effect^ a magnificent etching in black and white, 
in which this master in engraving has attained to a tragic grandeur 
truly admirable. 

WHAT rich and varied results have been achieved in this new art ot 
etching in colour, how many artists of widely differing temperaments 
have been enticed to produce by its means works stamped with their 
own individuality ! In the collections of engravings and museums of 
the future an important place will be occupied by etchings in colour. 
French engravers may well pride themselves on having widened the 
field of monochromatic engraving on metal, and of having revived the 
art of polychromatic etching ; in a word, of having converted it into a 
prolific and supple process, lending itself to an infinite variety of 
expression, and capable of being adapted to every kind of artistic 
temperament, every peculiarity of style. 

IN conclusion, let us off^er our best thanks to M. Ed. Sagot and M. 
Charles Hessele, the owners or publishers of the various etchings, 
reproductions from which form the illustrations of this article. 

Gabriel Mourey. 



French 




(By permission oj M. Ed. Sagot) 



"L'IMPASSE GAMBEY, TROYES." FROM 
THE ETCHING BY G. LEHEUTRE 

Plate 2 



French 




''IN THE SNOW AT BEL-AIR." FROM 
THE ETCHING BY CHARLES HUARD 
Plate 3 



(By permission of M. Hessele) 





"choosing a good proof." from the coloured etching by MANUEL ROBBE. 

fBy termissiouc/ M. Ed, Sagot.} 




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"jean HELLEU EMBRASSE par SA M^RE." from the dry point by P. HELLEU. 



French 




By permission oj M. Ed. Sagot) 



"LA MAISON NEUVE." FROM 
THE ETCHING BY A. LEPERE 

Plate 8 



French 




Plate 9 — " Amsterdam 



FROM THE ETCHING BY HENRY PAILLARD 




amsterdam " 
Plate 10 



FROM THE ETCHING BY AUGUSTE LEPERE 

{By permission of M. Ed. Sagot) 





"at AMSTERDAM." FROM THE ETCHING BY A. LEpIrE. 



(By Periitissicii of M. lid. Sa^ol.) 



French 




quartier de la bievre ' 
Plate 12 



FROM THE ETCHING BY AUGUSTE LEP^RE 

(By permission of M. Ed. Sagot) 




«« TrtTT " 



TOIL 

Plate 13 



FROM THE ENGRAVING BY R. DUPONT 

{By permission of M. Ed. Sagot) 



French 




Plate 14 — " bassins de la villette, le jour " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY H. PAILLARD 




'the fallen horse" 
Plate 15 



FROM THE ENGRAVING BY R. DUPONT 

(By permission of M. Ed. Sagot) 





"MLLE, DELVAIR OF THE COMEDIE FRANCAISE." FROM the etching by EDGAR CHAHINE. 



French 




{By permission oj M. Ed, Sagot) 



"MARKET DAY — AVENUE DE 
CLICHY." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY EDGAR CHAHINE 

Plate i8 







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French 




"PAUVRE HERE. A STUDY 
IN POVERTY." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY STEIN LEN 
Plate 23 



French 




"A CONCERT IN THE 
STREET." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY STEINLEN 
Plate 24 




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'VIVE LE TSAR!" FROM THE etching by FELIX BRACQUEMOND 

(By Permission of M. A. Marty.) 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN GERMANY. By HANS W. 
SINGER. 



HERE was a renaissance of etching in- 
Germany, as of most of the other forms of 
art, during the last quarter of last century. 
Among the men who plied the point seriously 
before then, and still remain in the foremost 
ranks, C. A. Meyer-Basel and P. Halm are- 
perhaps the best. Both are known by a large- 
number of delicate landscapes, showing views 
of Suabia, the northern boundary lines of 
Switzerland around Lake Constance, and similar regions, seen with an^ 
eye which does not feel attracted to landscape in its aspects of 
grandeur or in its romantic phases, but which loves nature pure and 
simple, even if it be but a few steps beyond the gates of a city. 
OF the two Halm has some special claims upon our interest, even- 
above Meyer-Basel. He has with excellent fidelity and grace repro- 
duced the work of other artists, and designed ornamental work. One 
of the best proofs of his abilities in this direction is to be found in the 
magnificent volumes dealing with the collections of Frederic the- 
Great, which were on exhibit in the German Pavilion of the Paris 
Exhibition of 1900. Moreover Halm is, after a fashion, in spite of 
his comparative youth, the Nestor of modern etching. 
FOR it was he who gave technical instruction, as a friend, to Karl 
Stauffer-Bern, and on the path upon which Stauffer led there after- 
wards followed Klinger. To Klinger's genius, again, as well as 
to his success, which called forth a widespread interest in the art, the- 
recent revival is due. 

STAUFFER commenced as a portrait-painter and etcher. He was 
a sculptor at heart, but unfortunately he did not find that out much 
before the calamity befell him which ended his life. The 
wearisome, torturing process of elaborating his own ideal, of finding, 
the direction in which his technical talent and the bent of his^ 
genius lay, was all evolved on the field of etching. He had a keen 
eye for form, loved to follow each slight elevation and depression, and 
continually sought for the best means towards a full and conscientious 
expression of form. This caused him first to drop the strong line in^ 
etching, then to relinquish the point altogether and to take up the* 



German 

graver in its place. But he did not use it in the mannered fashion to 
ivhich the thoughtless successors of Mercuri and Toschi had reduced 
it. He gave up the set " system " and used the graver w^ith as much 
freedom as etchers do the point. The difference in effect is that 
the quality of his delicate line helps him to obtain effects of pre- 
cision and " colour " that the point and bitten line do not yield. As 
an attainment in the direction of superb " modelling," such plates as 
Stauffer's portrait of his mother and the reclining nude model, have 
rarely been surpassed. 

KLINGER, originally an etcher in true spirit, underwent transforma- 
tions like Stauffer, but has lived to complete them. He, too, in the 
•end has become a sculptor at heart. When he v^as young the 
exuberance of his fancy impelled him to take to etching and pen drawl- 
ing, for he had more ideas, all struggling to be put to the test, than 
he could comfortably have painted. From the standpoint of the 
connoisseur of etching pure and simple, Klinger's earliest w^ork, such 
as the sets on Ovid and the fable of Cupid and Psyche, are the most 
pleasing. They are tantalisingly full of odd fancies, but this "literary" 
character is nevertheless kept in the background. The latter series, 
such as the Story of a Love, Story of a Life, On Death, are over- 
whelming as lucubrations of a mind that must be taken seriously. 
Yet he is beginning to neglect his style, owing to the earnestness 
with which he endeavours to enforce what he has to say. The latest 
series, above all the Brahmsphantasie, considered as pure art, show a 
decline. His powers as a draughtsman are as great as ever, his fancy 
-as vivid and powerful as before, yet his craft has fallen off lamentably. 
He combines on one plate methods that lack harmony. He keeps 
the desired effect in view, and makes for it without considering the 
character of his medium. Now that Klinger has turned sculptor 
altogether, he has lost the patience, conscientiousness, and lightness of 
hand which characterised the early period of his career. 
OF the men whom he particularly impressed, Greiner, Kolbe, Dasio, 
and Hofer, none but Dasio has devoted much time to engraving and 
-etching. Dasio has done notable work ; but he has allowed himself 
to be carried away by a sort of spirit of romance which delights in 
parading a degree of culture greater than he really possesses. And 
in presenting his allegories, his philosophical sets, he has neglected 
to devote sufficient time to the technical part of his art and to his 
draughtsmanship. 

THERE are no schools of etching in Germany, any more than there 
formerly were. More men apply themselves to it, and the quality as 
well as quantity of work produced is very much higher than it was 



German 

some twenty-five years ago. Yet every one goes his own way, more 
or less. Much of the work is interesting. It shows us painters 
striving after aims similar to those they have already achieved 
with the brush. Upon the whole, very few men etch from an etcher's 
standpoint pure and simple. Among them the Dresden artists Unger, 
Fischer, and Pietschmann are in the lead. Their work runs more than 
any other upon the lines that legitimate etching has followed, since 
the days of Callot ; it is most like that of their English comrades. 
They have a true sense of the value of power and line. They employ 
the simple straightforward process, and do not fritter away time with 
experiments in search of new effects. Fischer has produced some 
very beautiful landscapes, sketches from the banks of the Elbe, from 
the shores of the Baltic at Bornholm or Riigen, and from the heights 
of the Silesian Mountains. There are few among us that have so 
much sense for a simple, grand style as he. 

THE Hamburg artists are the very reverse. They studied from 
books all the methods and tricks of the trade. They have produced 
not very many, but very clever plates, and display dextrous feats such as 
other etchers have arrived at only after years of work. Yet this is the 
best one can say of Eitner, lilies, Kayser, &c. Perhaps they have 
been too apt, too clever. They have sucked the orange of etching and 
seem to have found it dry very soon, for they have almost given it 
up already. Serious art presupposes earnest work ; that is beyond 
dispute. The man who gets no help, who has to find out the ways 
and means all for himself, generally produces the most lasting work, 
and sticks to what he has learned. These Hamburg artists have found 
life too easy. 

AT Berlin we find the two best reproductive etchers — we may safely 
say it — in allEurope,A. Kriiger and K.Koepping. Koepping'setchings 
of Rembrandt, Frans Hals, and Miinkacsy have gained him world-wide 
fame. There is nothing to equal it. He preserves not only the 
•character of the painter's work, but images even the quality of the 
brush work, nay, even the state of preservation of the picture before 
}iim. Both Kriiger and Koepping have attempted original work, 
but have failed to attract as much applause with it as with their other 
productions. 

AT Berlin, too, we find Max Liebermann, certainly a most interesting 
artist. If we admit that such a thing as plein-air or impressionist 
etching is feasible we must admit that Liebermann has attained to it. 
Such plates as the Cart in the Downs, the Girl Herding Goats, th.^. Beer- 
garden in Rosenheim, the Dutch Girls Sewing in a Little Garden, are 
astonishing and interesting enough. I, for my part, prefer a number 



German 

of delicate dry-points on zinc by Liebermann, little Dutch views, 
which betray a fine sense of the beauty of the materials employed. 
LEISTIKOW, of Berlin also, turns etching into an altogether decora- 
tive art, just as he does painting. His style, far removed from 
naturalism, is very personal and engaging, from the fact that he simpli- 
fies not only the colours but also the forms of nature. 
THE work of Mrs. KoUwitz is the last one would expect from a 
woman. There is all but brutal realism in her delineation of the 
lowest types of humanity Yet such powerful creations as the 
weird dance about the Guillotine are wonderfully impressive. Unfor- 
tunately most of her plates — the series on the Weavers, the Riot, &c., 
— savour too much of politics. 

AT Karlsruhe there are Thoma and Kalckreuth, who have etched a 
good deal. What interests us in their plates is the painter, or rather 
the artist, whom we know through his paintings. They have not as 
yet turned out work that adds any important new touches to their 
characteristics as we already know them. It is the same with the late 
Leibl, or with Stuck, or with Menzel even. We would not care 
to miss their etchings, and yet when we pass judgment on these artists, 
our opinion of their etchings will not weigh heavily with us. Stuck, 
perhaps, of all the five touches us nearest. His Pool in a T^rout Stream 
is a beautiful plate, making the most of a wonderful technique. 
Before leaving Karlsruhe mention, at least, should be made of 
Walther Conz. 

MUNICH, once upon a time the undoubted metropolis of German art, 
strange to say, has never given birth to a school of etchers in any way 
comparable with that of its painters. One of the most interesting among 
the younger men, Heinrich Wolff, received a call to Konigsberg, 
just when he was beginning to be known. He has done portraits 
principally, and has used the roulette in an extremely interesting way. 
Hegenbart, who has just begun to work upon this field, promises to 
succeed excellently, when we keep in mind what he has already 
achieved with his first few plates. He has done delicate line work, 
slightly too reminiscent of pure pen-and-ink drawing, but he has also 
completed some excellent surface work, notably the Ready for Flight. 
THOSE etchers who prefer to employ surface techniques, and aim 
at the pictorial chiaroscuro of the painters, are either Munich men 
or traceable to Munich influence. They are all landscapists, and I 
should place Gampert, with his fine moorland scenes, at the head of 
the list. Graf approaches him closely ; so does Pankok, who 
employs mezzotint, whereas the other two use aquatint and soft ground 
etching preferably. The " Worpswede " artists, Mackensen and 



German 

Overbeck would fall within or near to this category, at least as 
regards their aim if not their technique, which is principally pure 
line etching depending upon the help of the printer and of retroussage 
for the tonality. 

THERE are, of course, also line landscape-etchers such as Ubbelohde, 
who has produced beautiful, sunny work, with sweeping strokes, great 
delicacy, and a well thought out translation of the surfaces in nature 
into a scheme of line. Rasch and Hagen, of Weimar, as well as 
Hirzel, who is at the same time a well-known book-plate etcher, show 
more or less similarity to Ubbelohde. 

PERHAPS I ought not to pass by Geyger and R. Muller, and 
Vogeler, the latter of whom has produced a number of well-known 
plates — but they are affected and singularly weak in sentiment. 
Geyger is remarkably skilful ; but this has led him into so great a 
degree of over-finish that some of his later work is almost painful to 
behold. R. Miiller's absolute want of fancy or refined conception 
unfortunately render his technically excellent plates as devoid of 
interest as photogravures. 

THESE are the names of the greater part, though, of course, not all 
of the modern German etchers. Upon the whole they will bear 
comparison with those of other countries well enough. If there is 
not so much feeling for purity of style in evidence as there might be, 
this is, perhaps, somewhat counterbalanced by the great variety 
and freshness to be found in German work of the day. There 
has been less of imitation and more of originality in recent German 
etching and engraving than in any of the other forms of German art. 

Hans W. Singer. 




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Plate 2 — " a gusty day " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY OTTO UBBELOHDE 




Plate 3 — "an idyll" 



FROM THE DRY-POINT BY HANS THOMA 



German 




"THE REAPERS." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY LEOPOLD COUNT 
KALCKREUTH 

Plate 4 



German 




"IN THE ORCHARD" FROM THE 
AQUATINT BY OSCAR GRAF 
Plate 5 




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German 




Plate 8 — "in hessia" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY C. THEODOR MEYER-BASEL 




Plate g — "near starnberg" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY C. T. MEYER-BASEL 



German 




"A POOL IN A TROUT STREAM." FROM 
THE ETCHING BY FRANZ STUCK 

Plate io 



German 




Plate it — "a river scene after sundown' 



FROM the etching BY OTTO GAMPERT 




Plate 12— "adam and eve, satan and death"' 



FROM THE ETCHING BY MAX KLINGER 



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Plate i6— " dance in a gin-shop" 

from the soft-ground etching by kathe kollwitz 




Plate 17 — "the violinist 



FROM THE MIXED ETCHING BY BERNHARD PANKOK 



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"ART AND MAMMON." ETCHED AND 
AQUATINTED BY FRITZ HEGENBART 
Plate 19 




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German 




"ROCKS ON THE ISLAND OF 
RUGEN." FROM THE AQUA- 
TINT BY OTTO FISCHER 
Plate 22 



German 




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"THE READER." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY PETER HALM 

Plate 23 



German 




Plate 24 — " breakers ' 



FROM THE ETCHING BY OTTO FISCHER 




Plate 25 — "returning home in the snow" 



FROM the DKY-POINT BY ARTHUR ILLIES 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN AUSTRIA. ByWILHELM 
SCHOLERMANN. 



;ODERN Art in Austria, properly speaking, is 
but a young though rapidly-growing plant of 
recent cultivation and success. Its " nativity," 
if I may be allowed to use the term in its 
twofold sense, scarcely dates back more than 
half a decade. Even as late as 1896, when the 
great International Exhibition of Graphic Art 
took place at Vienna, Austrian etchers, with the 
exception of a few engravers of the old masters, 
were conspicuous by their absence. It is not surprising, therefore, if 
we find that the noblest branch of the graphic arts, which, perhaps, 
above all others is based upon severe and time-honoured tradition — 
the work of the steel point upon the copperplate — has not ranked 
foremost among the latter productions of Austrian artists. 
THERE may, perhaps, be found still another, and even more psycho- 
logical explanation to account for this. The average talent of the 
Austrian artist — his artistic temperament — lies, on the whole, in a 
different direction. It is in the free development of fancy and taste, 
in the happy adaptation of form and colour to decorative purposes, 
that he generally finds the best opportunity for developing his powers. 
He is a born decorator. Severe and penetrative artistic conceptions 
are not, as a rule his strongest side ; but he delights in multi- 
coloured pageants — a field not altogether encouraging for the develop- 
ment of the gentle and patient art of etching. 

MOREOVER, that essentially modern phase of etching, which, 
while uniting the hard and digging scrape of the burin or the lighter 
stroke of the dry point with a variety of dainty colour schemes, has 
contributed so largely to the perfection of colour-printing of late — 
a process so successfully initiated by French artists of high rank — this 
new process of coloured etching has not,to my knowledge, been hitherto 
practised to any extent by living painter-etchers in Austria. Yet the 
movement seems even in Vienna to gain ground by degrees, though 
limited for the present to reproductive engraving. 
WILLIAM UNGER, though not an Austrian by birth, has taken 
up his abode in the Austrian capital, and holds a professorship 
at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. His etchings, after the old 



Austrian 

Dutch and Flemish masters, Rembrandt and Rubens in particular, 
are universally appreciated, though it must be admitted that they are 
not all of equal strength and value, some of his numerous plates 
failing to do full justice to the breadth and spirit of the originals, 
while others are extremely good. His large plate after Titian's 
painting of the so-called Himmlische und Irdische Liebe (Profane and 
Divine Love) may be named among his most successful transmuta- 
tions of colour into the mellow effects of the mezzotint plate. 
PROFESSOR UNGER is generally regarded as the senior etcher 
and tutor of a generation of gifted "juniors." In fact he has inspired 
quite a number of younger men to work with the engraver's tools, 
and it would appear, from the entirely independent way in which 
several of his pupils and friends have developed in different directions, 
that his tuition and advice have not exercised any restrictive influence 
upon the individuality of the talents placed under his care, but, on 
the contrary, have been helpful in allowing free scope for each talent 
to find its own way by following its peculiar inclinations. 
AMONG the younger generation, Mr. Alfred Cossmann, a pupil of 
Unger, has been developing his talent in a decidedly individual 
manner. He was born in 1 870 at Graz in the Steirmark, and, after 
studying at the School of Arts and Crafts of the Oesterreichische 
Museum fur Kunst und Industrie in Vienna — principally in the 
ceramic department — he began etching under Prof. Unger's directions, 
and has now been working independently for the last three years, 
after a strict course of technical training in the various methods of 
reproductive engraving. 

IN the plate entitled A Tumult — An unlucky Democrat, the artist has 
taken up a modern theme. There is suggestive force of a quite ex- 
ceptional character in it, a hot breath of feverish agitation. There is, 
in fact, an abundance of imaginative expression, which, while intensely 
true, stops only just short of caricature. Work of this kind, 
thoroughly modern in spirit and cut out from life in this earnest 
manner, is deserving of attention not merely from a technical point 
of view, but in a higher and broader sense. This young artist is, in 
my opinion, gifted with more than talent. There is an element of 
strong human sympathy in him, mingled with that scarcely percep- 
tible ironical vein which marks the artist of genius. 
COSSMANN employs a variety of technical methods, combining 
them as the subject may require. The above-mentioned plate was 
etched completely, and then the aquatint was put in for background, 
middle tones and some pieces of the clothes and hair. 
ANOTHER artist of uncommon parts, Mr. Ferdinand Schmutzer, 



Austrian 

member of the Secessionists, has of late been very successful. He 
studied some years in Paris, where his strong sense of the picturesque 
was rapidly developed together with that fine feeling for the relative 
values of light and shade and broken lights which marks the born 
painter-etcher. His newest plates are excellent, some being of un- 
usually large dimensions. He has of late turned to portrait etching, 
and gained a gold medal at the Paris and Dresden Exhibitions. 
Schmutzer also made the experiment of etching the figure of a lady 
just about to mount a horse, nearly half life size, perhaps the largest 
plate in existence. This may be noted for a curiosity, though the 
practical and artistic value of such tours deforce seems questionable. 
SCHMUTZER is certainly a very strong etcher, with an excellent 
sense of atmospheric effect and harmonious design quite in unity 
with his fixed purpose and uncompromising vigour of performance. 
He has studied well the old masters, entering deeply into their 
secrets, but nevertheless remaining true to himself. Old masters, in 
cases like these, instead of depriving the younger men of their per- 
sonality, have a peculiar power of widening their range of vision. 
This is the case with Schmutzer, and we may look forward to his 
future work with increased interest and confidence. 
EMIL ORLIK is already well known to readers of The Studio.. 
He is to-day, take it all in all, perhaps the most skilful all-round 
draughtsman among the Austrian artists as a body. He is 
gifted with a capacity for changing from one mood, manner or 
method into another with a nervous, quick mental receptivity quite 
marvellous. He knows no limits, no prejudices, no preferences. If 
he makes up his mind to take in the spirit, say, of the art of Japan, 
he feels and draws and paints or lithographs like a Japanese. The 
varieties of his technical methods are at once subtle and free, delicate 
and strong, and he very seldom repeats himself. 
OF the work of Mr. Rudolf Jettmar as an etcher and draughtsman 
I have had the opportunity of speaking on a former occasion (see 
The Studio, Vol. xix. No. 85). His imagination seems to be 
perpetually at work in a free, fantastic spirit of mind, forming and 
dissolving forms like strains of music without end. He is a native of 
Galicia, having been born at Krakau in 1867. He has studied in 
Vienna, Karlsruhe, Italy, and Leipzig, and in 1897 returned to Vienna, 
as a member of the Vereinigung bildender Kiinstler Oesterreichs. 
THE art of engraving proper has been traditionally practised among 
Austrian artists for generations, and so we find also among the 
modern men some very able artists using line engraving as a medium 
for the interpretation of the touch of the painter's brush, reduced 



Austrian 

to the simple gradations of black and white. The reproductive 
engraver represents for the fine arts what the translator does for 
literature : he must be above all an interpreter. He must penetrate 
into the centre of another's personality and also into the technical 
spirit of the original — that peculiar medium of individual expression 
so frequently overlooked, yet, in truth, inseparable from any art 
worthy of the name. 

AMONG the contemporary reproductive etchers and engravers, the 
Polish artist, Mr. Ignaz Lopieiiski has attained a high standard of 
technical execution, combined with a very delicate artistic feeling 
for what may be termed the soul of the picture he is translating. 
LOPIENSKI was born at Warsaw in 1865. He began his studies 
at first as a sculptor and medallist in Vienna under the direction of 
Professor Bengler, then at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, 
whence he returned to Vienna, and finally again to Warsaw. 
HE is above all an interpreter of his native land, that low desert 
plain of wild flat country, where the poor peasant people are 
still held in serfdom by the rich landowners, those broad spaces of 
wilderness, with ill-fed horses and starving vegetation, commonly 
known by the name of Poland, comprising parts of the Russian, 
German, and Austrian Empires. The plate here given, entitled 
^ Winter Night, is engraved after a painting by another Polish artist. 
Prof. Wierusz-Kowalski. It shows a wide expanse of snow in 
a moonlit winter's night, rendered more lonely still by a few 
^torm-torn pines and firs, looming spectre-like against the sky, with 
its twinkling stars half extinguished, as it were, by the glaring 
reflection of the snow. The ground shows the footprints of a pack 
of hungry wolves assembled in the background, as if holding a sort 
of council. The solitary beast in the foreground, with his tail drawn 
in, is sniffing up into the starry heavens, and one may just faintly 
discern his warm breath like a vapour against the still, icy-cold air. 
There is a weird loneliness in the scene which words fail to give. 
THE masterful technique of the plate in question is evident. There 
are unity and concentration, combined with elaborate execution, 
though by no means any over-minuteness. 

IN conclusion, we may say that, although experiments outside the 
sphere of black and white do not yet figure among the achievements 
of Austrian etchers, yet what they give is good genuine work. 
Whatever the results of their efforts in the old medium, they are 
deserving of our earnest attention. 

WiLHELM SCHOLERMANN. 



Austrian 



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"PORTRAIT." FROM THE [ETCHING 
BY WILLIAM UNGER 

Plate i 



Austrian 




"PEASANT GIRL SEWING" 
FROM THE ETCHING BY 
FERDINAND SCHMUTZER 
Plate 3 



Austrian 




Plate 3 — "a chicken" 

from the etching by alfred cossmann 




Plate 4 — "a tumult — an unlucky democrat" 



FROM the etching BY ALFRED COSSMANN 



Austrian 



"THE WATCHMAN." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY ALFRED COSSMANN 
Plate 5 



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Plate 7 — "admonition" 

from the etching by emil orlik 




Plate 8 — " wind on the plain — the coming of autumn " 

from the etching by emil orlik 



Austrian 




"READING THE NEWS" 
FROM THE ETCHING BY 
FERDINAND SCHMUTZER 
Plate 9 



Austrian 



i^T" ^'M 



"THE CLIFFS." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY RUDOLPH JETTMAR 
Plate io 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN HUNGARY. By ANTHONY 
TAHI. 



HE etching, especially the coloured etching, 
can have no history, boast no tradition, with 
a people whose whole artistic deveopment is 
still so recent as that of the Hungarians. In 
those countries, however, where modern art has 
attained its greatest height, such as England, 
France, and Germany, the line engraving, 
together with the far inferior steel-plate, has 
held the field the longest. The whole tendency 
of art has been so strongly opposed to pure line, that really it is no 
wonder such a process as etching, demanding as it does eminently 
efficient treatment and handling should have been altogether neglected 
by many artists. 

WITH the birth of a richer, a more highly-coloured vision, and 
particularly since our artists began to abandon their rigid bias and 
no longer scorned to interest themselves in all varieties of artistic 
work, the graphic arts — etching, lithography and occasionally xylo- 
graphy — once more came into favour. 

CERTAIN it is, so far as Hungary is concerned, that, from one 
cause and another — the difficulties of the process, and notably the 
indifference of the public — the number of artists who have applied 
themselves to colour-etching is still quite insignificant. Our artists 
are greatly to blame for this state of things, for the majority of them 
make light of everything save easel-work, and think nothing else 
worth their notice. 

WHILE in other countries, such as England, Belgium, France and 
Germany, etching-Associations have been in existence for nearly 
twenty-five years past, with the happiest results ; while, moreover, 
the public taste has been stimulated and raised by the publication of 
admirable reproductions of this class of work, we in Hungary have 
been absolutely without anything of the sort until last year, when a 
" Graphic Club " was founded ; and up till now it has produced 
no tangible results. 

THE poor figure we cut in regard to the graphic arts must be 
largely attributed to the fact that Hungary has really no art-market 
of its own, and that it lies remote from all the international art centres. 



Hungarian 

AS I have already observed, the number of Hungarian artists engaged 
in producing original etchings is very small. Most of these are 
painters, who recognise the necessity of expressing themselves in 
more than one artistic medium, and of having more than one outlet 
for their energies. 

WHEN, nearly a quarter of a century since, the writer of these lines 
desired to learn the technique of etching, there was in the whole 
country only one man capable of giving him practical instruction 
therein. This was the copper-engraver Jeno Doby, at present the 
doyen of Hungarian etchers ; for he has abandoned line engraving 
and devoted himself exclusively to etching. Still, even now he 
cannot give up the graver : thus, his etchings are marked by a strong 
and well-disciplined sense of line. His original etchings are very 
few. Doby occupies the Chair of Etching at the Budapest Applied 
Art School, where among his pupils were B. Chabada, A. Szekely, 
and Edvi-Illes. 

ETCHING owes much also to Professor Lajos Raiischer of the 
Budapest Polytechnic, who by his example has aroused and fostered 
a love of the art among many of the young artists studying under 
his guidance. At first, especially in his views of Budapest, the 
architect betrayed himself by his stiff, precise drawing of the archi- 
tecture, and his subordination of the picturesque side of his scenes ; 
but soon these blemishes were overcome, and his fine natural style 
asserted itself with effect, especially in his aquatints, which are full of 
expression. A notable feature of all his plates is the care he bestows 
on his subject in order to bring out its entire value. 
ZSIGMOND LANDSINGER'S first etching was Arnold Bocklin's 
Heiliger Hain, which he did in Florence. 

HERE too originated the Portrait of ^ocklin, that energetic and 
powerfully designed life-size plate, which so characteristically and 
vividly reproduces the head of the genial Swiss Painter. The inti- 
mate friendship which sprang up between Bocklin and Landsinger 
resulted also in the production of another plate, Fafner der Drache, 
executed by Bocklin himself as a monotype. Landsinger's etchings 
are conspicuous for thorough mastery of material, and for dainty yet 
forceful handling of flesh tints. 

VIKTOR OLGYAI studied under William Unger in Vienna and 
under Theodore Alphonse in Paris. As he originally intended to 
devote himself entirely to the graphic arts, and only later took up 
oil-painting, his technical knowledge of etching is remarkable. He 
is pre-eminently a draughtsman, and though his plates are finely 
toned, the most notable thing about them is their sense of line. 

2 



Hungarian 

Some of his best works are contained in an album of ten plates 
•entitled " Winter," and other notable ones are The Oak, The Mill, 
and Way of Cypresses. 

ALADAR EDVI-ILLES is an admirable water-colourist, this 
being clearly seen in his etched plates, which are remarkable for the 
strong tone he infuses into his colours. In his Cemetery the colour 
in the warm autumnal foliage is very happily realised, while his 
powerful treatment of the storm-laden sky makes the whole plate 
really dramatic. 

A MANIFOLD and an eminently rich talent was that of Akos F. 
Aranyossy, who died all too young a few years since. He studied 
in Munich with Raab and treated with equal certainty figures and 
landscapes alike. In his Portrait of Bishop Bubics the delicate 
■careful modelling of the flesh is particularly noticeable ; while in 
his plates entitled The Washerwoman and Geese it is the water that 
•chiefly attracts one's attention. His premature death was a heavy 
loss to Hungarian etching. 

ON the plates by Arpad Szekely the draughtsmanship is con- 
spicuous ; moreover he shows an obvious desire to impart strong 
tone to his method. He strives, often with success, to treat the 
various aspects of nature — soil, water, cloud, or vegetation — each 
in its own particular manner. The motives he especially affects 
may perhaps be considered to demand more colour in their treatment, 
•consequently there is often a certain lack of harmony between the 
:subject and its realisation in his plates. 

ERNO BARTA in his various plates shows a decided talent in 
the direction of the mezzotint. His manner is powerful and deep 
and warm in tone. Perhaps he would be still more successful were 
Jiis modelling somewhat simpler and broader. 

BELA CHABADA concerns himself chiefly with the reproduction 
of the works of modern Hungarian artists, who have found in him 
a most capable and intelligent interpreter. His original mezzotints 
are marked by a misty delicacy which is most attractive. 
OTHER of our artists who have applied themselves to etching are 
Kalman Dery, Henrik Pap, and Jozsef Rippl-Ronai, the latter a 
pupil of Kopping and of Raab. Latterly he has been devoting his 
energies exclusively to lithography, which of recent years has been 
gaining more and more adherents among artists. 

Anthony Tahi. 




" FEBRUARY." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY VIKTOR OLGYAI 

Plate i 






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MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN HOLLAND. By PHILIP 
ZILCKEN. 



URING the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, etching, which had flourished so splendidly 
in Holland in Rembrandt's time, was almost 
completely abandoned. About 1850 some 
painters — Mollinger, Jan Weissenbruch and 
Roelofs — made a number of interesting plates, 
which nevertheless lacked the free and artistic 
treatment that makes etchings so delightful. 
IT was the well-known Austrian etcher, Unger, 
who once during a sojourn in Holland induced Josef Israels, Mauve, 
and some other painters of the same group, to varnish copper-plates, 
and to make on them rapid or more elaborate improvisations, many 
of which have all the charm of the subtlest etchings. Most of these 
plates are exceedingly rare, and they cause regret that those refined 
artists did not oftener practise this delicate art. 
C. STORM VAN GRAVESANDE, whose work of this kind is 
well known, lived at that time in Belgium, where he worked under the 
guidance of Felicien Rops. He rapidly gained so great a reputation 
that Philip Gilbert Hamerton, in his book on Etching and Etchers, 
devoted a considerable number of pages to this painter-etcher. 
Hamerton says of him, in 1876, speaking of his print, Au bord 
du Geins, pres a^Abcoude : " This is one of the most perfect 

ETCHINGS PRODUCED BY THE MODERN SCHOOLS, SO PERFECT INDEED, 
THAT IF I WERE RESTRICTED TO THE POSSESSION OF SIX MODERN 

ETCHINGS, THIS SHOULD BE ONE OF THEM." Storm vau Gravesande 
has produced a great many plates ; actually about four hundred. In 
recent years he has abandoned pure etching and has devoted himself 
almost entirely to " dry-points." In this class of work I think his 
most typical prints are to be found. In them he succeeds in expressing 
perfectly the slow-flowing waters of the placid Dutch streams, the 
quiet surface of the Laguna of Venice, and sometimes the rough 
^waves of the North Sea beating upon the sandy lowland beaches. 
With but a few lines he expresses much, and his work supplies a 
very complete survey of Holland's picturesque landscape. 
STORM VAN GRAVESANDE takes a place apart in this school 
of etching. He has worked chiefly in Holland, but lived many 

G I 



Dutch 

years in Belgium and Germany, and it was only a few years ago that 
he returned to his native country. 

ISRAELS has kept up his etching in recent years, and a good 
number of prints of his exist. They are all true etchings, in the 
sense that they consist of pure line-work, sometimes carried out 
direct, sometimes elaborated in different states. This great artist has 
interpreted in this way some of his favourite subjects — luminous and 
harmonious interior effects, and bright, brilliant beach scenes, with 
fishermen's children playing on the sands. All these works betray 
a personal, expressive technique, with masterly contrasts of light and 
shade, and are full of intense, penetrating feeling. 

JAMES MARIS, when he commenced etching, made about four very 
small plates — a bridge, a couple of mills, and a print showing a sketch 
of his wife and his eldest daughter. These plates have all the qualities, 
of similar ones by Rembrandt. The delicate and expressive drawing,, 
the few well-placed lines, are quite masterly. Mauve made more plates, 
many of which are lost,* among them some little gems containing 
all his personal qualities of feeling, tone, and expressive drawing. 
MATTHEW MARIS executed at that time one very small plate — 
now exceedingly rare — a girl with a lamb and a baby ; but year& 
afterwards he undertook to make a reproduction of the celebrated 
" Semeur," by Millet. 

IN order to train himself again in etching he then commenced a 
number of plates, but he himself considers these remarkable prints — 
that have already attained high prices — mere essays of little or na 
importance. The plate after the " Semeur " is a marvellous interpreta- 
tion^ not a mere copy^ of a masterpiece, by a genius, and in this respect 
it is certainly one of the most remarkable plates ever produced. 
Maris has added his own individual feeling to the grand conception, 
of Millet, and thus (a rare event) two artists of the same high rank 
have collaborated in creating a work of unique quality. 
JONGKIND, at the same epoch, made his well-known rapid,, 
expressive, and characteristic views of Honfleur and Le Havre, and 
his lively sketches of Paris and Holland. But modern Dutch etching 
owes its renown chiefly to the younger masters, who have devoted a 
great part of their time to this art, such as Bauer, Witsen, Dupont,. 
Miss van Houten, and others. Since 1889 they have regularly 
exhibited their works at the Great Paris Exhibitions, at Chicago,, 
Venice, and in Germany, with much success, while in 1900 they^ 
made a striking " hit " at the Exposition Universelle. 

* The New York Public Library contains the only existing complete collection of these^ 
2 



Dutch 

HERE it happened that the Dutch section of engraving, with about 
twenty-four exhibitors, obtained a number of awards as considerable 
as countries like England, Germany, and the United States, that had 
twice as many representatives, whilst one of the three chief awards 
in this section fell to Bauer. 

EXCEPT Josef Israels, the celebrated artist who has now attained his 
seventy-sixth year, but whose youthfulness is as great as fifty years 
ago, the painter-etchers are " younger " artists, all of them between 
thirty and forty years of age, and not one of them devotes his whole 
time to etching. They all paint as well as etch, and to this is 
certainly due the fact that their etched work has qualities of a very 
genuine character. 

BAUER is a remarkable type in modern art. Since his early youth 
he has had what Theophile Gautier calls ia nostalgie de VOrient^ and 
he has scarcely painted anything else but scenes in Constantinople, 
Cairo, or Hindustan. Nearly every year he spends about six months in 
travelling in Eastern countries, and he sees those countries (as he once 
wrote to me) " not as they are, but as they were a couple of hundred 
years ago." And he succeeds in expressing his vision ! 
NUMEROUS are now his etchings, consisting of about 200 small 
plates, rapid and slight — though perfectly complete — sketches, and 
several large prints, like his Procession^ The ^een of Saba, Aladdin, 
Morning on the Ganges, The Persian Feast, &c. &c., well known to 
collectors of etchings. 

BAUER has all the qualities that characterise the real etcher, and 
when viewing his works one is frequently reminded of Rembrandt, 
because he has an analogous habit of composition, the same simple 
contrasts of light and shade, the same easy, subtle execution in simple, 
direct, never-hesitating lines. Bauer having a very personal indi- 
viduality, no other Dutch or foreign etcher can be compared to him. 
Gifted as he is with a talent for composition, and strong imagination 
and expression, he takes very high rank amongst modern etchers. 
CONSIDERABLE impulse was given to the art o^ etching in 
Holland when the Dutch Etching Club was created in 1880. 
Yearly exhibitions were held, and an annual portfolio was issued by 
the club. This impelled some of the younger painters, who would 
otherwise have abandoned etching, to apply themselves to it. 
AS the secretary of the Etchers' Club, I have been in a position 
to follow closely for the past twelve years the brilliant and remarkably 
"sincere" development of Dutch etching. In using the word 
" sincere," I mean that in Holland every serious artist takes his 
own course quietly, without any idea of imitation. It is a 

3 



Dutch 

characteristic of Dutch artists that they work in their own way, 
following their own personal convictions, without paying attention to 
outside influences. And the result is individuality. 
AMONG such artists Willem Witsen and P. Dupont are notable types. 
WITSEN is the painter of the sluggish Dutch waters of Amsterdam 
and Dordrecht, reflecting the old, picturesque, many-coloured 
buildings, often dreary and gloomy, but always full of charm. Of 
all the subjects chosen for his water-colours he makes etchings, and 
they are as thoroughly elaborated as his other work. Adding some- 
times sulphur tints he obtains powerful efl!ects, never abandoning a 
plate before having completely expressed in it the effect, the colour, 
and the harmonious tone he seeks. For him every one of his plates 
must be a work of art. 

DUPONT, who began his career with rapid, expressive etchings 
after nature, chiefly views of Amsterdam and its surroundings, has 
entirely changed his manner in recent years. 

NOT satisfied with the brilliant effects achieved in his etched plates, 
he tried his hand some years ago at engraving. This work of his 
attracted considerable attention at the Paris Exhibition in 1900. He 
has since continued this most difficult work with increasing success, 
and now he is working on portraits, one of which, that of Steinlen, 
is worthy of particular mention. He still etches, but these plates are 
for him mere preparatory studies for his engravings. Being young, 
admirably gifted, and full of endurance and energy, much can be 
expected from him in the future. 

MISS B. VAN HOUTEN, though little known, is a most striking 
etcher, too. She is a niece of the marine-painter Mesdag, and so, from 
her early youth, she has lived in an artistic milieu. When her studies 
were finished, she began to make some large plates after masterpieces, 
by Corot, Delacroix, Courbet and Dupre. After the last-named 
artist she made a very beautiful plate, so carefully and conscientiously 
elaborated that it gives exactly the tone, and the values, of the 
original. In this fine plate nothing is left to chance, but every touch 
is interpreted with rare and delicate skill. Miss Van Houten has 
also completed about a hundred original plates. 

THESE plates show great strength and vigour. When she etches 
birds, tulips, sunflowers, or interior effects or heads, she works with 
deeply bitten, broad, strong lines. Such work could easily pro- 
duce black, heavy prints, but her delicate sensibility, her intense 
feeling for the things interpreted, save it from that evil, and her 
plates always express marvellously the tender substances of flower- 
petals, the soft plumage of birds, and the aerial distances in landscapes. 

4 



Dutch 

TO add a few words about myself, I have completed during the 
last twenty years about four hundred and fifty plates, of which about 
two hundred are reproductions after the Marises, Mauve, Israels, 
Alfred Stevens, Rembrandt, Vermeer of Delft, &c. &c., while others 
are exclusively original landscapes, most of them after nature, and 
studies in dry-point after models, and a few portraits. 
THE artists I have mentioned are the principal figures in modern 
Dutch etching. Around them are working a good number of others, 
of various but real merit. My space being limited, I must content 
myself with a mere sketch of their various characteristics. 
AMONG the painters who have made many good and interesting 
etchings, mention must be made of W. de Zwart, a clever and 
brilliant landscape and figure-painter, whose expressive etchings are 
numerous. 

TOOROP has done in the last few years some extremely delicate 
dry-points, chiefly figure studies. His etchings, like everything he 
produces, are very striking and personal. 

JAN VETH, one of our most distinguished portrait-painters, has 
done many lithographs of celebrated Dutch-men, and also some fine 
etchings, of uncommon feeling and ability. 

I MUST not forget, in this too short and too rapid enumeration, 
Etienne Bosch, who produced a great many plates, mediaeval 
subjects and views of Holland and Italy, among which the view of 
Sorrents is excellent in style and composition. 

MISS ETHA FLES has done some "pure" etching, such as her 
Staircase at Rothenburg. Ed. Karsen, the somewhat Maeterlinck-like 
painter of gloomy, almost fantastic, Dutch dwellings, has done some 
plates of very peculiar and subtle interest. Ed. Becht has made some 
important soft-ground etchings, among which his Rising Moon is a 
very interesting plate done by means of a rarely used process. 
REICHER is a painter who, besides a couple of very carefully made 
plates after Breitner and after M. Maris, has drawn original land- 
scapes and some still-life subjects of striking directness of execution. 
W. O. J. NIEUWENKAMP was one of the first Dutch painters who 
went to Java. Having a very personal style, he brought from there 
some characteristic and interesting views. 

A. KOSTER, after doing some views of the Pyrenees, applied 
himself to Dutch landscape, and reproduced views of the neighbour- 
hood of the Hague and Limburg, rendering the character of those 
parts of Holland in a remarkably truthful manner. 
AND now to complete this short sketch, I must add the names of 
some etchers of merit who have done a number of important plates 



Dutch 
after our ancient and modern masters, but scarcely ever any original 
work. 

IN the first place, Van der Weele, a painter in the style of Mauve, 
has done some very harmonious and lovely interpretations after that 
master. Some originals of his are of very good quality, for instance 
The Dead Lamb and Pigs Drinking. The same can be said of the little 
views of Haarlem and surroundings by Graadt Van Roggen, a hard 
worker who has also made very elaborate and carefully treated repro- 
ductions after J. Maris, Vermeer, &c., which display much patient 
labour. 

PROFESSOR C. DAKE, of Amsterdam, has made a number of 
important plates after Mauve, Israels, Maris, Mesdag, &c., in a broad 
manner, full of ability, that have met with great popularity. 

Ph. Zilcken. 



Dutch 




Plate i — "evening" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY W. DE ZWART 




Plate 2 — "a study of dutch houses" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY W. WITSEN 

{By permission of Mr. E. van Wisselingh) 



Dutch 




FROM THE ETCHING BY MISS B. G. VAN HOUTEN 




Plate 4 — " la rue du jerzual a dinan " 



FROM THE ETCHING BV A. F. REICHER 



Dutch 




{By i>trmission of Mr. E. van Wisselingh) 



"LEAVING THE MOSQUE" 
FROM THE ETCHING BY 
M. BAUER 

Plate 5 



Dutch 




*'k DUTCH CHURCH." FROM 
THE ETCHING BY W. O. J. 
NIEUWENKAMP 
Plate 6 



Dutch 




"PAUL VERLAINE IN THE ACT OF 
WRITING." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY P. ZILCKEN, AFTER A SKETCH 

BY J. TOOROP 

Plate 7 



Dutch 




Plate 8 — "in the limburg hills" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY A. L. KOSTER 




Plate 9 — " an old cottage " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY E. BECHT 



Dutch 




''VESPERS." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY STORM VAN 
GRAVESANDE 

Plate io 



Dutch 




"THE BAY OF SALERNO" 
FROM THE ETCHING BY 
E. BOSCH 

Plate ii 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN BELGIUM. By FERNAND 
KHNOPFF. 



ELGIAN etchers held an Exhibition in 1901 in 
the Galleries of the Cercic Artistique at Brussels, 
at which were received examples of the work of 
all artists interested in etching whether with the 
dry-point or what the French call eau forte. 
IN holding this remarkable Exhibition the 
primary aim of the Belgian Society of Etchers 
was to celebrate the fifteenth anniversary of its 
foundation, and to prove the success of its efforts to recover the 
position it formerly held under the management of Felicien Rops. 
TO found in Belgiuman International Society of Etchers was the great 
ambition of Rops ; but his success had been long delayed by material 
difficulties. He did, however, at last manage to constitute the Society, 
and it was decided to issue an album with a portfolio of etchings, the 
first number of which appeared in 1875. 

HER Royal Highness the Countess of Flanders had accepted the 
position of Honorary President of the International Society of Etchers, 
and the two plates she successively published in the album deservedly 
rank among the best of the many fine etchings which appeared in 
that publication. 

THE greater number of those who exhibited at the Salon of the Society 
of Etchers were painters as well as etchers, and it was very interest- 
ing to note the great variety of their styles. Some few had insisted 
on going through what might almost be called a classic training, 
mastering to begin with every traditional process of the craft. Others 
had endeavoured to adapt the processes of etching to their own par- 
ticular mode of painting; yet others had set to work to discover new 
methods, using their etching tools in a haphazard way and trying 
experiments in biting in on grounds never before used ; whilst others 
contented themselves with merely transferring some study to copper. 
THE etchings of M. Baertsoen take rank amongst the most remark- 
able of the works exhibited. They are characterised by broad masses 
of light and shade, and their execution is thoroughly suited to the 
effect of chiaroscuro which it was evidentlv the aim of the artist to 
produce. It cannot be denied that there is now and then something 
almost coarse and harsh about the execution, but this very peculiarity 

H I 



Belgian 

results in the better distribution of the ink when the impressions are 
being struck off, and enables M. Baertsoen to secure effects by the 
retroussage on which he sets such store and turns to such good account, 
without going to the extremes indulged in by so many of his fellow 
etchers. 

MESSIEURS WYTSMAN and Van Rysselberghe, on the other 
hand, appear to scorn to avail themselves of the too skilful aid of the 
printer, and when their well-prepared and carefully-executed drawings 
have been reproduced, they have all the value of conscientious work. 
In his etchings M. Wytsman gives proof of his thorough study of 
the landscape scenery of Brabant, and delights in representing the 
noble and dignified lines of the grand masses of forest trees character- 
istic of the undulating country districts. M. Van Rysselberghe, too, 
in his portraits and sea-pieces avoids all superficial expedients, and 
endeavours in every case to faithfully interpret his subject. 
IT is qualities similar to these which give value to the works of 
Messrs. Coppens and Bartholome. M. Ensor has already won 
considerable reputation as an engraver, and his etchings of sea-pieces 
and landscapes, inspired by the scenery of Ostende and its neigh- 
bourhood, are remarkable for a delicacy of touch, which does full 
justice to the subtle effects of silvery light so characteristic of the 
Belgian sea-board. 

THE works of Messrs. Laermans and Delaunois are remarkable for 
their very crude appearance. The etchings of M. Laermans, indeed, 
give the impression of having been engraved with the aid of a very 
old nail, while those of M. Delaunois do not appear to have been 
bitten in, but to have been vitriolised. For all that, however, the 
engravings of both these celebrated artists have, so far as art essentials 
are concerned, the same fine qualities as their paintings. It is the 
same with the Antwerp master, M. Hens, whose sea-pieces, in spite of 
their somewhat rough execution, are full of luminous brightness, and 
attracted special attention at the Exhibition of the Society of Etchers. 
MESSRS. Heins,Gailliard,Mignot, Romberg, Titz, and H. Meunier 
have all brought to bear upon their work with the etching needle 
that same facility of execution which they have gained by practice 
in making drawings for book illustration or in designing posters. 
LASTLY, there is only one Belgian painter-etcher who cultivates 
exclusively the process known as dry-point, and that one is the writer 
of these notes, who has engraved in that medium several drawings 
or studies in outline or shade. 

IN his " History of the Fine Arts in Belgium " Camille Lemonnier 
defines very accurately that which specially distinguishes Messrs. 

2 



Belgian 

G. Biot and A. Danse, who may be said to be at the present time 
the two engravers by profession who dominate the Society of Etchers : 
" FROM the very first time he exhibited, Biot manifested those 
qualities of distinction and grace which have since gradually developed 
into a completed individual style of great distinction. Delicacy, 
balance, and simplicity of effect, grace of sentiment, with something 
of timidity and reserve in the general scheme, these are the salient 
features of an art which is at the same time pleasing and severe, 
modifying classic stiffness by its contact with a grace altogether 
modern." 

"THE art of Danse, on the contrary, is comparatively coarse, passion- 
ate, feverish. The hasty dashiness of the sketch is retained even 
in his completed work ; he loves tones which clash with one another, 
unrelieved black, sharp effects of light, rugged execution. Of the 
school of J. B. Meunier, on whose style he formed his own, he 
has retained nothing but the decision of stroke of the burin, with a 
certain grasp of the processes employed and some skill of handling. 
With him the etching needle is almost always pressed into the service 
as supplementary to the graver or burin ; it is it which gives to his 
plates their sharpness of line and richness of tone ; even to his most 
severely correct engravings it lends a certain capriciousness which 
would be repudiated by those who use the burin pure and simple." 
M. DANSE, however, is not content with producing a vast number 
of engravings, he also aspires to forming engravers; and whilst he was 
Professor of Drawing at the Royal Academy of Mons in 1871 he 
founded a school of engraving in that town at his own expense. From 
this school issued, amongst others, Messrs. Lenain, Bernier, L. 
Greuze, and Luc'q, with M^"^^- Weiler, Wesmael, L. Danse, and 
Mme. Destree-Danse, the two last named the daughters of the master. 
M. LENAIN may justly be said to take first rank amongst contem- 
porary line-engravers. He handles the rigid graving tool with ease 
and subtlety, resulting sometimes in the production of effects more 
varied than those to be obtained in etching. A long study of the 
masterpieces of French engraving has done much to aid him in 
the development of his peculiar excellence — delicacy of execution. 
Moreover, a certain indefinable natural instinct, the result of his 
nationality, has led him to interpret well the grand production of 
>he painters of the Flemish Renaissance, and he has begun a series 
of fine engravings after the works of Rubens. 

THE works of the engraver, F. Marechal, of Liege, have already 
been criticised in the Studio in an article published two years ago, 
and in another article which came out in the same magazine 



Belgian 

in 1898, under the heading, " Some Artists of Liege," the remarkable 
art-talent of M. A. Rassenfosse, the faithful friend and devoted 
disciple of the extraordinary genius Felicien Rops, was commented 
upon with considerable appreciation, and attention was drawn to 
his profound knowledge of all the processes of the engraver's craft. 
TWO other artists of Liege, Messrs. Donnay and De Witte, have 
attracted attention by some etchings full of originality and character. 
AMONGST the engravers who have turned their attention to 
taking impressions in colour must be named, as especially successful, 
M. Q. DE SAMPAYO, an artist of Portuguese extraction, who may 
be fitly included in this article on living Belgian engravers on account 
of his having studied under M. Rassenfosse and produced most of 
his work in Brussels. M. De Sampayo has himself carefully super- 
intended the translation into colour of his etchings, and with the 
aid of M. Van Campenhout, the skilful printer to the Society of 
Etchers, he has coloured several delicate plates a la poupee. 
IT was also by means of this process that the plates of Messrs. 
Romberg, Coppens, Gaudy, and those of the author of these notes 
were coloured, whereas those of Messrs. Titz and Schlobach were 
printed and coloured by what is known as the super-position process, 
that is to say, by the use of a succession of several plates, each 
marked with the most minute care and capable of bearing as 
many as three colours, provided those colours are very strictly 
deliminated. No doubt this process is decidedly easier for the 
printer, but, on the other hand, it is certain that greater delicacy 
and subtlety of colouring can be obtained by the process a la poupee, 

Fernand Khnopff. 



Belgian 




:^^l^i^^btr^ 



"A DUTCH WINDMILL" 
FROM THE ETCHING BY 
H. CASSIERS 

Plate i 



Belgian 




"A ROMAN OUTCAST." FROM THE 
ENGRAVING BY A. DANSE, AFTER 
THE PAINTING BY E. WAUTERS 

Plate 2 



Belgian 




Plate 3 — "three shots for a penny" 

from the etching by f. gailliard 




Plate 4 — " fantasia 



FROM THE DRY-POINT BY M. ROMBERG 



Belgian 




Plate 5 — " a bleak landscape " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY H. MEUNIER 




Plate 6 — "a stormy evening, brabant" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY R, WYTSMAN 







N 
D 



o 

C/D 






o 

o 
w 

H 



o 
o 
w 

oc o 




Si 




Belgian 




Plate lo — " a bridge over the meusE 



FROM THE ETCHING BY F. MARECHAL 




Plate ii — "nocturne 



FROM the engraving BY T. VAN RYSSELBERGHE 



/ 



/ 









MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN DENMARK &> NORWAY. 
By GEORG BROCHNER. 



LTHOUGH the Danish Society of Etchers this 
year celebrates the fiftieth anniversary of its 
foundation, and although Denmark boasts two 
veteran etchers of more than sixty years' stand- 
ing, it is, broadly speaking, only during the 
last decade that Danish painters have taken 
to etching, a fact no doubt connected with 
the attention bestowed upon the etchings of 
Carl Bloch, both in his lifetime and more 
especially after his death. During the last few years, however, 
etching has become extremely popular with a number of Danish 
artists, amongst whom one or two have even, at least for the time 
being, laid aside the brush and taken to the etching needle instead. 
I believe that all Danish etchers are painters, and that, without any 
significant exceptions, they only do original work, so that of what 
may be called " professional " etchers Denmark has none. It can under 
these circumstances be no matter of surprise that much of what is 
characteristic of their work in oil — be it for good or be it for evil — 
also influences the nature and the quality of their etchings, in choice 
of subjects, in temperament and in other respects. Thus landscapes 
and seascapes, figure subjects and homely interiors, predominate; 
imaginary subjects arc dealt with comparatively rarely, and with 
many artists, honest, sober work is more in vogue than striking 
effectiveness or technical subtleties. Danish etchings may not 
always impress the beholder greatly at first sight or at a cursory 
inspection ; not so much, probably, as will those hailing, for instance, 
from England and France, but due appreciation of that love of 
nature, of that sincerity and delicate study which many of them 
betray, will not be long withheld. 

TO the skill, talent and unusual energy of Carl Locher, Danish 
etching is greatly indebted. For three years Locher, then already a 
man turned forty and boasting an excellent reputation as a marine 
painter, studied in Berlin under Professor Hans Meyer, and had it not 
been for Lochcr's guidance few of his confreres would probably have 
taken to the etching needle. At the courses which Locher subse- 
quently arranged, celebrities like Anna and Michael Ancher and 



Danish 

Kroyer were amongst his pupils, and I believe it was a matter of 
general regret when he brought his teaching to a close. Locher was 
also the first in Denmark to produce large etchings, and that some of 
these are not more widely known outside his own country is no 
doubt due largely to the fact that the plates, in order to ensure the 
absolute limitation of the issues, were in several instances destroyed. 
IT may not be out of place to mention here that " The Studio," in 
its selection for reproduction, has wished to give most prominence 
to work in which the line has been allowed its full sway as against 
too much "net work" or "tone." In one or two instances the 
etchings have unfortunately been received too late to allow of their 
being reproduced. I should also like to take this opportunity of 
acknowledging the courtesy extended to me, not only by the artists, 
but also by the publishing firms of Winkel and Magnussen and Stender. 
LORENZ FROLICH divides with Vilhelm Kyhn the honour of 
being the Grand Old Man in Danish Art, not only as a painter but 
also as an etcher. I believe the immense span of sixty-three years 
lies between Frolich's first etching and his most recent one, which 
no one would suspect of being the work of an octogenarian. 
His right hand has not yet by any means lost its cunning, and his 
intimate knowledge of animal life is aptly demonstrated in this little 
etching — in the innate bad temper of the smaller dog and the good- 
natured, half playful indifference of the larger. It, however, illustrates 
but one side of Frolich's art, for he has etched a number of charming 
illustrations — religious {The Lord^s Prayer)^ poetical (Cupid and 
Psyche) and historical. These show him as a designer of the highest 
rank, full of imagination and power, and the possessor of a never-failing 
sense of the beautifiil. His contours are especially exquisite, one might 
almost say invariably so, but the details do not always seem to have 
interested him much, and I believe mechanical ground-work has 
in some cases been resorted to. In this latter respect he differs from 
his old friend, that most delightful and talented of landscape painters, 
VILHELM KYHN, who prefers responsibility for the entire effect 
himself, leaving nothing to the mercy of the printer. Kyhn has 
done a great number of etchings, none very ambitious in dimensions 
and some almost diminutive in size, but most of them possessed of 
that charm which is essentially peculiar to Kyhn, arising out of a 
deep, one is tempted to say tender, life-long love of nature, of sincere 
study, of a susceptible temperament, and supported by a well- 
schooled, and at times consummate, technique. 

IT is a matter of regret that the clever painters, Anna and Michael 
Ancher, have not devoted more attention to the etching needle. 



Danish 

The former's Old Woman Reading is very attractive, and her husband's^ 
Three Fishermen is entirely characteristic of this painter's art. No' 
one is so familiar with the hardy, weather-beaten Skaw fishermen^ 
as he, and it goes without saying that his studies are admirable^ 
He has handled his needle with both skill and discretion ; and it 
is a pity that it has not been allowed to perpetuate more of his trusty 
friends. 

PROFESSOR OTTO BACHE, the eminent animal painter, has 
only just made his debut as an etcher, but the outcome — Two Dogs 
Heads — augurs well. The wonderful verve and force and the keen, 
observant study which distinguish so much of his work in oil and 
with the pencil, will no doubt stand the Professor in good stead as 
an etcher. 

H. N. HANSEN has a wider scope, and a more pregnant 
imagination than any other Danish etcher. He has of late years 
almost left off painting, and has done some admirable work with 
the needle, full of individuality and invention. True that his line is 
at times somewhat erratic and that a good deal of the effect in 
such cases is due to tone, but the result is often, more often than 
not, singularly happy, and some of his etchings possess a warmth 
and a colour, a poetic and, in some cases, an almost plastic beauty 
only rarely met with. The fine powerful head of his Florentine 
will bear out this. In his most recent etching, Potiphars Wife, the 
treatment is more delicate, and a happy blending of refinement 
and humour is observable in it. Some of his etchings charm by 
their classic beauty {Firenze, for instance), others by their generous 
humour (Don Bartolo) ; others again, and perhaps the best of them, 
by the fulness of their poetic mood and their great decorative 
effect (The Cestius Pyramid in Rome, Wild Flies the Hawk, The Old 
Mill, and many others). 

SIGVARD HANSEN also in his etchings demonstrates his preference 
for the snow-covered landscape, and he depicts a wintry scene ably 
and effectively. 

PROFESSOR HASLUND only now and again takes up the needle 
at long intervals. His work is on a small scale, but his line is good 
and true, and animal Ufe is his favourite domain. 
PROFESSOR FR. HENNINGSEN has, numerically, perhaps even 
less to his credit, but one or two little figure motifs of his are very 
deftly done. 

AXEL HOU has etched for a considerable number of years. He is 
entirely self-taught, has experimented a good deal, and always makes 
his own needles and other requisites. His line is in some of his 



Danish 
work both strong and characteristic, and his effect is solely obtained 
by etching. His portrait — portraits are his favourite subjects — of 
N, Hansen-Jacobsen, the well-known Danish sculptor, now living in 
Paris, is not only of much merit as a likeness — portraying as it does 
Jacobsen in an appreciative manner, and underlining the powerful 
individuality of his model — but it is a capital etching effectively 
designed. The introduction of some of the sculptor's work is done 
with discretion and skill. 

PETER ILSTED must be counted amongst the best of Danish 
etchers, and it is interesting to see how closely his work with the 
needle resembles his work in oil. He is often inclined to go much 
into detail, but in spite of this he becomes neither sleek nor insipid. 
In his " Interiors," of which the Luxembourg has recently secured 
one, the simplicity of motif and the singleness of colour tend to 
produce an effect of chaste refinement, lacking a little perhaps in 
freshness, but telling their own tale with an earnest and charming 
sincerity. These qualities one finds again in his etchings, most 
pronounced perhaps in Girl at the Piano, although I prefer his 
portrait of his father. 

E. KRAUSE is a young etcher of much promise, and it was quite 
by chance that he became one. His work is possessed of a very 
pronounced picturesqueness. There is warmth in his tone and he 
is a very clever draughtsman. He favours old-time buildings of 
topographical interest and beauty, and he prefers sombre night or 
late evening effects, which are mostly rendered by the aid of line- 
work, now and again sustained by a little tone. His 'The Six Sisters — 
six old houses in Copenhagen just demolished — illustrates in an ideal 
manner "a harbour city." The dark, rolling clouds, the waning 
light mirrored in the row of old windows and in the wet pavement ; 
the effective silhouette of masts and rigging standing out black 
against the nocturnal sky, and the cluster of seamen and dock-hands in 
the foreground, combine to render admirably the exact mood of the 
picturesque scene. 

KROYER'S portrait of himself affords ample proof of what the 
artist can do as an etcher should he, as it is sincerely to be hoped he 
will, again find time and inclination to busy himself with the 
etcher's needle. His lightness of touch, his freedom and subtlety of 
treatment, are evidenced in this portrait, in which he has relied solely 
on the line, which is clever throughout, although perhaps here and 
there a little capricious. The likeness is excellent — frank, genial 
straightforward. His portrait of 0/d Kyhn — what an ideal artist's 
head it is, with the beautiful eyes and the long white hair and 

4 



Danish 

beard ! — is delightful, and his etching of Grieg and hts Wife, done 
from his picture bought by the National Gallery of Sweden, is in its 
best impressions simply admirable, but much of its effect and tone 
depends upon the printing. 

ADOLPH LARSEN has of late years become a very skilful etcher; 
he is careful and painstaking, a little timid perhaps, and deficient in 
temperament, in spite of which, however, he has several very good 
landscapes and interiors to his credit. He is probably best in some of 
his landscapes, in which the chaste, rarefied light of an evening sky 
has been rendered with much sincerity and feeling. There is also a 
very clever, although not altogether pleasing, portrait of himself, and 
if his extreme conscientiousness were only coupled with a little more 
breadth and warmth he would no doubt attain to still better results. 
CARL LOCHER I have already mentioned as one of the pillars it 
not the head corner-stone of the art of etching in Denmark. He 
combines a carefully trained technique with an open eye for the 
picturesque and a thorough knowledge of his subject, which is nearly 
always the sea, in its many and varied moods. There is a convincing 
breadth and " go '* in his wave-treatment, and the mirroring in the 
receding breakers is done with a master's hand. In his best work — 
it varies considerably in merit — Locher has proved himself an etcher 
of very high rank indeed. 

SOREN LUND is very adequately represented by his etching of 
The Old Horse — an illustration to a well-known Danish verse. The 
toilsome life of the poor old lonely horse has run its course, and the 
Man with the Scythe — an aerial and phantastic mower — is ready for 
him. Within a small compass Lund has produced quite a weird and 
pathetic effect, and it will be seen that the line work is good and 
solid. 

J. LUBSCHITZ is an enthusiastic etcher, who has given much 
time and study to his art, both at home and in Paris. He has 
invented a light varnish, and his positive process claims to be an 
improvement on Hamerton's ; there is also a special Liibschitz 
needle. In some of his etchings he confines himself entirely to dry- 
point, in others partly so, as for instance the sky in his recent large 
marine, exhibited at this year's Danish Royal Academy — a striking 
and effective seascape, the largest original Danish etching yet pub- 
lished. Liibschitz is a strong believer in the supremacy of the line, 
and unaided by tone printing he has produced excellent atmospheric 
effects. Influenced by Tolstoy, Liibschitz decided to go in for 
larger etchings, which might gladden the hearts and embellish the 
houses of the people, and this he has succeeded in doing to the full. 

5 



Danish 

I believe it is owing to his initiative that men like Professor Bache, 
Professor Jerndorff and Professor Henningsen have taken to etching, 
and it is a matter of sore disappointment to him that Professor 
Hans Tegner, the famous pen-and-ink draughtsman, of Holberg and 
Andersen fame, did not persevere. 

IT would have been a matter of considerable surprise had not Peter 
Monsted proved himself an accomplished etcher, inasmuch as he is 
an admirable draughtsman, and handles his brush with the utmost 
virtuosity. The accompanying landscape proves, however, that he 
has, and few Danish etchers arc capable of producing a finer effect 
than Monsted. It has been laid at his door that he was somewhat 
lacking in sincerity; be this as it may, one does not feel it in 
his etchings. In these, too, he shows with what skill he handles 
trees, singly or in clusters,. naked or in the fulness of their summer 
garb, against an often well-chosen atmospheric motifs or stagnant 
water in pond or ditch. He accounts in the deftest manner possible 
for the triple effect of what appears on the bottom through the 
cloudy transparency of the water, of what is mirrored in the water, 
and of what may be floating on its surface. 

THORVALD NISS'S Danish Landscape is thoroughly characteristic 
of this highly gifted painter's art. It gives much of his dash and 
boldness and of that directness — of that instinctive directness — with 
which he knows how to render the exact mood, and often an awkward 
mood, of the subject before him, be it land or sea. His treatment is 
effective and convincing, although he is not by any means above 
taking liberties, from the strict etcher's point of view ; but in all his 
work there is personality and manliness, which fully condone for any 
merely academic shortcomings. When in his happy mood Niss 
stands head and shoulders above most of his fellows, and the National 
Gallery of Copenhagen, as well as one or two private collections, 
are indebted to his brush for some of their finest landscapes and, 
more especially, marine subjects. 

TOM PETERSEN has a fine sense of the charm of quaint old-time 
views, several of which he has treated with very fair success. 
FRANTS SCHWARTZ one might be tempted to call the aristocrat 
amongst Danish etchers ; he is self-contained and complete, possessed 
of a thorough control of the technique. He has done a great many, 
over a hundred, etchings, the majority of which, perhaps, are rather 
intended for the collector's portfolio than for a more or less indis- 
criminating public. He often favours dry-point, and in some of 
his work confines himself entirely to this method. In many of his 
studies he demonstrates the keenness of his power of observation, at 

6 



Norwegian 

other times he shows how well he is able to compose a picture. 
In The Annunciation the figure of Mary is charmingly simple and 
maidenly, and an excellent effect is produced by comparatively small 
means, a few lines sufficing for the soft folds of her garments and 
kerchief. The Three Kings aptly illustrates that passage of Heine 
which has been chosen for a motto. It is decorative and harmonious 
in its arrangement ; and there is much dead-man's dignity about the 
three skeleton kings. 

IN Niels Skovgaard's Looking at the Snow the contrast between the 
children within and the wintry landscape without is cleverly and 
simply told. 



NORWAY. 

AT the eleventh hour some admirable etchings were received from 
JOH. NORDHAGEN, the well-known Norwegian etcher. Our 
arrangements were, however, so far advanced that we are only able to 
reproduce one, the Portrait of a Gentleman, an original work, in which 
the attention given to detail does not detract from its power and 
effectiveness. The forehead, the eyes, and the eyebrows, for instance, 
are perfect studies, and the masterly treatment has endowed this 
interesting head with an almost plastic beauty. 

NORDHAGEN, who received the gold medal for etchings at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1900, has studied under Professor Karl Koepping 
in Berlin, and he has not only done a number of original etchings — 
studies of heads being his favourite subjects — but he has with his 
needle reproduced the works of several prominent Norwegian painters 
and of Rembrandt. We much regret the inadequate and cursory 
manner in which we are compelled to deal with such a prominent 
artist. 

THE brilliant work of ANDERS L. ZORN has been so frequently 
illustrated and favourably criticised by " The Studio " that it is 
unnecessary to dwell further upon it here. Two admirable and 
characteristic examples of his etchings are illustrated, namely, Maja 
and A Mother. 

Georg Brochner. 



Danish 




"PORTRAIT OF P. S. KROYER. FROM 
THE ETCHING BY HIMSELF 

Plate i 




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"DANISH LANDSCAPE." FROM THE 
ETCHING BY THORVALD NISS 

Plate 4 



Danish 




Plate 5 — " off the coast " 



FROM the etching BY CARL LOCHER 




Plate 6 — " bollemosen, efteraar '' 



FROM THE ENGRAVING BY J. LUBSCHITZ 

(By permission of Messrr. V. Winkel and Magnussen) 



Danish 




"A RISING WIND." FROM 

THE ETCHING BY PETER 

MONSTED 

Plate 7 



Danish 




Plate 8 — "looking at the snow" 

FROM the engraving BY NIELS SKOVGAARD 






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Plate 9 — "the six sisters" 



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from the engraving by e. krause 



Danish 





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Plate io — " dogs at play " from the etching by lorenz frolich 




Plate ii — "the old horse" 



FROM the etching BY SOREN LUND 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN FINLAND. By COUNT 
LOUIS SPARRE. 



I have already remarked in my article 
in the special number of the Studio on 
Pen-and-ink Drawings, art of every kind 
is in its infancy in Finland. This is espe- 
cially true with regard to etching, which would 
appear to be behind every other branch of 
art production in that country. In fact, the 
first etching of native origin did not appear 
there until fifteen years ago. The author of 
this new departure was Victor Westerholm, an artist of first 
rank, who had previously devoted himself exclusively to the 
practice of painting. The art of etching was, in fact, little under- 
stood or appreciated by the public ; indeed, it really seemed some- 
times as if artists themselves took but a very lukewarm interest in 
it. By slow degrees, however, a taste for etchings has, so to speak, 
filtered into Finland, thanks chiefly, it is true, to the influences, 
brought to bear on that land by other countries, notably Sweden, 
its nearest neighbour, where the art of etching is held in very 
high esteem. 

NOW many artists of Finland appear to be quite passionately 
devoted to the etching needle and the biting in acid, and even have 
their own presses set up at home, so that they may strike off their 
proofs for themselves. 

I FANCY Edelfelt was the first to follow the example of Westerholm 
and use etching as a medium for expressing his art-impressions, and 
by dint of continuous work, combined with his usual mastery of 
handling and refinement of taste, he has succeeded in producing 
admirable results, and adding considerably to the many fine examples 
of his skill already given to the world. 

GALLEN also — whose vivid imagination, supple talent, and natural 
skill of execution are unsurpassed by any of his fellow countrymen 
— has already produced a very great number of comparatively fine 
etchings. He handles his etching needle and bites in his plates with 
much the same ease as he displays in dashing off a sketch, painting a 
fresco, cutting an engraving on wood, or carving a piece of furniture. 
His versatility in dealing with different mediums of expression is 

K I 



Finnish 

really extraordinary. Now he accentuates every tiny detail, giving 
the minutest attention to every corner of his etching plate, then his 
manner suddenly becomes broad and full of force. Moreover, he can 
also, when he chooses, adopt a light and elegant style, displaying a 
truly surprising delicacy of touch, as in the ex-libris of Professor 
Tikkanen. 

THE etchings of Simberg are marked by a similar originality and 
individuality, by an equal power of quaint, sometimes even grotesque, 
imagination, as are his paintings and his drawings. One of the very 
finest examples of Simberg's peculiar talent and originality of con- 
ception is his Peasant at the Gate of the Kingdom of Death ; but the 
charming little work is more than that, it is a typical expression of 
the grave and speculative character, with its predilection to melan- 
choly, of the people of Finland. The Garden of Death is a phantasy, 
alike grotesque and humorous. 

MISS HILDA FLODIN is an artist who, though still quite 
young, gives promise of very considerable talent. Full of eager 
ardour for work, she is unwearying in the production of paint- 
ings, drawings, and etchings, everything she sets her hand to being 
marked by real intelligence and true art-feeling. There is something 
alike broad and forcible in her style of plying the etching needle, 
and some of her work recalls that of the best masters of the past. 
She draws well and accurately, and it is easy to see that increased 
mastery of technique is really all she needs, so that there is no doubt 
of her soon remedying her faults of execution, by dint of earnest and 
continuous study. 

THE etchings of Miss Ellen Thesleff display the same delicacy of 
touch as do her drawings. Her Finnish Landscape — Winter repro- 
duced here is full of refinment and charm. 

ETCHING, properly so-called, is at present, with few exceptions, 
the only mode of engraving on metal practised by the artists of 
Finland. Etching in colour has not hitherto been attempted, and 
the so-called " soft ground " etching, mezzotint and " tutti quanti " 
processes are still unbroken ground, awaiting their pioneers. So 
virile and ready of expansion, however, is the new-born art of 
Finland, that it is not unreasonable to hope that in these directions 
also it will prove itself ere long worthy of the attention which was 
attracted at the Great International Exhibition at Paris in 1901 by 
the work of artists of Finnish extraction. 

Louis Sparre. 



Norwegian 




{By permission of Mr. R. Gutekunst) 



"MAJA." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY ANDERS L. ZORN 

Plate i 



Norwegian 




(By permission of Mr. R. Gutekunst) 



"A MOTHER." FROM THE 
THE ETCHING BY ANDERS 
L. ZORN 

Plate 2 



Finnish 




Plate 3 — "Finnish landscape — winter" 

FROM the etching BY MISS ELLEN THESLEFF 




Plate 4 — "a good book" 



FROM THE ETCHING BY MISS H. FLODIN 






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FROM THE ETCHING BY 
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"PORTRAIT OF A GENTLE- 
MAN." FROM THE ETCHING 
BY J. NORDHAGEN 
Plate ii 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN ITALY. By ROMUALDO 
PANTINI. 



LTHOUGH the scope of this article does not 
include defunct artists, it seems fitting neverthe- 
less to recall the names of some of them. 
Antonio Fontanesi, Tranquillo Cremona, Tele- 
maco Signorini, are three names famous in the 
reformation of Italian art. They devoted 
themselves with as much ardour to etching as 
to the solution of the other great art problems, 
notably the plein-air theory. And as they were 
real artists in all they did, the technical expression of their engravings 
was equal to that realised in their canvases. Fontanesi was especially 
devoted to landscape motives, and did not remain indifferent to the 
influence of the French school of 1830 ; while Cremona's fine, bold, 
broad touch gave originality and delightful freedom to his plates. 
Signorini was essentially graceful and realistic. His literary leanings 
inclined him naturally to book illustration ; but his best work is to 
be seen in the album of twelve etchings dedicated to the " Mercato 
Vecchio " of Florence. 

AKIN to the sentiment or Cremona was that of Mose Bianchi and 
Luigi Conconi, also of Milan. But Bianchi, while in his little 
etchings seeming to follow the same motives and the same methods 
as the master, reveals complete independence in his large Monaca de 
Monza, after one of his own paintings. 

LUIGI CONCONI'S decorative breadth is conspicuous in his 
impressions of ancient Roman arches ; he rises to even greater heights 
in his finely suggestive etching Solitudine, Mention must also be made 
of other two Milanese artists — of noble but very diverse tempera- 
ment. I refer to Grubicy and Beltrami. 

VITTORIO GRUBICY is a master, a leader, alike in etching, in 
teaching, and in propagandism. Starting from the logical conception 
that many effects of Nature — whose loveliness largely consists in the 
vigorous contrast of its chiaroscuro — can be expressed adequately in 
black-and-white, he has executed in Holland and in the Alps a 
number of etchings possessing a certain special note of melancholy. 
LUCA BELTRAMI is at once a most gifted architect and a 
historiographer of art ; but his severer studies have not prevented 

L I 



Italian 

him from devoting himself assiduously to the eau-forte, some of his 

works of this kind having been greatly praised in the Paris Salons, 

His little etching, Dans r atelier de Pascal is a marvel of luminous 

treatment, and among other good things of his must be named the 

Rue de Chartres, which well illustrates his genial versatility. 

IN Turin there is quite a group of etchers, all well known in Paris 

as able " translators " of canvases. The two admirable eau-fortists. 

Carlo Chessa and Celestino Turletti, figure in the splendid volume 

wherein Giuseppe Giacosa has described the landscapes and recalled 

the dark tales of the Castelli Valdostani and Canavesani. This portly 

volume is, like the large edition of the " Medusa " (poems by Arturo 

Graf), one of the most beautiful books published in Italy for years 

past ; it is well illustrated by original etchings and edited by M. Roux» 

THIS noble branch of engraving is cultivated by many Venetian artists, 

prominent among them being Cesare Laurenti and Giuseppe Miti- 

Zanetti. 

MARIANO FORTUNY, Junr., one of our finest artists, who still 

exhibits in the Spanish Salons, is also working in Venice, his 

best things being his strange but luminous studies of the female 

nude. 

PROFESSOR COLOMBI, of Bologna, has produced several etchings 

after his own genre paintings, displaying consummate certainty of 

touch and a wonderful sense of perspective. 

AUGUSTO SEZANNE, also a Bolognese, has done a fresh and 

luminous aquatint, styled Springtime — a charming thing full of feeling 

and decorative spirit. 

IN Florence there is no School of Etching, but the city boasts one 

young exponent of the art, Giorgio Kienerk, whose dry-points are 

marked by agile and nervous grace. 

GIOVANNI FATTORI, however, despite his advanced age, 

remains an eminent master of our Italian etchers. His rapidity of 

impression, sureness of movement, and boldness of outline, give 

him a place quite apart from, and far above, the others. The 

Tuscan Campagna, or the desolate Roman plains and marshes with 

artillery horses figuring therein, form his favourite subjects ; and his 

broad vision of the battles of 1859 serves to reassert and reaffirm those 

technical qualities which go to make him our foremost, if not our 

only, military artist. 

WITH Fattori studied G. Viner, G. Micheli and Plinio 

NomcUini, the last-named of whom has acquired much of his 

master's energy of conception, while retaining a distinct personality. 

The mysterious formation of his clouds and his waves are especially 

2 



Italian 

to be remarked, while his keen vision of reality and his sense of 
poetic significance are plainly seen in many of his works. 
THERE exists in Rome a " Reale Calcografia " — or Royal School of 
Etching — subsidised by the Government, which employs numerous 
artists and craftsmen who produce original work or reproduce the 
canvases of famous artists. But, unhappily, the principal object of 
this Royal Institution is to invest the modern etching with the 
studied uniformity of the old engravings. Some evidence of revival 
was seen last year, when in the prize competitions for etchings of 
national character, we had from Biseo his vigorous conception of 
the heroic battle of Dogali. 

CESARE BISEO has done other etchings for the " Reale Calco- 
grafia " — notably views of the Palatine and the Coliseum — in a style 
the technique of which recalls Piranesi, but with more sense of 
atmosphere and poetry. His etchings show proof of diligent study 
and acute observation. 

FRANCESCO VITALINI, since the exhibitions last year in 
Rome, Venice and London, has gained wide popularity by the highly 
delicate sense of colour displayed in his Roman etchings ; and, to 
avoid confusion, it is well to draw attention to his wholly original 
and personal technique. 

OTHER Roman artists working in the medium of the eau-forte are 
Professor Maccari and Pio Joris, also Filibcrto Petiti and Signor 
Rossini, all of whom were worthily represented at the recent Black- 
and-White Exhibition ; also Giulio Ricci, a Bolognese etcher, who 
handles his graver with great delicacy and suggestiveness. Dino 
Savardo, of Padua, and Enrico Vegetti, of Milan, are two young 
men well deserving of notice. 

PAOLO VETRI carries on at Naples the tradition of his kinsman 
Domenico Morelli. With great conscientiousness he has reproduced 
in eau-forte the picture of the Maddalena^ and the suggestive and 
original King Lear, with which tew Italians are acquainted. He 
is also thinking of reproducing on copper all the works of his 
revered master. 

ROMUALDO PaNTINI. 



Italian 




Plate i — "king lear 



'^••'7 



ETCHED BY PAOLO VETRI, AFTER D. MORELLI 




Plate 2— "castello di graines 



FROM THE ETCHING BY C. CHESSA 



Italian 




Plate 3 — " castelfusano 



FROM THE COLOURED ETCHING BY FRANCESCO VITALINI 




Plate 4 — "evening' 



FROM THE ETCHING BY VITTORE GRUBICY 



Italian 




Plate 5 — " in the temple" 



FROM the etching BY ENRICO VEGETTI 




Plate 6— •• studies of animals 



FROM THE ETCHING BY CESARE BISEO 



Italian 




Plate 7 — " in a Venetian lagune " 

FROM THE aquatint BY G. MITI-ZANETTX 




Plate 8 — " a stormy day in tuscany " 



FROM THE ETCHING BY P. NOMELLINI 







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Plate 14 — " springtime " 



FROM THE AQUATINT BY AUGUSTO SEZANNE 




Plate 15 — "sunlight in a dark lagune =' 



FROM THE etching BY MARIANO FORTUNY, JUN. 




MODERN ETCHING ^ ENGRAV- 
ING IN SWITZERLAND. By 
ROBERT MOBBS. 



BRUN, in his valuable chapter on "Les Arts 
plastiques dans la Suisse allemande " in " La 
Suisse au XIX"^ Siecle," touches upon the 
relation of such living Swiss artists as Robert 
Leemann, Charles Theodore Meyer, Albert 
Welti and Hermann Gatiker to the remark- 
able revival of interest in etching which 
characterised the latter half of last century. 
There can be no doubt that these and other 
Swiss artists have contributed in no inconsiderable degree to the 
development of etching not only in their own country but also in 
Germany, and that their work will compare favourably with the 
best that has been accomplished in this branch of late years in any 
other country. 

FOREMOST in this group, and fitly serving as a typical example 
of modern Swiss etchers, stood, till some thirteen years ago, 
that erratic, original, powerful Swiss artist Charles Stauffer of 
Bern. His death was a widely felt loss to Swiss art. To convince 
ourselves of StaufFer's greatness as an etcher we have only to study 
his characteristically beautiful portrait of his mother, or those 
portraits of Gustave Freytag, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer and Adolphe 
Menzel which, as M. Brun says, " have, in their plastic rather than 
pictorial effect, never been surpassed." Stauffer utilised every 
means at his disposal, except the aquatint, obtaining wonderful 
results. He has left behind him one or two albums of etchings of 
rare value, containing work of extraordinary beauty and technical 
perfection. 

WHEN we turn from this artist to Albert Welti we are confronted 
by quite another variant of the Swiss-German type of artistic tem- 
perament. Endowed with a rich, inventive, and in some sense 
sombre imagination, and possessing a marked predilection for sym- 
bolic and philosophic conceptions, his work bears the stamp of a 
strongly accentuated individuality, and occupies, in some sense, a place 
apart. 

IN the treatment ot the portrait, Balmer is undoubtedly one of the 
greatest living Swiss etchers. We regret that examples of this 

M I 



Swiss 

artist's achievements, as well as those of one or two other artists, 
have come to hand too late for reproduction in this Number. We 
hope, however, that we shall have the opportunity of referring at 
length to their work in the pages of " The Studio." Balmer's 
etchings reveal a patient dwelling upon the subject till it has 
yielded up the innermost secret of its distinctive character and 
beauty. If ever an artist's work was expressive of himself and his 
best self, Balmer's is. His portraits of women and children reveal 
the working of an artistic temperament as sensitive as it is powerful. 
We have under our eyes an aquatint by this artist, the tone, shading 
and character of which are admirable. 

IF the artists of Swiss-German origin have contributed not a little 
to the development of etching, their fellow workers in the French- 
speaking part of the country have been by no means behindhand. 
The etchings of Eugene Burnand and Evert Van Muyden possess 
the qualities of acknowledged masters in this branch of art. It 
was a happy day for Mistral when he lighted upon such an illus- 
trator as Eugene Burnand, for all that could be done by means of 
** eau-forte " to evoke the characteristic beauty of Proven9al 
landscape, and to interpret the poet's great work, this artist has 
accomplished. 

IN another domain Evert van Muyden's etchings of animal life in a 
wild, sylvan environment reveal an extraordinarily nervous vigour of 
treatment and concentration of expression, and a remarkable know- 
ledge and observation of the character and ways of " our brothers 
the animals." 

RADOLPHE PIGUET'S album of etchings, dealing with subjects 
chosen from the National Exhibition opened in Geneva a year or two 
ago, is a delightful contribution to national art. M. Piguet has 
obtained marked success in dealing with the portrait. If he lacks 
the deeper feeling and power of the Swiss-German masters to whose 
work we have referred, his portraits reveal great skill as far as 
execution is concerned, and are graceful and captivating. 
IT is a matter for regret that Edouard Ravel has not been able to 
devote more time to etching, for the plates he has already executed 
are of rare quality and promise. 

LIKE Charles Giron, Gustave Jeanneret has for many years devoted 
himself to the painting of Swiss landscape and national types, and is one 
of the most distinguished landscapists in this country. Though pre- 
eminently a painter, he has also turned his attention to other processes. 
ALL who are acquainted with present-day Swiss painting have felt the 
charm of Mile. Pauline de Beaumont's impressive landscapes. She has 



Swiss 

brought to etching the same patient study and delicate sensitiveness, 
and with the happiest result. Her treatment of the pensive moods 
and quiet aspects of Nature is always true and effective. 
WE should like to dwell at length upon the really remarkable 
achievements of Alexis Forel, for his UAbside de Notre Dame de Paris, 
A Gust of Wind, Morbihan, and certain other of his landscape etchings, 
are masterpieces. 

MOST of the artists we have touched upon up to the present have 
long been before the public, and have had their due and well-merited 
meed of praise. The work of the rising school of Swiss artists calls 
for an equally just appreciation, not only because it holds in itself the 
promise of the future, but because it is expressive of a new departure, 
a fresh and most interesting development of Swiss Art. The 
members of this school, such artists, for example, as Bieler, Hodler, 
Vautier, Wieland, Amiet, Giacometti, Berta, Vallet, Dunki, Baud 
Rehfous, and others, are of widely differing artistic temperaments ; 
they are intense individualists, with " a personal vision of things " 
which is dearer to them than the formulas of the past, and with but 
one bond of union, viz., the endeavour to produce an Art that 
shall be national not merely in subject, but in essence, spirit, and 
treatment. 

AMONGST the surest signs of the vitality of this school may be 
mentioned the unremitting search of its members for a more 
adequate expression of the artistic faith that is in them, their frank 
delight in their " metier," and the versatility of their gifts. Whether 
we turn to Amiet with his power of extracting the character of 
things without deforming it ; to Hodler with his rude, but vigorous 
workmanship and old Swiss temper ; to Edouard Berta, with his 
distinction in handling a subject, and his exquisite visual sensitiveness 
to colour ; to the robust talent and personal note of Hans Wieland as 
displayed in his fine lithographic plates and powerful drawings ; to 
Dunki's splendid treatment of military subjects ; or to Vallet's 
characteristic portraits of the Swiss peasant, we see signs of vitality, 
sincerity, and promise in the rising school of Swiss artists. 
WE cannot conclude this article without referring to the work of 
Giovanni Giacommetti, one of Segantini's best pupils. Devoted 
with a kind of natural piety to the study of the aspects of Nature in 
his native Grisons, he has already given us interpretations of mountain 
landscape in which the austere character of his subject is rendered 
with indisputable originality and feeling. 

ONE of the finest etchings we have had under study is by this 
artist. The subject of it is Segantini on the Evening of his Death. In 



Swtss 

this work the pupil has rendered worthy homage to the great 

master. 

THE modern Swiss artist is turning with zeal to many branches of 

art, and seeking to realise as complete a conception as possible of his 

vocation and its requirements. 

Robert Mobbs. 



Swiss 




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