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Full text of "Reports of the missionary and benevolent boards and committees to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America"

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P 5 e ff " ian Ch «ch i„ the 

u.s A. General Assembly 
Mmutes_of the General 



HOME MISSIONS. 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 

(The ninetieth from its Organization) 

OP THE 

BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 

OP THE 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA. 



Presented to the General Assembly, at Portland, Oreg., 
May 19*A, 1892. 



No. 53 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 
1892. 



MEMBERS 



$oarb of Jpoutc fissions of % ^resbjterian Cjmrtjj, 



IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The term of service of the following expires in May, 1893. 
MINISTERS. LAYMEN. 

Rev. THOMAS A. NELSON, D.D. JOHN S. KENNEDY. 

" JAMES M. LUDLOW, D.D. JOHN TAYLOR JOHNSTON. 

" GEORGE L. SPINING, D.D. JOHN E. PARSONS. 

HENRY E. ROWLAND. 



The term of service of the following expires in May, 1894 
MINISTERS. 

Rev. JOHN HALL, D.D. 
" D. STUART DODGE. 
" LYMAN W. ALLEN. 
" JOHN W. TEAL, D.D. 



LAYMEN. 

GEO. R. LOCKWOOD. 
TITUS B. MEIGS. 
GEORGE H. SOUTHARD. 



The term of service of the following expires in May, 1895. 
MINISTERS. LAYMEN. 

Rev. THOS. S. HASTINGS, D.D. JOHN CROSBY BROWN. 

" CHAS. L. THOMPSON, D D. E. H. BRINKERHOFF. 

" JAMES S. RAMSAY, D.D. WALTER M. AIKMAN. 

ROBERT HENDERSON. 



OFFICERS. 



Rev. JOHN" HALL, 13.33., President. 
HENRY KENDALL, D.D. , 
WM. C. ROBERTS, D.D. ( Corresponding 

william ievin, d.d. 

d. j. McMillan, d.d. ) 

O. D. EATON, Treasurer. 

OSCAR E. BOYD, Recording Secretary. 



Secretaries. 



Presbyterian House, 33 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

BOX L, STATION D. 



HOME MISSIONS. 



THE TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT. 



The Board of Home Missions presents to the General Assembly 
the report of its ninetieth year — the twenty-second since re-union — 
gratefully recognizing the Divine guidance and goodness in the 
year's most signal prosperity, notwithstanding the almost utter 
intermission during the twelve months of advance and aggression. 

Mr. Joseph F. Joy, long a valued and efficient member of the 
Board, died April 11th, 1891. His decease was noted in last year's 
report. Mr. Jacob D. Vermilye died January 1st, 1892, having 
been for many years a most esteemed and influential member of 
the Board and of its Finance Committee. 

The death roll of missionaries is longer than usual. Their names 
are here recorded, with the Board's testimony to their faithful ser- 
vice and worthy well-doing: 



Rev. C. A. KANOUSE Kentucky. 

" WM. HAMILTON Nebraska. 

" SAMUEL HODGE, D.D Iowa. 

" JOHN MARTIN Nebraska. 



Rev. H. F. SEWELL Kansas. 

" JOHN F. ALLEN Ind. Ter. 

" ALEX. M. HEIZER Iowa. 

" S.N.HILL Michigan. 



Rev. ASA F. WHITEHEAD Michigan. 

The officers of the Board have been reinforced by the addition 
of the Rev. William C. Roberts, D.D., LL.D., for five years an 
efficient and successful Secretary of the Board, who left it five 
years ago for the Presidency of Lake Forest University, and has 
just resumed the post of Corresponding Secretary. Dr. Robert's 
return to the Board means a most gracious relief to the other 
members of the executive force, pressed beyond measure by the 
rapid extension of the work, and should be matter of congratula- 
tion to the entire Church. 



4 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

FINANCES. 

The fiscal year began under the burden of a debt of $98,346.04. 
The usual summer stagnation in current receipts, far exceeding the 
amount of possible loans, so depleted the treasury that payments 
fell more and more into arrears, and hundreds of faithful and 
patient missionaries suffered painful worry and hardship from 
months' delay in quarterly remittances. The grievous ebb turned 
in December, when increasing receipts and additional loans, 
made possible by new facilities, enabled the tardy payments to be 
brought up to date, with unspeakable relief to both the mission- 
aries and the Board. The necessity of largely increasing the 
available collaterals of the Board, in order to allow larger loans, 
during the summer, has often been emphasized. 

The Board would again call the attention of the Church to the 
actual conditions of the financial problem. The Board is usually 
the party blamed and indicted for delayed remittances, being the 
one of all others least justly open to censure. The fact is that 
presbyteries and pastors really hold this matter in their own hands, 
and are the principals in the case. If more presbyteries and Home 
Mission Committees would earnestly insist on the application for 
the actual minimum of needful appropriations, and push congrega- 
tions to the moderate maximum of contributions, a debt on the 
part of the Board, and consequent tardiness in payments, would 
be virtually impossible. 

The million of income recommended by the last General Assem- 
bly has not been attained ; but receipts have exceeded those of last, 
year, and have amounted to a total for the year of $925,949.63. 
This amount includes $82,596.19 for Permanent and Trust Funds ; 
$60,464.94 paid to the Home Board, $5<>,000 of which neither 
principal nor interest is as yet available, and $10,464.94 of which 
interest only is available; and $22,131.25 received from the 
Woman's Executive Committee, of which the income only can be 
used. The income for the year, from all sources, available for 
the current work of the Board, was $843,353.44, $156,646.56 less 
than the amount recommended by the Assembly. 

The debt at the present time is $67,092.62, a reduction of 
$31,253.42 during the year. 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8. 5 

Notwithstanding the debt, and relying on the cordial support of 
the Church, the Board lias just appropriated $5,000 for new work 
in the month of April ; an advance which cannot be continued 
unless current receipts from churches are largely increased. 

FOREIGN WORK. 

This item of our Home Mission work looms large enough in the 
repetition of the oft-made statement, that of our sixty -four millions 
one in every seven is foreign-born, one in every three is of foreign 
parentage, and one in every six is foreign-speaking. A majority 
of all foreigners are Romanists, such as most of the Irish, Bohemians 
mid French; while on the other hand the foreign-speaking class 
are mostly Protestants, such as Scandinavians, Dutch and Germans. 
Twenty counties in Texas are as German as Germany. So are 
large quarters in such cities as New York, Cincinnati and Chicago. 
New York has 400,000 Germans, and Chicago more than 300,000. 
Wisconsin's population is two-thirds foreign, and half German. 
Milwaukee is two-thirds German, and La Crosse three-fourths. 
Missouri has a large German element. Minnesota's population of 
nearly two millions is one-third foreign, with one-third of all the 
Scandinavians in the land. These last are very numerous also in 
(Hah. In these statistics we only reiterate familiar figures and 
ratios, but they must be reiterated to be borne in mind. 

It is well known that immigration has of late years somewhat 
nagged. But during the past year poverty and famine, scanty work 
and harvests, have turned the ebb into a flood. Not including the 
thousands who moved in from Canada to make or fill New England 
cities, 600,000 immigrants came to our shores in 1891, 100,000 
more than in L890, and more than in any previous year except 
1882. Almost one-hundredth part of our total population has thus 
come to us within a year. Germany's hard times sent 30,000 
more here than in the year before. Famine and banishment 
increased Russia's 6<>,000 to 100,000. Italy sent more, in spite of 
international difficulty. So did Sweden and Norway, Bohemia 
and Hungary; the two former, like Germany, sending mostly 
excellent material, and the two latter much the reverse. On the 
whole, the quality of the immigrating class has of course much 



6 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

deteriorated. The increasing number of inmates in our prisons 
and poor-houses shows the burdensome results. It taxes our 
national police to detect and keep out Europe's paupers and 
criminals, and in spite of keen vigilance and resolute reshipment 
they grow on our hands. The idle, the ignorant, the dangerous, 
make their way in, become voters in five years at the longest — in 
most of the Western States in much less time — and then, all 
unfit, share equally with our best native-born and bred in the 
nation's government. It is one of the burning questions of the 
hour whether we shall not speedily have, in the plain interest 
of prosperity, economy and self-defense, a wisely-framed immigra- 
tion law requiring of every new-comer proof of good character and 
honest industry as a passport to welcome and home among us. 
And meanwhile, a still better insurance against damage to all we 
most prize is the resolute and persistent pressing and plying of 
our whole land and people with the ministries of the Church and 
the forces of the Gospel. 

The largest element of our foreign population is the German. 
Our German work has been silently but steadily increasing. Much 
of it has outlived and outgrown dependence. Strong German 
churches stand abreast of their strong American brethren, a living 
and growing disproof of the plausible arguments often beard against 
German preaching. There are more than 160 German churches 
now in connection with the General Assembly, and 133 German 
pastors. There is no reason but lack of funds why their number 
may not be quickly and largely increased. A German colony 
brought over under Presbyterian auspices has recently found a 
home in Nebraska. 

German Presbyterians have organized themselves into two Con- 
ventions, Western and Eastern, to foster work among their own 
class. German mission work in general requires smaller pecuniary 
outlay than American. Our two German theological seminaries 
at Dubuque and Bloomfield, well equipped, though too slenderly 
endowed, have now eighty students. There are two self-supporting 
religious German papers, Der Presbyterianer and Deutscher 
Evangelist, published by the two Conventions. The benevolent 
gifts of the German churches are steadily growing. 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8. 7 

Our work among the Scandinavians in Minnesota and elsewhere 
is limited only by want of men and means. The Lutheran Evan- 
gelical Church is of course nearer to them, and largely attracts 
them, but many of them take kindly to Presbyterian ministries. 
Swedish work in Minneapolis and St. Paul and vicinity is well 
under way. The Synod of Minnesota is eager to expand and push 
the work throughout the State, and the Board waits only for the 
Church's benefactions. So of Danish and Swedish and Norwegian 
work under the shadow of Mormondom, to which thousands of 
these people have been beguiled, but from which their intelligence 
when enlightened makes recovery to a purer faith comparatively 
easy, while their honest thrift and industry render them trusty and 
valuable in all relations. 

The 250,000 Bohemians in the country form a class of people 
whose large Protestant portion appeals especially by tradition and 
training to the Presbyterian Church, though our Congregational 
brethren have a good and growing work among them. Among the 
40,000 in New York City we have a strong and flourishing church, 
with ample appliances, large membership, and three good Sunday- 
schools, under the active and zealous leadership of the Rev. Vincent 
Pisek. We have churches with promising beginnings in Omaha, 
Cedar Rapids, Baltimore and Milwaukee, and in Manitowoc 
County, Wis., Saunders County, Neb., and elsewhere. No class of 
our foreign population has a readier welcome for our fellowship. 

Some small openings of Italian work have been made near 
Scran ton and Audenried, Pa. 

The desire of the Church and the urgency of the General 
Assembly for great enlargement of the work among the foreign 
element, have the earnest sympathy of the officers and members of 
the Board, and they ask for the means to widen and press it with- 
out delay. 

CITY EVANGELIZATION. 

This is always a large item of Home Missions, as well as its 
most puzzling and baffling problem, and will steadily become more 
and more so. Our population gravitates cityward. The young 
and active, ambitious and hopeful, leave comparative rural stag- 
nation and dullness for what they think will prove larger scope 



8 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

and surer and earlier success. Thither drift also the disappointed, 
the discouraged and the criminal. Immigration passes through the 
great coast cities as through a sieve, leaves there most of its poorer 
elements, and takes on only its better part to broader and fairer 
fields. Our cities contain at least one-third of our people, and 
largely those who are not only outside the Church's pale but are 
indifferent or ill-disposed to it. This makes the rural churches, 
especially in the older States, apt to weaken and decay, and hard 
to maintain, even with continuous and increased appropriations — 
which presents another problem, as to which opinions naturally 
differ, but in regard to which it is the fixed and sound policy of the 
Board to stand by and uphold these, even with small prospect of 
their returning independence, as indispensable centres of whole- 
some influences and helpful feeders of good material to all the 
land. This policy cannot but touch the hearts and command the 
sympathetic assent of innumerable settlers at ten thousand points 
all over the newer States and Territories. 

What to do with our cities is a question well illustrated by an 
article on " Evangelizing Chicago," by our active presbyterial 
missionary in that great city, Rev. John Weston, in the April 
number of The Church at Home and Abroad, which need not 
here be reproduced. The city has grown in fifty years from 4500 
to 1,200,000, and is steadily increasing at from 60,000 to 100,000 
per year. It includes one-third of the population of Illinois, and 
more people than Dakota, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Arizona, 
New Mexico and Wyoming combined. It is the most foreign of 
our great cities. The indifferent or hostile part of this foreign 
element is swelled by the masses of our own people from 
rural regions who drift into irreligion. There are 400,000 Roman 
Catholics, 400,000 more or less Protestant, and 400,000 utterly 
churchless — many of them in darkness as absolute as Stanley's 
Wapatiti. Christians are alive to this. All the denominations 
are actively at work. The Congregationalists spent $39,000 
last year. The Methodists built thirteen churches. The Baptists, 
later at work, expended $7000. Our own Church, spent $18,000, 
$10,000 through the Board. Eighteen of our thirty-eight churches 
receive aid from the Board. Two became self-supporting last 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8. 9 

year. We have twenty missions, two German churches, and 

Italian and Syrian missions. The McCormick Seminary students, 

now the most numerous of any seminary, are efficient helpers, 

and have opened five new fields, four of which will soon be 

flourishing churches. Three churches have been organized. Mr. 

Weston says : " We aim at nothing less than the full-fledged church." 

The plan is, a canvass, a Sunday-school and preaching service, then a 

church building — this last a most pressing necessity — there 

being now seven organizations without a shelter. The Presbyterian 

League seeks as its chief aim to aid these struggling congregations to 

acquire church property. Prominent business men are active in it. 

The Presbyterian Social Union is now turning its energies in this 

direction. If the Board is so supplied with funds as to be able to 

encourage the Home Mission Committee to plant churches, and the 

Social League is backed in the work of church building, our 

Chicago brethren may signalize the year of their great Columbian 

Exhibition with an unprecedented advance in Home Missions and 

church extension. 

There may be nothing more in this marked activity in Chicago 

than is now done or aimed at by Church Extension Committees and 

Presbyterian Alliances in New York and Philadelphia, and St. 

Paul and Minneapolis, and Omaha and Portland, and Los Angeles 

and Kansas City, and a score beside. But here at least is plainly 

indicated the line of effort through which our cities are to be 

evangelized. 

SYNODLCAL AID. 

There is nothing specially new to notice in this important phase 
of Home Mission work. The Board has just once more wiped out 
the deficiency of the New York Synodical Aid Fund, and the work, 
it is hoped, will start afresh with prospects of a better outcome 
under the new plan proposed by the Synod's special committee. 
Pennsylvania has measurably attained its aims, with some ground 
still to cover. New Jersey holds its compact work well in hand and 
does it thoroughly, with increasing balance to the Board. Indiana's 
first year of self-support of its dependent churches will undoubtedly 
show better results at home and increased contributions to the Board, 
with also an increase of active and intelligent interest. Illinois's 



10 ANNUAL KEPOBT OF THE [1892. 

plan of four State evangelists is well and profitably maintained. 
Kentucky's sustentation fund of some $6000 will stimulate con- 
tributions and activity. The main and obvious objection to the 
synodical plans is that they may possibly tend to make interest in 
Home Mission work local rather than general, and thus divert gifts 
and legacies from the Board, the Church's central agency ; but this 
can be easily avoided and corrected. In New York there is no 
doubt that the synodical plan has resulted in some increase of gross 
contributions, though as yet not to the extent contemplated and 
hoped for. 

NEW ENGLAND. 

The six New England States measure 60,000 square miles. Maine 
has in area about one-half of the whole. Much less than one-half 
of Maine's surface is arable. Probably not one-tenth of the acreage 
of the other five States is susceptible of profitable tillage. Illinois, 
with 10,000 less square miles of surface than New England, has ten 
times as much arable land. So New England cannot be an agri- 
cultural, and must be a manufacturing district. Where the soil 
fails, the water-power and the business faculty and the tireless 
industry and the indomitable pluck and push are the available 
plant which must be utilized. So farmers leave New Englaud for 
the fertile West ; and the overstock of Canadian and Scotch and 
Scotch-Irish operatives pour into it. Tens of thousands have come, 
and more are coming and will come. They are mostly Presby- 
terians, or inclined to be. They prefer their own Church, and 
mean to have it. They are poor at first, and need preliminary 
help, but their thrift will soon attain self-support for religious 
appliances as for other interests. New England has nearly 
5,000,000 of people. One-quarter of these are foreign-born. Not 
more than one-half of the whole population is of the old New Eng- 
land stock, and one-sixth cannot even speak English — a large part 
of these being Canadian-French and Roman Catholic ; while 
hundreds of thousands are Scotch and Scotch-Irish. Presbyterian 
Home Mission work has thus a natural field and a wide scope among 
these new-comers. Our Congregational brethren on the ground 
heartily welcome and generously help this church extension. By 
this, and by results, the work has been amply justified. With a 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 11 

few exceptions, no Presbytery in the whole Church has surpassed 
that of Boston in growth and enterprise and spiritual increase. 
The number of additions on confession has been all but unequaled, 
and aid from the Board and other outside sources has been 
proportionately light. This satisfactory showing has continued 
through the last year. Roxbury is building an elegant stone 
church on a commanding site. Manchester is building, under 
difficulties and after years' delay. Newport is erecting a line 
edifice in a more central and accessible position than that hitherto 
occupied by its chapel, under the Rev. James Craig, who finished 
the neat stone church at Holyoke, to which the Congregationalists, 
under Dr. Reed, contributed $7,000. East Somerville has a neat 
edifice and a nourishing society. Worcester and Woonsocket 
have just assumed self-support. Fall River is about to build, 
and New Bedford has just purchased a church property, which it 
can very nearly pay for. Taunton has been generously helped, 
and is holding on under rather heavy burdens. The Gaelic congre- 
gation in Boston, under Mr. Gunn, is numerous and zealous, and 
Columbus Avenue has a tine large edifice in a choice position and 
a full audience, though not financially strong. New Haven has 
taken a new start and is quietly prospering, and Lynn, with scanty 
means, is laying foundations. Some new points are proposed, but 
the Board has perforce held back from any advance for more than 
a year. 

FLORIDA. 

Of the forty-one churches on the rolls of the two presbyteries of 
East and South Florida, those at Mill Cove, Palmer, St. Andrew's 
Bay and Mary Esther in the former, and Kismet and Acron in the 
latter, have only a nominal existence. A church has been organ- 
ized at Homosassa, and another at Tracy has replaced Acron. Five 
new edifices are building or soon to be built. The churches are all 
supplied or soon will be. In South Florida "all year" men have 
stood by their fields throughout. In East Florida only four men 
have worked all summer ; two of them are colored brethren, and 
the other two came from the Methodist Church. Nine churches 
left vacant for the summer in East Florida furnish good ground for 
the Board's conclusion to grant no more short or part-year agree- 



12 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

ments. Orange Bend, Centre Hill, Hotnosassa, Eustis, Chuluota 
and Titusville have enjoyed marked revivals, the last having 
received twenty-seven members. 

Oranges are at the lowest prices ever yet known. Orange groves 
go begging for a buyer. Speculation in the marvellous phosphate 
beds has collapsed from overdoing, though a permanent and profit- 
able business must be the final outcome. Our ministers fraternize 
to a larger extent than elsewhere with our Southern brethren. 
Here and there our churches are grouped with theirs for conven- 
ience and economy, and this should be oftener done. Several of 
our feeble churches should be given over to them, if they and the 
people agree. A conference of the two churches on that field in 
regard to these matters would be wholesome and helpful. 

Our work in Florida has been hard and slow. And yet our 
church members there averaged last year for all religious purposes 
$12.2-1. The difficulties have been peculiar and great. The proper 
policy seems to be to hold on and wait for better times. Our syn- 
odical missionary, Rev. Henry Keigwin, is a genial and tireless 
worker. 

MICHIGAN. 

Michigan is rousing and starting afresh under the impulse of its 
new synodical missionary, Rev. David Howell, having lost greatly 
by the lack of such official supervision for several years. The long 
settled southern part has somewhat decreased in population, while 
wealth has increased, without like increase of spiritual consecra- 
tion. The newer section is active and enterprising, with growing 
cities and active educational and religious sentiment. Presbyterian 
interests have not kept pace. Muskegon, with 30,000 people, has 
no Presbyterian church. The same is true of Manistee, with 
12,000, and other considerable places. Churches established here 
would soon be independent and contributing. Lengthening rail- 
roads are multiplying such points, and inviting aggression. The 
people in the great lumbering and mining northern section are 
heterogeneous, and mostly poor, living in small and scattered 
villages, with many prematurely-organized and poorly-supported 
churches. Inter-denominational co-operation would help things. 
District pastors would contribute to relief, supplying the absence 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 13 

of permanent work. Much foundation-work is lost for want of 
continuance, which would strengthen the things that remain. 
Young and strong men are needed here, who could stand scanty 
support for a time. There have been no great awakenings, but a 
fully average outcome for the year in growth and additions. 

MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN. 

Minnesota steadily prospers, as heretofore. Swedish work 
should be pressed. The Synod is in earnest. Gen. Adams is 
active and wise in supervision. St. Paul and Minneapolis are a 
great twin-city centre, whose Presbyterian alliances are tireless 
and wide-awake. Contributions have increased and appropriations 
diminished, and there is a fixed purpose to do better still. 

Wisconsin's large foreign work, which for some years lagged much 

behind, has gained ground under the zealous push of Dr. Thomas, 

our Superintendent. 

IOWA. 

Iowa is emphatically a " rural district." It has no large cities, 
and no condensed masses of population. With 55,000 square miles, 
and all but 2,000,000 of people, it is almost exclusively an agri- 
cultural State. Its southwestern portion is as fair and fertile as 
any equal surface on earth. The Master's vineyard there has also 
its progress and promise to show. The syuodical missionary, Rev. 
T. S. Bailey, D.D., has worked his field with his usual efficiency and 
wisdom, and the eight presbyteries with their 233 ministers and .'174 
churches have earnestly co-operated. Large collections for the 
Board have been urged to considerable purpose. The whole field 
should have the larger supply of men which ample means would 
allow. In many instances, here as elsewhere, two fields would sup- 
port two men almost as readily as one under the stimulus ol the in- 
creased service, and the work would be more fully and rapidly done. 
In such cases a small advance from the Board, much below a double 
appropriation, would thus allow an increase of force, and, as a 
result, of work which would hasten the attainment of self-support, 
as well as the doubling of contributions. There is an illustration 
here of that " withholding of more than is meet," which "tendeth 
to poverty." Our aim on such fields should be the rapid estab- 



14 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

fislmient of strong churches, which would hold and control whole 
communities. The State, which some two or three years ago was 
almost at a standstill, is now fast filling up, and other denomina- 
tions are unusually active. Our Church must not lose its relative 
place in the sacred emulation, as it has done in Montana and else- 
where. Past investment and present need and opportunity furnish 
reason and justification for immediate and generous outlay. The 
harvest perishes, as in Dakota last autumn, if the reaping lags and 
the laborers are too few. Seven churches were organized during 
the year, and several others were delayed for lack of means. Four- 
teen new church edifices and fifteen manses have been built. 
Bohemian work has prospered at Cedar Rapids. Four presbyteries 
have employed two evangelists with success. A missionary con- 
vention was held with much interest and profit. A dozen new men 
are needed at once for vacancies and openings. The synodical 
missionary shrewdly remarks that "if the desirable fields would 
take the undesirable men and the desirable men would take the 
undesirable fields," there would be " a leveling up and filling up " 
devoutly to be wished. 

KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE. 
Our Synod here is far less numerous and strong, but not at all 
less earnest and active, than that of our Southern brethren. Our 
synodical missionary, Dr. Dawson, who is just leaving his office for 
a Louisville pastorate, reports four church buildings erected and 
one handsome manse completed, at a total cost of about $50,000 ; 
about 200 persons added to Home Mission churches ; Centre College 
and Danville Theological Seminary increasingly prosperous ; three 
collegiate institutes doing invaluable work in the three presby- 
teries; the equipment and commissioning of missionar} 7 teachers 
for work among the 200,000 neglected and needy mountaineers of 
the eastern third of the State, a difficult but promising field ; 
hindrance and discouragement through the persistent withholding 
of fraternal relations and co-operation by Southern Presbyterians, 
who cannot be happy in our neighborhood ; feebleness in our 
churches in general, only twenty out of eighty-one being self- 
sustaining; and a strong and valid claim on the Church for sym- 



1892.] BOAED OF HOME MISSIONS. 15 

pathy and help on the part of a noble people who are maintaining 
an unequal but unyielding fight. The past year has been the most 
prosperous since the division which followed the war. Gifts have 
increased twenty per cent., and membership twenty-three per cent. 
Our synodical missionary in Tennessee, Rev. C. A. Duncan, 
reports that in our new Presbytery of Birmingham, among Northern 
operatives and new-comers in northern Alabama, we have hand- 
some buildings, with little debt, at New Decatur, Sheffield, Annis- 
ton, Thomas and Pratt Mines, and in spite of very hard times all 
have made some numerical and spiritual progress. Two new 
churches have been organized in this presbytery, and will build at 
once. The new church at Bridgeport has a specially fine prospect. 
Thomas will be independent next year. Marked revivals in Mary- 
ville, Tusculum and Washington Colleges have brought in 125 
young people. The general additions have been large, and the 
whole outlook is full of promise. 

MISSOURI. 

Missouri, with its three millions of people and boundless re- 
sources, is a field for our Church which has never had its full and 
fair share of tillage. It must have it speedily, in added means and 
men, and will repay it richly and rapidly. In spite of the dis- 
couragement of limited aid, twelve churches have been organized 
during the year. Presbyteries have sent brethren " two and two" 
to hold special services with great profit. There are twenty or 
thirty places fully open to our entrance — some of them, as South 
Hannibal, with 4000 people, not only without Presbyterian services, 
but without preaching of any kind — four points in St. Louis being 
notably eligible. 

A large amount of new railroad is building or to be built at once, 
and the inevitable new towns should be pre-empted. The Germans, 
very numerous in the State, are moving for a German evangelist. 
The 12,000 Bohemians in St. Louis, with their Presbyterian lean- 
ings, are as yet, as they should no longer be, utterly neglected. 
Twenty-four new men have come into the field within the year, 
and nine more are just coming. The irrepressible synodical mis- 
sionary, Rev. Alexander Walker, says that if the Board will only 



16 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

let him he can get and use twenty-five men at once for old and new 
work. Three churches have assumed self-support, and several more 
will follow this summer, making expansion possible without added 
expenditure. Thirteen new church buildings have been dedicated, 
costing $82,000 ; four are now building, to cost $22,000 ; and two 
more are preparing to build. Seven new manses have been built, 
bought or given, and more are in sight. 

Our membership in Missouri of 17,000 is much smaller than it 
might and should be, and is doubled by the united membership of 
the Southern and Cumberland Churches, which reaches 34,000. 
The Southern Church has seven evangelists who are doing good 
work. They are very short of men to fill the churches they orgauize. 
Our Church has wide scope for growth, and there is every reason 
for pushing our work. 

KANSAS. 

Kansas goes on about as usual. The churches are in general well 
supplied. Lack of means has of course checked advanced work. The 
paralyziug depression of two years past from debts and crop-failures 
is rapidly giving place to confidence and solvency. Ten millions 
of the debts which have crippled three-fifths of the farmers have 
been paid off during the past year. Without much new immigra- 
tion, substantial people are coming in and buying homes, and a 
sounder basis of prosperity than ever before is being reached. 
Increased self-support and larger return of contributions will soon 
be apparent. A strong and united movement in this direction has 
been set on foot in the presbyteries of Emporia, Topeka, Neosho 
and Highland. Their aim is to pledge their churches to reduce 
appropriations asked for, and to increase gifts to the Board ten per 
cent, each every year — a plan as wise and practical as possible. 
The active synodical missionary, Rev. Dr. Fleming, reports a 
number of marked and fruitful revivals, and generally encouraging 

conditions. 

NEBRASKA. 

Nebraska's work under its calm and wise synodical missionary, 
Dr. Sexton, has gone on in quiet and solid fashion, with neither 
booms nor breaks. Dr. Sexton says they have done the best they 
could with too scant supply of men and means. Only five churches 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8. 17 

have been organized, though organization has been sought for many 
more. Seven churches have assumed self-support. Six new edi- 
fices have been dedicated. A new chapel has been completed for 
the Third Church of Lincoln. More building will go on this year. 
The additions to membership at least equal last year. Some 
churches have had unusual accessions, as many as forty or fifty. 
The people everywhere are harmonious, loyal and earnest. Almost 
the only thing the field needs, under God's blessing, is the supply 
of the now vacant and somewhat discouraged churches with good 
ministers, for which at least twenty men are needed. 

THE DAKOTAS. 

These splendid twin States are emerging from years of very hard 
experience through drought and flood and failure of harvests, caus- 
ing deplorable depletion and paralysis, especially in the northern 
State. Any passenger through the piled-up harvest of the famous 
Red River Valley last autumn would need no surer proof of better 
times. Long-standing debts have been paid off to an extent which 
proves the general and thorough relief. Forty-three vacancies 
among ninety churches in North Dakota last year, and the reduced 
force and expenditure in South Dakota, were evidences of the 
painful stress whose grip is so pleasantly slackening. 

The churches of South Dakota have grown in membership and 
spiritual strength. Two have secured manses and five have built, 
edifices. Four hundred persons have been received on confession. 
One church has been organized. There are as yet only four self- 
supporting churches in South Dakota. The gospel has been preached 
in English, German, Bohemian and Dakota. There is, of course, 
much lost ground to regain. Six new places want men at once. 
At least twenty-five men are needed for vacancies and openings. 
The Sisseton Reservation will soon be open and occupied. Eureka, 
with 800 people, has no English preaching. Lead City, Watertown 
and Yankton, with 4000 to 7000, have no Presbyterian church. 
In spite of drawbacks we have made much headway, and 
spiritual revival has not been lacking. Dr. Carson, the synodical 
missionary, thinks that the prospects were never before so 
promising, and high hopes so warrantable. Rev. F. M. Wood, 



18 ANNUAL REPOKT OF THE [1892. 

sy nodical missionary in North Dakota, who has held out 
stoutly through stress and strain, sees like signs of good in the 
unparalleled wheat harvest of fifty to sixty millions of bushels — 
adding the suggestive fact that only one-eleventh of the State's 
surface is as yet under cultivation, to say nothing of grazing and 
stock-raising, with half a million sheep and vast herds of cattle on 
the ranges. Yast coal beds are being opened, and manufactories, 
though barely started, are growing fast. Railroad extension, sus- 
pended for a time, is to begin anew, and the population of 180,000 
must rapidly increase. Thousands more of working men will be 
needed this spring. Systematic effort is on foot to encourage immi- 
gration. Thirty millions of acres of productive and unoccupied 
land await new comers. Two hundred thousand more farmers can 
each have a quarter section. The tide will soon set in. Large 
proportions of the incoming people are Scandinavian and Canadian. 
They are intelligent and fairly educated, and their good moral bias 
is shown in their strong repudiation of the lottery and the 
saloon. 

North Dakota is the leading Lutheran stronghold. The 
Methodists come next. Our Church is hardly, if at all, behind. 
Our churches have had 500 additions, 300 on confession. Only six 
churches are self-supporting. Four churches have been organized, 
and five edifices built. Jamestown College is an element of strength, 
as is Pierre University in South Dakota. One-third of the charges 
are without the stated means of grace. More men are needed 
here as elsewhere. Quality is as important as quantity. Twenty 
good men could find work at once. The people are full of 
renewed courage and sanguine hope. 

COLORADO AND WYOMING. 
Colorado has lost many fields from the Board's inability to aid in 
their occupation. But there are many more which may now be 
taken and held. The large mining camps at Rouse and Creede, 
the latter near the late wonderful find of gold, should at once be 
entered on. Wyoming has been sadly neglected, and must have 
more attention and outlay this season without fail. Dr. Kirkwood 
has too large a field, and Wyoming should have the supervision of 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 19 

another man. Fifteen more men should be speedily in commission. 
Five out of the eight churches organized this year have had no 
help from the Board, and one has had no preaching. And yet the 
Presbyterian Alliance of Denver and the Home Mission Committee 
have pushed work as far and fast as they were able, and energy 
and good-will for the work are unabated. The Mexican work in 
southern Colorado is advancing. The evangelists are active and 
faithful, and the churches give good indications of healthful 
spiritual life, their benevolent contributions, for instance, being 
proportionately larger than those of neighboring American 
churches. 

TEXAS. 

This is a Home Mission field for a whole great Church. Our 
people need to be familiarized by repetition with the idea that this 
vast commonwealth is half as large as Alaska, and half as large 
again as California, and six times as big as New York. It is by 
eminence the Home Mission ground of the Southern Church, which 
everywhere overshadows and outnumbers our own, though utterly 
inadequate to the work it would fain monopolize, and showing weak 
points at every turn. Our synodical missionary, Dr. Little, 
and our synod, show great endurance. Three churches have been 
built for $6,000. Five have been organized, with three Sunday- 
schools, thirty-four missionaries have been employed at sixty- 
seven places, and 150 persons have been received on confession. 
Foundations have been broadened, and solid results surpass showing. 
One hundred and seventy-live German families at Fredericksburgh 
are inclining toward our Church, and the movement promises en- 
largement. There are, perhaps, 150,000 Germans in the State, 
two-thirds of them now English-speaking. The German church at 
Fredericksburg is building a new church to cost $10,000. The 
German call to our Church is most emphatic. Our Board spent 
$17,000 in Texas last year, and this year should spend $20,000 or 
more. No church has this year reached self-support. Contribu- 
tions have increased, but Southern Presbyterians give more per 
member than ours do. And yet ours give a larger average than 
that of our whole Church. Sixty-six out of 256 southern churches 
are vacant, and some reported supplied have preaching only once 



20 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

a month. This year chronicles noted growth in Taylor and 
Wichita. Very important points, like Velasco, which, with its 
line harbor, aspires and promises to rival Galveston, and "Waco, 
and Fort Worth, and Galveston itself, with 50,000 population, 
wait for an occupation by us, which only the load on the Board 
has delayed. Now that the load is lightened, onr plant can and 
should be doubled in the coining year. 

NEW MEXICO AND ARIZONA. 

The Synod of New Mexico, only three years old, covers these 
two great Territories, with 122,000 and 1 13,000 square miles respec- 
tively — a combined area half as large as Alaska, and five times as 
large as New York or Pennsylvania. The large school work among 
the Mexican population will be detailed under woman's work. The 
synodical missionary, Rev. James A. Menanl, has both this and the 
church work under his charge. About twenty Mexican evangelists 
are doing a peculiar and excellent work under care of the presby- 
teries and pastors. Decided advance has been made in all direc- 
tions. School attendance has improved, notwithstanding the very 
good public school system just inaugurated, for which the gradu- 
ates of our mission schools have furnished many of the best teachers. 
A good church building has been erected at Socorro for the Spanish 
congregation, and chapels are building at La Luz and Las Valles. 
Want of men and means has prevented the organization of any 
churches during the year. Our Church has not yet established a 
single mission in the great counties of Chaves, Lincoln and Eddy 
in Southeastern New Mexico. Arizona has been sadly neglected. 
Phoenix and Silver City have suffered for want of attention. 
Mexican work is opeuing up more and more, and calls for schools 
and churches at such places as Solomon ville, Tucson and Phoenix. 
Our mission at Flagstaff, Arizona, is only a year old, and yet the 
people have completed a new edifice, and are paying half the salary 
of their capable pastor, Dr. Coltman, formerly Superintendent of 
our Albuquerque school. The Albuquerque church has become 
self-supporting, and has built a handsome manse. At Las Cruces 
a fine brick edifice has been bought from the M. E. Church South, 
and when the congregation has completed payment therefor, it will 



1892.] BOAKD OF HOME MISSIONS. 21 

at once assume self-support. Spanish preaching has been begun at 
Pena Blanca, and a church will soon be organized. 

The synod a year ago had eighty-one more Mexican members 
than American. This year the Mexican membership exceeds the 
American by 242. The membership of the Indian church at Sacaton 
has more than doubled during the year. 

INDIAN TERRITORY AND OKLAHOMA. 

There is nothing specially new to note in our mission work in 
Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Muscogee Presbyteries. Dr. 
Hill, our synodical missionary, has managed the troublesome 
matter of contracts for schools with the councils in a wise and 
economical way. The three Presbyteries number 43 ministers, 
seven or more of them natives, nine licentiates, and 77 chinches, 
with 2,173 communicants. Changes are frequent, and good men 
are not as plenty as desirable. The schools are here relatively a 
more important part of our work than in any other field. A few 
new points have been opened. The white children of the territory 
should have more recognition and provision than hitherto. Both 
churches and schools could be wisely increased if means were 
sufficient. Mission work might be indefinitely extended among 
the full-bloods, as also among the " blanket " tribes in the western 
part of the territory, for whom very little has as yet been 
attempted. The Southern Utes in Colorado, the Uintahs in Utah, 
and the Apaches in Arizona, are all open to us, and all utterly 
neglected and needy. A move has lately been made toward be- 
ginning work among the latter, means having been offered by a 
wealthy member of a New York rural church. 

Oklahoma will be greatly enlarged by the opening and addition 
of the "Cherokee strip," 200 miles long and 30 wide, lying be- 
tween it and Kansas. The Board has already authorized six new 
men for the six new county seats. The inflow of population will 
open a new field and a new demand for Home Mission work, as in 
the case of the lately-opened Sisseton Reservation in South Dakota. 
Our church in El Reno, under Rev. C. L. Miller, has perhaps the 
largest audience in Oklahoma. Rev. W. L. Miller, his father, our 
missionary at Oklahoma City from the beginning, is just leaving 



22 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

his neat church building and large and nourishing congregation for 
a field near his former one in Indian Territory. Our church in 
Guthrie, the capital, has not done so well, but is holding its own. 
Oklahoma will make new demands upon us before long. We 
have been too slow there already. Older places can wait awhile, 
but this cannot be put off. Kansas, for instance, can afford delay 
of new work, since thousands of its people will pour into the new 
tract just open, depleting its border counties for the time, as when 
Oklahoma itself was opened three years ago. So even Missouri's 
valid and waiting claims will bear a brief and partial postpone- 
ment until the new centres have been pre-empted by pioneer 
missionaries who go in abreast of the first wave of settlers. Time 
and tide wait for no missionary. The older part of Oklahoma is 
not more than half manned, and the new section must be more 
promptly and punctually handled. Presbyterian hands must not 
fail to lay their share of the foundations of the coming state, and 
for this a little haste will be more effective, as well as more 
economical, than undue deliberation. 

UTAH, MONTANA AND IDAHO. 
These may be grouped together as included in the Synod of 
Utah, though part of Idaho belongs to the Synod of Washington. 
Utah and Idaho are linked by the Mormonism which dominates 
one and partly holds possession of the other. " The Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints " has suffered from the growing 
incursion of the " Gentiles," who have fairly established their major- 
ity and supremacy in Ogden and Salt Lake City, and have in hand 
the municipal offices and the public schools. Park City, twenty- 
five miles east of Salt Lake City, the site and product of the great 
Ontario mine, and the other mining towns throughout the territory 
in general, are, as they have always been, under Gentile influence. 
Logan and its surrounding villages in the lovely Cache Valley in 
the north are moving fast in the same direction. The American- 
ization of Mormondom is only a question of time, and can only be 
retarded or prevented by the premature granting of statehood to the 
territory, the prospect of which is growing no brighter, eagerly as 
the Mormon hierarchy would welcome it. Mormonism as a system 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 23 

remains unchanged in its autagonism to Americanism and Chris- 
tianity and the social ethics characteristic of both, despite Mormon 
protestations of the abandonment of plural marriage and of loyalty to 
the Government. Some of its staunchest opponents have mistakenly 
inclined to credit the strenuous declarations to this effect, but most 
from past experience " fear the Greeks even when bringing gifts," 
and deprecate any legislative movement toward granting a state 
organization until it is put beyond question that Gentile officers are 
to manage it. The territory is full of wealth, agricultural and 
mineral, and its development is rapidly growing. Large parts of 
its area of 82,000 square miles are as fair and fertile as any land the 
sun shines on. During its history of fifty years its population has 
reached 207,000, and when American and Christian ideas shall 
fairly become dominant, its people will have as rich a home and 
heritage as any State of the Union. 

Dr. Sheldon Jackson first prospected here for the work of the 
Board, soon followed by Dr. Cyrus Dickson, in 1871. The first 
Presbyterian organization was at Corinne, a thoroughly Gentile 
station on the Union Pacific Railroad. The Rev. Josiah Welch 
was sent to Salt Lake City the same year, and the church was 
organized in November of the same year. The city then had 
a population of 15,000, with less than 3000 Americans. Mormons 
then filled all the offices, and the priesthood controlled public 
sentiment and defied courts and laws. The Presbyterian ministers 
and their sympathizers from the first were foes to the hierarchy, 
but friends to the people. In the face of difficulties and menaces 
they advocated free thought and speech, and stood steadfastly 
for Americanization, Christian patriotism and moral reform. In 
1875 our Collegiate Institute was established on a commanding 
central site, and it has been ever since, as it still is, in spite of 
insufficient buildings and equipment, the best school in the terri- 
tory. The lately-established free-school system has somewhat nar- 
rowed its range, or, rather, elevated its plane and aim from primary 
and academic to collegiate education ; but in the new shape of a 
Christian college, with ample appliances and perhaps on another 
and suburban site, it has before it a valuable and notable career as a 
chief radiating centre of the higher education in the coming State. 



24 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

During the past year, through drawbacks and setbacks, our 
Church has more than held its own. Three new churches have 
been organized — Kaysville, in Utah, and Phillipsburg and Neihart, 
in Montana. Montpelier, in Idaho, has received thirty-four mem- 
bers by confession. Idaho Falls has completed a neat edifice. 
Idaho College, at Caldwell, has twenty students. In Utah there 
have been what our indefatigable synodical missionary, Dr. 
Wishard, calls " old-fashioned revivals " at Richfield, Salina, 
American Fork and Box Elder (Brigham City). Our much and 
long-enduring missionary at the last-named place, Rev. S. L. 
Gillespie, " after twelve or thirteen years' pounding against the 
solid walls of irreligion, has at length seen them give way," and 
reports full and solemn meetings, with fifty persons interested. 
Two new missions have been established on good sites in 
Salt Lake City, and the young people are active, while our two 
older churches there are holding on their way. A new church will 
soon be organized at Salina. Dr. Wishard has received fifty-four 
persons on confession during the year, and reports the whole out- 
look as encouraging. The congregation at ISTephi has been grow- 
ing rapidly. At Ogdeu, where the Rev. Josiah McClain labored so 
long and well, until his recent removal to ISTephi, the Rev. Dr. 
James Shields, formerly of St. Louis, has succeeded him with great 
promise of efficiency. Scipio and Fillmore, Parowan and Cedar 
City, St. George and its southern region, are three fields which 
should speedily get good ministers, with three chapels. Mount 
Pleasant, where Dr. McMillan years ago was the stout-hearted 
pioneer in purely Mormon mission work, and in dark and perilous 
days, has its completed academy filled to overflowing. 

Montana, with its boundless wealth and fast-growing popula- 
tion, deserves double the attention and work which it has ever 
received. 

Our Church, early on the ground and in the van, has in its dozen 
years of labor fallen back from first to third place for lack of due 
expenditure of men and means. The field would richly repay all 
the spiritual culture our Church would give it. 

The school- work in Utah will have further notice under the head 
of woman's work. 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 25 

PACIFIC COAST. 

CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA. 

This mighty State, all but as large as France, and richer by far 
than that great country, has need and scope for all possible 
evangelistic effort and enterprise. By far the larger portion of 
its 156,000 square miles is one great wheat field and fruit 
garden. San Bernardino County in the south rivals Florida 
as the foster-home of the orange. The San Joaquin Valley, 
200 miles by 30, is one gigantic and golden wheat farm, and 
the little railway stations are annual depots for millions of bushels. 
Mt. Shasta in the northwest looks down from its 14,000 feet on the 
vast expanse of Tehama and Napa and Humboldt, and a dozen 
adjacent counties resplendent with fruits and flowers in endless 
variety and abundance. Almost the whole State is a natural vine- 
yard and olive-yard, and grows well nigh every product that 
appeals attractively to sight or taste or smell. The rich alfalfa, 
replacing the eastern timothy and clover, fattens countless herds 
on uumberlcss ranches. San Francisco is the nation's gateway to 
China, Japan and Australia. 

When California's two or three millions shall have multiplied, as 
they soon will, to France's thirty-six, they will luxuriate amidst all 
material wealth upon and beneath the soil. 

But amid all this natural splendor of growth religion lags 
behind. It is true that in some quarters great things have been 
done and a noble spirit shown. Los Angeles Presbytery carries 
the banner of the Church for patient and persistent zeal in self- 
extension. San Francisco Theological Seminary, just removed 
to new and ample quarters among the lovely surroundings of 
San Rafael, has, by means of generous gifts at home, taken 
a long stride toward its great function of furnishing a local 
ministry. 

Our two synodical missionaries, covering California and Nevada — 
in the latter of which our work is as small as the population — are 
incessant in their efforts to overtake a work which would tax the 
best energies of ten men, and they are nobly seconded by many wise 
and able helpers. And yet the fact remains that the progress is far 
behind the need. One church has been organized during the year, 



26 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

and eight edifices built at a cost of over $30,000. But there have 
been no marked revivals, and additions have been few. Fifteen 
churches report only 46 additions by confession, while the average 
this year in the Church at large considerably exceeds the usual aver- 
age of seven or eight to a minister. Our many churches are as yet 
mostly dependent on the Board, and there is a scanty supply of good 
and efficient ministers. A wider spiritual quickening would so take 
tribute of the superabundant resources at band as soon to raise all 
the congregations above the need of outside help. The singularly 
heterogeneous population of San Francisco is under the spell of 
materialism, even more utterly than in any other great city ; and our 
seventeen churches, whose number has not increased in six years 
past, and only by three in fifteen years, are so chilled by the un- 
genial atmosphere that they do not impress themselves with full 
weight upon the dead masses about them. Only three per cent, 
of the young men ever attend church. The colossal fortunes are 
untithed for the service of the Kingdom of God. Our synodical 
missionary says that the city is one great mission held. Del Norte 
County, in the far northwest, with over 1500 square miles, has but 
one Protestant minister, and a Presbyterian church organization is 
much desired in Crescent City, its chief town, the best block having 
just been given for church building and manse. Similar destitutions 
among the State's fifty-three counties might be found. There is a 
prospect of the revival of some business interests which will prove 
helpful. A few years ago most of the hydraulic mines were 
discontinued by law, as their washings filled up rivers and bays. 
New arrangements have just been made for their reopening. 
It is claimed that property to the amount of one hundred millions 
of dollars has been lying idle, and that resumption would bring 
ten millions of gold every year from the mines. But a general 
religious revival is the great need ; and until that is granted, the 
Church at large, through its Board, must pour into California the 
means of increased work without stint and without delay. 

OREGON AND WASHINGTON. 

These great twin transraontane States form a Pacific empire, rich 
and powerful beyond compute. Portland is said to be the third 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 27 

richest city in the Republic, and if not so now, it will surely soon 
be. Its millions, uulike San Francisco, are largely tributary to 
Christ, and largely also in open Presbyterian hands. It is a strong 
radiating centre of Christian forces. Its Presbyterian churches are 
alive and awake, and its Presbyterian Alliance is a power. The 
Presbyterian stir thereabouts invites, as it will respond to by 
quickened growth and activity, the coming of the General Assem- 
bly. The whole broad region is by emphasis the great Home 
Mission Held of to-day. u Booms" slacken and business stagnates 
for a while here and there; but these are but eddies in the flood 
which does not and will not pause. Where there is almost utter 
dependence to-day there may be self-support tomorrow. A church 
planted in a new town, but paralyzed for the time by business 
reverses, will justify its existence before the season ends by proof 
of life and strength. Stinted aid from the Board lor a year and 
more past has of course lamentably retarded development and 
hindered extension. The lack of a synodical missionary in Oregon 
has been of further disadvantage. The presbyteries were unduly 
dissatisfied because the Board could not grant applications in full 
and could not send new men. No field could be more inviting. 
Southwestern Oregon is a fruit garden. The Willamette Valley is 
as rich as Eden. Eastern Washington is a mine of wealth on and 
under the soil. Puget Sound, with its unsurpassed harbors, such as 
Bellingham Bay and the harbor of Seattle, is to be the entrepot of 
Asia. The sure needs of the mighty mass of population certain to 
be soon there gathered must be discounted and provided for, if our 
Church in the future is not to lose time and ground as in 
the past. 

A score of waiting points, where enforced delay has made the 
beginning harder and more costly than it need have been, should 
be occupied at once. Several possible stations around Bandon, in 
Coos County on the sea coast, which our tireless missionary Eneas 
McLean has for months been pleading for, should get at least the 
first installment of supply before the Assembly. Places like 
Everett, only six months old, and selling lots for $2500 apiece, 
should be manned and organized betimes; and held through the 
inevitable reaction to the solid prosperity which may be reckoned 



28 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

on beyond. Our valuable and judicious synodical missionary, 
Rev. Dr. Gunn, should be at once backed up with a prompt 
accession of men and means. No more potent incentive could 
be furnished to the Home Mission enthusiasm of the General 
Assembly than a present display of large and liberal intentions 
in regard to all the broad expanse of that needy and teeming 
Pacific slope. 

Four new fields in Walla Walla County — a wheat region only 
second to Red River Valley — should be manned at once to save them. 
Johnson is a new town on the Pelonse branch of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, where Presbyterians wait and lots and money are offered 
us. The tract reports the champion yield of 100 bushels of wheat to 
the acre, and a town on a temperance basis. Dr. Gunn says there 
are not less than thirty such places in the synod, that he might 
man them all with twenty men, and that he u cannot stand this 
much longer." He adds that that region must have the " most 
sprightly and consecrated talents." Almost all the churches, under 
difficulties, have made good progress. Several new towns are 
developing with unusual activity : Edison and Oakes, nearTacoma, 
where the Northern Pacific car shops are situated ; and Everett, 
above referred to, sixty miles north of Seattle, where a church edifice 
is almost ready for dedication ; and Pe Ell, on the extension of the 
Yakima and South Bend Railroad, and several new points in Mason 
County on the Port Townsend and Southern Railway, and on the 
new line from Winlock to the mouth of the Columbia at llwaco. 
Two new men are called for in Whatcom County, and more in 
Clallam County, and about Spokane in Idaho. Irrigation systems in 
the Natches, Moxee and Yakima Valleys have multiplied homesteads 
and settlers to an extent which demands attention and supply. 
The vast projection of irrigating ditches thereabouts will redeem a 
million acres to fertility, and multiply their value tenfold. Through 
delay the college property and facilities offered us at Pasco have at 
last slipped through our fingers. In spite of restrictions nine new 
churches have been added to the roll, and the growth in total 
membership is not less than twenty-five per cent., while that in 
benevolence and self-support has been larger still. The projected 
Fairhaven University is not yet assured, but Whitworth College 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 29 

and the academies at Ellensburgh and Kelso and Pendleton and 
Portland and Albany are doing well. 

WOMAN'S WORK. 

This large and superb department of the Board's work, under 
the management of the tireless and vigorous Woman's Executive 
Committee, presents lor the year no novel or salient features. 
With less than the usual enlargement, there have been solid pro- 
gress and a success both substantial and brilliant. The large and 
elegant building all but completed for a higher grade of education 
for girls at Asheville, the new buildings soon to be under contract 
on a much more eligible site than the present one at Concord, and 
the opening of like work for boys in the new department founded 
by the Board in connection with Washington College in Tennessee, 
mark a great stride in advance in the fascinating work among the 
mountain whites. The Sitka Training School, with its 170 pupils, 
which has already attained a splendid success, is in process of 
thorough reorganization, with a view to still greater efficency. 

The schools in New Mexico and the Indian Territory have grown 
and prospered. Muscogee is to have an additional building. The 
Indian Training School at Tuscon, Arizona, for Pimas and Papagoes, 
under Superintendent Billman, is a model institution. Crowded 
attendance and powerful revivals have been marked features of the 
year's work in Utah. Revised rules have inaugurated more 
thorough discipline in all the schools. New undertakings are 
projected and proposed among the Southern Utes in Colorado and 
the neglected Apaches in Arizona. The Sisseton school maintains 
efficient work undisturbed by the recent opening of the reservation. 
In all those lines, emphatically in that of the mountain whites, 
there is an open door for indefinite enlargement and unlimited 
blessing, under the pressure of our vast organized host of warm- 
hearted Christian women. 

BOARDS OF CHURCH ERECTION AND PUBLICATION. 

These sister Boards have stood shoulder to shoulder with us in 
the common work in which their aid is indispensable and invalu- 
able. 



30 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF MISSIONARIES. 
The n amber of missionaries who have labored the whole or a 
part of the year in connection with the Board is 1,479, and they 
have been distributed as follows : 



ALABAMA 5 

ALASKA 9 

ARIZONA 6 

ARKANSAS 1 

CALIFORNIA 82 

COLORADO 45 

CONNECTICUT 1 

DELAWARE 3 

FLORIDA 18 

GEORGIA 

IDAHO 11 

ILLINOIS 81 

INDIANA 10 

INDIAN TERRITORY 33 

IOWA 102 

KANSAS 112 

KENTUCKY 16 

LOUISIANA 

MAINE ... 3 

MARYLAND 17 

MASSACHUSETTS ... 11 

MICHIGAN 74 

MINNESOTA 84 

MISSISSIPPI 

MISSOURI 61 



in 

MONTANA 10 

NEBRASKA 80 

NEVADA 1 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 2 

NEW JERSEY 

NEW MEXICO 40 

NEW YORK 140 

NORTH CAROLINA 1 

NORTH DAKOTA 50 

OHIO 41 

OKLAHOMA TERRITORY... 11 

OREGON 45 

PENNSYLVANIA 24 

RHODE ISLAND 3 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

SOUTH DAKOTA 62 

TENNESSEE 23 

TEXAS 24 

UTAH 18 

VERMONT 1 

VIRGINIA 2 

WASHINGTON 59 

WEST VIRGINIA 2 

WISCONSIN 52 

WYOMING 3 



Like last year's table, this shows our Home Mission work to be 
national and not sectional, with missionaries and churches in forty- 
six out of fifty States and Territories. New Jersey's missionaries 
are not on the Board's list. In South Carolina, Georgia, 
Mississippi and Louisiana only we have no work. 



SUMMARY 

" " Mormons. . . . 
In the South 


OF 


SCHO 

Schools. 

38 
33 
29 
20 

120 


OLS. 

Teachers. 

174 

88 
52 
46 


Scholars. 

2,552 
2,162 
1,416 
1,556 






Total 


360 


7,686 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 31 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

We condense the main features of the year's work into the 
following, viz. : 

Number of Missionaries, ........ l t 479 

" " Missionary Teachers, - - 360 

Additions on Profession of Faith, ------- 8,808 

" " Certificate, 6,389 

Total Membership, 93,504 

" in Congregations, 132,651 

Adult Baptisms, - 3,368 

Infant Baptisms, 4,680 

Sunday-schools organized, -------- 316 

Number of Sunday-schools, -----.. 2,190 

Membership of Sunday-schools, - 141,236 

Church Edifices (value of same, $4,650,281), ... - 1,644 

* " buHt during the year (cost of same, f 311,861), - 111 

" " repaired and enlarged, ( " " $61,235), - 288 

Church debts cancelled, - $114,782 

Churches self-sustaining this year, ------ 52 

" organized, ---... J07 

Number of Parsonages (value $489,064), 380 



APPOINTMENT OF MEMBERS. 

The term of service of the following members expires with this 
Assembly, namely: 

Ministers — Rev. Thos. S. Hastings, D.D. 
" Chas. L. Thompson, D.D. 

Laymen — Mr. John Crosby Brown. 
" Walter M. Airman. 
And a layman in place of Jacob D. Vermilye, deceased. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

By order of the Board. 

H. KENDALL, ) 

WM. IRYIN, I Secretaries. 

D. J. McMlLLAN, ) 



32 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE [1892. 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 



0. D. EATON, Treasurer, in account with the BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. 

1893 IDZFL. 

March 31— To Cash received to date for HOME MISSIONS, viz : 
From Churches (of which $2,326.51 Special 

for Debt), ... - $281,30949 

" Sabbath Schools, - 
" Women's Missionary Sooieties, 
" Legacies, - 

" Individuals (of which $9,605.25 Special 

for Debt), ... - 

" Interest on Permanent and Trust Funds, 
To Cash received for Permanent Fund— Legacies 
" " " " Trust Fund, 

NEW YORK SYNODICAL AID FUND, 
To Cash received to date, - 

1891 SUSTENTATION. 

April 1 —To Balance, this date, ... 

1893 
March 31— To Cash received to date, viz. : 

From Churches, - - 

" Legacy, ----- 

" Individuals, etc., - - - - 

on.. 

1891 

April 1 —By Balance, HOME MISSIONS, 

1893 Indebtedness this date, - - - $98,346 04 

March 31 — By Cash paid to date, viz : 

Account HOME MISSIONS, - - 797,983 62 $896,329 66 

SUSTENTATION, - 2.6b2 72 

1891 NEW YORK SYNODICAL AID FUND, viz: 

April 1 —By Balance, Indebtedness this date, - - $22,377 09 

1893 
March 31— By Cash paid to date, ... - 29,067 41 



37,133 67 
278,918 61 
140,516 96 




76,061 86 

13,779 27 $827,719 86* 


$32,596 19 
50,000 00 


82,596 19 $910,316 05 


- 


$12,670 58 


- 


$1,892 88 


$2,779 33 
117 31 




66 36 


2,963 00 $4,855 88 




$927,842 51 



Less amount charged to Home Missions, 38,773 92 12,670 58 
By Investment, Permanent and Trust Funds, - 83,252 17 



Expended asfolloios : 

Missionaries, $472,172 18 

Specials, as designated by donors, - - - 309 38 
Teachers and Chapels (including Office Salaries, 
Printing, Stationery, etc. , amounting to $11,314.67), 293,526 52 

Taxes on Real Estate, - - - - 335 79 

Interest Account, 6,637 90 $772,981 77 

Corresponding Secretaries, ... $15,000 00 

Treasurer, - 4,000 00 

Recording Secretary, 3,000 00 

Clerks, 6,902 20 

Traveling Expenses, ... - 851 23 29,753 43 

Presbyterian House— Taxes & Expenses, - $1,348 37 

Expense of Rooms, Janitor, cleaning, fuel, etc., 1,757 07 3,105 44 

Printing and Binding Annual Report last year, - $F,978 73 

Printing and Stationery, - 1,687 98 

The Church at Home and Abroad— Deficiency, - 2,674 56 6,341 27 

Postage, 1,107 18 

Legal Expenses - 47 83 1,155 01 

$813,336 92 



$994,935 13 



To Balance. $67,092 62 

* Includes $11,931.76 received Special for Debt of 1890-'91. 



1892.] BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 33 

PERMANENT FUNDS, the income only to be used. 



United States Government Bonds. . 

New York City Bonds, ...... 

Bonds and Mortgages, ....... 

The John C. Green Fund, - - .... 

Philadelphia City Stock, .-.---. 
Union Pacific R. R. Bonds, Kansas Branch (donated), 
Municipal Bond, Memphis, Tenn. (donated), - 

Pennsylvania R. R. Bonds (4>£ per cent.), 
Township R. R. Bonds (bequeathed), .... 

Louisa B. Green Memorial Fund, ..... 

Carson W. Adams Fund, ...... 

Middlesex Banking Co. (donated), ..... 

St. Paul City Railway Co. Bonds, ----- 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific R. R. Bonds, 

Rio Grande Western R. R. Bonds, - 

Montana Central R. R. Bonds, - 

Indianapolis Rolling Mill Stock (Par Value $25,000, nominal value). 



Township R. R. Bonds (bequeathed), ....... | 9,000 00 

Bond and Mortgage (Asheville, N. C), ----- . - 77,50000 

TRUST FUNDS, the income from which is to he received by the donors 
during' their lives : 

New York City Bonds, $1,000 00 

Pennsylvania R. R. Bonds (4# per cent.), - ... 3,000 00 

Township R. R. Bonds, 4,000 00 

Loan on Real Estate, .... .... 5,000 00 

Bonds and Mortgages, ---------- 14,000 00 

St. Paul City Railway Co. Bonds, 6.000 00 

Rio Grande Western R. R. Bonds, 12,00000 

Minneapolis Street Railway Co. Bonds, ------- 9,000 00 



$54,000 00 



One hundred (100) Shares PreferredlCapital Stock, Chicago and North Western Railway Co. 

" " Capital Stock, Rensselaer and Saratoga R. R. Co. 

Four (4) Shares Capital Stock, Utica and Black River R. R. Co. 

REAL ESTATE— Presbyterian House, one-half interest in the property, northeast corner 
of Fifth Avenue and Twelfth Street, New York City. 

O. D. EATON, Treasurer. 



The undersigned having examined the accounts, with the vouchers, of O. D. Eaton, 

Treasurer (if the Board of Home Missions, find the same correct, and the securities of the 

Permanent and Trust Funds as stated. 

WALTER M. AIRMAN. , 

New York, N. Y., May 4. 1892. TITUS B. MEIGS, f AudlU>rs - 



34 



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45 



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47 



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49 



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66 



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[1892. 



SSI 



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67 



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68 



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[1892. 



38 8 

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69 



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71 



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73 



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[1892. 



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[1892. 



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91 











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[1892. 




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BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



93 



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104 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



© og 

o O^f 

t- oro 

11 co»-« 



O-f o 



©SO O OOiOO O©-* 0"-«© 

©©o o © © o* © © © 



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© © © t- © © o> 

©Jin co eoo»Ti< 



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o tJ • E ■ 5 s .2 ■ ?r ■£ • : * , ■ » ^-i 10 • • iS —' •" -a • • « ? 

jUSdfe ' •°-r ^l^dg : 92 :c»„,odflB= 1 ;Oo 

l|^|lI^i. £ s|^I1l|lKl|5|l3||.l||8£ls, 

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i£«iS 



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■ajcacaoowoa 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



105 




18 I 



ot 




?< 




c* 




e> 


8 

0» 


? 

lit 


85 

12 00 
25 00 




o 
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2 50 

4 22 
16 30 

10 00 

102 82 

11 05 




10 00 

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1 16 
20 00 25 60 

6 mi 
18 88 

8 80 
10 00 10 00 
10 00 20 00 


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-- C *- lI 
a « d n> a = 5) 
l3ftfea.MaoE-< 






^a 




106 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 






OOOOOO OO © O O O Q 
lOOOOXO Orl OOOOO 
0S5)-*rt-O: —i OO ~-i CJ IG Tf N OiO 



8 IS 



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1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



107 



as 

OlO 



8 § 



woo oo»ftooo*r> oooo»oooc- 

~H3>0 OiOi-OOO'-D OOOOLCJifiO 
ODQO OD3JOONCO *0»0»— <© © QC iO CC» 



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108 



ANNUAL EErOBT OF THE 



[1892. 



888 

ett-t- 



5! 

« OOD 



o o o m o o t- 

inowtooco 

CO O CO t- lO *^ 00 



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OOOOOOOOlO 

loccwcocjco'oojt- 



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1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



1<>9 











8 








8 








O 1 
<o 




s 












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IN 








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110 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



~OOl- 
MSN« 



§ 8 28 



o o o o <o x o o ?> a> 
ooootoo OlOOO 

mcsxii-cicoo oioos 



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mcon o ana ooo oooocso 

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« g gj § S 1 8.2 S S | S 33 g 03"K §-3 35 
sqpQOQfe6cli<feOiJaaa!2;ZOOOOfr.0H««(» 



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a tig*. — i « s- 3 2 i" ' 
= «3M5'©3-c£g35;os. 

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1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



Ill 



aoooio« 



§8 
t-co 



1; ► 



2 u -n-g-o £ £ § a 



B 3 
"H S 
oa as 



- 3 Cbb >,£ - 





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00 Tji 

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10 



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tea 



i :Q :2 Jig 



112 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM INDIVIDUALS, ETC., DURING 
THE YEAR 1891-92. 



A Friend $50 00 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred. Fuller, Fullerton, Neb. . 20 00 

Miss Emma Robertson, for debt 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. B., Springfield, N. Y 5 00 

"A. B. C." 5 00 

" Friend," Choconut Centre, N. Y 5 00 

Mrs. E. P. Thwing, Brooklyn, N. Y 400 00 

" V. F.» 120 00 

ffm. H. Perdomo, M.D., Sag Harbor, N. Y. 10 00 
Mrs. C. H. Pond, Auburndale, Mass., for 

debt 5 00 

J. Hope, West Philadelphia, Pa 100 00 

Mrs. H. F. Brouson, Ottawa, Canada 1500 00 

" A Widow'sTenth " 8 00 

"A Friend," Rochester, N. Y 20 00 

Lucy S. Anderson, Bellaire, Ohio 10 00 

Miss Jane S. Cathcart, York, Pa 30 00 

John C. Wicke, Youngstown, Ohio 500 00 

James B. Jermain, Albany, N. Y 000 00 

"A Friend of the Cause " 10 00 

Upson, Walton & Co., Cleveland, Ohio 100 00 

" A friend of Home Missions" 10 00 

Rev. T. Thomas, Stevensville, Pa 10 00 

MissL. S. Throop, Utah 1,00 

"H. L.J." 200 00 

Mrs. E. A. Cummins, Bellaire, Ohio 20 00 

Woodland S. S., Easlon, W. Va... 7 00 

Rev. and Mrs. R. W. Kennedy, Daly, N. D. . 8 00 

Jos. Sutherland, Browns Valley, Minn 8 00 

Miss Isabella Seely, Goodhue 5 00 

"Two Sisters" 15 00 

" Unknown Friend " 10 00 

"T.W.P." 4 00 

Rev. Wm. G. Smith, Laingsburg, Mich 5 00 

Rev. D. A. Newell and family, Wooster, O. . 10 00 

Mrs. Alexander M. Bruen, New York 500 00 

Mrs. Dorothy R. Turner 100 00 

Sarah E. Annan, Allegheny, Pa 30 00 

A. Root, Ingersoll, Ont 4 00 

" Presbyter," for debt 25 00 

Miss Flora Gould, Arkansas City, Kan 5 00 

J. W. Blackburn, Provo, Utah 10 00 

"CD." 30 00 

E. A. Bechlel, Mt. Morris, 111 5 00 

Mrs. H. M. Byram, Glendale, Cal., for debt. 5 00 

D. W. Gardner, Fulton, N. Y 50 00 

Rev. A. T. Aller, Hays City, Kan., for debt. 5 00 

Students of Theo. Sem., Auburn, N. Y 25 84 

" Charlie Little " 5 00 

Mrs. A. E. W. Itobertson, Muscogee, 

Ind. Ter 3 50 

Rev. II. A. Nelson, D.I)., Philadelphia, Pa.. 25 00 

C. E. Whittlesey, Madison, N. J 100 00 

Religious Contribution Society of Princeton 

Theological Seminary, N.J 102 02 

V. W. Van Wngenen, Newark, N. J 25 00 

"One for the Master, nine for Myself," 

Midland, Mich 40 00 

Miss Mabel Slade, N. J 550 00 

B. Sterling Ely, Buffalo, NY 33 75 

Mrs. Sarah B. Richardson, Lake Geneva, 

Wis 4 00 

James T. Imlay, Hamilton, Ohio 5 00 

S. J. M. Eaton 30 00 



" A Steward," for debt $5 00 

Miss L. S. McMonigal , 10 00 

J. D. Lynde, Haddonfleld, N. J 100 00 

E. A. Greenough, Falls Church, Va 100 00 

Mrs. Edward Bigelow, Farmingdale, N. J. . 10 00 
Miss Carrie D. Hopkins, Denver, Col., debt. 10 00 
A Friend of Home Missions in Washington 

County 25 00 

Mrs. Myron Phelps, Lewistown, 111 50 00 

Rev. V. D. Reed, D.D., Philadelphia, Pa.. 10 00 

" M. E. W.," debt 5 00 

W. H. Perdomo, M.D., Sag Harbor, N..Y. 10 00 

Fanny U. Nelson, Philadelphia, Pa 10 00 

Mrs. Mary E. Palmer, New Brighton, Pa.. 20 00 

J. W. Johnstone, a thank offering 10 00 

Mrs. Eunice T. Halstead, Batavia, N. Y . . 27 00 

Miss Annie Wright, Atoka, Ind. Ter 12 50 

"M. E. P." 2 00 

Charles G. Wilson and wife, Rose Hill, Fla..150 00 

Rev. J. C. Mechlin 11 25 

Robert Weir, Baltimore. Md 5 00 

Mrs. Eunice W. Van Keuren, Little Britain, 

N. Y 20 00 

Upson, Walton & Co., Cleveland, Ohio... 100 00 

S. Paul, New York City 24 50 

Friends 300 00 

Mr. and Mrs. Geo. A. Lyon, San Francisco, 

Cal 25 00 

Miss F. E. Baker 5 00 

Society of Inquiry, Lane Theological Semin- 
ary, Cincinnati, Ohio 12 40 

John F. Wiuslow, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 200 00 

Chas. W. Black and wife, Malvern, Iowa, 

debt 102 50 

"R.,"debt 8 00 

"Charlie Little" 5 00 

Rev. C. L. Carhart, Buffalo, N. Y 20 00 

H. J. Huey, Philadelphia, Pa 10 00 

Rev. J. S. Craig, D.D., Mablesville, Ind.. 10 50 

Mrs. Dr. Kelsey, Xenia, Ind 1 50 

"Outsider" 10 00 

Sidney Hall, Middle Grauville, N. Y 3 00 

A Friend 5 00 

Chas. S. Scott, New Brunswick, N.J 25 00 

Caroline E. Stone, Orange, N.J 500 00 

Robert Walker, Clinton, III 25 00 

H. E. Noxon, Noxen, N. J 100 

Three Members Presbyterian Church 1 06 

"J.," Dayton, Ohio 10 00 

" F. and M." 3 50 

" Plattsburgb, N. Y." 5 00 

Mrs. E. M. Kellogg, Sheffield, Mass 2 00 

Rev. W. H. Bancroft, Boothwyn, Pa 5 00 

From a member of Phelps Church, Geneva 

Presbytery 20 00 

Mrs. Mary B. Wheeler, Litchfield, Conn.. .300 00 
Miss Anna Wain, Germantown, Pa 300 00 

.Taiucs Snyder, Morrison, III 300 0(1 

Rev. Lyman B. Crittenden 2 60 

"P.,"N. J 50 00 

"Rev. T. W. and son" 2 00 

" A. Friend," per Rev. W. II. Hunter 2 50 

(has. VV. Black and wife, Malvern, Iowa.. 37 50 
A mite for the Board, per Mrs. T. M.Niven. 2 00 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



113 



Mrs. 0. Q. Sleicher, Troy, N. Y $50 00 

Miss M. White and 2 pupils, Paris, Idaho. . 5 45 

Brooks Sayre, Summit, N. J 13 00 

Mrs. W. D. McNair, Dansville, N. Y 5 00 

Mrs. James McCormick, Harrisburg, Pa. .100 00 

Kev. H. T. Scholl, Big Plats, N. Y 20 00 

Mrs. II. D. Mills, Tunkhannock, Pa 25 00 

Rev. S. 1). Pulton and wife, Dallas, Oreg.. 5 00 

"Hapland, Chicago" 300 00 

Eunice H. Plumb, (iowanda, N. Y 100 00 

Alexander Guy, Oxford, Ohio 200 00 

" From a friend of Missions" 250 00 

"J. M. W.,"Iowa 50 00 

Kev. T. Willislon, Ashland, N. Y 3 00 

Mrs. Sarah Dodder, Webster City, Iowa.. . 7 00 
From a friend and lover of the Mission 

cause 10 00 

Congregational Church, East Blootnfleld, 

N. Y 20 115 

•' M. C. O." 50 00 

•' M s. II," thank offering 5 00 

Mrs. 3. 0. Miller and daughter, Newark, 

.v .1 500 00 

A. M. McMillan, Paris, III 13 50 

A friend of Home Missions, Washington 

County 20 00 

Mrs. Mary B. Gillespie, Gallatin, Mo 10 00 

" Friend " 10 00 

Rev. J. S. Pomeroy 1 00 

Mrs. Isabelle Pomeroy 1 00 

" A Friend," Brooklyn, N. Y 5 00 

"J. G. T.," Medellin, Columbia, S. A 10 00 

A retired Home Missionary and wife 50 00 

" O. P. M." 20 00 

Mrs. E. Patton, Lake City, Minn 133 40 

A. T. Rntledge, Lodi, Cal 6 00 

Rev. W. J. McKee, .shanghai, China 20 00 

M. E. Drake, Brockport, N. Y 5 00 

"T. andM." 8 25 

Mrs. J. J. Buck, eightieth birthday offering.. 10 00 

In Memoriam, E. 8. N 20 00 

Upson, Walton & Co., Cleveland, Ohio. ... 100 00 

Mrs. Frank Murden, Peoria, 111 10 00 

"Mrs. H.» 800 00 

Isaac Edwardson 5 00 

" The gift of one whom the Lord has pros- 
pered " 5 00 

Theo. C. Bee, Jr., Selby, Cal 10 00 

H. B. Sillimau, Cohoes, N. Y 1000 00 

Rev. Wm. P. Alcott, Santa Fe, N. Mex 10 00 

Society of Inquiry, Union Theological 

Seminary, N. Y 251 55 

"C. Penna" 168 00 

Christian Union Congregation, Metamora, 

111 425 

R. C. Mitchell, Denver, Col 10 00 

"A Friend" 500 00 

Rev. D. L. Gifford, Seoul, Korea 18 73 

I. B. Davidson. Newville, Pa 15 00 

Mrs. C. Stewart, Cayucos, Cal 5 00 

Mrs. E. P. Thwing, Brooklyn, N. Y 800 00 

Rev. W. W. Atterbury, D.D.. New York... 50 00 

Miss H. S. Swezey, Amityville, N. Y 8 00 

Miss Kale Perry, San Francisco, Cal 2 50 

Col. I. R. Paul, Chicago, III 5 00 

" Charlie Little " 5 00 

Rev. D. F. Haynes, Baltimore, Md 25 00 

"E. L. T." 10 00 

L. B. Browning, Decatur, Mich 5 00 

The Misses McCunc, \\ 'oodlawn, Pa 9 00 

John McMichael, Oakdale. Pa 25 00 

James Waters, Oswego, N. Y 15 00 

Anonymous 1 00 

Mrs. J. M. Anderson. Bellaire, Ohio 10 00 

Mrs. L. E. Woodbridge, Bellaire, Ohio 10 00 

T. Nash, San Antonio, Texas 3 25 

''D-P-T.".., 2000 

A Thanksgiving gift for workers in N. D., 



S. D., Idaho, Nev., Mont., Wyo. and 

Ariz. " from a believer in Missions »' $950 00 

A. D. McBride, Rochester, N. Y 100 00 

Rev. J. H. Dulles, Priucetou, N.J 20 00 

Albert Owen Rennison, Chicago, 111 1 25 

Rev. S. J. M. Eaton 30 00 

James Robertson, Constantla, N. Y 100 00 

"M. B. C." 500 00 

Mrs. E. T. Schriver 5 00 

"8. B. P." 10 00 

"Clerk," Cleveland, Ohio 100 00 

C. W. Black, Iowa 27 50 

Miss Edith Evans, Iowa 10 00 

Mrs. Mary E. Mitchell, "a thank offering".. 35 00 

Rev. J. C. Shephard and daughter, Mo 5 00 

Dr. H. Neal, San Miguel, Cal 10 00 

Rev. E. P. Goodrich, i psilanti, Mich 30 00 

Mrs. Dickinson, Dunkirk, N. Y 5 00 

Rev. L. V. Nash, "thank offering" 2 50 

A. Sister in the Lord 50 

.1 c. Kingsbury, Indianapolis, lud 10 00 

" Thanksgiving Offering " 25 00 

Rev. K. W. Hitchcock, D.D., Philadelphia, 

Pa 10 00 

J. W. Parks, South Haven, Kan 20 00 

"A. E." 70 00 

Rev. James Reid, Deer Lodge, Mont 15 00 

Henry Thomson. Greensburgh, Ind 10 00 

Rev. H. H. Welles and family, Kingston.Pa. 50 00 

Rev. J. S. Lord, Laingsburg, Mich 1 00 

Mrs. Nancy F. Blayuey, Pa 5 00 

"A Friend" 150 00 

J. A. Keenan, Groton, Vt 3 00 

C. P. Warren, Detroit, Mich 6 00 

"Mr. and. Mrs. S." 15 00 

Rev. A. G. Taylor, Osaka, Japan 30 00 

Mrs. Samuel W. Semple, Sewickley, Pa. . . 25 00 

E. Sterling Ely, Buffalo, N. Y 33 75 

Rev. H. M. Tyndall and wife, N. Y 15 00 

Rev. D. 0. Reed, New Castle, Pa 200 00 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Hayslip, Chenoa, 111 20 00 

"A Friend" 5000 00 

" A believer in Missions " 50 00 

J. D. Lynde, Haddonlield, N. J 50 00 

" Edwin » 25 00 

C. B. Gardner, Trustee, Rochester, N. Y. 150 00 

Rev. E. P. Willard, Cayuga, N. Y 5 00 

Rev. R. Craighead, D.D., Meadville, Pa. ..100 00 
Miss M. A. McKenzie, Fowlerville, N. Y.. . 2 00 

John 8. Kennedy, New York 10,000 00 

" M. E. P." Brooklyn, N. Y l 00 

Mrs. M. D. Ward, Afton, N. J 10 00 

"Cash," Ithaca, N. Y. 95 00 

John Mains 18 00 

James Mawba 14 00 

John A. Lockie, Gouverneur, N. Y 5 00 

"Cash" 6 00 

Anthony Hemstreet, Waverly, N. Y 10 00 

Rev. J. S. McClure and wife, Napa, Cal. . . 7 00 

Mrs. Kate Marvin, North East, Pa 30 00 

J. Armstrong, Alliance. 6 00 

Laura U. Page, Weedsport, N. Y 15 00 

A member of Church, Tenth and Walnut, 

Philadelphia 100 00 

Henry Hutchison, Falls Creek, Pa 5 00 

Kev. I. N. SnragUe, D.D., Pultney, Vt . . . . 5 00 
Mrs. Sarah Gill, Reading, ()., " Tithe " . . . . 3 00 

Rev. D. A. Wallace, l'ontiac, 111 2 00 

Isabella A. Griffin, Chieng, Mai Laos 12 00 

Mrs. M. S. Hotohkin, Wynne Wood, I. Ter. 25 00 

"T. W. P." 5 00 

"A Friend" 50 00 

F. H. Kingsbury, Clyde, N. Y 2 00 

John S. Lyle, N. Y 2500 00 

Rev. Waller J. Clark, N. Y. City 2 00 

Upson, Walton Jc Co., Cleveland, Ohio. . . .100 00 

"Cash" 10 00 

Miss Catharine Phelps, Kelloggsville, N. Y. 10 00 



114 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



ALady *j> 00 

R. Inglis, Wyoming. la 5 OU 

Miss May Alexander, Pittsburgh, Pa 4 00 

Mrs. Jane B. Worth, Tallula, III 1 00 

Mrs. S. B. Richardson, Lake Geneva, Wis. 5 00 

H. C. Cowles, Darby, Pa 2 50 

" From a poor self-supporting minister 5 00 

Hapland, Chicago 500 00 

G. A. Strang, N. Y 100 00 

"Cash" ... 25 00 

Bev. H. Loomis, "Thank Offering" 25 00 

Miss Jane Ten Eyck 5 00 

Rev. Elias Riggs, D.D., Constantinople, 

Turkey 20 00 

"A Friend in Wavne Co." 10 00 

"A Friend" * 250 00 

Harriet Julian Huey, Philadelphia, Pa.... 30 00 

«jr» 200 00 

R. M. Sandford, East Aurora, N. Y 10 00 

Dr. W. R. Farries. Wei-hien, China 9 00 

Mr. and Mrs. David F. Dobie and daughter 3 00 
" A Friend of Home Missions in Washing- 
ton Co 30 00 

"A Friend," N. Y 2 00 

Georgiana Willard, Auburn, N. Y .3000 00 

Caroline Willard, Auburn, K. Y 3000 00 

MissE.M.E 10 00 

William Adriance, Poughkeepsie, N. Y... 10 00 

Rev. R. Taylor, D.D. Beverly, N.J 50 00 

J. D. Thompson, E. Los Angeles, Cal. . . . 1500 00 

Anonymous, Colorado Springs, Colo 2 00 

A. Root, Ingersoll, Ont 5 00 

Mrs. E. Bronson, Aspinwall, Pa 1 00 

Friend, Ackley, Iowa 20 00 

Rev. W. N. Geddes 10 00 

Friend, Kingsville, Ohio 15 00 

The Misses Stokes, N. Y 50 00 

W. M. Wilson, Caseville 4 00 

"Cash" 500 00 

Rev. Wm. Drummond, Wis 50 

"H. A. J." 10 00 

A Friend 10 00 

Mrs. Henry J. Biddle, Philadelphia, Pa. ... 100 00 

Rev. P. D. Cowan 5 00 

Miss Minnie D. Say, Dec'd 25 00 

F. S. Fluke, Winnebago City, Minn 28 00 

"J. C. A." Washington, D. C 5 00 

Simon Reid, Lake Forest, 111 10,000 00 

" M. G. M." 10 00 

Brooks Sayre, Summit, N. J 5 00 

C. L. Anderson, Dracut, Mass 5 00 

Rev. J. 0. Mechlin, Salmas, Persia 11 25 

Rev. N. L. Lord, Rochester, Ind 5 00 

Rev. W. H. Robinson, Chili, S. A 25 00 

Isabella McQueen, Schenectady, N. Y 5 00 

" M. S. H." Fort Scott, Kans 2 50 

" Hartleton, Pa." 23 00 

A widow's mite, La Grange, N. Y 5 00 

Cash 6 25 

Rev. L. L. Radcliffe, Meadville, Pa 5 00 

Mrs. M. A. Nicholl, Millerboro, Neb 1 75 

Elizabeth A. Cummins, Bellaire, Ohio 12 50 

" l'riend, Ackley, Iowa " 17143 

Rev. E. Thompson und wife, Taylorville, 

111 5 00 

"A Friend" 20 00 

Rev. D. E. Finks 10 00 

J. H. Conant, Chester, 111 10 00 

"A. McE. \V." 5 00 

"A Friend" 50 00 

" Cedar Rapids " 5 25 

Rev. J. G. Craighead, D.D., Washington, 

J). C 50 00 

Mrs. Cyrus Dickson 200 00 

Y. P. S. C. E., Helmetta, N. J 5 00 

A Friend 50 00 

J. A. Porter, M.D., Brooklyn, Mich 50 00 

"W. P. H."N. Y 200 00 



Rev. H. H. Benson, Wauwatosa, Wis $2 00 

"L. B." 5 00 

Mrs. Jameson, The Rectory, Loughgilly, 

Ireland 4 87 

"M.J. G." 100 00 

Friends 300 00 

"AFriend" 300 00 

"C.H."M., N.J 7 50 

Rev. A. S. Peck and wife, Armour, S. D. . . 2 00 
C. W. Stewart and M. Stewart, Coleraine 

Forge, Pa 75 00 

John H. Holliday, Indianapolis, Ind 100 00 

"P." N.J 50 00 

A family of four, Jersey Shore, Pa/ 5 00 

Miss E. E. Dana, Morristown, N. J 500 00 

" From friends at home " 50 00 

Peter Dourgaard, Manti, Utah 3 00 

" T. and M?' 3 25 

Rev. T. Williston, Ashland, N. Y 3 67 

Jos. D. Smith, York, Pa 5 00 

" From a friend of the Cause " 16 00 

Rev. W. W. Atterbury, D.D., N. Y 50 00 

Cornelia U. Halsey, Newark, N.J 100 00 

Returned by a Missionary 18 75 

Rev. Geo. J. E. Richards, Greenville, III. 5 00 

J. Williston Watt 9 00 

" M. L. M." 5 00 

"Cash" 50 00 

Sarah Munson, Washington, D. C 5 00 

Mrs. H. B. Williams, Choconut Centre, O. . 5 00 

A Friend 25 00 

Rev. Wm. Irvin, D.D., N. Y 100 00 

Mrs. Metta P. Johnson, Sturgis, S. D 6 00 

John B. Davidson, Morris, 111 12 00 

Robert Pollock, New Hope P. O, Pa 5 00 

Eunice Plumb, Gowanda, N.Y 2500 

Rev. A. S. Billingsly, Statesville, N. C 2 00 

Misa A. J. Stinson, Norristown, Pa 40 00 

Mrs. E. P. Thwing, Brooklyn, N. Y 300 00 

Rev. W. H. Jeffers, D.D., Allegheny, Pa. 50 00 

" H." Philadelphia, Pa 10 00 

John Wray, Jr., Sewickley, Pa 100 00 

Miss L. F. Anderson, Washington, Pa 5 00 

F. L. Janeway, N. Y 900 00 

B. F. Felt, Galena, 111 100 00 

Rev. Donald McLaren, Brooklyn, N. Y . . . 10 00 

M.W.Lyon, N.Y 50 00 

John D. Thompson, East Los Angeles, 

Cal 1000 00 

Sturges and Westcott, N.Y 333 83 

Margaret B. Monahan, N.Y 100 00 

John S. Kennedy, N. Y 90 00 

" In memory of a Christian Mother" 25 00 

" A Friend " 50 00 

Mrs. Dorothy R. Turney, Circleville, O. ... 100 00 

Clarence Thwing, M.D., Sitka, Alaska 10 00 

" Unknown donor " 1 00 

E H. Todd, Fond-du-Lac, Wis 3 00 

"C.S.P." 30 00 

J. E. Brandon 20 00 

Mrs. John L. Griswold, Peoria, III 100 00 

Mrs. Geo. H. Mellen, Springfield, Ohio ... 5 00 

Rev. H. A. Percival, Hamden, N.Y 1 30 

Miss Jane L. Cathcart, York, Pa 30 00 

Miss L. A. Robe, Wheelock, Ind. Ter 15 00 

" Herald and Presbyter " subscriber 1 50 

Miss Mollie Clements, Antonito, Colo 10 00 

"J.B.H." 15 00 

Rev. H. T. Scholl, Big Flats, N.Y 20 00 

Anonymous 500 00 

Mrs. E. T. Halsted, Batavin. N.Y 50 00 

A Friend, through Third National Bank, 

N.y... & . 1000 00 

"J" a Foreign Missionary's thank offer- 
ing . K 50 00 

A Friend, Glendale, 6 500 

Miss Susan Morse, Union, N.Y 10 00 

Seely Wood, Urbana, Ohio 25 00 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8. 



115 



John S. Kennedy, N. Y $295 00 

"A friend in Princeton, N.J." 200 00 

"A Friend" 5 00 

('. F. Myur, Camden, Ark 1 00 

Hosa Si a mi ii- Wash 5 00 

"H.T. F." 10 00 

Jas. Robertson, Constautia, NY 50 00 

Walter J. Mclndoe, X. Y 100 00 

"E." 3 00 

A. D. A. Miller, Buffalo, N. Y 50 00 

Independent Cong'l Church, East Bioom- 

fleld, N. Y 10 00 

Rev. D. T. Campbell, Morning Sun, Iowa.. 5 00 

" From a friend " 250 00 

" Charlie Little " 5 00 

"Through the Christian Steward" 11 25 

"A Steward" 6 25 

" Y. P. S. C. E. of Chicago Heights, 111.".. 2 50 

" Cash " 25 00 

"Tithe Payer" 2 00 

" From a friend " 15 00 

Rev. E. W. McDowell 7 71 

Rev. John K. McGee, Frederickstown, O.. 14 00 

Rev. \V. A. NUes, D.D. and wife 25 00 

Mrs. M. B. Dickinson 3 00 

Miss M. T. Dickinson 2 00 

Miss II. A. Dickinson 5 00 

Mr. Sprngue 2 50 

Mrs. 8. D. Whaley, Riverhead, L. 1 10 00 

Rev. E. W. Beebe, Comanche, la 1 00 

J. W. Hallenback, Wilkes-Barre, Pa 30 00 

Mrs. W. S. Opdyke, X. Y 25 00 

John Taylor Johnston, New York 500 00 

W. B. Carr, Latrobe, Pa 25 00 

Upson, Walton and Co., Cleveland, Ohio. .100 00 

Wm. McCoy. Sr., Independence, Mo 50 00 

Kev. Chas. L. Carhart, Buffalo, N. Y 10 00 

Wm. M. Findley, M.D., Altooua, Pa 20 00 

" B. Penna " 5 00 

Mrs. S. J. Flanegin, Ostrander, Ohio 250 00 

"A Friend" 5 00 

"A friend of missions" 4 99 

J. Holland, Bonners Ferry, Idaho 7 50 

J. A. Holmes, Beloit, Wis 10 00 

" X. Y." So. Cal 75 00 

Friend. Moline, 111 2 00 

" G." Gilbertsville 100 00 

Mrs. M. J. Quigley and daughter 3 00 

Miss Sarah E. Parks 1 00 

Union S. 8. Soe'y, Dunham. Ill 3 85 

Rev. II. J. Caylord, Clyde, Kans 3 00 

Mrs. Mary M. Gaylord, Denison, Texas 1 00 

A Friend of Home Missions in Washington 

Co 20 00 

Rev. Luke Dorland. Hoi Springs, N. C. ... 2 00 

" A Friend." St. Joseph, Mo 5 00 

Mrs. R. S. Marsh, West Carlisle, Mich 1 28 

P. and M., Parsippany, X.J 7 00 

Three Friends, Murristnwn. X.J 2 50 

Miss M. Harris. Philadelphia. Pa 10 00 

Kev. A. W. McConnell, Wyoming, la 5 00 

Martha J. Patton, Palestine, III 2 00 

Miss Caroline W'illard, Auburn, N. Y 200 00 

Miss Georgiana Willard, Auburn, N. Y 200 00 

John II. Converse, Philadelphia, Pa. 200 00 



Wm. H. Sherman, Troy, N. Y $5 00 

Mrs. M. M. Lanier, N. Y. City 200 00 

Mrs. S. U. Green, N. Y 200 00 

Mrs. G. W. B. Cushing, East Orange, N. J. 50 00 

J. B. Jermain, Albany, X. Y 200 00 

Mrs. Mary B. Wheeler, Litchfield, Oonn. . .200 00 

W. \V. Wickes, N. Y 200 00 

Wm I). McCune. Middle Spring, Pa 100 00 

" No Name " 1000 00 

II. Irf. Alexander, N. Y 200 00 

John J. MoCook, NY 200 00 

Mrs. C. < '. Sinclair, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. . .200 00 

Mrs. Elliott F. Shepard, N. Y 1000 00 

Robert L. Maitland, X. Y 200 00 

Mrs. C. B. Alexander, X. J 200 00 

Miss M. II. Abbott, Utah 5 00 

C. E. Vandenburgh, Minneapolis, Minn. . .200 00 

"M. S. W." 200 00 

W. N. Jackson, Indianapolis, Ind 200 00 

Mrs. David Iloadley, Englewood, N. J 200 00 

A Friend 10 00 

.1 l Janeway, Xew Brunswick, N. J 200 00 

Mrs J. A. Wisner, NY 200 00 

Jos. C. Piatt, Waterford, N. Y 200 00 

Rev. Wm. Irvin, D.D., N. Y 200 00 

Walter McQueen, Schenectady, N. Y 200 00 

Wm. H. Bancroft, Boothwyn, Pa 5 00 

Mrs. W. Brooklyn 5 00 

E. O. Emerson, Titusville, Pa 200 00 

Geo. W. Gere, Champaign, 111 60 00 

W. D. Rees, Cleveland, 200 00 

T. P. Handy, Cleveland, 200 00 

Albert Keep, Chicago, 111 500 00 

D. B. Gamble, Cincinnati, 200 00 

Andrew F. Derr, Wilkes-Barre, Pa 200 00 

D. B. Ivison, Rutherford Park, N. J 200 00 

II. G. Ludlow, Troy, X. Y 200 00 

" A Thank Offering " 20 00 

A Friend 200 00 

Miss Eliza A. Darlington, Pittsburgh, Pa.. .200 00 

"M.J. P." 50 00 

Rev. H. Bushnell, Columbus, 10 00 

" Friends for the deficit " 30 00 

The Misses Clark, N. Y 50 00 

" A Believer in Missions'' ; for debt 100 00 

Rev. J. S. Craig, D.D., Noblesville, Ind. .. 10 00 

II. B. Cragin, Chicago, III 200 00 

A Friend, Ackley, la 50 00 

Mrs. J. F. Kendall, La Porte, Ind 20 00 

"No Name" 25 

Rev. J. E. Tinker. Rook Stream, N. Y 30 00 

John H. Holliday, Indianapolis, Ind 50 00 

J. W. Mason, Stone Bank, Wis 5 00 

Rev. Wm. Irvin, D.I)., N. Y 50 00 

Mrs. Mary Van Horn, Harlem Spriugs, 

Ohio 500 00 

Thank offering, Janesville, Wis 10 00 

Rev. S. H. Stevenson, McLean, 111 3 00 

A Friend, Ohio 100 00 

"W. R. J." 1,200 00 

"Charlie Little" 5 00 

Elizabeth A. Cummins, Bellaire, Ohio 25 00 

Rev. A. A. Mathes 2 00 



$76,061 86 



116 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



TABULAR STATEMENT OF ACTUAL PAYMENTS TO THE 

PRESBYTERIES DURING FISCAL YEAR 

ENDING MARCH 31, 1892. 



ATLANTIC. 

East Florida 

South Florida 

BALTIMORE. 

Baltimore 

New Castle 

Washington City 

COLOBADO. 

Boulder 

Denver 

Gunnison 

Pueblo 

ILLINOIS. 

Alton 

Bloomington 

Cairo 

Chicago 

Freeport 

Mattoon 

Ottawa 

Peoria 

Bock River 

Schuyler 

Springfield 

INDIANA. 

Logansport 

New Albany 

Vineennes 

White Water 

INDIAN TERRITORY 

Cherokee Nation 

Chickasaw 

Choctaw 

Muscogee 

IOWA. 

Cedar Rapids 

Council Bluffs 

Des Moines , 

Dubuque 

Fort Dodge 

Iowa 

Iowa City 

Sioux City 

Waterloo 



2,797 66 
5,276 01 



8,073 67 



3,500 00 

1,022 91 

656 25 



5,179 16 



2,738 18 
6,145 68 
3,514 58 
9,556 07 



21,949 46 



685 00 
400 00 
,337 50 
,948 86 
287 50 
750 00 
,450 00 
125 00 
225 00 
977 50 
850 00 



20,080 86 



70 00 
50 00 
25 00 
125 00 



270 00 

7,057 51 
9,127 94 
5,790 68 
2,608 60 

24,584 73 

1,122 77 
2,297 78 
3,921 53 
2,734 06 
2,359 77 
1,181 10 
897 77 
3,221 91 
1,050 70 



18,787 39 



KANSAS. 



Emporia . 
Highland. 
Larned . . . 
Neosho . . . 
Osborne. . 
Solomon . . 
Topeka . . . 



KENTUCKY. 

Ebenezer 

Louisville 

Transylvania 



MICHIGAN. 

Detroit 

Flint 

Grand Rapids 

Kalamazoo 

Lake Superior 

Lansing 

Monroe 

Petoskey 

Saginaw 



MINNESOTA. 



Duluth 4,37400 

Mankato &f 74 

RedRiver 2,3.8 1b 

St. Paul 8 ' 204 88 

Winona... 2-979 60 



MISSOURI. 



Kansas City. 

Ozark 

Palmyra 

Platte 

St. Louis 



NEBRASKA. 



Hastings 

Kearney 

Nebraska City. 

Niobrara 

Omaha 



NEW JERSEY. 



7,335 88 
1,498 38 
4,449 65 
2,752 16 
3,722 19 
2,955 48 
3,945 48 



26,658 72 



1,154 16 
1,823 75 
2,191 67 



5,169 58 



1,599 35 
4,771 59 
1,149 35 
1,061 85 
1,403 33 
705 60 
844 01 
2,899 35 
3,061 85 



17,496 28 



22,129 38 



4,056 69 
1,874 45 
1,832 86 
3,759 03 
3,689 45 



15,211 98 



5,211 65 
3,946 20 
4,186 62 
4,744 12 
5,683 12 

28,771 71 



♦The expense of the Home Mission work in this Synod is provided for by its Synodical Susieuta- 
tlon Fund. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



117 



NEW MEXICO. 

Arizona 

Rio Grande 

Santa F6 



NEW YORK 

Albany 

Kinghamton 

Boston 

Brooklyn 

Buffalo' 

Cayuga 

Champlain 

Chemung 

Columbia 

Genesee 

Geneva 

Hudson 

Long Island 

Lyons 

Nassau 

New York 

North River 

Otsego 

Rochester 

St. Lawrence 

Steuben 

Syracuse 

Troy 

Utica 

Westchester 



NORTH DAKOTA. 

Klsmarck 

Fargo 

Pembina 



OHIO. 

Athens 

K.ll.-f.mtaine 

(hllllcothe 

Cleveland. 

Columbus 

Huron 

Lima 

Marion 

Maumee 

Portsmouth 

St. Clairsville 

Wooster 

Zaneeville 



OREGON. 

East Oregon 

Portland 

South Oregon 

Willamette 



r.,052 07 
8.159 57 
9.545 44 



22,757 08 



381 

TS1 

,070 

381 

,:(M 
,009 
,489 

,:jl8 
.156 
493 
999 
,249 
343 
806 
,239 
1.518 
168 
755 
'.II iS 
793 
,383 
.010 
,438 
,131 
878 



37,135 41 



1,464 22 
4,949 22 
7,628 39 



14,041 83 



425 00 
75 00 
212 50 
537 50 
562 50 
243 75 

1,100 00 
150 00 

1,291 67 
400 00 
28T 50 
50 00 
462 50 



5,797 92 



3,987 50 
4,825 00 
4,587 50 
5,876 25 

19.276 25 



PACIFIC. 

Benicia 

Los Angeles 

Sacramento 

San Francisco 

San Job6 

Stockton 

Oakland 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

Chester 

Huntingdon 

Lackawanna 

Northumberland 

Philadelphia, North 

Wellsboro 

West Virginia 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Aberdeen 

Black Hills 

Central Dakota 

Dakota 

(Southern Dakota 



TENNESSEE. 

Birmingham 

Holston 

Kingston 

Union 



TEXAS. 

Austin 

North Texas 

Trinity 



UTAH. 

Montana 

Utah 

Wood River 



WASHINGTON. 

Alaska 

Olympia 

Puget Sound 

Spokane 

Walla Walla 



WISCONSIN. 

Chippewa 

La Crosse 

Madison 

Milwaukee 

Winnebago 



3,605 21 
11,543 29 
2,671 75 
1,671 86 
3,192 70 
8,617 71 
2,876 04 

29,178 56 



1,487 50 
675 00 

1,212 50 

225 00 

50 00 

950 00 

500 00 

4,950 00 



3,802 94 
6,082 07 
6,859 39 
2,012 50 
5,760 79 

24,517 69 



2,226 32 

386 33 

4,288 83 

1,980 49 

8.881 97 



6,036 00 
4,548 49 

4,838 86 

15,423 35 



7,299 09 
15,845 78 
5,788 33 



28,933 20 



9,237 60 
10,038 88 
10,801 75 

4,861 48 
3,603 75 



38.032 81 



1,879 59 
1,687 91 
1.410 83 
8,581 2. r . 

-.'. 188 61 

13.933 19 



118 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



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1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



119 



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120 



ANNUAL EEPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



STATISTICAL REPORTS. 



MISSIONARIES. 



Abels, Lucas . 

Aceves, Tranqcilino... 

Adair, Alexander 

Adair, John M 

Adams, Charles A 

Adams, Moses N 

Adams, Robert N, D.D. 

Adams, Rollin L 

Adams, William R 

A'Guerre, A 

Ainslie, George 

Albright, Henry F — 



Aldrich, Byron L 

Alexander, Frank M 

♦Alexander, Hamilton U 

Alexander, John M 

Alexander, Samuel 

Allen, David D 

Allen, David N 



Allen. Frederick B. 

+ Allen, John F 

Allen, Marcus M 

Allen, Sidney 

Allen, Theo. H 

Aller, Absalom T . . . 

Ambler, Thos. A 

Ambrose, David E . . . 

Amlong, Jas. L 

Anderson, James 



♦Anderson, James M . 
Anderson, Samuel R.. 

Andrews, Jacob B 

Andrews, Samuel 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Angel, Samuel D. . . . 
Angier, Matthew B. . 

Annin, John A 

Armentrout, Thos. S. 
*Armer, William W . . 
Armstrong, Cyrus C. 
Armstrong, Chas. N. . 

Armstrong, Frank E. 
Armstrong, Hallock. 



Armstrong, Rob'tT., D.D 



Armstrong, Thomas C. 
Arnold, Frank L 



Arreola, Epifanio. 
Arthur, Richard . . 



Asdale, Wilson 

* Ashley, Andrus F. . 

Aston, Albert 

♦Atherton, Isaac W . 
Atkinson, James W. . 



Platteville, German, and Rockville, 
German Wis. 

Santa Teresa and stations N. Mex. 

Moscow Idaho. 

Troy Kan . 

Packwaukee, Buffalo & stations. . . Wis. 

Good Will and stations S. Dak . 

Synodical Missionary Minn. 

New Sharon, Olivet & Leighton. .Iowa. 

Utica and Tamora Neb . 

Mexican helper N. Mex . 

Dexter and Earlham Iowa. 

Seymour, Archer, Throckmorton 
and stations Tex. 

Centralia and stations Wash. 

Murphysboro, 1st Ill . 

Brainerd and Potwin Kan . 

New Salem and stations Tenn. 

Council Bluffs, 2d Iowa. 

Kendrick and station Wash. 

Vinita, 1st, Pheasant Hill and sta- 
tion Ind. Ter . 

Selden N. Y. 

Canadaville and station Ind. Ter. 

Bessemer Mich 

Franklin, Centennial & station . . Idaho 

South Chicago Ill 

Hays City, 1st, and station Kan 

Ely, 1st Minn 

El Cajon Cal. 

Galva, Canton and Roxbury Kan. 

St. Joe, Adora, Montague and sta- 
tion Tex . 

Bismarck, 1st N. Dak. 

Clearwater and lndianola Kan. 

Santa Cruz, 1st Cal. 

Hunter, Blanchard, Wheatland, 
Howe and station N. Dak. 

Mooers, 1st, and station N. Y . 

Preble, 1st N. Y. 

Rolla, Cuba and Elk Prairie Mo . 

Felton and Harrington Del . 

Liberty ville, 1st 111. 

Carrollton and stations Mo. 

Berg, Cherry Creek and station, and 
Loup City Neb . 

Evanston Wyo . 

Wells and Columbia, and North 
Wells Pa. 

Woodsfleld, Buchanan and New 
Castle Ohio . 

La Grande Oreg. 

Salt Lake City, Westminster and 
station Utah . 

Albuquerque, 2d N. Mex. 

Lincoln, White City, Wilsey and 
station Kan . 

Tipton and stations Mo. 

Astoria and Vermont 111. 

Emerson and Peader Neb. 

Covelo Cal , 

Milpitas, let Cal 



PS 

s.s. 
P. 

s.s. 

s.s. 



s.s 
s.s 

p. 

B.8. 

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s.s 
s.s 
s.s. 



s B 

s.s. 
s.s 
s.s 
s.s. 
s.s 
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s.s 
s.s. 



S.S. 12 



s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

P.E 

s.s. 
s.s. 
ss. 

P.S 

P. 

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s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 



s.s. 



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s.s. 

p. 
s.s, 

p. 



as 



12 
12 
9 

12 

sx 

2% 
10* 

12 
4 



16 



120 
64 



25 
45 
104 
63 

13 
20 
12 

56 



25 
18 

78 
14 
53 
74 

114 
60 
70 
60 



74 

80 

SO 
75 

120 

101 



144 
40 

71 
M 

141 
117 
72 
107 



• No Report. t Deceased. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



121 



MISSIONARIES. 



Atkinson, John S. . 
Atkinson, Thomas. 
Aughey, John H. 



A l' RINGER, ()]) A HI AH C. 

Austin, Alonzo E 

Axline, Andrew 

*Ayres, Walter H . . . 
Baay, Jacob 



Backus, Clarence W. 



Baesler, Wh 

Baosley. Jeremiah J. . . 

Bahler, Louis H 

Bailey. Franklin C. . . . 

Bailey, John W 

Bailey, Turner S, D.D. 

Bain, James 

Bainton. Henry W 

Baker, Enos P 

Baker, John P 

Baker, Wm. L 

Balcar, Joseph 



Baldridge. James A. 



Baldwin, James H. . . . 

Ballagh, Robert 

Bantly, John C 

Barakat, Muhanna E 



Barber, Samuel 

Bardor, John P 

Ha it in i.i . John A 

Barnes. Orlando C 

♦Barr, George W 

Bartholomew, Thos. D. 

Bartlett, Robt. A 

Barton. Joseph H 

Bassett, James 

Bassett, Wm. E 

Batchelder, Jos. M 

Bates, Chas. P 

•Battiest, Loins G 

Ba yne, Thomas 

Beall, Byron 



Beard, John D 

Beattie, James H. . 

Beattie, Thos. C 

Beaumont, Wm. L . . , 
♦Beebe, Leonard M. 
Bebbe, William C. . . 

Beecher, John E 

Belden, Luther M. 
Bell, George W. . . . 
Bell, Newton H 



Belville, Sam'l R 

♦Benedict, Fred'k L.. 

Benson, Aaron W 

Benson, Simon 

Benzing, Elias 

Berg, Olop A 

Bergen, George 

Berry, James F 

•BE8SEY, Frank E 

Best, Isaac O 

Best, Jacob 

Beyer, Evert G 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Hill City and Fremont Kan . 

Worcester, 1st Mass. 

Paul's Valley, Wynne Wood and 

station Ind. Ter. 

Northwood N. Y. 

Sitka, Thlinket, 1st Alaska. 

Arlington Kan. 

Colchester N. Y . 

Smith Centre, Prairie View and 

Crystal Plains Kan . 

Kansas City, Grand View Park and 

Walroud Avenue station Kan . 

Pleasanton, 1st Cal. 

Reece and Salem Kan . 

Maiden N. Y. 

Preston Minn . 

Lowemont, 1st Kan . 

Synodical Missionary Iowa. 

Ashland, Big Hollow and station. N. Y. 
North Park Region and stations. . .Col. 

Santa Monica, 1st Cal. 

Medora and Jacksonville Iowa. 

Cass City Mich . 

Melnik, Muscoda, Highland and 

station Wis . 

Sedan, Dexter, Wauneta, Eaton- 

ville and stations Kan . 

Goose Lake N. Dak. 

Traver, Orosi and station Cal . 

Walker, 1st, and Rowley, 1st . . . Iowa. 
Grand River, Hopeville, Seymour 

and station Iowa. 

Delta, 1st, and Rocky Ford Col. 

Lyndon Kan . 

Buffalo Grove and Salem Mo. 

Heuvelton N. Y . 

Fort Morgan and station Col. 

Corunna Mich . 

Dayton, 1st, and stations Tenn . 

Boise City. 1st, and stations Idaho. 

Anniston, Noble Street Ala. 

Norden and station Neb. 

Osborne Kan . 

Holly, 1st Mich. 

Philadelphia Ind. Ter. 

Parkston and Union Centre .. . S. Dak. 
Broken Bow, 1st. Barnston and 

Blue Springs Neb . 

Shandon and stations Cal. 

Mehama, 1st, and stations Oreg. 

Albuquerque, 1st N. Mex. 

Gervais, 1st, and stations Oreg . 

Williams Iowa 

Waterville, 1st, and stations Wash. 

Manlius, Trinity N. Y 

Walla Walla, 1st Wash. 

Engle and El Moro Col . 

Lakefleld, Canby, Shetek and other 

vacant churches Minn 

Wahoo Neb 

Chicago, Calvary Ill . 

Elim & Bethany of Minneapolis, Minn. 

Williamsville 111. 

Chicago, 1st German, and station. .111. 
Anoka, Norwegian and station. ..Minn 

Carlisle and White Lake N V 

Gilby and station N. Dak 

Rome and Orwell Pa 

Broadalbin aud Mayfleld N. Y 

Brooklyn Pa. 

Coggon and station Iowa. 



S.S. 
P. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

1'. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 



S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

l'.S 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 
P. K 

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I J . 
p. 

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S.S. 

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8.8. 
S.S. 
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S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

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S.S. 

p. 

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S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

P. 

S.S. 



88 



11 



11# 23 
7% 32 

9 8 
3? 
12 

1 

1'-' 

19 
IS 

12 



12 ! 8 



15 2 



6 8 

8 i 



IS 



9 

5 

8 
4 i 14 



22 



a! & 



37 
160 

88 

18 

888 

B8 



140 
73 

130 

40 

200 

117 



120 



45 240 
88 121 
~'l 31 
50 



80 



160 
40 

40 
50 
53 
175 
00 



100 
55 
81 
65 



77 75 
72 178 

118 175 

us 88 

00 138 

78 106 
60 75 
71 176 
62 150 
16 60 
40 50 
66 60 

100 150 
16 
81 



160 
120 
70 
82 
75 
90 
100 
75 
100 
135 



in 

34 
111 
120 
5 
186 

89 urn 

89 133 
104 100 

46 30 
119 I 75 



80 
996 



186 
878 



• No Report. 



122 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONABIES. 



Bickenbach, Aug. R 

Bickford, Levi F.. 

Bicknell, George E 

BlLLINGSLEY, JOHN A 

Bissell, Charles H 

Black, James P 

Blackwell, Alvin 

Blair, Wm. H 

Blakely, Zerah F 

*Blatchford, Henry 

Blayney, Chas. P 

Blea, Romulo 

*Bliss, Thos. E., D.D 

Bloemendaal, Gerrit J . . . 

Bloyb, Wm. B 

Blyth, David 

* Board, James H 

*Boggs, J ohn H 

Bohback, Philip 

Bollman, Wm. J 

Bolt, Nicholas 

bonekemper, chas 

Boone, William J 

Borden, George W 

Boughton, Thos. B 

Bowen, Thos. W 

Bower. John A 

Bowman, John R 

Bowman, Martin 

Boyce, Lester S 

Boyd, Archibald 

Boyd, Alfred A 

Boyd, Andrew G 

*Boyd, James S 

Boyd, Joseph N 

Boyd, Robert P 

Boyd, Thomas 

Boyd, Thomas M 

Boyd,Wm. L 

Boyer, James Wm 

Boyle, William 

Bracken, Theo 

Bradbury, Ziba N.. 

Braden, Rob't M. L 

Bradley, Henry C 

Bradley, William A 

Bradley, Walter H 

Bradnack, Isaac R 

Bradford, Herbert A 

Branch, Rollo 

♦Brandt, Gustavus A 

Brandt, John B 

Brashear, Alvin V 

Brass, Wm. C 

Brause, Chas. F 

Bray, George 

Bren, Joseph 

Brockinton, James S 

Brouillette, Charles II.. 

* Brouillette.Tklesphore 

Brown, Anselm B 

Brown, Archibald 

Brown, Benj. J 



FIELDS OF LABOR 



Monticello Iowa. 

Goldthwaite, Milburn & stations. .Tex. 

Richfield, Edwin, Syracuse, Ken- 
dall and station Kan . 

Brooklyn, Bethany N. Y . 

La Veta and Rouse Col . 

Nam pa Idaho. 

Bridge ville and Federalsburg Md. 

Maumee and Waterville Ohio. 

Harmony, Beulah and Howell. .S. Dak. 

Chippewa Indians Wis. 

Milan, Sullivan and station Mo . 

Los Valles, La Luz & stations. .N. Mex. 

Golden Col. 

Ramsay Iowa. 

Fort Davis, 1st Tex. 

Pikeville Ky. 

Altoona and Tracy Fla. 

Lawndale Pa. 

Emanuel of Hyrum and station. Utah. 

Springville Iowa. 

Bethlehem, German, and Augusti- 
nus, German Minn . 

Ebenezer S. Dak . 

Caldwell Idaho. 

Gladwin, 1st and 2d, and Beaver- 
ton Mich. 

Parker, 1st, and stations S. Dak. 

Columbia, 1st, Akron, Croswell and 
station Mich. 

Caldwell and Sharon Ohio . 

Hueneme and Pleasant Valley Cal. 

Miller and St. Lawrence '. . .S. Dak. 

Beaver City, 1st. Neb . 

Eraser, North Burns and station, Mich. 

Knob Noster and Salem Mo . 

Newburg and station Oreg. 

La Moure and stations N. Dak. 

Chicago, 10th 111. 

Paris and station Idaho . 

Portland, 4th Oreg. 

Seattle, Calvary Wash . 

Norton ville Kan . 

Louisville, Olivet Chapel Ky . 

Burlington and Big Creek Kan. 

Colby, Hoxie, Norton and other 
vacant Churches Kan . 

Howard, 1st N. Y. 

Edgar and Ong, Neb., and Golden. Col. 

Canadian and Mobeetie Tex . 

St. Thomas, 1st, Glasston and sta- 
tion N. Dak . 

Upper Alton and station Ill 

Panama, 1st N. Y . 

Grantsdale, Corvallis & stations, Mont. 

Bangor and West Salem Wis . 

West Duluth, Westminster Minn . 

St. Louis, Covenant Mo. 

Currie, Cottonwood, Shetek and 
station Minn. 

Hannibal and stations N. Y. 

Fort Chatham and station Tenn. 

Aurora, 1st, and stations Neb . 

Racine, Bohemian and stations.. Wis. 

Speonk and Brookfleld N. Y. 

Alexandria, Eureka, Beatrice and 
stations Neb. 

Toledo and stations Wash . 

Bellingham Bay, 1st, & stations, Wash. 

Juneau Wis. 

Lima, Main Street Ohio . 



£ 




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p. 


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120 



s* 



» No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8. 



123 



MISSIONARIES. 



Brown, Duncan . . . 
Bbown, Edward J. 



Brown, Edwin 

Brown, Fred'k A. M 

Brown, James R 

Brown. .Iohn 

Brown, John A 

Brown, Walter S 

Brown, Wm. B 

Brown, Wm. C 

Browne, Joseph 

Buchanan, Duncan M. 
Burdick, Charles R . . . 

Burgess, Chas 

Buhkhardt, John 

Burnett, A. J 

♦Burnett, Elijah L 

Busch. Augustus 

Butt, Daniel M 

Butt, Jacob S 

Byers, Joseph H 

Byers, Vernon C 

Byr am, Albert B 

Cable, Charles W 

Cairns, John 

♦Caldwell, George M. 
Caldwell, John J 



Caldwell, Stuart S. . 
Caldwell, Wm. E 
Cameron, Daniel W... 
Cameron, Donald C... 

Cameron, Joiin B 

Campbell, Henry M... 
Campbell, James W.. . . 
♦Campbell, Richard J. 

Campbell, William 

Campbell, William .. 
Campbell, William R. 
Canney, Albert J 



Cardenas, Abram 

♦Carlton, Frank B 

Carnahan, Reynolds G. 

Carpenter, George 

Carpenter, John H 

Carr, William E 

Carrick, Andrew 

Carroll, John E 

Carson, Harlan P 

Caruthers, James S 

Carver, Andrew S 



Carver, Augustus H.. . 

Case, George 

Cabsat, David W 

Chapin, Melancthon E. 



♦Chapin. Wm V 

Chapman, Hervey W 

Chapman, Wm. H 

Chappell, George 

Chase. Arthur E 

Chatterton, German H. 

Chaves, Adolpo 

Cheek, Francis J.. . 

Cherry, Joseph F 

Christianson, Chas. C . . 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Christison, Robt. 



Macon and station Mo. 

Conway Springs, Peotone and sta- 
tion Kan 

Wolsey and Wessington S. Dak . 

New Haven, 1st Conn. 

Sioux City, 4th Iowa. 

Fall River, Westminster Mass 

Arvilla and stations N. Dak 

Sand Lake, 1st, and stations N. Y\ 

Roekwood and Spring City Tenn . 

Baltimore, Knox Md. 

Wells Minn . 

Christian Hook N. Y. 

Little River, Stiles and stations. Wis 

Alamosa, 1st Col. 

West Fayette N. Y. 

Manning and Manilla Iowa. 

East Maine N. Y. 

Ebenezer. German, and station, S. Dak. 

Britton and Immanuel S. Dak. 

Groton and Knox S. Dak. 

Elmendaro, Madison and statious. Kan . 

Phenis Creek and station Kan . 

Craig and Belle Centre Neb. 

Casselton.Hillsboro and Kelso, N. Dak. 

Breesport NY 

High Prairie and Fairmount Kan . 

Hinckley. Willow River, Barnum 
and stations Minn 

Blue Lake and stations Cal. 

Bethel, Irvington and station — Iowa. 

Cato N. Y 

Fulton Cal 

Trinidad, 2d, and stations Col. 

Kansas City, 4th Mo. 

Herscher Ill . 

Joseph Oreg. 

Seymour, Sedalia, Riley and Bala, Kan . 

Delano and Maple Plain M inn . 

Mendon and Wellsville Utah. 

Nooksack Crossing, Nooksack City 
and stations Wash. 

Mexican helper N. Mex 

Hastings and Parish N. Y . 

Hamilton, Neal and Mt. Pleasant. Kan. 

Memorial, Union and North Fork, Ohio. 

Shelby Iowa. 

Wilmington. Gilbert Del. 

Ardoeli and Greenwood N. Dak. 

Brighton III. 

Synodical Missionary B. Dak . 

Union Pacific, Moselle & Raymond. Ill 

Glen Rose, Stephenville and sta- 
tions Tex 

Duluth, Lakeside Minn 

Altoona, Tracy and Chuluota Fla 

Vail and station Iowa. 

Manchester, Bancroft, Howell and 
stations S. Dak 

Ansley and Litchfield. Heb 

Clear Lake, Lakeport .v.- stations Cad 

Klmira, Franklin Street N. Y 

Kylertown, Winburn and stations I 'a 

Hyde Park Col 

Middlefleld N. Y. 

Various stations N. Mex 

Paris, 1st Ky 

San Leandro and vicinity Cal 

Minneapolis. 1st. Swedish and 
Anoka, Norwegian Minn 

Myrtle Creek and 'stations Oreg 



.£* 




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No Report. 



124: 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



Churchill, Chas. H 

Clark, Edward E 

Clark, John 

Clark, Nathaniel 

Clark, Richard A 

Clark. Seth G 

Clark, Walter B 

Clarke, Harrison 

Clarke, Wm. G 

Clarke, Wm. L 

Clatworthy, Wm. H . 

Cleland, Robert W 

Clemenson, Newton E.. 

Clyde, William 

Cobleigh, Wm 

Cochrane, Samuel 

Coe, Wm. W 

*Copfran, Frank H 

Coile, Alex. .1 

*Coile, Samuel A 

Cole, Wm. Dana 

Coleman, Wm 

Collier, Francis M . . . . 

Colmery, David R 

Colson, Lewis G 

Coltman, Robert 

Colwell, Henry J 

Compton, Andrew J . . . 
*Compton, Charles R.. 

Compton, Orville 

Conant. Chas. A 

Condit, James H 

Conger, Silas D 

Conzett, Jacob 

*Cook, Cornelius C 

Cook, Chas. H 

Cook, John J 

Cook, Seth 

Cooke, John J 

Cooke, Silas 

Cooper, Alvin 

♦Cooper, James R 

Cooper, Marshall M . . 

Cooter, James T 

Copley, John T 

*Cornett, Wm. H 

Cornwall, Jas. H 

Cornwell, George 

Cort, Arthur B 

*Cort, Wm. C 

Coulter, Wm 

♦Covert, Wm. C 

Cowan, Hector W 

Cox, Connell 

Craig, James M 

Craig, Robt. H 

Craven, Edwin 

Cravens, Wm. A 

Crawford, Albert R.. . 
Crawford, Chas. R. . . . 
♦Crawford, James M.. 

Crawford, John , 

Crawford, John W 

Creswell, John B 

Creswell, Rob't J 

Crissman, Sam'l M 

Crocker, James N., D.D 
Crockett, Duncan R... 
Croco, Alfred H 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Atkinson and Stuart Neb . 

Monterey, 1st Cal . 

Odana, Round Lake and stations. .Wis. 

Denison Iowa. 

Richland Centre and Fancy Cr eek . Wis . 

Liberal, Meade and Greensburg Mo. 

Ashland and Coldwater Kan. 

New Hope.. 111. 

Chicago, Campbell Park Ill . 

South Superior Wis . 

Beulah and station S. Dak. 

Azusa and Monrovia Cal. 

Richfield and Monroe Utah . 

Anaconda, Mont., and Roseville. . .Cal. 

Rathdrum and Post Falls Idaho. 

St. Paul Park Minn. 

Seattle, 2d Wash. 

Westford N. Y. 

Knoxville, Bell Avenue Tenn. 

Sheflield Ala. 

Sanilac Centre, Elk, Bridgehampton 

and four stations Mich . 

Thayer Kan . 

Monument, Palmer Lake, Saratoga 

and Collins Col . 

Los Angeles, 3d Cal . 

Chestertown N. Y . 

Flagstaff, 1st Ariz . 

Jordan, Belle Plain and stations. Minn. 

Oakdale and station Cal. 

Anaconda Mont. 

Lincoln, 3d Neb . 

Voorheesville, 1st N. Y . 

Wapello and Oakland Iowa. 

Toledo, 5th Ohio. 

Beloit and Wheatland, German.. .Wis 

Hillsdale N. Y. 

Pima. 1st, Blackwater & stations, Ariz. 
Conway ,Alanson,lst,&Tustin, 1st. Mich. 

Waistburg and station Wash. 

Sedan and Dexter Kan. 

Hebron and stations Neb . 

Jefferson, 1st N. Y. 

Lake City Col . 

New Salem, Fairmount and Perry. .111. 

Lamar and Chucky Vale Tenn. 

Blackbird Hills and Bethlehem Neb . 

North Yakima and station Wash. 

Dunsmuir and station Cal. 

Poundridge and station N. Y. 

Cortland, Grand Coulee & sta'ns. Wash. 

Nashville 111. 

Hesperia and stations Mich. 

St. Paul Park Minn. 

Hop9 Chapel of St. Joseph Mo . 

Joseph and Enterprise Oreg. 

Newport R.I. 

Bennett and stations Pa . 

Two Harbors Minn. 

Breckenridge and N. Y. Settlement . Mo . 

Dillon. 1st, and station Utah. 

Goodwill S. Dak. 

Miami, 4th, and Somerset Kan . 

Fort Scott, 2d Kan . 

Ellsworth, 1st Kan. 

Harriman, 1st Tenn. 

Inkster, Elkmont and station.. N. Dak. 

Moreland and station 111. 

Superintendent Eastern District .N. Y. 

Ardmore and station Iud . Ter . 

Sonora, Columbia and stations Cal. 



S.S. 
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98 


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21 


27 




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60 



• No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



125 



MISSIONARIES. 



♦Crosser, John R 

Crowl, Theodore 

cruikshank, rob't, d.d. 

Chum, John R 

Cullen, Henry 

Cumming, Wii 

CUMMINGS, E. WlLMOT... 

Cummings, Geo. M 

Currie, Neil 

Ccrtis, Solomon W 

Curtis, Wm. W 

♦Cutler, Fred. W 

Daniels, Charles 

*Danks, Lucien E 

Daroen, William H 

d' Argent, Wm. E. Ian. . . 

Darley, Alex. M 

Darley, Geo. M 

Dauerty, Wm. M 

Davenport, David M 

♦Da vies, John M., D.D . . 
*Davie8, Theo. M 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Portland Me . 

Salida, 1st Col. 

Montesano, 1st, and Wynooche. . Wash. 

Dunseith and stations N. Dak. 

Crystal Bay and Long Lake M inn . 

Waverly Md . 

Barre, 1st, and station Vt . 

Newcastle, 1st, and station Wyo. 

Big River, Hartland & Oak Grove. Wis. 

Las Vegas, Spanish, & stations. N.Mex. 

Belle Plaine Kan. 

Woodhaveu N. Y . 

Elk Rapids, East Bay, Omena and 
station Mich . 

Larimore N. Dak . 

Petaluma, 1st, and station Cal. 

Point Pleasant, Wyoma, Burr Oak, 
1st, and stations W. Va. 

Huerfano Canon and stations Col. 

Denver, 1st Avenue Col . 

Garden City, Cimarron & stations. Kan. 

Sumner and station Wash . 

Grand Rapids, Immanuel Mich . 

Manchester, Westminster N. H. 

Davis, Chas. E Edinburgh & Ramsey's Grove . N. Dak 

Davis, James Scott Casey, 1st, and Greenup, 1st 111. 



Davis, Samuel T. 

Davis, Thomas D 

Davis, Wm. S 

Dawson, John P 

Dawson, Wm. R 

Day, Edgar W 

Day, John E 

Day, Theodore S 

♦Day, Wm. H 

Dean, Henry G 

de'Haai, Cornelius 

de'Lange, Roe us 

*De Long, Alfred B 

De Long, Chas. H 

Demarest, S. D 

Denison, Herbert G 

Deruelle, Daniel 

Dewing, Chas. S 

Diament, Jeremiah N 

Diaz, Antonio 

♦Dickerson, Henry L. . . . 

Dickey, Ninian S 

Dickson, Robert, D.D. 

Diekhofp, Wm 

Dinsmore, Andrew A 

♦Dobson, Leonidas 

Dobson, Stonewall J. . . . 

Dodd, Henry M 

Dodd, Reuel . . , 

Dodd, Samuel 

Dodds, James Abner 

Dodge, Alex. W 

♦Dodson, De Costa H . . . . 

Doench, Conrad 

Doole, William I 

*Dorrance, John W 

Dougan, Thomas 

Douglas, Thos. E 

Douglas, Torrance S ... 

Douglass, Henry B 

Drake, Lewis I 

Dresser, Elliot L 

Drysdale, Romeo 

Duncan, Chas. OB 



Spokane Centenary Wash . 

Vineland, Media, Willow Springs 

and station Kan . 

Chicago, Central Park Ill . 

Synodical Missionary Ky. 

South Knoxville & New Prospect . Tenn . 

Lisbon, 1st N. Dak. 

Woodburn and Aurora Oreg. 

Camillus, 1st N. Y . 

Elmore and Genoa Ohio 

Troy. 3d N. Y. 

Howell and stations Iowa. 

Alto Holland. Calvary Wis. 

Yorktown and Norwich Iowa. 

Colorado Springs, 2d, & stations. . .Col. 

Bessemer Col. 

Tontogauy and Milton Centre. . .Ohio. 

Knoxvill e and station Pa. 

Somerville, Union Square Mass. 

Wewoka stations Ind. Ter. 

Los Nietos and stations Cal . 

Bethany Ind . 

Brookston, Meadow Lake & sta'n . . Ind . 

Ojai Cal. 

Freeport, 3d German Ill . 

Alhambra and Calvary Cal. 

Wilson Springs and stations. .Ind. Ter. 

Afton and stations Ind. Ter. 

Augusta N. Y. 

Glendale and Burbank Cal . 

Garfield and station N. Y. 

Oswego Ill . 

East Jordan Mich . 

Valley Creek and Leonard Tex. 

New York, 2d German N. Y . 

Wichita, Oak Street Neb. 

Snohomish, 1st Wash 

Broadhead and stations Wis. 

Elm River and stations N. Dak. 

Tehama, 1st, Vina, 1st, & station. ..Cal. 

A rlington, Ladd and stations Ill . 

Humboldt, 1st Kan . 

Canton, 1st S. Dak . 

Kiikhoven, Hawick, Burbank Minn. 

Rush City, Pine City and sta'ns.Minn. 



>. 




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15 






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142 


S.S. 


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68 


95 



• No Report. 



126 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



Duncan, Kenneth J. 
Dunlap, Edward P . 

Dunlap, John 

Dunlop, David 

Dunn, Alex 

Dunning, Henry N. . 
Dunning, Homer B.. 
Dunning, Harlan P. 

Duty, George H 

Dyer, James 

Eakin, Alex 



Eakin, John S 

ECCLESTON, KDWARD 

Edmunds, Fred'k J.. 
Edwards, George . . 

Edwards, John 

Edwards, Wm. H . 
Eggleston, Edw. F. . 

Ehlers, Hans J 

♦Elliot, 3 oseph 

Elliott, Charles K . 
Elliott, Joseph N. . . 

Ellis, Chas. D 

Ellis, Edwin M 

Ellis, Robert S 



Elmer, Oscar H. 
Elwell, Hiram.. 



Emerson, Chas. H . . . 

English, John D 

Ennis, Robt 

Ericsson, Henry . . . 

Ernest, George 

Ervin, Wm. A 

Eschmeyer, John H. 
Evans, Arthur G . . . 
Evans, David E 



Evans, Evan B... . 

Evans, Evan R 

Evans, Wm. M 

Everitt, Frank B.. 

*Ewart, John Y 

Eymer, Leonard J . . 

Fait, Silas V 

Faris, Wm. W 

Farwell, Henry. . 
Feather, Nathan. . 

Fields, Benj. H 

Fife. Dorsey 

*Fipe, Pasatta 

Figge, Ludwig 

Findley, Wm. T 

Fisher, Chas. M 

Fisher, Elias B 

Fisher, French W. 

Fisher, Jay B 

Fisher, Lee T 



♦Fisher, Sanford G. 
Kisk , Charles E 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



♦Fitzgerald, Thomas. 

Fitzsimons, W. J 

Flagg, James W 

Fleming, David B 

Fleming, Samuel B 



Ellensburg, 1st Wash. 

Kansas City, Linwood Mo . 

Miles City, 1st Mont. 

Kelso, Freepoit and Castlerock. Wash. 

Aurora and Versailles Ind. 

Delmar, Elwood and Wheatland. Iowa. 

Flushing, 1st, and stations Mich. 

Walnut Creek Cal. 

Bolivar, 1st, & Sioux City Mission. Mo. 

Mountain Fork and stations.. Ind. Ter. 

Boulder Creek, Ben Lomond and 
Felton Cal. 

New Market and Hebron Tenn. 

Lafayette. Newberg and station. Oreg. 

Medtord, 1st Oreg. 

Lewiston, Philbrook and sta'ns. Mont. 

Wheelock and stations Ind. Ter. 

Vienna and Lewinsville. Va. 

Baltimore, Grace Md. 

Mesquite, Murphy and stations. . .Ariz. 

Inkster and Elkmont N. Dak. 

Clarence and Shelbyville Mo. 

South Chester, Bethany Pa. 

Saginaw, Immanuel Mich . 

Stevensville and stations Mont. 

Grand Rapids, La Prairie and 
stations Minn. 

Crookston, 1st Minn. 

Klickitat, 1st, Centerville and 
stations Wash. 

Port Kenyou and Pope Valley Cal. 

Morris Mich. 

Jacksonville and Phoenix Oreg. 

Samaria and stations Minn . 

Burton Memorial 111. 

Chattanooga, Park Place Tenn. 

Madison Ind. 

Pendleton, 1st, and station Oreg. 

Kerkhoven, Burbank, Hawick, 
Manannah, Atwater, Howard 
Lake and Winsted Minn. 

Muldrow and stations Ind. Ter. 

Canaseraga, 1st N. Y. 

Sioux City, 3d Iowa. 

Kansas City, 4th Mo. 

Madison S. Dak. 

Elmira Mich 

Anadarko and stations Ind. Ter 

San Francisco, Franklin Street.. ..Cal 

Clinton and station Kan 

Woodbury Co., Westminster and 
stations Iowa 

Greenup, Ebenezer and station Ky 

Achena, Hitchaty and sta'ns. .Ind. Ter 

North Fork and vicinity Ind. Ter. 

Lennox, 1st, German S. Dak 

Winnebago and stations Neb 

Grand view Cal 

Rossie, 1st, and stations N. Y 

Macon, 1st Mo 

Ebenezer, Rock wood and stations .. Ill 

So. Pittsburg, 1st, and Bridge- 
port, 1st .Tenn 

Norman and Noble Ok. Ter 

Dysart and station, and Spirit 
Lake, 1st Iowa 

Colchester N. Y 

Kennedyville, Grace Md 

So. Framingham, 1st Mass 

Malvern Iowa 

Synodical Missionary Kan 



ar 

c/. 

s.s. 
p. 
p. 

P.8 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

V. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

P.E 

p. 
p. 



S.S. 
S.S. 
P.E 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

P.E 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 



11 

IS 

12 
12 
IS 

10J 

% 

6 

12 

11 

12 
6# 

3§ 



12 
12 

3 

3# 
12 
IS 
18 

5 
12 

12 
8 
12 

6 
IS 

2 

12 
5 
12 

6 
3X 

9% 

12 
12 
12 



2 
7 
20 



3 a 



96 

54 
74 
69 

120 
60 

108 
60 
75 
04 

40 

145 
40 
70 
46 

72 
93 
SO 
40 

24 

70 
55 
37 

24 

58 



30 
18 
90 
85 
63 
46 
126 
52 



190 
12 
P8 

45 
53 
118 
20 

24 
75 
55 

22 

196 

18 

85 
11 

100 
80 
65 

122 



141 
120 
20 
75 
121 



1 No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



127 



MISSIONARIES. 



Plickinqer, Robert E . . 

Flint, Edward E 

Flint, Joseph F 

Flute, John 

Forbes, Wm. O 

♦Force, Fred'k A 

Fosteh, Alex. 8 

Fox, Daniel W 

Foy, John 

♦Fracker, George H 

Fraser, Alex. H 

♦Fraseu, James 

Eraser. Wm. J 

Frazier, S. Robinson . . . 

Freeland, Dan'l N 

♦Freeman, Chas. E 

Freeman, Jas. B 

French, Calvin H 

Frothingham, Harold J 
Frothinqham, James. . . 

Fruiht, Fred. H 

Fryling, Wm 

♦Fueller, Charles 

♦Fulcher, Qho. A 

♦Fuller, Augustus F 

Fulton. James P 

Fulton, Robert H 

Fulton, Samuel D 

Funk, Jos. W 

Furneaux, Huqh J 

Furniss, Geo 

Gafpney, Matthew... . 

Gage, John L 

Gallaher, John A 

Galloway. Oliver P 

Gamble. Sam'l L 

Gamel, Frank H 

Garcia, Jose I 

Gardiner, Jas. A 

Garlick, Sam'l C 

♦Garretson, Ferd. V. D. 

Gaston, Joseph 

Gay, William 

Gbhrett, James A 

Gerlach, Wm. J 

Gerrior, Joseph P 

Geyer, Nathaniel J 

Ghormley, David O 

Giboney, Geo. W 

Gibson, Willard P 

•Giffen, George C. . 

♦Giffen, John 

Gilbert, Hezekiah M. . . 
Gilchrist, Francis M. . . 

♦Gilchrist, George E . . 
Gilchrist, Jos. J 

Gillespie, George 

Gillespie, Samuel L 

Gillespie, Wm. F 

Gillette, Clark B 

Gilmor, John S 

Gilmore, John . 
Giltner, Henry M 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Fonda Iowa 

Independence Ohio. 

Flora and station 111. 

Mountain Head S. Dak. 

Albina. 1st Oreg. 

Fife Lake Mich. 

Anaeortes, Westminster & sta'n. Wash. 

Warrensburg N. Y . 

Titusville, 1st Fla. 

Vail, Arcadia and station Iowa. 

.J allies ville, 1st N. Y. 

Sparrows Point Md. 

Coleman, Wentworth, Bethel and 
stations S. Dak . 

Kittanning, 2d Pa. 

Waldo and Hawthorne Fla 

Bayfield, Wis., and Spirit Lake.. Iowa. 

Arlington Hills Minn. 

Scotland S. Dak. 

Warsaw 111. 

Chicago, 9th Ill . 

Eagle Park and station Oreg. 

Fall River, Globe Mass. 

Pitkin aud 2 stations Col. 

Chicago, Bethany 111. 

Panora Iowa. 

Crisfleld, Danville and Freeport.. Kan. 

Gordon, 1st, Clinton and station. ..Neb. 

Dallas, Oreg., and Hollister, 1st Cal. 

Howard and stations Kan. 

Aztec, 1st, Junction City, 1st, and 
station N. Mex. 

II unter and Blanehard N. Dak. 

Sodus Centre and station N. Y. 

Galesvillo and stations Wis. 

Clifton Heights Mo. 

West Okaw and Dalton City 111. 

Gardner 111. 

Harmony and station Kan. 

Mexicau helper N. Mex. 

San Francisco, Holly Park Cal. 

Dresden, 1st N. Y. 

Kent Wash. 

Ouray Col. 

Morrison, 1 st Iowa. 

Bethel Mo. 

Bluffton, Rockport and North 
Bethel Ohio. 

Stewartsville, Washington, Hous- 
ton, Caledonia and Fremont, Minn. 

Grayling, 1st Mich. 

East Portland Oreg. 

Oregon City, 1 st Oreg. 

Erie, 1st, and La Salle, 1st Mich. 

Fowler Cal. 

Fairfield 111. 

Burrton and Valley Township Kan. 

La I. ir/, Cinecerro, La Costilla, 
Antonito and station Col. 

Artesian and Forestburg S. Dak. 

Mora, El Rito, Agua Negra, Ocote, 
Buena Vista aud stations. ..N. Mex. 

Yaquinna Bay and station Oreg. 

Box Elder and Corinne Wash. 

Renville, Medina City, Waring and 
station Tex. 

Homewood, Glenwood and stations, 111. 

Congers N. Y. 

Shelton Neb. 

Thornton, Union, Verona and Stock- 
ham Neb. 



S3 SJ 



P. 

S.8. 
8.S. 

P. 

P. 

8.S. 

s.s. 
p. 

S.S. 
s.s. 
p. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

P.E 

S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S. 
P.E 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 



S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
P.E 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 
p. 
p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 
P.E 

S.S. 
S.S. 



11* 

12 
12 

2X 
12 

11 

12 

2% 

12 
12 
12 

12 

6 





S.S. 1 6 



6 
2 
2 
1 
4 


11 
3 
2 
2 

17 


6 

23 


23 

1 
15 


4 


1 


7 

"i 


1 
4 
2 


J2 

7 
4 
10 


13 
6 
5 

26 


16 


.... 


14 


1 



8 I 10 

8 



7 I 
2 



c 

_-3 



f § 
2a 



tii 

BO 
7.", 
88 
ISO 
81 
64 
47 
71) 
86 
42 
88 

55 
60 
56 
56 

BO 

77 
86 
155 

1!) 

41 
18 

til 
G( 
88 

80 

ISO 

62 

86 
54 
46 
73 
89 
88 
23 
20 

88 

S9 

23 
88 

91 
39 

50 



140 
ti 
60 

148 
61 
125 
101 
113 



it; 

:,n 

75 

93 
200 
113 

80 
500 

23 
137 

40 
140 

20 

40 

40 
110 
100 

50 
70 
66 

250 
86 
175 
120 



130 
128 
50 
75 
80 
50 

85 



65 
•220 
100 
90 
80 
186 



105 160 
80 265 



189 

as 

18 



no 

45 
60 



25 I 60 
65 1 100 
16 I 80 
40 90 

79 I 75 



• No Report. 



128 



ANNUAL EEPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



*Given, Joshua H 

Glidden, Nath'l Dimic. . . 

Glover, Joel C 

Glover, John T 

Godsman, (Jhas. J 

Godward, James 

Gonzales, Pablo Q 

Gonzales, Panfilo 

Goodale, Alvin B 

Goodell, Henry M 

GOODFR1END, AARON I 

Goodwillie, Daniel H 

Goss, Chas. F 

Goudie, Robert 

Gould, Calvin C 

*Gould, J. Loomis 

Grace, Fred. H 

Grace, James N 

Grafton, Walter M 

Graham, Chas. P 

Graham, William 

♦Grahn, Nels Peter 

Gravenstein, Christ. H 

Graves, Chas. F 

Gray, Jesse A 

Graybill, John H 

Graybill, J. Walton 

Green, James P 

Green, Nathaniel C 

Greene, Albro L 

♦Greene, Elijah W 

Greene, James A 

Greenshields, Wm. B. . . 

Gregg, Harris H., Jr . . 

Greig, George B 

Griffes, James A 

Grigsby, Arnold D 

Grimes. Joseph S., D.D.. 

Grimm, John H 

Gri8wold, John V 

Grosscup, Daniel P 

Guille, B. Frank 

Gulick, Albert V 

Gunn, Sam'l C 

Gunn, Thomas M 

Gutelius, Fisher 

Guthe, Herman O 

Guy, Thomas C 

Hackett. Wm. L 

Hahn, J ohn A 

Haines, Alfred W 

Haines, Simeon S 

*Halbert, Enos M 

Hall, Edwin 

*Hall, James 

Hall, Joshua B 

Hall, William E 

Hall, William Thos 

Hamilton, Edgar A 

Hamilton, Henry P 

Hamilton, Samuel L 

Hamilton, Thos. A 

tHAMiLToN, William 



Kiowa Indians Ind. Ter. 

Sand Beach and stations Mich. 

Northfleld Ohio. 

Stella and stations Wash. 

Malad City and stations Idaho. 

Evansville, Ashby and Elbow 

Lake Minn. 

Morenci and stations Ariz. 

Mexican helper N. Mex. 

Baldwin and Black Jack Kan. 

Del Norte Col. 

Drayton and stations N. Dak. 

Fort Gratiot Mich. 

Kettle Falls and station Wash. 

Nashville, Camp Crook & Alzada, S. Dak. 

Oakfleld, Rendville and Bucking- 
ham Ohio. 

Hydah Mission Alaska. 

Pleasant Unity and Betbany Kan. 

South Denver, 1st Col. 

Whitestone N. Y. 

New Salem, Walnut Valley, Grand 
Summit and station KaD. 

Liberty and Meriden Iowa. 

Oak Lake and stations Minn. 

Rock Creek and Union Iowa. 

Ponca and West Union Neb. 

Brookline 111. 

Austin, Keating, Summit and sta- 
tions Pa. 

Brighton, 1st, and station Col. 

Baltimore, Light Street Md. 

Claremont and Ripley Minn. 

Canoga N. Y. 

Logan Utah. 

Tekonsha and Eckf ord Mich. 

House of Hope, Hazelwood Park, 
Fond du Lac, New Duluth Minn. 

Ottawa, 1st HI. 

Puyallup, 1st Wash. 

Hardy, Ruskin, Elkton & Shelton, Neb. 

Hastings Mich. 

Eureka Kan. 

Fhth, 1st Neb. 

Blue Springs, Barnston and sta- 
tions Neb. 

Oakland, Woodbury, Beaver Creek, 
Rushmore and station Minn. 

South Pittsburg Tenn. 

Kilbourne City Wis. 

Roxbury, Scotch Mass. 

Synodical Missionary Wash. 

Piflard and Moscow N. Y. 

Kearney, German Neb. 

Valona Cal. 

Jordan, Belle Plaine and station, Minn. 

Atkins and Newhall Iowa. 

Ladora and Deep River Iowa. 

Menardville, Paint Rock and 

stations Tex. 

Carlton and Culver Kan. 

Cone wango N. Y. 

Bellmore N. Y. 

Oneida and station Mich. 

New Cambria, Salem and Lingo — Mo. 

Madelia Minn. 

Springfield, 2d Mo 

Junius, 1st N. Y. 

Louisville, 4th Ky. 

Bloomington and station Neb. 

Omaha Indians Neb. 



J? - 


Added to 


a 


° ft 


il 


Churches. 


il 




31 
*1 


i 2 


s 5 

a 1 


s 




a 


o 


H 




*>% 








8.8. 


* 






42 


P. 


7H 


i 




62 


8.8. 


a 






21 


S.S. 


n 


7 


2 


33 


8.8. 


13 


21 


5 


102 


8.8. 


12 
5 






26 


S.S. 


12 


2 


4 


52 


S.S. 


12 




2 


67 


p. 


12 


34 




74 


p. 


12 


12 


4 


115 


S.S. 


5 






11 


S.S. 

P. 


12 
12 






28 
70 


15 


2 


S.S. 


12 








S.S. 


4 


1 




72 


p. 


5 


4 


11 


48 


p. 


12 


6 


3 


60 


P.E 


12 


18 


2 


114 


S.S. 


11 

1* 


15 


10 


89 
24 


8.8. 


12 


10 


1 


4(1 


S.S. 


11 


9 


4 


76 


P. 


12 


19 


11 


135 


S.S. 


6 








p. 


12 


10 


8 


100 


S.S. 


12 


7 


1 


286 


8.8. 


12 






70 


S.S. 


12 




2 


50 


S.S. 


12 






67 


S.S. 


12 


2 


5 


110 


S.S. 


10* 


8 


18 


29 


p. 


12 


39 


15 


137 


p. 


10 


4 


6 


83 


8.8. 


8 


6 




90 


8.S. 


12 


5 


2 


61 


S.S. 


12 






58 


S.S. 


12 


7 


8 


34 


S.S. 


6 


10 


6 


88 


S.S. 


11 


9 


9 


159 


S.S. 


3* 


4 




4 


p. 


12 


6 


4 


79 


p. 


12 
12 


40 


36 


350 


P.S 


12 


8 




22 


p. 


12 


1 


3 


28 


P.E 


3* 


3 




21 


S.S. 


3 






50 


S.S. 


8 


2 




35 


S.S. 


12 


3 


3 


90 


S.S. 


12 


5 




18 


8.8. 


12 






89 


S.S. 


12 


3 




40 


S.S. 


4% 






88 


S.S. 6 


1 




50 


S.S. 


6 






75 


H.8. 


12 


21 


2 


75 


S.S. 


12 


5 


10 


181 


S.S, 


11 




8 


48 


S.S. 


9 


7 




138 


S.S. 


12 

5* 




1 


28 



• No Report. t Deceated. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MI88ION8 



129 



MISSIONARIKS. 



1 1 an kk. Friend D 

♦Hanna, Joseph A 

1 1 a.'.s.mann, 1 1 knk v 

Hanson, Hezekiah. .. 
Harbaugh, Hiram W. . 

Harris, Theo. W 

Harrop, Ben 

♦Hartley, Reuben H. 
Haktness, Jacob V. N. 

Haskell, Edwin C 

Hastings. Calvin J 

♦Haswell. James 

Hatch, Julian 

♦Haug, Thos. H 

Haviland, Benj. F 

Hawkins, John B 

♦Haworth, Wm. P 

Hay, Sam'l C 

♦Haydkn, Frank L 

Hayenqa, I.i i. i i; i i - H. 



♦Hays, Chab. W. . 
Hays, Qeoroe W 



Head, Simeon C 

♦Hedcjks, Thus. J . 

tHEiZER, Alex. M 

Hemstrekt, Oliver. 
♦Henderson, Wm. K. 
IIendren, Wm. T 
Henry, Matthew G. 
Herbert, Chas. D . . 
Herrick. Alanson 
♦Hkrron, Andrew. . . 

Herron, Sam. P 

Heuver, Gerrit D. 

♦Hick, John N 

Hicks, William 

II ii; in hi i', Chas. A . 

Hill, Hiram 

Hill, John W 

Hill, Robert W . . . . 

tHiLL, Sam'l N 

Hill, William J 



Hillis, Wm. H 

Hindman, David R. . 
Hinkhiiusk, John F. 
Hlavaty, Vaclav . . 
Hobart, John B. . . 



tHoDOE, Samuel 

♦Hodgman, Thos. M .. 
Hoffman, Wm. H 

HOLLOWAY, ALPHEUS H . 

Holt, Jos. W 

Holter, Burgess D 

♦Honnkll, Wm. H 

Hooke, Robt. H 

Hoover, Clinton D 

Hormbl, Wm. H 

♦Hoskkn, Wm. P 

♦HOSTETLER, HARVEY 

Houston, Joseph T 

Howard, Hknhy A 

Howell, Charles J 

Howell, David 

Howey. John D 

Hoyt, Frank E 

Hudson, Peter J 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



ScipiovUle, 1st N. Y. 

Nooksack City and Crossing Wash. 

Jeffersonville, German, & station, N. Y. 

Oqua wka 111. 

Braidwood, 1st 111. 

Topeka, Westminster and station, Ran. 

\\ •inti.-ld and Pleasant Flats W. Va. 

Riverside, Calvary Cal 

Marine City, 1st Mich. 

Sigourney, 1st Iowa. 

Constable, 1st, and Westville, 1st . . N. Y. 
Orleans, Stamford & Friendship. ..Neb. 

Wood River Neb 

Stockbridge Indians Wis. 

('uuniughaiu and Nashville Kan. 

Holgate and Grand Rapids Ohio. 

Wichita, Lincoln Street Kan. 

Woodstock and stations 111. 

Marne, Neola and stations Iowa. 

Winona, German, and Frank Hill, 

German Minn. 

Kansas City, Western Highlands. Kan. 
Shiloh, Big Valley and Freestone 

and station Cal. 

Lake Union and Ballard Wash. 

Casey and Adair Iowa 

Dee Moines, Bethany Iowa. 

Presbyterial Missionary Md 

Bellevue and La Platte Neb 

Greenwood and stations Wis. 

Genoa, 2d and 3d N. Y. 

Hebron N. Y. 

Otter Lake Mich 

Sanborn Iowa 

Worthington and Liberty Ohio. 

Milwaukee, Perseverance Wis. 

Superior Neb 

Highland Park Col. 

Waterman 111. 

Anaheim and station Cal 

Diller and station Neb 

Synodical Missionary Ind. Ter 

Vassar, 1st Mich 

Rose Hill, Hitchcock, Alpena and 

stations S. Dak. 

Great Bend Ban. 

Pbillipsbuig ... Kan. 

Lenox and stations Iowa, 

Cedar Rapids, Bohemian Iowa 

Edgeley, Monango, Fullerton and 

station N. Dak. 

West Union, Bethel Iowa. 

Ontario N. Y. 

Mount Pleasant and station Mich. 

Scotland, Sabin and Deephorn.. . . Minn. 

Pickford and stations. Mich. 

Olivet and station Pa 

Emerson and Stafford County. . . . Kan. 

Oakes, Hudson and station N. Dak. 

Wapakoneta, 1 st Ohio. 

Chicago. Olivet 111. 

Mt. Vernon Ill 

Sioux City, 2d Iowa, 

Laclede and Centre Mo, 

Terrell, 1st Tex. 

La Grange Ill 

Petersburgh and Deerfleld Mich 

Fairmount and Sawyer Neb 

Corinne and stations N . Dak 

Mount Zion, Big Lick and sta- 
tions Ind. Ter, 



8.8. 

s.s. 

P. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 
S.S. 

P. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

S.M 

s.s. 



S.S. 

s s. 
s.s, 

p. 

p. 

S.S. 
s.s. 
S.S. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
p. 
s.s. 



s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

8.8. 
8.8. 
P B 
s.s. 

P. 
9.8. 

P. 
9.8. 

S.S. 



1 80 



17 



134 

120 
80 
250 

so 

so 
124 
166 
100 
198 

75 
100 



160 
ISO 
160 

48 

188 

Hit, 

40 
75 
188 
166 



88 


75 


71 


186 


86 


40 


27 


80 


40 


117 


64 


fin 


in; 


840 



LOO 
90 
160 

urn 

188 

65 
160 
60 

\r, 
160 

75 
76 
188 
160 
190 
180 
108 

-.MM I 

100 
76 
B60 
181 
186 
180 
94 
SG 
160 
160 
90 



00 60 



' No Report. t Deceuad. 



130 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



FIELDS OP LABOR. 



Hughes, David 

Hughes, John I 

Hughes. John M 

Hughes, Wm. J 

Hull, Erwin C. 

♦HULLHORST, CHAS. G. A. 

Humphrey, Wm. H 

Humphreys, John F 

Hunt, Benj. H 



Hunt, Charles R 

Hunt, George E 

Hunt, Ozrow N 

Hunter, David M 

♦Hunter, John M 

Hunter, Robert A 

*HUNTER, THEO 

Hunter, William H 

Huntington, Gilbert C. 

Hurd, Isaac N 

♦Hutchison, Arthur L. . 

♦Hutchison, Geo. A 

Hutchison, John N 

Huyser, Gerrit 

Hyatt, "Wm. H 

Hyde, Wesley M 

Hynes, Thos. W 

Idsinga, Bernardus H . . 

Ilsley, Wm. H 

♦Ingle, Erastus T 

Iobe, La Theo 

Irvine, John A 

Irwin, John 

Ives, Reuben N 

Jack, Andrew D 



Jack, Hugh 

Jacka, Elias C 

♦Jackson, Daniel B. 
Jackson, Moses H. . . 
Jackson, Richard H. 
Jackson, Sheldon. . . 
Jamieson, Edward.. . 
Jamieson, Sam'l A. . 

Janes, Geo. M 

Jefferson, Chas. L.. 
Jelly, Alex. M 



Jenkinson, Henry S. . 

Jenks. Edwin H 

Jennings, Wm. H 

Jennison, Jos. F 

Johnson, Charles H. 

Johnson, Geo 

Johnson, Henry B 



Johnson, Marcus L . . . 

Johnston, Fred 

Johnston, Robert 

Johnston, Thos. P 

Jones, Caleb E 

♦Jones, David C 

♦Jones, John L 

Jones, L. F 

Jones, Robert J 

Jonks, William F 

JUNGEBLUT, JoHANN F. 

Junkin, Anthony C — 
Junkin, Clarence M.. 

Junor, David 

Justema, Herman S... 



Los Angeles, Bethesda Mission Cal. 

Lockwood and White Oak Mo. 

Seattle, Welsh Wash. 

Union and station Oreg. 

Arkport N. Y. 

Lincoln, 3d Neb. 

Brainerd Mich. 

Peru, 1st N. Y. 

Burr Oak, Mount Olivet and sta- 
tions Neb. 

Colfax and stations Iowa. 

Harbor Springs Mich. 

Edgerton and Lost Creek Ohio. 

Littleton Col. 

Kismet and Wartburg Tenn. 

Kennett Square and stations Pa. 

Chrisman HI. 

Park River and station N. Dak. 

Brush Rankin Col. 

Concord Cal. 

Lansing, 1st Iowa. 

Baker City, 1st Oreg 

Sioux Falls, 1st, and station S. Dak 

Kalamazoo, Holland Mich. 

Kansas City, 3d, and Mellier Place. Mo 

Fallston Md 

Troy ...Ill, 

Milwaukee, Holland Wis. 

Macon, 1st 111. 

Fairview and station Oreg 

Kingston and Lincoln Mo 

Mason, Voca, Sweden & stations. . Tex 

Maple Ridge Mich 

Sheffield, 1st Ala 

Oowala, Claremore and Claremore 
Mound Ind. Ter 

Orleans N. Y 

Lebanon, 1st Oreg 

Royalton Minn 

Chicago, Grace HI 

Jonesboro and Ridge Station Ark 

Presbyterial Missionary Alaska 

Brighton, 1st Mich. 

Luverne, 1st '. . . Minn. 

Andover and station N. Y. 

West Chester, 2d Pa. 

New Windsor, Mt. Paran, Granite 
and Randallstown Md. 

South Chicago, 1st 111. 

Red Bluff, 1st Cal. 

Laverne, Bethel and Elk Creek . . S. Dak. 

Catonsville Md. 

Pierre, 1st S. Dak. 

Western Minn. 

Leola & Pembroke, S. Dak., Golden 
City, Shiloh and Madison Mo. 

Trenton and Sugar Creek 111. 

Elsinore and station Cal. 

Hamilton, Cavalier & station. . . N. Dak. 

Enon Valley Ohio. 

Sherman Heights & West Union, Tenn. 

North Eau Claire Wis. 

Guilford and Norwich N. Y. 

Killisnoo Alaska. 

Gaines and Byron Mich. 

Alma, 1 st, and station Mich. 

Milwaukee, 1st German Wis. 

Westminster Cal. 

Burchard and stations Neb. 

Brooklyn, Mt. Olivet N. Y. 

Wilmot and stations S. Dak. 



58 



S.S. 
8.8. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
P. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
8.8. 

P. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
P.E 

P. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S, 

p. 

p. 



S.S. 

s.s. 

S.S 
S.S 

S.S. 
S.S. 
P.E 
8.S. 

p. 

S.S. 



S.S. 

p. 

P.E 

p. 

S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 



IS 

12 
IS 
IS 

12 
6 
3 

12 

IS 

4 
13 
IS 

5 
11 
IS 

9 

IS 

12 

10M 

5§ 

5 
IS 
11 

6 
10 
IS 
12 
IS 

•±\. 

12 

12 

5 

12 
5 

8* 
6 
IS 
10 
12 
IS 
IS 
13 
12 



S.S. 

S.S. 
P. 
P. 

S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

8.S. 



12 
12 
9 
12 
12 

12 

7M 
12 

12 

12 

IS 

4& 
1 

12 

IS 

12 

9 

12 



-10 

56 

25 
95 
74 

140 
55 
34 

114 
31 
96 
45 
28 
84 
86 

118 
88 
SO 
2T 
44 

100 

114 

43 

15 

as 

26 



25 

04 
31 
40 
42 

10 
60 
102 
50 

165 
110 

so 

88 

55 

Be 

35 

91 
65 
86 
60 
35 
96 



44 

115 
47 
40 
40 

207 
32 



No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



131 



MISSIONARIES. 



Kalohn, August 

+KANOU8E, CHAB. A 

Ka ye, John B 

♦Keach, Edwin P 

Kkam, Samuel R 

•Kearns, J. Edmund 

Kearns, Wm. H 

Keeler, Augustus 0. . .. 

Keigwin, Henry 

Keiry, William 

Kelley, Wm. H 

♦Kemper, Augustus S. . . 

•Kendrick, Wm 

Kennedy, J as. A 

Kerr, J as. D 

Kerr, J. Horner 

Kerr, Meredith H 

Kerr, Sam'l C 

Kidd, David D 

Killen, John T 

Kimball, Wm. E 

King, Rufus 

King, Samuel H 

King, Victor M 

King, Wm. T 

Kingery, David 

Kirkwood, James 

Kirkwood. Thos. C, D.D 
Kirkwood, Wm. R., D.D. 

•Klink, Nathaniel B 

Klose, Otto R. W 

Knapp, Nathan B 

♦Kneeland, Martin D. . . 

♦Knight, Wm. E 

Knox, Edward M 

Knox, John 

Knudson, Knud 

Kocian, Oldrich 

Koehler, Martin 

Kops. Jos. C. DeBruyn. . 

Kromer, Johannes 

Kumler, Francis M 

Lackey, Alex. H 

•Lafferty, James 

*La Grange, Sam'l W. . . 

♦Laird, Geo. B 

Lamb, Ralph J 

Land, Jos. H 

Lander, David L 

Landis, Evan M 

Langdon, Wm. M 

Lattimore, William . 

Laughlin, JohnC 

Leak i>, Asa 

Lee, J. Ross 

Lee, Theodore 

Lee, Thomas H 

•Lee.Wm. J., D.D 

Leenhouse. Peter J . . 

LeFevre, George 

Leiper, Jos. McC 

Lenhart, John C 

Lewis, William F 

♦Liddell, Robert 

Liesvkld, Jacob 

Linton, John C 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Qermantown S. Dak 

Princeton, 1st Ky 

Manchester, 1st Iowa 

Salem, Laketon and Cuba Mo 

San Bois, Pine Ridge, Bethel and 

station Ind. Ter 

Cherryvale Kan 

Davenport, 2d Iowa 

Rolf e and Gilmore City Iowa 

Presbyterial Missionary Fla 

Monte Vista and station Col 

New Berlin and station N. Y 

Fossil Creek Col 

White Bead Hill and station. .Ind. Ter 

Lake City, 1st, and station Mich 

Bellevue Neb 

Sheldon N. Dak 

Wichita Falls, 1st Tex 

Princeton and Richmond Kan 

Tarpon Springs Fla 

Devils Lake and Mandan N. Dak 

Madison and Warnerville Neb 

Cairo N. Y 

Northern Light and station Alaska 

Moran, Kincaid and stations Kan 

Guthrie, 1st, and stations Ok. Ter 

Jacksboro Tex 

Grant City and Knox Mo 

Sy nodical Missionary. Col 

Emporia, Arundel Avenue Kan 

West Berkeley, 1st Cal 

Cochecton and station N. Y 

Phelps N. Y 

Roxbury Mass 

Evanston, Wyo., and Colfax Iowa 

Kaysville, Haines Memorial Utah 

Hodge Mo 

Park Falls, Morse, Steel Plant and 

South Superior Wis 

Prague, Bohemian and stations. ..Neb 

Toledo, German Ohio 

Warrendale and station Minn 

Salem, German Ohio 

st ."Mary's and stations Ohio 

Aberdeen, Cosmopolis, Ocosta and 

Hoquiam Wash 

Plainview and Shipman Ill 

Delhi, 1st Minn 

Independence Ohio 

Hard's Grove, Tulsa & sta'ns..Ind Ter 
Lime Stone, Nuyaka, North Fork 

and station Ind. Ter. 

Kingston, Bethel and stations. . .Tenn 
Linden, Mundy and Argentine . . .Mich 

Monterey and Sugar Hill N. Y 

Slayton and Woodstock Minn 

Reedsburgh Wis 

Omaha, Knox Neb 

Rockwell City Iowa 

Spanish Fork and Salem Utah 

Gilbert Del 

St. Louis, McCausland Avenue Mo 

Cottage Grove and Pierceville Wis 

Ancram Lead .Mines N. Y 

Park Hill. Elm Spring, Rabbit Trap 

and stations Ind. Ter 

White Sulphur Springs, 1st Mont 

Chicago, Hope Mission HI 

Florence Kan 

Salem, German Mo 

Milton, Osnabrock and sta'ns. . N. Dak 



P. 

8.8. 
P. 

S.S. 

8.8. 

s.s. 
P. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
p. 
s.s. 
B.8. 
S.S. 
]\E 



P. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

s.S. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
p. 



S.S. 12 

S.S. 4 

P. 12 



IS 

is 

19 

U 

1 

Hi 

12 
IS 
4 
10i 

IX 

l 
12 
10 
12 

12 

19 
9 

Hi 
12 
19 
IS 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
10 
19 
6 
12 
10* 
19 
H 



P.E 
P. 

S.S. 

P.S 

s.s. 
S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

P.S 

p. 

s.s. 
ss. 

P.S 

S.S. 

P. 
p. 

S.S. 

s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 
p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 



19 
19 

6 

12 

1? 

1 
ft 

6 

12 
19 

12 
5* 
11* 
12 
2* 
12 
19 

12 
IX 
12 

19 

9* 
4 
3 
12 
IS 



| IB 



in 



11 



M 

60 
40 

94 
110 

55 
100 

70 
129 
30 

56 
Bfl 

36 
105 

78 

12 
118 

90 

go 

it 

80 
110 
88 



44 
91 

BO 

25 
140 

13 



125 
90 
90 
75 
BO 

70 

44 



56 

100 

82 

too 

86 
74 
80 
180 
49 

H 

27 
114 
27 
48 

JU 

II 



60 

100 



40 
155 
192 
225 

106 
139 
40 

120 
135 
80 
80 
100 
15 
65 
145 
120 
26 
100 
200 
45 
102 

153 
65 
68 
60 

159 

'0 
120 



72 
78 
60 
100 

96 
68 



75 

M 

92 
135 

25 
150 
126 
220 

100 
50 

153 
43 
60 

211 
44 
110 

SO 

86 

80 



• No Report. t Dweaied. 



132 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Lippe, Frederick 

Little, Henry S., D.D. 

♦Little, John W 

Lockard, Earl T 



♦Logan, Richmond. 

Long, Cortis E 

♦Long, Matthew C. 
Long, M. DeWitt.. . 
Lonsdale, Frank. . . 



Lord, John C. 
Losa, "Vaclav . 



♦Lott, Albert F 

Loudon, Clarke . ... 
Loughran, Joshua.. 
Lounsbury, Chas. P. 

Lovell, John G 

♦Lowe, Jos. A . 

Lowrie, Newell S . 



Lowry, William S. . 
Lucas, Wallace B . 

♦Lyle, Jas. P 

Lyle, William H. . . 
Lyman, Barnabas.., 



«s 



Lynn, John F 

Lytteil, Wm 

McAfee, French 

McAfee, George F. . . 
♦McAfee, Lapsley A. 

Mc Arthur, John 

McArthur, John A . . . 



McBride, Horatio B 

McCahan, John M 

McCain, Cornelius .. 



McCarty, Chas. C 

McCarthy, Richard G 
McCauley, Albert C . . . 

McClain, Josiah 

♦McClelland, David T. 
McClelland, Sam'l B. . 
McClintock, Paul W... 
McClung, John S 



McConnell, Alex. W. 



McConnell, Jas. H 

McCornack, Jirah S. . 

McCoy, John 

McCoy, John Norris.. 
McCreery, Chas. H. . . 
♦McOreery, Hugh H. 
♦McCune, William C. 
McCunn, Drummond.. 
McCuskey, Wm. H . . 
McDonald, Chas B 
McDonald, Donald. . . 
McDonald, Jak. s. . . . 
McDonald, John M . . . 
McElhinny, Chas. 8. . 

McElroy, James C 

McElroy, Solomon C 



McElwee, Wm. B. 
MoFarland, Jas. 



Mulberry, German, and Idana — Kan. 

Synodical Missionary Tex. 

Hansen Neb. 

Los Alamos Olivet, Ballard and 

station Cal. 

Santa Paula Cal. 

National City, 1st, and station Cal. 

Fredonia and New Albany Kan. 

North Baltimore, 1st Ohio. 

St. Joseph North, Hopkins, Morning 

Star and station Mo. 

Huntsville, New River & station. Tenn. 
Baltimore, Bohemian and Moravian 

Brethren Md. 

Indepence, Calvary Oreg. 

Stanley and stations S. Dak. 

White Lake S. Dak. 

Bay Road and stations N. Y. 

Northampton and station N. Y. 

Las Cruces, 1st N. Mex 

O'Neill, South Fork, Bethany, Lam- 
bert and Inman Neb 

Craig's Chapel Ky 

Superintendent, Western Dist N. Y 

Eagle Pass Tex 

Dandridge, St. Paul's & station. .Tenn. 
Bad Axe, Verona Mills, Ubly and 

station Mich. 

Pleasantville N. Y. 

Taymouth, 1st, and stations Mich. 

Lampasas and stations Tex. 

St. Paul. Westminster Minn. 

Parkville Mo. 

Kasota Minn. 

Davenport, Egypt, Minnie Falls and 

stations Wash. 

Golden Gate Cal. 

Bloomfleld and Moulton Iowa. 

Gallatin, Jameson, Bethel and 

stations Mo. 

Cedar Grove, Spring Lake Valley, 

Deming and stations Wash. 

Saranac Lake and stations N. Y. 

Bridgewater and Canistota S. Dak. 

Huntington Utah. 

Salinas, Central Avenue Cal. 

Cloquet Minn. 

Minnewaukon and stations Minn. 

Mound Valley, Edna, Altamont and 

station Kan. 

Anamosa, Centre Junction and 

station Iowa. 

Rockford, Unita and stations. . . Tenn. 
Red Lake Falls, Angus & Euclid. Minn. 

Ellendale N. Dak. 

Doyleston and Marshallville Ohio. 

Wright Mission, Wichita Kan 

Willmar Minn 

Avalon Mo, 

Fillmore and San Fernando Cal 

Mt. Hope and Rossville Iowa 

Alexandria and station S. Dak 

Iron Township Mich 

Synodical Missionary Cal 

Hopewell and station Neb 

Columbus Junction, Central. .Iowa 
Milikan Memorial & Neosho Falls. Kan 
Alder Creek and Forestport and 

stations N. Y 

Madera Cal 

Idaho Springs and stations Col 



PS 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
p. 

p. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
p. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

P.E 

s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
p. 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

P.S 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 

s.s'. 
p. 
p. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
p. 



12 

12 

105, 



12 

11 

12 
12 

la 

12 

11 

12 
10* 

12 

8* 

6 

12 



9 
6 

'■'% 

6 
12 

5 
10 

12 
12 
10 



6H 

12 
12 

8 

1 

in 
IS 

12 
12 

12 
[2 
12 

1 
12 

12 
12 
19 



149 



88 

91 
51 
92 
104 

220 
45 

till 
80 

2S 
Hi 

88 

36 



225 

100 

100 
143 
65 

85 

469 
100 

140 
60 

50 
69 
59 
91 



1 161 160 



94 

30 

72 

91 
45 
60 
48 
132 
320 
79 

79 

14 
70 

83 

30 

46 
125 
5 
30 
16 
14 

115 

100 
60 
68 
85 

125 

74 
100 
71 
80 
40 
is 

47 
71 
88 

68 

II 

mi 



75 

57 
110 

167 
68 

58 
140 
130 
703 
120 

86 
75 
80 



100 
185 
50 
68 
96 
75 

50 

150 
185 
175 
^5 
100 

129 
100 
106 

55 
105 
120 

59 

'.10 
100 

I2r. 
100 



' No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



133 



MISSION AK IKS. 



McFarland, John W . . . . 

MHilLLIVHAY. ElNI.AY B. 
McULADE, JEKOMI R 

♦McGreaham, John A. . . 
'.McGregor, Jasper W 

McHaro, Wm. N 

McIIenry. Herbert. . . . 

♦MolNTOSH, Alkx. R 

McIntyre, Arch 

M I .tyre, Lewis 

McKay, Donald G 

McKay, George 



McKay, James A. 



McKay, Kenneth 

*McKbchnie, Neii 

♦McKle. Thomas B 

McKellar. Wm S 

McKenney, Geo. W 

McKkn/.ie. Angi's .. . . 
McKinley, Edmund G. 

McKinlay, Geo. A 

McLaren. Arch 

M.I.can. Alexander. 
McLean, Eneas ....... 



♦McLean, John 
McLean, Robert... 
McLeod, Malcom J . 



• HoLeod, Norman 

HoLboo, Norman 

♦McMahan, Robert T 

McMaster, John 

♦McMillin, Andrew 

McMillan. DONOAN 

McMu.i.an. J as. P 

McMillan, John 

McMinn. Wm. A 

♦McMi'rdy, David B 

♦McMurray, John 

McN.uh. Wilmek 

McN.u c;h I'on, Alex. K. . . 

McPllAllYEN. Ill OH 

Mcl'llEKRIN. JoSlAll. 

MoQdbbn, All \\ 

•McQcben, Glenroie 

♦Macatley, John 

Maccarthy. Chas. W . 
MacdoNALD, Pbtbb M .!>.]> 
MACDoroAi.i.. Donald 
♦MacGimre, Thomas 

Mack. Wm K 

Mackay. Ai.i.in 

• Mack \y. William 

Mackklviv. James A .. .. 
Mackkv, WlLLIAM A ,., 
*Maooubbjby, Anthony R. 

Madrid, Manuel 

Maios, Andkkas A 

Maks, K, 

Magill, Bezeexab 

Malcolm, .Iamks 



♦MALONE, Jos. S... 
Mann, Alfred M 
Mann, Matthew G. 



FIKLDS OF LABOR. 



Mancs, Claborne. 



Hoonah Alaska. 

Bedngton Kau. 

Greene, 1st, and statiou Iowa. 

Roscoe, Paris and Zion S. Dak. 

Milan Mich. 

Blue Kupids Kan. 

Delhi and stations N. Dak. 

Beaulieu N. Dak. 

Raton, 1st N. Mex. 

Balaton, Lyons and station Minn. 

Pembina, Riverside N. Dak. 

Bennington, Glasco. Cuba and_ 
station Kan. 

AK i ..ii New Hampton and Martins- 
ville Mo. 

lloultou and stations Me. 

Endeavor and Union S. Dak. 

Oxford, Neb., and Gunnison Col. 

Booorro, 1st N. Mex. 

Beai ii Creek and Rushmore Minn. 

Ridgefield, Woodland it sta'n . Wash. 

Centra Hill aud Orange Bend Fla. 

Sellwood, 1st, and station Oreg. 

Osceola, Vista and station Mo. 

Prescott, Starbuck and station Wash. 

Myrtle Point, Fishtrap, Baudou and 
stations Oreg. 

Saguache County Col. 

Bethany and statiou Oreg. 

Touglikenemon. Unionville and 
London Grove, Pa., and King 
City and Albany Mo. 

St. James Minn. 

Beekmantown N. Y. 

Salem and Preston Mo. 

Akron N. Y. 

Oxford and Union Iowa. 

Bottineau and stations N. Dak. 

Burkesville. Ky. 

White River and stations Wash. 

Dows and 2 stations Iowa. 

Lynn Mass. 

Clsoo Tex. 

Tacoma, 2d Wash 

I Dexter, 1st N. Y. 

Wausaukee and Amberg Wis. 

Bennett and Palmyra Neb. 

Portageville N. Y. 

Rochester, Calvary N. Y. 

Maple Ridge Mich. 

Cadott Wis. 

Boston, St. Andrew's Mass. 

Taunton. 1st Mass. 

Tacoma, 2d Wash. 

Sterling, 1st Kan. 

I''t Wraugel Alaska. 

Iiiiuilas and Forest Minn. 

Chicago, Ridgeway Avenue 111. 

Kaiihaven, 1st Wash. 

San Mateo Fla. 

.Mexican Helper N. Mex. 

Mexican Helper N. Mex. 

Mexican Helper N. Mex. 

Ontario Cal. 

si Joplin, Empire, Lone Elm and 

stations Mo. 

Mlddleborougb Ky. 

Thayer and Harrison Kan. 

Puyallup, Chehalis, Nisqually aud 

Mud Bay Wash. 

Cateohlst Ind. Ter. 



>. 




A.i.lr.l tO 


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78 


p. 


12 




1 


22 


s.s. 


fi 






180 


s.s. 


5 








s.s. 


7 


1 


3 


15 


s.s. 


12 


it; 


17 




s.s. 


12 


7 


5 


120 


s.s. 


7* 






45 


s.s. 


fi 


>j 


1 


75 


s.s. 


12 




1 


50 


s.s. 


\% 








s.s. 


11 


12 


14 


96 


p. 


12 




19 


71 


s.s. 


1 






86 


s.s. 


X 








s.s. 


n 


4 


19 


28 


B.S. 


6 






16 


p. 


10* 


6 


5 


68 


S.S. 


12 
12 


3S 




208 



No Report 



134 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



♦Many, Daniel J., Jr. . . 
Marcellus, Algernon. 



Mares, Mattias 

♦Marks, Jas. J., D.D 
Marsh, Augustus — 

Marsh, Sam'l M 

Marshall, Hugh W 



Marshall, James A 

Marshall, T. M 

Marshall, Wm 

Marshall, Wm. K, D.D. 
Marshman, David M . . . . 

*Martin, Albert B 

♦Martin, Donald M 

Martin, Geo. W 

+Martin, John 

Martin, John P 

Martinez, Juan M 

Martinez, Juan Y 

Martinez, Lucas 

Martyn, Ashbel G 

Mason, Edgar C 

Mather, Oliver T 

Mathes, Ebenezer E. . . 

Matteson, Charles G. . 
Matthieson, Matthias. 
Maxson, Geo. W., D.D.. . . 

*May, JohnT 

May, Montgomery 



May, Thomas J 

Mayne, John C 

Mayo, Warren 

♦Mayou, Joseph 

Mays, Albert S 

Mead, Martin Henry. 

Meily, Richard L 

Menaul, James A 

Menaul, John 

Merwin, Alex. Moss. . . 



Messenger, Richard. 
Meyer, Samuel S 



♦Middlemis, Thomas — 

*Middleton, Edwin 

Millard. Edward N. B. . 

Miller, Chari.es H 

Miller, Clarence G — 

♦Miller, Geo. H 

♦Miller, Henry B 

Miller, Horace G 

Miller, John B 

♦Miller, Thos. C 

Miller, Willis L 

Millett, Samuel 



Milligan, James V 

Milligan, Robert H — 

Mills, Eugene R 

Mills, John P 

Milne, James 

Mishopf, Ivan D 

Mitchell, James 

Mitchell, James A 

Mitchell, Robert C — 
Mitchell, Stuart, D.D., 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



8.S. 



8.S. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 

P.E 

S.S 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
p. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 



s.s. 
s.s, 
s.s. 

s.s. 
p. 
p. 

s.s 
s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
p, 

s.s. 
s.s 



Esperance N. Y. 

Oakland, Wilbur, Yoncalla and 

stations Oreg. 

Mexican Helper N. Mex. 

Cucamonga Cal. 

Birmingham, 1st Mich. 

Gilby N. Dak. 

Birdseye Ridge, Boynton & Porter, 

Belle Memorial Mo. 

Kingman Kan. 

Santa Cruz, Capulin & Dulce. . N. Mex 

Wray, Laird and stations Col 

Waskom and stations Tex. 

Montpelier and Eagle Creek Ohio. 

Kansas City, 3d Mo. 

West Park, Hooper and Crystal . N. Dak. 

Manti and Ephriam Utah. 

Hartington and Coleridge Neb. 

Newton and Toledo 111. 

Mexican Helper N. Mex 

Mexican Helper N. Mex 

Mexican Helper N. Mex. 

Perry and station Iowa. 

Washington and station Tenn. 

Collamer N. Y. 

Ft. Gibson, Au-ga-leah and sta- 
tion Ind. Ter. 

Roslyn, Glenwood and station . . .N. Y. 

Socorro, Spanish and stations . N. Mex. 

Rivera, 1st Cal. 

Chatham 111. 

Cabery, 111., and Dallas Exposition 
Park and Bethany Tex. 

Helena. Central Mout. 

Wall Lake and Auburn Iowa. 

Mankato Kan. 

Montrose Mo. 

Troy, Liberty Street N. Y. 

Montpelier and station Idaho. 

Starke Fla. 

Synodical Missionary N. Mex. 

Albuquerque, Spanish, & sta'ns.N. Mex. 

Spanish Churches at Azusa, Los 
Angeles and San Gabriel and 
stations Cal. 

Little River, Fort Bragg and sta. . .Cal. 

La Camas. St. John's, Fourth Plain 
and station Wash. 

Alpena Mich. 

Moreland 111. 

Las Animas and La Junta Col. 

El Reno and stations Ok. Ter. 

Marshall and Swan Lake Minn. 

Brooklyn, 5th German N. Y. 

Doylestown and Marshallville Ohio. 

Mt. Tabor and station N. Y . 

Grove City and Scioto Ohio. 

Woonsocket N. Dak. 

Oklahoma City and Burlington, Ok. Ter. 

Andover, Pierpont, Huffton and 
stations S. Dak, 

Portland, St. John's Oreg. 

Hillsboro and Kelso N. Dak 

San Pedro and Wilmington Cal. 

Lakefleld, Corinne and stations. . Mich 

Alanson, Cross Village & station, Mich 
Milwaukee, South Side Wis 

New Bedford Mass 

Highland and Wrights Cal 

Minnewaukon N. Dak. |S.S 

Mt. Carmel, 1st Pa.l P. 



is 

10i 
3 

10* 

8 
7 
12 

is 

12 

2 

4fi 
12 
0?, 
11 



23 



S.S. 



S.S. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

P.E 

s.s. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s 

s.s. 
p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p, 



12 
10 
4 

12 

9 

12 
12 
5 

12 

12 

10M 

12 

8 
12 
12 

3 
12 
12 



3K 



SS 



105 75 



10 



100 

150 
10 
40 

125 
25 

190 
96 
20 

150 
75 

175 



2 


g 


40 


20 


29 


58 



116 
10 115 
28 
IS 
83 
31 



54 



20 
225 
49 

50 

135 

235 

35 

69 



294 
120 
115 
116 
72 
82 
175 



36 



60 
100 

31 
110 
170 

45 
130 
155 
372 

140 

130 

150 

125 

175 
90 

150 
40 
45 

250 
70 
85 
40 

160 



' No Report. t Deceased. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



135 



MISSIONARIES. 



Mitchell, W. James... . 

MlTCHELMOKK, CHAS. H. 

MlTBR, Wm. .1 

MoKKAT. FRANCIS I 

MoNDRAGOK. JoSE D . . . 
MONTEITH, TflOS. W 

M.in Kiii.MKuv, John 

Mn\ raoKBBT, John H. . . . 

Montman, John F 

Momtova, RokalsO 

IfoORB, Danii i 

IfOOBB, Daniel M 

Moore, Edwin (; 

MnoKK, Fernando G 

Moore, Josiah 

Mookk, Marion 

MORDY, .IcUlN 

Morgan. Joan W 



Morrison, Daniel 1, 



IfOBBISON, Di'N.w.l) .... 
M ■ ■ i . l l 'IN, Jamkb M. . . . 
MoilRISON. Thob. M 
Morrow. Wm. S 

Modw, Dries. 

Ml'I. I.F.N, IIknry A 

MlTLHOLLAND, HbNRY J. 

Munbon, Martin B 

MiiKPin, Kdwai:d N 
Myerb, Alfred E 



Mi BBS, Simon P 

Nash, Llewellyn V. 



Nelson, .Iohrph 

Nelson, Sybrandt 

•NHL80H, Wm. K. S 
Newell, Ebhbi A 

NlCIK'l.l.. W\l 

ETlOBOLl s, Gbo 

Nii.es, Wm. Henry . . 

NoKL, S \ M I" I I. II 

Nokrk, Mobes 

Norman, I'kiki: I; . 

N< ii: in, .Joseph l> 

dToyxs, Hem \n A 

NiHiiis I, ( 'li vhi.es B. . 
Nimien i , Edward J. . .. 

►Olll.l.l , .Ikhi.MI All . 

*ili;nt:N, Is v LOG 

I iglevei.. JbBSB A. I! 
Ol.LKRKNSlIAW, SaMIIKL. 

♦Op.dway, Smith 

Obb, Kkanm in ... . 

Okteqa, .Iuan P 

Osmund, Jonathan. . . 

Otbbstrebt, Qbo. c. . . . 



OvKl.STRKET, KOBT. M... . 

Paden, Uonr. A 

P adrn, Thomas Ross 
I'adi-.n, Wm. C 

PaDIBRNA, FkANOIROO 

Padilla, Prdro 

Paige, .Tames A 

Padi n . Mobbb F 

r vi \n i:, Fr ink Nelson. 
I'm mer, .Ioiin C 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Steele and Sterling N. Dak 

Ord, Wilson Memorial Neb 

t raiulon and stations Wis 

Elilriilge and Summit Iowa 

Ranches of Taos and stations N. Mex 

Martin and station Mich 

Lonsdale ft. I, 

Culbertson and Driftwood Neb. 

Mt-ndenhall Memorial Minn 

Nucimiento and stations N. Mex 

Plainville and Shiloh .Kan 

Ellin wood and station Kan 

St. Joseph, North and station Mo. 

Gardner Ill 

Kewanee 111. 

Mapleton and Durbin N. Dak. 

Hoople, Crystal, Canton & stations, N. Dak. 

Wentworth, Colman, Belhel and sta- 
tions and Galena, Whitewoodand 
stations S. Dak. 

Centreville, Livingstonville and sta- 
tions N. T. 

Ev.irt Mich. 

Grass Valley and stations Oreg. 

Sharertown and station N. Y. 

Earlville III. 

Hospere Iowa. 

Thomas, Ensley and Pratt Mines Ala. 

St. Louis, Grace Mo. 

Montgomery Mission Minn . 

Mt. Pleasant and stations Utah. 

Vacant, churches in Syracuse Pres- 
bytery N. Y. 

Stillwater, Forest City, Yates and sta- 
tion Ok. Ter. 

Vustin, Oakland & Woodbury, Minn., 
and North Loup and Scotia Neb. 

South Centreville N. Y. 

Fairville N. Y. 

Sturgis and Pleasant Valley N. Dak. 

Los Angeles, Bethany Cal. 

Millerboro, Willowdale &, Niobrara. .Neb. 

Wampsville N. Y. 

Table Rock and Nelson Neb. 

• lelwein, Hazleton and stations Iowa. 

lint Springs and stations 8. Dak. 

Minneapolis, Bethany Mission Minn. 

Medicine Lodge and station Kau. 

r.uffalo and Kockford Minn. 

Tombstone Ariz. 

I'resbyterial Missionary S. Dak. 

( Jlenwood N . Y. 

Argyle N. V. 

Caldwell and stations Kan. 

South Des Moines and station Iowa. 

Marathon N. Y. 

Laurel and Mariposa Iowa. 

MtxicMii helper . . . N. Max. 

Tacoma, 3d, and stations Wash. 

Hodgensville, Plum Creek, Gustin and 
siations Ky. 

Beaver Ok. Ter. 

Wilson Grove, Dayton and station. .Iowa. 

Lake Crystal, Amboy and stations. ..Minn. 

Early Iowa. 

I. as Cruces, Spanish As 2 stations, N. Mex. 

Mexican helper N. Mex. 

McNair Memorial and Thomson Minn. 

Morrisonville and stations 111. 

A laraosa and stations Col. 

Hill City, 1st, and station S. Dak. 



| 



s.s. 

8.8. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

P. 

P. 

s s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

S.S. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 



IS 

12 
10?i 
12 

12 

111 

13 
19 

4 

12 



12 





S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

s.s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
p. 

P.E 
P. 

s.s. 
s s 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

I'M 

S.S. 

S.8. 

P. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

P. 

s.s. 

p. 



s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

S.8. 



11 X 



12 
8* 
12 
19 
19 

6 

8 
19 



19 

4 
12 

"'* 

12 


19 
12 
1! 
SS 
Id 
19 
L9 
19 
19 

9 

1 
11 

2 
19 
12 



70 
28 
68 
60 
90 
ISO 
85 
86 
98 
37 

117 
25 

126 
32 
98 



121 
108 
43 

!8 

re 

110 

I'.l 

58 



126 

45 

98 

in 
89 
n; 
i,(i 
75 
50 

166 
32 
99 
19 
75 

150 
38 

4(1 
62 
109 
70 
50 
70 



35 
100 
52 
88 
35 
60 

120 

60 
36 
80 

40 
190 
75 
80 
65 



100 

300 

85 

(0 

•.in 
75 
150 
100 
35 
110 

211 

120 

305 
60 
95 
120 
100 
130 
50 
120 
55 
40 

65 

225 

85 

in 
68 
170 
200 
105 
75 



4 48 125 



ss 

39 loo 

91 125 

106 350 

88 10 

:>9 80 

58 100 

130 175 

s| ltd 

20 ' 75 



\',> Report. 



136 



ANNUAL REPORT OF TTIE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



Paradis, Euchbb. 
Parent, Wm. H . . 



♦Park, Chas. H. . . . 
Parker, Albert G. 

Parker, Alex 

Parker, Hanoe H.. 
Parker, Rob't H . . 



Parkhill, James W 

Parsons, Benj 

Parsons, Dwight L 

Parsons, William T 

Patchen, Willis 

♦Pattengii.l, Juxnrs S.. . 
Patterson, Jas. G., D.D. 

Patterson, Joseph 

Patton, Wm. D 

*Paulu, Anton 

Pkairs, Henry R 

Pearoe, Isaac A 

Pearson, Benj. F 

*Peok. Alex. S 

Penland, Alfred M 

Perea, Jose T 

Perbing. John D 

Perry, Barton W 

Perry, Henry T 

Perryman, Thos. W 



Peterson, Jas. B. 



Petran, Henry J 

•Petrie, Jeremiah.. 
Pettitt, Alfred C . . . 

Pflug, Geo. A 

*Phelps, Seymour S. 
Phipps, Robt. J. .... , 
Pibroe, John O .... 
Piekson, George .... 
Pinney, Jebome S. . . 
Pipal, John 

PlSEK, VlNOENT 

Pokorny, Francis . . 



Pollock, Garnett A. . 

Pollock, Geo. W 

Pollock, Sam'l W 

Pollock, William A. 

POLSON. SAMTTEL 



Pomeroy, John B 

Porter, Chas. J. A. . . 



*Porter, E. Horace 

Porter, William M 

Potter, James H 

Potter, Thomas C , 

Powelson, Benjamin F. 

I'uwuk, Robert N 

Pbatt, Abram A 

♦Pbksslv, Robt. T 

Pbichard, Augustus B 
Prugh, Benjamin E. P. . 
♦Pumphrky, Wm. II .... 

ItAINKY, Wm. J 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Rainibb, Matthew T. 
Ramsay, James Ross.. 



Mulberry, French Kan. 

Green Bay, Robinson, St. Saveur and 

stations Wis. 

Circleville N. T. 

Highland Md. 

Orange and 1 station Cal. 

Parma and station M ich. 

Cosmopolis, Summerville, Elgin and 

stations Wash. 

Long Beach Cal. 

Seattle, 2d .Wash. 

Gross Park III. 

Buffalo and Tower City N. Dak. 

Hope Chapel S. Dak. 

Cannonsville N. Y. 

East Harlem N. Y. 

Wilson and station Kan. 

Raymond, Staplehurst and station. . .Neb 

Omaha, Bohemian Neb 

Montrose Iowa 

Paola Fla 

Wakefield and station Neb 

Pease Valley and Olive S. Dak. 

Beech and stations N. C 

Pajarito and stations N. Mex 

Oak Hill Kan 

Norwich Corners and Litchfield N. Y 

Afton N. Y 

Nuyaka, Wealaka, Broken Arrow and 

station Ind. Ter. 

Hansen, Mt. Zi"n, Walnut Grove and 

stations Ind. Ter, 

Alden Minn. 

Elmira, Franklin Street N. Y. 

Maine, Maplewood and Bethel Minn 

Nauvoo, 1st . . . HI 

Collamer N. Y 

Oberlin Kan 

Wilmington, Old Union & stations.. Ohio 

Henrietta and Bowie Tex. 

Kinbrae, Fulda and Currie Minn. 

Omaha, Bohemian and stations Neb, 

New York Bohemian N. Y. 

Eagle Township, Bohemian and 

station S. Dak, 

Elgin, House of Hope and Plato Ill 

Durango, 1st Col 

Des Moines, Highland Park Iowa, 

Wilsonville, Lebanon, Axtell and 

Ragan Neb. 

Elkwood, Hannah, Byron and Wood- 

ridge N. Dak 

Whitewood and stations S. Dak 

Lamoille Valley, Starr Valley and sta- 
tions Cal 

New Decatur Ala 

Black Hawk Col 

Eustis Fla 

Satsuma and stations Fla 

Grand Junction Col 

Superior Neb 

West Bend and station Iowa 

Keokuk Mission Iowa 

Brooklyn, Arlington Avenue N. Y, 

Horton Kan 

Garnett Kan 

Riverside, Bethany, Clam Lake, 

Bethany and station Mich 

Plover, Laurens, Paton, Sunnyside, 

Kippey and station Iowa 

Wewoka Ind. Ter 



P. 

P. 

S.S. 
P. 
P. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 

8.8. 
P. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

P.E 

S.S. 

s.s. 

s.s 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s 

s.s 

s.s 
s.s 
s.s 
s.s 
s.s 
s.s 

p. 
s.s 
s.s 
s.s 

p. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 



s.s 
p, 

P. 

s.s. 

P.E 

s.s 
p. 

s.s. 
p. 

p. 

s.s 



3s 



IS 
12 

1 

12 

la 
la 

11: h 
6 
2 
12 

nx 

12 
1 
3 

12 
12 
g 

12 
9 

1,S 
1 

12 
12 
12 
3 
12 



6 
4 

12 
12 
10 V, 
12 
12 
12 
10 
8 
4 
11 

2X 



S.S. 12 



S.S. 11 
S.S. 3 



20 



46 

141 
110 

96 
153 

50 

118 
31 
90 
51 

125 
25 

218 
52 

75 

82 
S3 
83 
31 
27 
13 
35 

OS 

53 



103 
40 
69 
30 

257 

71 
89 
102 
42 



27 
81 

43 
45 

is 

94 
10 
42 
41 
80 

73 
125 
66 



taa 

41 



' No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



137 



MISSIONARIES. 



Randolph, Allen F. . . 
•Rankin, Emmet W. . . . 

Rankin, Nelson A 

♦Ransom, George 

Ray, Joiin W 

♦Raymond, Edward N. 

♦Read, Philander 

Reagan, John T 



Rea80Ner, Royal F. 



♦Rederub, Anco 

♦ Redbrcs, Sipko 

Redpatii. .John 

Reed, Elmer E 

Rbed, Geo. J., D.D 

Reed, James 

♦Ukf.d, .) amks S 

Rees, William D 

Reeves, Thomas A 

RkIH. (iKORGE BaRTLEY. 

♦Reid, John, Jr 

Remington, (has. W . . . 

Rendai.l. John B 

Renville, Isaac 

Rknville, John B 

Reynard, John II 



Reynolds, Geo 

♦Reynolds, VV alter H. 

♦Reynolds, Wm. R 

Rialk, JosnuA 

Rioe, Harry V 

♦Rion, John P 

Richards, David G 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



S 



SB 



♦ Richards, Samuel W. . 
Richardson. Ukablbs F. 

Richmond, C'has. F 

*Richter, Louis 

Ridkout, Jacob B 

♦Ringold. John A....... 

Robb, Jambs W 

Robe, Robert 

Roberts, Wm. II 

Robertson, Evans P. . . . 



Robertson, Henry M. . 
Robinson, Albert S. . . . 
Robinson. Alexander. 

Robinson, Jas. R 

Robinson. Jos. C 

Robinson, Wm. C 

Robinson, William H. 
Robinson, William M. . 

•Rodgers, James 

Roelsb, Jacob 

Rogers, Conway B 

Rogers, James E 

Rogers, Wm. O 

RolIRABAirOll, llAVIDH. 

Romero, Vincentb F. ... 

Root, James Snow 

Rosen krank, David W. 

Ross, Cyrii 

Ross, George 

Rossiter, Francis Z 

Rowley, Rossiter C 

Rudolph. Walter S 

Rundus, Frank 



Otis and Yuma Col. 

Tacoma, Westminster Wash. 

Cheever and Manchester Kan. 

Muir, Lafayette and Pine River Mtch. 

Maiden Rock Wis. 

Sedro Wash. 

Albion Iowa. 

Mt. Tabor, Centennial. Louisville and 
station Tenn. 

Port Hadlock, Wash., & Summerville, 
Elgin and stations Oreg. 

Woodbury Co., Weslminster Iowa. 

Amsterdam and Steven's Point Wis. 

Boyne Falls and Boyne City Mich. 

Kirkville and station Iowa. 

Columbia, Edmonton and stations Ky. 

Craig, Fairfax and station Mo. 

Chanuie Kan. 

Rolhi and stations N. Dak. 

Woousocket, 1st R.I. 

Leola, Pembroke and station S. Dak. 

Great Falls Mont. 

Ellicoitville and station N. Y. 

Union v ill e, Tonghkenamon & station, Pa. 

Long Hollow . S. Dak. 

Ascension S. Dak. 

Presbyterial Missionary. Kearney Pres- 
bytery, Neb., and Tacoma, Edison 
and stations Wash. 

Crand Rapids, Immanuel it station. Mich. 

River Forest 111. 

Minneapolis, Shiloh Minn. 

Dysart Iowa. 

Port Towusend Bay and station*. . . Wash. 

Healdsburg Cal. 

Argonia, Mayfleld. Ewell and Silver 
Creek Kan. 

King City, Union and Union Star Mo. 

Woonsocket and station S. Dak. 

El Paso ..Tex. 

Morgan Minn. 

Marshfleld Oreg. 

Lancaster and Liberly Wis. 

Sumner, Armada and station Neb. 

Crawlbrdsville Oreg. 

Ironlon, Cornwall and Marble Hill . . Mo. 

Pleasant Valley, Eureka, Clear ("reel; 
and Blue Spring Ind. Ter. 

Clifton Heights Iowa. 

Sinslaw and stations Oreg. 

Plymouth, Webster and station Neb. 

Southport and stations N. Y. 

White Bear Minn. 

Portland, 1st Me. 

Wichita, Perkins Kan. 

Larrabee Iowa. 

Farmington, Vermillion & Empire, Minn. 

Hanover, Oerman Neb. 

La Grange and Canton Mo. 

Hill City, North Side and station Tenn. 

Wood Lake S. Dak. 

Tower, St. James Minn. 

Taos and vicinity N. Mcx. 

Rochester, Emmanuel N. Y. 

Apple Creek, Scottville & Black Bird, Neb. 

Ontonagon Mich. 

Tualatin Plains and station Oreg. 

Plainwell Mich. 

Brooks, Nodaway and stations Iowa. 

Glenwood Springs Col. 

Cuba, Bohemian Kan. 



s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 



19 

3 

II 

IS 

11 
I 



73* 

2 

IX 
IS 

Bj 
19 
Hi 

% 
IS 
in 
in 

1 



P.E 12 



S.S. 
P. 



S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

P.E 

s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 
P.E 

s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 
p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 



1(1 

3 
12 

1 

6 

12 

12 

12 
MS 
12 
in 

6 
11 

2 
18 
12 
12 

12 
Id 
12 
11 
12 
12 
10*? 
12 
12 

84 
19 

7 

12 
12 



12 
12 

• r >; 

12 
12 

12 
8 



10 



63 
118 
17 
12 

(17 

130 



69 

3!) 
100 

SI I 

71 
115 

41 

98 

74 
98 

85 
99 
110 



30 



15 



50 
135 
45 

(i.'i 
(II 

175 

120 

40 
116 
140 

45 
110 
160 

48 

72 
100 
135 

160 
35 

'.•5 



494 

58 
)'j 
92 
85 
38 
so 



600 
224 

108 
156 
100 
150 
58 



108 150 

160 125 

70 75 

0': so 
ii 

25 100 

78 51 

68 T5 

29 IS 

111 140 



67 
73 
31 
96 

'.IS 

76 
175 
75 
54 

56 
:ya 
:,o 
os 
62 
88 
59 



63 
160 
200 
95 
170 
130 
100 
150 
70 
105 
50 
82 
125 
29 
80 
50 



258 878 

49 150 

13 I 25 

53 10 

50 120 

65 75 

50 00 
25 ' 80 



'No Report. 



138 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Sample, William A., D.D. 

Sangree, Wm 

Sanson, John R 

Sabchet, Albert L 

Saunders, Nelson 

Sawtell, Eli N 

Sawyers, Henry A 

Sayre, Edward H 

Sayre, Henry B 

Sayre, Sylvanus 

Scarborough, Wm. B 

Soarritt, Wm. R., D.D — 

Schafer, Adam 

Sohaible, John G 

Schell, James P 

Schell, Ulysses G 

♦Schenck, Isaac V 

Schekmbrhorn, Harvby R. 

♦SCHUETTE, ERNEST 

Schuyler, Wm. H 

Sohwakz, Philip A 

Scott, Alexander 

Scott, Robt. D 

Scott, Thomas A 

Scott, Wm. R 

Scott, Winfield C 

Scott, Winfield T 

Scovel, Dwight 

Sefton, James C 

Sfmple, Wm 

Service, John 

Seward, Frederick D 

tSBWKLL, Henry F 

Sexton, Thomas L., D.D.. . 

Seymour, John A 

Sharp, Bbnj. F 

Sharp, Chas. E 

Sharp, Edward M 

*Shaw, Archibald M 



Shawhan, Harry H — 

♦Shbldon, Frank E 

Shephbrd, Chas. M 

Shf.pp, Wm. H 

Sherman, Thomas E — 

Shields, Calvin R 

Shields, John M 

Shields, Weston F 

SniEi.s, Wm. S 

Shooki.by, Henry M — 

Shui.tz, Emanuki 

Sickei.s, Wm 

♦Sidebotham, William. 

Sill, Herman 

•SlLLABS, Angus 

♦Simpson, Iba ac H 

Simpson, Martin W 

Sink, Chauncey C 

Skinner, John K 

Slack, Charles 

Sloan, Isaac O 

•Sloan, John C 

♦Small, Gilbert 

Smallwood, David 

Smallwood, Joseph E. . 



Russel, James G Nelllsville and stations Wis. 

Russell, Daniel Jesup Iowa. 

Rutherford, Wm. S Tracy and Grayson Cal. 

Centralia Wash. 

Sanborn and stations N. Dak. 

Martinsburg, Duncansville & stations l'a. 

Guthrie Centre Iowa. 

Inglewood Cal . 

Dillon and Union Kan. 

Cameron Mo. 

Appanoose and Ponloosuc 111. 

Branchport and stations N. Y. 

Clatsop Plains and stations '. . . Oreg. 

Otsego Ohio. 

Morgan Park HI. 

Leipsic, Kalida and Continental. . . Ohio. 

Omaha, 1st Ger Neb. 

Coeur d' Alene Idaho. 

Somers Wis. 

Brooklyn, Grace N. Y. 

McAlester, Krebsand station Ind. Ter. 

Rowley, Ger Iowa. 

Everett, Saxton and stations Pa. 

Melville and station N. Y. 

Littleton Col. 

Chicago, Belden Avenue 111. 

Port Huron Mich. 

Akron Col. 

Elk Grove and station Cal. 

Fairview and stations Oreg. 

Kirk-land N. Y. 

Maple City, Genda Springs & sta'n. . .Kan. 

Union Township and station Iowa. 

Olisville and station N. Y. 

Synodical Missionary Cal. 

Wichita, Lincoln Street Kan. 

Synodical Missionary Neb. 

St reetsboro Ohio. 

Gresham Neb. 

Forest City, Okobojo and station. .S. Dak. 

Walla Walla Wash. 

Spencertown, Austerlitz and Whitney's 
Point N. Y. 

Caddo and Durant Ind. Ter. 

Edmond and Deer Creek Ok. Ter. 

Springville Utah. 

Findlay, 2d Ohio. 

Brownville aDd station N. Y. 

East Portland, Mizpah Oreg. 

Jemes and Nacimiento N. Mex. 

Sharon, Drexel and station Mo. 

West Point and station Iowa. 

Wamego Kan. 

Blunt, Oneida and stations S. Dak. 

Hegewich M ission 111. 

Port Austin and Grindstone City Mich, 

Uheiderland, Ger., and station Minn, 

Rural and Badger Wis, 

Cambridge Wis 

Mt. Ayr Iowa, 

Brockway, Fremont and stations. . . .Mich 

Vernon, Austin Chapel and station.. Tex 

St. James, Westminster and station. Minn 

Glencoe, Albert Barnes N. Dak 

Rushville, Gordon, Clinton & sta'n... .Neb 

[daville Ind 

Cirty Spring and stations Ind. Ter, 

Barron Fork, White Water, Elm Grove 

and station Ind. Ter 

Smiok Wm. A Roseburg and station Oreg 

♦Smiley, Franklin Cannonsville N. Y. 



>, 


^ 


Added to 


a 


£ 


3^ 


35 
S3 


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«a 


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fl 


«3 


1* 




a 




4> 


m 


Cfi 




u 


o 


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03 


p 


11 


10 


5 


49 


110 


S.S. 





1 


2 


70 


70 


s.s. 


10 


4 




30 


42 


S.S. 


7 


5 


15 


55 


85 


s.s. 


11 


8 


4 


31 


60 


s.s. 


K 






112 


150 


p. 


12 


15 


14 


84 


125 


S.S. 


9 


3 


5 


15 


60 


s.s. 


12 




1 


44 


95 


s.s. 


12 


1 


6 


110 


120 


s.s. 


12 


3 


2 


68 


61 


p. 


12 


1 


3 


53 


60 


s.s. 
p. 


6 
5» 






11 

22 










s.s. 


11 


3 


7 


41 


50 


p. s 


12 


12 


17 


136 


200 


p. 


6 


3 


1 


46 




s.s. 


12 






5 


50 


s.s. 


111 


2 


2 


75 




s.s. 


75 






119 


133 


s s 


12 


3 


10 


32 


120 


s.s. 


12 






25 


24 


p. 


12 


6 


S 


193 


160 


p. 


12 






60 


55 


s.s. 


4* 




4 


46 


75 


p 


9 


2-1 


23 


193 


600 


p. 


12 


8 


11 


100 


140 


p. 


10* 


16 


21 


50 


58 


s.s. 


10W 


7 




40 


60 


s.s. 


10* 






30 


90 


p. 


10* 


1 


1 


26 


40 


s.s. 


1(1 


33 


2 


60 


200 


p. 


3 


5 


3 


51 


68 


p. 


12 


3 


1 


66 


70 


S.M 


12 










s.s. 


3 

12 










s.s. 


12 






31 


60 


s.s. 


12 






34 


60 


s.s. 


3 






28 


90 


s.s. 


1 










s.s. 


11* 






144 


192 


s.s. 


4 






48 


70 


s.s. 


9 






36 


140 


s.s. 


12 


2 


5 


28 


80 


s.s. 


11 


4 


10 


50 


79 


s.s. 


9? 


4 


8 


66 


80 


p, 


12 


9 


4 


90 


200 


s.s. 


12 


1 


3 


53 


81 


p. 


12 


2 




89 


50 


p, 


12 


I 


4 


107 


77 


p. 


ia 


7 


4 


114 


150 


s.s. 


4* 


s 


O 


52 


125 


s.s. 


i 








100 


s.s. 


w% 






46 


157 


p. 


12 


6 




44 


80 


s.s. 


5* 






56 


73 


s.s. 


10 






76 


J5 


s.s. 
p. 


1 






38 
58 


:>0 


s 


1 


86 


s.s. 


12 


4 


8 


27 


56 


s.s. 


12 


2 


7 


38 


90 


s.s. 


12 


a 


1 


27 


60 


s.s. 


9 






160 


100 


s.s. 


:s 






45 


46 


s.s. 


6 






29 


24 


p. 


18 


r> 


4 


112 


22 


p. 


12 




2 


91 


90 


s.s. 


3 






93 


67 



No Report. t Deceased . 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



139 



MISSIONARIES. 



Smith, Arthur M 

Smith, Christopher 

Smith, David C 

Smith, Emerson F 

Smith, Gbo. Orantham. 
Smith, Geo. Gardner.. 

Smith, Geo. W 

Smiih, Marry 

Smith, James I., D.D. . . 
Smith, James M 



Smith, John Gilmore. . 

Smith, John M 

Smu h. J. Malcolm 

S.mii n, John M 

Smith, Lech Kicumond. 

Smith, Milton D 

•Smith, Thus, c; 

♦Smith, William 

Smith, W.m. A 

Smith, Evert 

Smoveu, Cuas. K 



Sneli.. M. Pom er 

s>n dbs, Jos. G 

♦Somerville, James F 

Spencer, Jpdson G 

♦Sproule, (Jeorge B 

Sprodll, Alex. W 

Stark, Albert C 

Stark, James W. 

Stayt, John A 

Sntl .l>, A BEAM 

STEELE, DWIGHT K 

Steele, Samuel W 

Steele, Thos. A 

♦Steen, Mobes D. A., D.D. 

Stemen, John A 

Sterling, (has. G 

8tB1 BN8, L \ whence M. . . 

Stevenson, Jos. II 

Stevenson, Robert .S 

Stewart, Charles J . 

Stewart, George D. B.. . . 

•StbWAET, John E 

Stickel, James 

Stokkle, Frederick C 

Stone, Augustus T 

Stonb, Benjamin F 

St'iups, James P 

8toops, Philip D 

Strange, Fred'k G 

Smu i t, Alfred E 

Street, David 

Stkinufield, Eugene E. . . 

Stuart, David M 

Stuart, John 

Stump, Fred, W 

Swain, John L 

♦Swan, Bkn.i. 

Swan, I'.enj. M 

Swank, R is nop C 

Swindt, Joseph 

Stlvanus, John 



Symington, Robert S . . . 
Stmonix, Khnest W... 

Symmbs, Francis M 

Tait, Wilson W 

♦Talbot, How a rd A 

♦Talbot, John W 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



W i iidi mi and stations Minn . 

Rehobolh, Laconiu and Elizabeth Ind. 

Hamburg Iowa. 

Clayton and Dover .Mich 

Xewton and stations Pa. 

Santa Fe, 1st N. Mex, 

Dubuque, 3d Iowa. 

< lalesvllle and Mansfield 111. 

Tama Iowa, 

Santa Maria and Pine Grove and 

Pleasanton Cal, 

Alexandria and stations 8. Dak- 
Grizzly Bluff, Fortuna & Port Kenyon.Cal 

Dundas and Forest Minn 

Harrison and stations Minn, 

Booth Bend, 1st, and stations Wash 

Tates Centre and Toronto Kan 

Grand Rapids. Mission Wood Mich 

Melinore and McCutchenville Ohio 

Savannah and Etosesdate Mo, 

Wakefield and station Neb, 

Tyndall and station, S. Dak., and 

Elmore and Genoa Ohio. 

Harmon and Clifton Md 

Belmont N. Y. 

Detroit, Baker street Mich, 

Papillion and La Platte Neb, 

Creighton Mo, 

N. Y. Sea and Land \". Y. 

Hastings, German Neb, 

Lincvifle and Allerton Iowa 

Blaine, 1st Wash, 

Belleville Kan 

Howard Kan, 

Esthcn ille Iowa, 

Cambridge City Ind 

Bethel and Clements Cal. 

St. Paul. East Minn. 

Omaha, Lowe A\enne Neb. 

Kigsimmce Fla. 

Mt, (Jarmel III. 

Eureka Springs Mo. 

Kulli-Okehamali Ind. Ter. 

San Francisco, Franklin Street Cal. 

Milo Iowa. 

Lobrville, Cnordan and stations. . . . Iowa. 

Mauehesler, 1st, German N. H. 

Murphysboro, Carterville and station.. .111. 
Baird, Windham, Pecan and station. Tex. 

Tustin Cal. 

Salina and QnnniBOU Utah, 

Ashland and station Greg 

Spokane, Centenary Wash. 

Moniicello, Anamosa and station .... Iowa, 

rjnlonville Mo, 

Koaaell and Lucas Iowa. 

San Gorgonia and Banning Cal, 

Artesian and Forestburg S. Dak, 

Allegany Pa. 

Metropolis Ill 

Bethany Centre \. Y 

Bennington and station Kan 

Milan Mich, 

Clackamas, 1st, Bethel, Springwster 

and stations Oreg. 

Cambria and station Cal. 

Barnard, Qraham and stations Mo, 

El Paso Kan. 

Northfleld and Delta, 1st Ohio. 

De Pere <■ Wis, 

Covert, Rose Valley and Kill Creek. Kan 



ii 

s 



s.s. 

s.s. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 

p. 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 

P.E 

p. 

P.E 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 

P.E 
P.E 

s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
p. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 

p. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s s. 

p. 

p. 
s.s. 
s.s. 



11 

l>i 

10 
IS 
12 
IS 

i; 
11 
la 

11 

4 
IS 

6 
9 
12 

11* 

12 

1? 

11 

1 

11 

IS 

12 
18 

12 

7 
IS 
IS 

6 
IS 
IS 

3 
IS 

3 
12 
IS 
11 
IS 
12 
10* 
IX 

6 

9 
7X 
12 

5 
12 

8 
18 
12 

5 
12 
IS 
IS 

6 





5 

12 
IS 

5 
IS 
IS 

7 
I 'J 



18 



74 
104 
50 
78 

95 

IjH 
10IJ 
78 
88 



118 
62 
01 

ISO 
58 
73 

178 
60 
97 
•20 
75 
55 



188 

181 
88 
188 

80 

125 
II 
121 
111 
137 
54 
88 

107 

57 
70 
80 

150 

u 

48 

is 
is 
66 
no 
54 

78 
59 

64 
86 
I8S 

100 

58 



i* 



96 
100 
100 
120 
100 
130 
880 
60 
in 

242 
65 

70 
65 
100 
175 
260 
100 
125 



165 

115 

107 

249 

76 

186 

50 

88 

148 

30 

si I 

80 

90 

98 

40 

278 

300 

30 

188 
196 



200 
140 
200 
56 
120 
95 
150 
130 
800 
6 
200 
50 
75 
30 
186 
78 
100 
5 

200 
60 

310 

ir»o 

140 
174 
111 



1 No Report. 



140 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Tanner, Austin M 

Tawnet, Daniel A 

Taylor, Augustus 

Taylor, Cuas. B 

Taylor, John O 

Taylor, Sherman D 

♦Taylor, Samuel E 

Taylor, William 

♦Teitsworth, Wm. P 

Templeton, Wm. C 

Tewell, Joseph R 

♦Thomas, David 

Thomas, Wm. D 

♦Thompson, Andrew B 

Thompson, Edwin J., D.D. .. 

Thompson, Francis E 

Thompson, James 

Thompson, James 

♦Thompson. Jambs M 

Thompson, Joun J 

Thompson, John R., D.D — 

Thompson, vSam'l T 

Thompson, Thomas 

♦Thompson, William J 

Thomson, Adam C 

Thomson, Albert E 

Thomson, Albert J 



Osceola 



Neb. 



North St. Paul Minn 

Dunkirk and station ""•<>■ 

Presbyterial Missionary un , 

Kansas City Hill Memorial & sta'n . . Mo 
New Lyme and station »-"»° 

l'1-.i.im ipw ._ *■ 



•- Added to 
° £ Churches. I 



Greenview 



.N. T 



Allegany ".* 

Gridley £* ' 

Quenemo and Maxson m- L 

Fenton and station J^^ 

Carbonado and Wilkeson w ash. 

Synodical Missionary WW. 

Eastonville and station r, 

Corvallis and Oak Ridge tJreg. 

Cawker and Glen Elder -fc.au 

Mackinaw City, 1st. . . M'CB 

Smithfleld. Central, and station.. . .Utah 

Liberty ville ■ *". 

Bernice, La Porte and stations Pa. 

Vancouver and stations >» asn . 

Lakeland and Homeland. * 'a. 

Mountain Top and Sugar Notch . . Pa. 

Silver City N M J* 

Frostburg ■ • • 3° 

Tahlequah and stations m.i.ier 

Kuttawa, Marion, Dycusburg and 
Grand River 



Thomson, Williell 

Tietema, Kasper 

Tinker, Joseph E 

♦Tobey, William O 

Todd, Andrew C 

Todd, Calvin C 

Todd, Dayid R 

Todd, Francis M 

Todd, James. 

♦Todd, James D 

Todd, Milton E 

Toms, Richard N 

Torres, Juan L 

Torres, Julian B 

Torres, Octaviano 

Townsend, John A 

♦Travis, M. Moore 

Travis, Wm.... 

Tpbbs, Jerome F 

Tucker, Hartwell A 

♦TUNKANSAICIYE, SOLOMON 

Turner, Wm. J 

Tweed, Robert 

Twichell, Erastur W 

Updike, Hartley T 

Vanoe, James E 

Vance, Sam'i.E ■■ 

Van den Hook, John H . 
Van DM Las, Richard A 
Van dbr Mknlen, Jacob. . 
Van Nuys, Bhooun B 



Van Oostknbrugge, C 

Van Wie, Chas. H 

Vaughn, Alex. S 



Veale, Wm. T.. 

Veensohotkn, Wm 

Venable, Jos. G 

Viele, Jas. P •■ 

Vincent, Christopher b. 

Vincent, Wm. L 

Vincent, Wm. R 



8.8. 
8.S. 

I'.K 

P." 

S.S. 
8.8. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

>.B. 

P. 
S.S. 

s'.s. 
p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

P. 
p. 
p. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 



El Monte 



Cal 



= 39 



Greenleafton,Ebenezer and stations. Minn. 

Rock Stream • ■ «; *■ 

Flandreau, 2d, and Hope S.O aK. 

Payson and station ™- 

Hurley Wis. 

Soldier, Larkin, Avoea and stations. Kan 

Manassas and station v . a 

Phillips, 1st WW 

Oronoco and Chester Minn 

Dubuque, 3d -l<"™- 

Tenino and So. Union - » 

Mexican Helper N . mm. 

Mexican Helper N. Mex. 

Santa Fe, Spanish • • ■ • «■ » lex - 

Octorara, Marion & Pleasant Grove Oreg. 

Republican City ■ *<*■ 

Knappa and stations u I. e f' 

Bayfield i'XiiZ' 

Presbyterial Missionary "Jd . 1 W. 

Buffalo Lakes. ■■•■•••■ 8l 5L a £ 

Horicon, Mayville and station .Wis. 

Greenleaf and Spring Grove Minn. 

A uburn, Westminster al j ■ 

Blair W tv?l- 

Biughamtou, 1st N- ^ 

Eau Claire, 2d W1 u 

Chicago, Holland. j 

Pairlmry •,$'• 

Baldwin • — « IS - 

Livingston, East Bemstadt and Dix 

[>i ver K-y 

I, v.. ns, Bancroft and station .Neb 

Melrose and Pittstown... ... . ..-«. X 

Ilarriman and station, and Grassy Cove 

and Piney Falls Tenn. 

Morgan and station ■ • • • • "V™- 

Ilornellsvillo, Hartshorn & station.. N. X. 
Parker, Osawatomie and stations .-Kan. 

Oxford and Mt. Vernon Kan. 

Auburn ,^™ 

Farley and Prairie 10 , wa - 

Axtell and Batleyville &an. 



P. 

S.S. 
P. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

r. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 



S.S 

S.S. 

p. 
p. 

S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

p. 
p. 

p. 

S.S. 

p. 
p. 



70 
54 

50 

6 4 

4; i 
185 
180 

35 

17 
91 

111 
3S 

IS 

18 
48 
90 

as 

100 

14 

si; 
50 

180 

88 
58 

in 
is 
85 
48 
30 
tit; 

47 

56 

■.)»; 
10 



S6 
70 
120 

150 
80 
125 
135 
20 
180 
144 
180 



150 
125 

99 

52 

97 
100 
102 

30 
200 

113 
150 

230 
60 

50 
35 
90 
73 

so 

50 
105 
135 

87 

250 

18 



S.S. 

S.S. 5 

S.S.! 12 
S.S. 11 % 

8S. 18 

P.E 12 

S.S.; 12 

S.S.I 12 



21 




11 


5 




3 


37 


24 


4 


Q 


6 


4 


5 


7 


5 


4 


16 


14 


2 


"i"! 



150 
85 
140 



18 

115 

10S 

125 

95 

59 

96 

189 

90 
80 

120 
100 
75 

140 
50 

104 
90 

100 

136 
45 

I 60 



• No Report. 



1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



141 



MISSIONARIES. 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Virtue, Andrew Hugltes River, Elizabeth and station. . . Pa. 

Vis, Bekrt Palmer, 1st Holland S. Dak. 



Voqklin, Fred'k E. 

VoKOI.EK, Wn 

Volz, Daniel 

♦Vosbcrg, Arthur R.. 
Voss. WlLI.IAM E 

VUILLENMEIER, (HAS. . 

Wadk, Fkanoib R 

Wain weight, l.oi i - C. 

♦Wait, Ransom 

Waldeokkb, Chas. F.. 

Wai.kkk, Alex 

Walker, Chas. A 

Walker. George F. . 

Walker, Wm 

Wallace, Chas . W . . . 



Wallace, David 

Wallace, John ... 

Wallace, R. Howard 

Wallace, Robt. M., D.D. 

W alles, Samuel S 

Waller, Elmer B 

Waller, Thomas M 

Walton, James M 

Ward, Josiah J 

Ward, Samuel 

Ward, Wm. A 

Wabdle, Wm. T 

Ware, Wm. H 

Warne, Wm. W 

Warner. JobX 

Warren, Edward 

Warren, Joun M. C 

Warrender, Sam'l R 

Waterman, Isaac N 

Watkinr, Henry W. H 

Watkins, James F 

Watt, Robert 

Weatherhtonk, Wm 

Weaver, Thomas N 

♦Weaver, Willis 

♦Weaver, Wm. K 

Webb, William H., D.D.. 
Webster, Franklin G. . . . 

WeiLaNIi. Klabs li 

♦Wkller, Sam'l II 

Wells, Elijah B 

♦Wells, Joseph Q 

Wells, Lester D . . . . 

Wells, W eli.inoton W... 

Wknn, Wm. J. A 

We-- i, Frank W 

♦Weston, Albert E 

Weston, JonN 

Will ill i:, Bobt, L 

Whbklis, Isam 

Whimsteh, David B 

Wbisnanh, Wm. C. 

White, Geouok A 

White, Matthew T A. . . 

tWniTEHBAD, Asa F 

Whitfield, Wm 

Whitlook, John M 

Whiti.a, J esse I 

* Whittemork, Isaac T. . . . 

Wioki -it, Rich vhd K 

♦Wiiman, Wm. 11 

Wioonts, John M 



New York City, Ziou ( iermnn N . Y 

labor, 1st, and station Minn. 

Chicago, 1st Herman III. 

Constantia and West Monroe N. Y. 

El Dorado springs and Behell «'iiy .Mo, 

Ciarkstoini, German N. Y. 

Fair Haven, Lat, and stations N. Y. 

n. m Castle, 1st, and station 8. Dak 

Elm River and station N. Dak. 

Bethany and stationa Oreg. 

Synodii.-al Missionary Mo. 

Eden, Buckingham and station Md. 

De Kail, and Be Kalb Junction N. Y. 

Falmouth and New Concord Ky. 

Darby, Dublin. New Holland and other 
vacant Churches in Columbus 
Presbytery Ohio. 

Fountain and Barnard Kan. 

Elko, Carlin. Wells and stations New 

Mlneville and station N. Y. 

Little Valley and station Pa. 

Russell and Fairport Kan. 

Elizabeth Tenn. 

Rice Lake and Chetek Wis. 

Greenburg, Ebenezer and stations. . . . Ky. 

Kaaaon, 1st Minn. 

Welcome. Morris and stations Kan, 

Van Buren, 1st Ohio. 

Mllford Centre Ohio. 

Brainerd, 1st Minn. 

i liilc.it Mission Alaska. 

St. Edwards, 1st. and stations Neb. 

Kalamazoo, North Mich. 

Roslyn Wash. 

Otego, Laurens and stations N. Y. 

Ukiah and Covelo Cal. 

Plessis N. Y. 

Jefferson City Mo. 

Wausaukee and Pike Wis. 

Sterling, 1st Kan. 

Le Roy, 1st Minn. 

Coon Rapids and Dedham Iowa. 

Owatonna Minn. 

Crescent City Fla. 

American Fork and stations Utah. 

Hospers, 1st, Sheldon and stations. Iowa 

Redondo Beach Cal. 

Netawaka and stations Kan. 

Taylor Wis. 

Waterloo and Holdrege Neb. 

Templeton, Pleasant Valley tfc sta'ns i al 

Erie and Walnut Kan. 

\\ bltelaw, Oneida Lake and station. .N. Y. 

Atoka and Lehigh Ind. Ter. 

I'resbyterial Missionary Ill 

Omaha. 1st. and stations Neb. 

Bookfbrd Wash. 

WalBenbnrg Col. 

Broadlavn and Pickert N. Dak. 

Volga 8. Dak. 

Prospect Hill Cal. 

West Bay City, Covenant A- Mission. Mich. 

Marietta, 2d. and Lamotta Mich. 

I ios, lime. mis and Enilmdo N. Mex. 

De Soto K hi 

Florence Ariz 

Carterville, V T ergennes aud station. . . . III. 

Corning and Vermillion Kan. 

Humesion and Derby Iowa. 



Sec 
fa 

03 

S.S. 

s.s. 

p. 

s.S. 

p. 

s.s. 
P.K 

P. 
P. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
s.s. 

sis. 

s.s. 
s.s. 



I'M 

s.s. 
8.S. 
s.s. 
S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

P. 

S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 
p. 



s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s. 

p. 

P.E 

s.s. 
s.s. 

s.s 
s.s. 

P.E 

S.S. 
s.s. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
P.S 

s.s. 



p. 

s.s. 

s.s. 

P. 

s.s. 

I'M 

s.s 

s.s 
P.E 
S.S. 

s.s. 
s.s. 

B.S 

p. 

s.s. 
s.s 
S.S. 
s.s. 
S.S. 
B.S. 



12 
12 
12 
10 
7* 
12 

10X 
10 

10* 

ia 

12 

12 

5 
6J 



.. 


Added to | 


iij 


Churchea. 




1 3 


a 


S: 


t 


1 






a 


O 


12 


9 


4 


19 


7 




12 


18 


1 


3 


7 




5 


5 




I0M 




14 


IS 


18 




IS 


1 




5 




1 


.!, 






12 


4 




U 






6« 


2 


2 


18 


2 




i 




1 


12 


fifl 




19 






11'. 


li 


2 


19 


:in 


6 


19 


5 


2 


12 




3 


If 






12 


7 


3 


19 


15 


9 


19 


11 


4 


19 


4 




19 


11 


4 


19 


1 


7 


19 


; 


6 


as 






12 


1« 


2 


19 


18 


12 


S 




8 


19 


7 


1 


7 


5 


1 


1? 






12 


IS 


K 


si 






8 


9 


2 


li Ift 


•jr. 


7 


9 






19 






l| 


2 


o 


19 


8 


6 


LOft 


11 


11 


TV 






»* 






« 






HX 


a 


9 


5 


" 


1 


12 


2 


5 


19 


2 


2 



185 
50 
150 



128 
55 
160 

45 

48 

20 
125 
40 



400 
80 
195 
170 
75 
50 
100 
100 
125 
88 
40 
50 
80 
60 

108 
200 
80 
50 
230 
40 
196 
143 

125 
79 
50 
170 
120 

110 

150 
110 
40 
130 
100 

250 
50 

120 
45 
50 

n 

-.■li 

200 
145 
60 
50 
154 
260 
100 



* No Report. t Deceased. 



142 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



MISSIONARIES. 



Wight, Ambrose S 

Wight. Joseph K 

Wilber, Henry P 

Willard, Eugene S . . . 

Willert, John C 

* Williams, Daniel — 
•Williams, David F. . 

Williams, Geo 

Williams, Geo. P 
Williams, Mason F. . 

Williams, Morgan 

Williams, Moses A. . . . 
Williams, Richard L. 
♦Williams, Robert H . 
Williams, William B. 

Willis, -John 

Willson, Davis 

Wilson, Charles F — 



Wilson, Harvey 



Wilson, James 

Wilson, James L 

Wilson, James M 

Wilson, James S 

Wilson, John 

Wilson, Samuel T 

Wilson, William M 

♦Wilson, William S 

Winder, Jos. W 

Winnie, Christian W 

Winter, Henry A 

Wirth, Albert E 

Wishard, Samuel E., D.D. 

Withington, Irving P 

Witte, Frederick; W 

Witte. Philip 



Wittenberg er, Joseph . . . . . 
Wittenberger, Matthias. . 



Woloott, John M 

Wolf, Joshua J 

Wolferz, Louts 

Wood, Francis M 

Woodhull, Geo. S., D.D. . 

Woods, Benjamin J 

Woods, James L 

Woods, Samuel 

Woodward, Jethko B 

Work, Abel M . 

Wormser, A 

Wortmann, Henry 

Wotring, Frederick R . . . . 

Wright, Alfred W 

Wright, Williamson S. . . . 

Wylie, A. McElroy 

Wylie, Thomas 

Wylie, William 

Young, Fennimore F 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



fc-s 



Young, S. Hall — 
Young, Wallace H. 
Young, Wm. J. . . . 
Youngs, John W — 



Elm Grove 111. 

Green Cove Springs and station Fla. 

Rapid City, 1st 8. Dak. 

Juneau, Kliugket Alaska. 

Tacoma, Calvary Wash. 

Bancroft, Burt and Pleasant Valley . . Iowa. 

Dudley and Collins S.Dak. 

Mitchell S.Dak. 

Chicago, Emerald Avenue 111. 

Muscogee and stations Ind. Ter. 

Mulvane Kan. 

Central Point and other stations Oreg. 

Au Sable and Oscoda Mich. 

Annapolis Md. 

Chehalis, 1st, and station Wash. 

West Milton and Wilson Park N. F. 

Hamilton, Spring Hill and station. . .Mont. 
Marshall, Anderson, Walnut Prairie, 

Marvin, York and station 111. 

Middlepoint, Convoy, Harrison and 

Venedocia Ohio. 

Visalia, Orosi, St. James and stations. .Cal. 
Crystal River, Homosassa & station. . .Fla. 
Omaha, Castellar Street, and station . . Neb. 

Oxford and stations Wis. 

Lathrop and Mirabile Mo 

Winter Haven, Auburndale & station. .Fla 

Chandler, Hayes and stations Mich 

Lone Elm Kan. 

La Crosse, North, and stations Wis. 

Tyrone and Pine Grove N. Y. 

Madison, St. Paul Ger., & Middlesex.. . Wis. 

Nyack, Ger N. Y. 

Synodical Missionary Utah. 

Minneapolis, House of Faith Minn. 

Plattsmouth, Ger Neb. 

Turner Co., 4th Ger., and Bon Homme 

Co., 1st Ger S. Dak. 

Meridian and Thayer Neb. 

Campbell and Glenville, Ger., and Mt. 

Pleasant Neb. 

Redfteld N. Y. 

Essex and stations N. Y. 

Friedenskirche of Brooklyn N. Y. 

Synodical Missionary N. Dak. 

Marlette, 1st, and Flynn Mich. 

Lenox, Apeli and stations Ind. Ter. 

Sanger Cal. 

Lewiston and station Idaho. 

Covington Pa. 

Brookings S. Dak. 

Fort Benton Mont. 

Lyon Co., 1st Iowa. 

Rawlins, Franco Memorial Wyo. 

Scamruonville and stations Kan. 

Purcell, Cibolo and stations Tex. 

South Lake Weir & sta'n & Chandler. . .Fla. 

Minot and station N. Dak. 

Chicago, 60th Street 111. 

Rosedale, Gig Harbor, Artondale and 

stations ..Wash. 

Cabery HI. 

Ardmore, Westminster &Riverside,Ok. Ter, 

Des Moines, 6th Iowa. 

Coleman and station Mich, 



P. 

S.S. 
P. 

S.S, 

P. 

S.S, 
S.S 
S.S 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 



p. 

S.S, 



IS 

6* 

12 

10% 

2 

is 

12 
12 

12 



s.s. 

S.S. 
S.S. 



p. 
p. 

P.E 
P. 

s.s. 
P. 



p. 
P. 

S.S, 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 



S.S. 

S.S. 
S.S. 
S.S. 



S.S. 
S.S. 
P.E 
S.S. 
S.S. 

P. 
p. 
p. 
p. 

SM 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 

p. 

S.S. 
S.S. 

S.S. 



4 
IS 
9 

12 

6 

is 

12 
12 
6 

4 

12 
12 
12 
12 

19 

8 

12 

11 
12 

2% 

8 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
IS 
12 
12 
12 
12 

6 
12 

3 



15 
19 
(13 
41) 
43 
65 
36 
40 
130 
85 
68 

61 
110 
80 
75 

52 

133 

ISO 

34 
30 
200 
102 
90 
45 
96 
80 
100 

ro 

60 

50 

43 
33 

53 
50 

50 

45 
88 
200 

74 
47 
29 
88 
20 
109 

42 
60 
76 

50 

81 

22 

170 

30 
86 

2(1 

178 
80 



25 
40 
90 
29 
100 
180 
138 

;o 

330 
90 

90 

175 
150 
120 
30 
35 

160 

50 

45 

70 

601 

150 

180 

45 

163 

35 

100 

60 

50 

72 

70 
75 

(10 
70 

40 
70 
180 
450 



90 

50 
86 
15 
160 

140 
95 

127 
160 
85 
70 
200 

90 
100 

45 
160 

75 



No Report. 



1892.] 



BOAKD OF HOME MISSIONS. 



143 



MISSIONARY TEACHERS. 



TEACHERS. 


FIELDS OF LABOR. 


13 

s 


e 

>. a 


a l. 
H 


il 

f-to 


Prof. Alfred Docking 


Sitka (& Spencor Acad., 1. T.), Alaska. 
Sitka " 


12 
5 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
10 
10 

9 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

2 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

4 

3 
12 
6 
6 
3 
12 
12 
12 
5 
7 
12 

5 
12 

12 
12 

5 

12 
12 
6 
6 
7 
4 
7 
7 
12 


92 

20 
30 

106 

100 
27 
117 


170 

29 
22 

5 
58 

65 


170 


Prof. W. A. Kelly 

Mrs. A. E. Austin 




Mrs. Tillie K. Paul 


H U 




Mrs. JOSIE OVEREND 


11 II 




Mrs. Mary C. De Vore 


II II 




Mrs. Margaret A. Saxman 


II 11 




Miss Anna K. Kelsey 


11 11 




Miss K'atr A, Rankin, 


II i. 




Miss Mattie Brady 


II II 






1. II 




Miss Fannie U. Willard 


11 II 




Clarence Thwing, M.D 


11 . 11 




Mrs. C. Thwing 


II II 




A. T. SlMSON 


11 •! 




Mrs. A. T. Si msi in 


11 11 






11 11 






II •! 




John E. Gamble 


11 11 




Willie Wells 


11 II 




R. A. Clark 


II 11 




Mrs. A. R. McFarland 




29 








Miss Christeana Baker 


11 II li 






Juneau " 


22 


Miss Bessie L. Mathews 




Miss Jennie M. Dunbar 


n .i 




Mrs. J. W. McFarland 


Fort Wrangell 


92 


Mrs. Allan Mackay 


5 


J. W. Paul, M.D 




Fred. L. Moore 


Angoon " 

Point Barrow " 


80 




30 


Rev. Robert Coltman, M.D 








Miss Etta M. Clinton 




Miss Matilda L. Allison 




53 


Miss E. C. Reed 






Miss Maggie Fleming 


ii ii ii 




Miss Alice J. Thomas 


„ lt ,, 




Miss A J. Manning. 




Mrs. Elizabeth A. Swann 


•< ::::.::::::: - 




Miss Nettie O. Sloan 




Mi88 M ATHENA BeEKMAN 


Las Vegas (& Santa Fe Acad.) " 


171 


M iss Annie D. McNair 




Miss Anna W. Fitch 




Mrs. Alice M. Brandt 




Miss Kate Kennedy 


ii ,i 




Mrs. Mary R. Riggle 

Mrs. E. M. Fenton 


" (& Mora) 


100 


C. M. Voorhies 






Mrs. CM. Voorhies 




Mrs. Eliza V. Craig 




OT 


Miss Jennie V. Porter 






Miss Lizzie E. J. Scott 

Miss Kate Scott 

Miss Delia M. Hills 




117 



144 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



TEACHERS. 



Mrs. J. P. Bills 

Miss Carrie B. Pond 

Miss Mary E. De Sette . . . 

Miss Ploretta Shields 

Miss Caroline McMillan 

Miss Ella M. Bloom 

Robert W. Hall 

Mrs. B. W. Hall 

Miss Rebecca Rowland. . . 

Miss Alice Hyson 

Miss Cordelia Hyson 

J. J. Vigil 

Miss Eliz. W. Craig 

Miss Jennie Okdway 

Miss Kate M. Sleight 

Miss Imogene Stimers 

Miss Sue M. Zuver 

Jacob Mondragon 

John Worder 

Mrs. L. Y. Hughes 

Mrs. Lizzie Thompson 

Mrs. Ada C. Cutter 

Mrs. O. R. Winters 

Mrs. Annie M. Granger — 

Miss Mary L. Stright 

Miss Etta Allen 

Miss Antoinette Brengle. 

J. G. Quentana 

Miss Alice A. Blake 

Mrs. G. P. Blake. 

M 

M 

31 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 



iss Alice T. Marshall 

iss Maggie O. Wyllie 

iss Joanna Fhitzlen , 

iss Mollie Clements 

iss Ada M. Wilson 

iss Anna M. Ross 

iss Ada M. Longstreet 

iss M.S. Brengle 

iss Marcelina M. Sanchez . 

iss Ida L. Boone 

iss Mary Bransby 

iss Irene Griffith 

iss Eva C. Fredericks 

iss Nellie Owens 

iss Maggie J. Cort 

iss Lottie E. Leonard 

iss Mary Crowell 

iss Mattie White 

iss Florence E. Baker 

Robert J. Caskey 

Wm. G. Caskey 

Prof. J . F. Millspaugh 

Miss Gertrude O. Whiteman , 

Miss Anna F. Hulburd 

Miss Vernie E. Bartlett 

Miss Mary E. Moore 

Miss Mary E. Noble 

Chas. S. Richardson 

Miss Belle Simmons 

Miss Elizabeth Pease 

Miss Helen Wishard 

Prof. I. N. Smith 

Miss Jennie Buchanan 

Miss Ella W. Miller 

Mrs. Alice L. Burnet 

Miss Anna McDonald 

Miss Anna F. Handley 

Rev. J. A. L. Smith 

Miss Eugenia Munuer , 

Miss Helen L. Cougle ." 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Raton New Mexico. 

Zuni " 



Laguna. 



Mora (& Buena Vista). 
Canon Bonito 



Taos (& Albuquerque). 
" (El Ranche) 



" (El Prado).... 

" (Fernandes) . . 

El Rito 

Corrales 

Penasco 

Arroyo Seco 

Buena Vista 

Glorietta 

Pena Blanca 

Aqua de Lobo 

Pajarito 

Las Cruces 

Jemez Hot Springs. 

Chaperito 

La Costilla 

Embudo 

Tecolote 



San Luis (& Los Alamos, N.M.)...Col 
El Moro (& Las Vegas, N.M.).... ' 

Cinecerro (& Albuquerque,N.M.). 

San Rafael 

San Pedro 

Antonito 



Aqua Calientes 

Los Angeles California 



Malad Idaho 



Montpelier. 



Paris 

Samaria 

Salt Lake City Institute Utah, 



Camp Mission. 



Mt. Pleasant 



Springville 













u; 














J >3 


<3i 


*Ji 


£ 


in 


PQU5 


12 






12 


16 


3 


12 






12 


55 




4 






12 


81 




12 


65 




12 






12 


32 




12 


117 




8 






6 






12 


72 




5 






5 


25 




7 


58 




12 


57 
13 




is 


57 




'.) 






7 


26 




12 


25 




12 


29 




12 


76 




12 


36 




12 


54 




12 


50 


3 


1 


25 




12 


44 




4 






12 


27 




12 


50 




4 






12 


15 




12 


4ft 




12 


24 




5 






5 






5 


18 




12 


25 




7 
7 


54 




7 






5 






4 






12 


126 




12 






12 


24 


6 


8 


20 




7 


128 


ii 


<f 






3 






12 






12 






12 






12 






12 






5 






2 






6 






3 






7 


151 


16 


7 






12 






12 






5 






4 






12 


110 


4 


12 






12 







1892.] 



BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS 



145 



TEACHERS. 



Miss Kate S. Smith 

Miss Annie M. Spearman 

Miss Laura B. Work 

Mrs. Flora C. Dunlap 

Mrs. C. M. Parks 

Mrs. M. P. Shirley 

Miss Sarah E. De Graff 

Miss Elinor K. Peterson 

Miss Ella R. Hersman 

Miss C. B. Sullivan 

Mrs. Charlotte E. Sullivan 

Miss Sadie L. Meilinq 

Miss Augusta G. Armstrong 

Mrs. M. M. Green 

Miss Alice Green 

Miss S. C. Rea 

Miss Anna Noble 

Miss Sarah J. Reever 

Miss Ella V. Dobbs 

Miss Philena J. Hart 

Miss Harriet M. Osborn 

Miss Julia R. Mitchell 

Miss Frances O. Quillen 

Miss Mary B. Barrett 

Miss Clara A. Baker 

Miss Mae H. Abbott 

Miss Fidelia T. Gee 

Miss Frances E. Shimp 

Miss Clara Pierce 

Miss Grace Jones 

Miss Fannie A. Perley 

Miss Margaret H. McCullough 

Miss Lucy B. Perley 

Miss Ruth A. Haldrum 

Miss Hattie Rockwell 

Miss Julia A. Olmsted 

Miss Priscill V. Sheadle 

Miss Serena Neilsen 

Miss Florence Taylor 

Miss Fannie Taylor 

Miss Lauretta S. McMonigal. . . 

Miss Vernie E. Jones 

Miss Josie Curtis 

Miss Katharine P. Williamson. 

Mrs. Jennie C. Schaepfer 

Miss Anna L. Clark 

Miss Fannie Galbraith 

Miss Fannie C. Coyner 

Miss Mary E. Knox 

Miss Emma M. Knox 

Miss Catharine R. Watt 

Miss Nellie G. Blackburn 

Mrs. Marion D. Hone 

Miss Mary Neilson 

Miss Mary E. McCartney 

Miss Alice M. Peck 

Miss Emily McCarty 

Mrs. W. R. Campbell 

Miss Lillie S. Throop 

W. B. Robe 

Mrs. W. B. Robe 

Miss Cynthia D. Rockwell 

Miss Anna E. Coe 

Miss Lizzie Smith 

Miss June Morrow 

Miss M. F. Robe 

Miss Ada Patterson 

Miss Emma M. Foreman 

Miss Nellie Thomson 

Miss Mary F. Strange way 



F1KLD8 OF LABOR. 



Springville Utah 

' r (& Las Vegas, N.M.). " 



Logan. 



Payson . 



Gunnison 



Hyrum 

(& St. George). 



Kaysville. 



Manti. . 
Monroe . 



(& Nephi). . 



Nephi. 
American Fork. 
Spanish Fork.. 



Richfield. 



Salina . 



Pleasant Grove 

" (& American Fork.) 
Parowan 



Box Elder. 



Ephraim.. . 
Smithfleld. 



St. George . 



Benjamin " 

Fairview " 

Richmond " 

Spring City " 

Scipio " 

Mendon '« 

Wellsville " 

Sisseton Agency S. Dakota. 



II 



122 



148 



51) 



HI 



in; 
68 



109 



85 



132 

148 

52 

94 
65 

116 
68 
56 

101 



46 

60 
58 

85 

30 
70 
26 

54 

44 
27 
40 

23 



9.-! 



146 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



[1892. 



TEACHERS. 



Mrs. Sarah E. Eldridge 

Henry T. Smith 

Mrs. H. T. Smith 

Geo. S. Buck 

John Stavely 

Leon E. Townsend 

Rev. Howard Billman 

Mrs. H. Billman 

Miss Laura W. Pierson 

Miss Adaline S. Grant 

Miss Clara L. Schreiner 

Miss Ida Clay 

Miss Lillian North 

Miss E. Burgoyne 

S. P. Pearson 

Mrs. S. P. Pearson 

Mrs. S. A. Buell 

William J. Thompson 

Miss Elizabeth J. Rowland 

Miss Clara Clay 

Miss Essie Gibson 

Miss Jessie M. Brownell 

Wm. A. Caldwell 

Mrs. W. A. Caldwell 

C. H. Ellis, M.D 

Mrs. C. H. Ellis 

Miss Fannie M. Docking 

Miss Dona Griffin 

Miss Kate Docking 

Willis Marshall 

W. C. Griffin 

W. H. Anderson, M.D 

Miss Alice M. Robertson , 

Mrs. A. E. W. Robertson 

Miss Kate Cox 

Miss Ninetta W. Dexter 

Miss Alice F. Dexter 

Miss Mary L. Barnes 

Mrs. Augustus R. Moore 

Mrs. Nannie J. Coombs , 

Miss M. F. Paden 

Miss Kate G. Patterson , 

Miss Hadessa J. McCay 

J. M. Marshall 

Mrs. J. M. Marshall , 

Miss Kate McPheeters 

J. H. Sleeper 

Rev. T. D. Duncan , 

Mrs. T. D. Duncan 

Jas. W. Cooper , 

Miss Sue M. Ross 

Miss Eliz. W. Perry 

Miss Susan Davis 

Mrs. E. F. Wells 

R. C. Robe 

Mrs. R. C. Robe 

Miss Lida A. Robe 

Miss Abbie E. Goodale 

W. F. Ford 

Mrs. W. F. Ford 

Miss Blanche \V. Laughlin 

Miss Hester Martin 

Miss Jennie E. Templeton 

Miss Lillian A. Hurd 

Miss Ida V. Lyon 

*Rev. J. R. Ramsay 

♦Mrs. Mary L. Ramsay 

*Miss Eliz. D. Davis 

♦Miss Mary A. Diament 

'Taught April-June, 1891— Enrollment, 68, 



FIELDS OF LABOR. 



Sissetou Agency S. Dakota. 

Tucson Arizona. 

" (&SantaFeVN.M.j.'. 

Spencer Ind. Territory. 

Muscogee " " 

" (& Nuyaka). . . " " 

" (& Omaha 

Agency,Neb.) " 
Nuyaka " " 

" (& Monroe) ..." " 

Mekesukey " " 

" (&Wewoka.) " " 

(i ti <t 

Wheelock " " 

II tl St 

Wewoka " " 



165 



165 



102 



85 



106 



106 



131 



89 



1892.] 



BOARD OF DOME MISSIONS, 



147 



TKACHKRS. 


FIELDS OF LAHOR. 






SOX 




Miss Cynthia Houston 


Wewoka Ind. Territory. 

" (& Nuyaka)... " " 

" (& Muscogee.) " " 
Lehigh " " 


7 
12 
12 
7 
7 
12 
12 
5 
8 
12 
12 
12 
7 
5 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
5 
6 
12 
12 
7 
3 
12 
12 
8 
3 
12 
12 

3 

12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
7 
5 
12 
12 
12 

2 
12 
12 

6 

4 
12 

5 

'J 

12 


81 

33 
174 



84 
85 

157 

53 
121 

80 
32 
130 
51 
30 

21 
4 

92 
81 

60 


41 
27 

9 

26 

50 

120 

15 
12 


79 












33 




" (& Musoogee). . " " 
Tulsa " " 




Miss Elizabeth A. Stringfield 


174 




u t* it 








Miss M. C. Atwater 


27 




• i H li 






Muldrow " " 


84 


Miss Lizzie Charles 


" (& Nuyaka)... " 


85 


E. H. Doyle 


McAlester " " 


157 




Elm Spring " " 






5:: 










Caddo " 

II II II 


130 




II II '< 






Park Hill " 


80 








Red Fork " " 


3'.» 












156 


Miss Gertrude Aughey 

Mrs. E. M. Frazee 

W. K. Morris 


Paul's Valley " " 

Anadarko " " 

Omaha Agency (& Sisseton,S.D.) Neb. 


51 

HO 


Mrs. Martha R. Morris 

Miss Marietta Wood 

W. S. Stoops 




Miss Susan A. Dougherty 


Pelican Lake (& Round Lake, 

Pelican Lake (& Round Lake, 

Wis.) Minnesota. 

Tama City Iowa. 

Asheville Home Industrial N. C. 

& Dayi " 

Asheville Collegiate & Normal 

Instituta " 

White Hall " 


21 


Rev. L. M. Pease 


180 


Miss Mary Johns 












Miss Livia G. Cameron 

Miss Maria S. Brainerd 






92 


Miss Emma Van Voorhis 




Rev. Thouas Lawrenoe, D.D 

Miss Winnie F. Pratt 


96 


Miss Flora Campbell 


u it H 








Mrs. Luke Dorland 


II ll II 

" (& Santa F6, N.M.). " 

" " (& St. George, Utah. » '• 

Locust Level " 




Miss Ida M. Dean 

Mrs. A. E. Blackburn 




Miss Frances E. Ufford 


72 



148 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



[1892.] 



TEACHERS. 


FIELDS OF LABOR. 


•S.8 
§,3 


S>>5 


II 


.9~ 


Miss Clara P. Glover 




12 

7 

12 

8 

10 

12 

12 

5 

5 

5 

12 

12 

5 

12 

12 

2 
12 
12 
7 
2 
6 
3 
3 


206 

113 
80 

157 

216 

115 

18' 
64 
77 
66 
57 


48 

38 
32 
27 
14 
2 




Miss Eva E. Hotchkiss 


Altan " 


206 




" (& Mt. Pleasant) " 






113 

80 


Rev. E. B. Waller 


Elizabethton Tennessee. 




Geo. H. Lowry 


Huntsville " 

" (& Jearoldtown,) " 


157 






264 












153 






32 


Miss Jean Rankin 

Miss Hattie Armitage 


Washington College " 

Wartburg " 

Harlan Court House Kentucky. 

Pikeville " 


45 
78 
79 
66 
57 


Miss Marion D. Marx 





APPENDIX. 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON HOME 

MISSIONS. 



Your Committee have examined carefully the twenty-second annual report of 
the Board of Home Missions, as presented to you, and the no less admirable annual 
report submitted by the Woman's Executive Committee, giving a summary of the 
work of that Committee during the past year, and they cordially commend both of 
these documents to the attentive study of the members of this assembly, and to all 
the ministers and elders of our beloved Church. They have also scrutinized the 
records of the Board for the year just closed, and have noted with appreciation, in 
which the whole Church would join, the evident fidelity of the Board to its great 
trust, and the immense amount of exacting, perplexing and successful business 
which its members have voluntarily dispatched. They have consulted with repre- 
sentatives of the Board, with the fourteen synodical missionaries who are present 
at this Assembly, and with anj r other missionary workers that consented to appear 
before us After investigating all sources of information available during the brief 
period allotted to our work, your Committee feel deeply that in the home missionary 
work of the year we should all find occasion for devout thankfulness to the God of 
all grace, for humiliation and prayer in view of our failure to seize upon our mar- 
velous opportunities, and for larger hope, resolution and devotion as to the future. 
We record with a sense of personal loss, but with great gratitude for their finished 
services on earth, the translation of Jacob D. Vermilye, long a valued and influen- 
tial member of the Board, and of nine faithful and honored missionaries. We do 
not forget Dr. Henry Kendall in the rest and retirement of age after many years 
of valiant service as senior Secretary. We record with keen regret and with shame 
the inability of the Board to keep pace with the evangelical opportunities of our 
great and growing country, and even the suffering and hardships of our mission- 
aries, on account of the totally inadequate means of support supplied by the 
churches. Yet we by no means ignore the bright side of the picture. The Board 
has nobly discharged its high duties in the face of great difficulties. As its mem- 
bership is now to be enlarged, its burdens can be distributed. Rev. William C. 
lloberts, D.D , LL.D , for many years a devoted member of the Board, and for five 
years one of its most wise, courteous and efficient Secretaries, after several years of 
successful service as President of Lake Forest University, has returned to his 
former post, having been " unanimously elected by ballot senior Secretary, next to 
Dr. Kendall." Its overtaxed executive officers will be thus relieved and reinforced. 
The missionaries of the Board have been active, persevering, patient and uncom- 
plaining under the unjust sacrifices imposed by the niggardliness of the Church. 
As the permanent funds of the Board, available as collateral securities in borrowing 
money during the season when receipts are small, have become considerably larger, 
and as it is to be hoped that the churches will wake up to their obligations before 
their Saviour and their country, it may be expected that salaries will hereafter be 
promptly paid, and that missionaries may no longer suffer on account of tardy 
remittances. The trust funds have been increased during the year in all by 
$82,596, of which $60,465 have come directly to the Board itself, and $22,131 have 
been given through the Woman's Executive Committee. The grievous debt of 
$98,346, reported last year, has been reduced by $31,253. The debt at this time 
remains at $67,093. 



150 APPENDIX. 

This Assembly ought to be pre-eminently the home missionary assembly. It 
will be dated from the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the "Western 
World. It should symbolize the fact that we serve an infinitely loftier king than 
Ferdinand, and serve Him without selfishness or superstition. Kepresenting a lead- 
ing Christian church of the chief nation in this still new continent, whose eastern 
rim was at the very first moment of occupation consecrated nominally to the cross, 
its crowning ambition should be to bring our already dominant republic under the 
actual sovereignty of the crucified, from shore to shore. Its commissioners have 
reached its sessions by traversing an empire mightier than the Macedonian ever 
imagined, and organized more closely and beneficently than any Caesar could have 
dreamed. You have caught glimpses of virgin capabilities in this prodigal land 
that eclipse the fabled wealth of Ormus or of Ind At every step of your progress, 
and in every hour of your sojourn, you have enjoyed comforts and luxuries of which 
your fathers had no prevision, and in which modern inventions have surpassed the 
ancient marvels of mythology. It would be bad enough for any American citizen 
to join in the vulgar foreign disparagement which mingles with the helpless foreign 
wonderment, with respect to the transcendent material and spiritual possibilities of 
our America. But it is a burning shame for any American Christian, much more 
any American minister, to bury his patriotism and to expatriate his religion by 
neglecting Home Missions when our country is at once a promised land for Christ, 
and the best vantage-ground for evangelizing the world. And our Assembly is 
met on distinctively home missionary ground, within the vast territory redeemed 
to these United States by the discernment and heroism of the revered Whitman. 
The seed of Christ's Church is within this hospitable soil as the germinating blood 
of Christ's martyrs. This beautiful Church, our munificent hostess, is typical of 
what the Incarnate will do for all obedient followers, and of what every favored 
church may do for those for whom He died. Yet, in her prosperity, this Church is 
exceptional rather than representative. All around us are either feeble, struggling 
missionary chapels, or else regions as large as Eastern States utterly destitute of 
the salt of the Gospel. Like a child, a new country must develop its body before 
its soul can assert itself. We have come here, it is to be hoped, not to split hairs 
over doctrine and polity, but to help waken the soul of this young giant of the 
Pacific Coast. We come to make a spiritual demonstration, to aid in protesting 
against materialism, unbelief and sin, and to offer, in the name of the Prince of 
Kings, some fraternal fellowship to the courageous few who, like Columbus, would 
exalt the standard of the cross among those adventurous spirits whose manhood 
needs nothing else so much as enlistment under it. But we may as well confess 
candidly the fact that, like old Israel, we have neither risen to our unparalleled 
opportunities nor claimed for God the whole of that great heritage which He has 
given to us. Our resources and our manhood alike are far beneath that degree of 
consecration which Christ demands and America needs. 

It is pathetic, it is heart-breaking, that the Board of Home Missions at the 
strategic center, the brave missionaries on the skirmish line, and all observant 
Christians, wherever they may be, unite in one sustained, almost bitter cry, for 
more means and more men to furnish forth Christ's invading army. We possess 
both in abundance. The question is whether we will really devote our dollars and 
our sons to this holy war. Nay, if the leaders truly believe in what they preach, 
there can be no such question. In proportion as we are Christians, we will devote 
them to it. 

The nearest and easiest test is seen in our venturing of money upon our faith. 
We go as we pay. Stinginess toward Him is the most potent way of denying 
Christ. Well, the total receipts of the Board last year amounted to $925,950. But 
the whole sum reported the year before was $995,625. Is that decrease of $69,675 
a source of pride ? Of our total, $925,950, only $843,353 were available for the 
current work of the Board and for the immediate necessities of a field which is 

foing forward with gigantic strides. How, then, was the debt reduced by over 
31,000? The plain answer is found in that terrible reactionary word and that 
hateful, absolutely godless thing, " retrenchment " For another year, while the 
country has gone on rapidly, we have stood still, or retreated, and left the devil 
free to go on with it. But, to estimate the net fidelity of churches to the needs of 



APPENDIX. 151 

the hour, we must note specifically what church offerings have given to the present 
working forces of the Board. The churches have contributed $497, 98G, a J awning 
decrease over the preceding year of a clean $42,600.* There is the pinching fact, 
the churches, which should disdain to depend upon the posthumous gifts of testa- 
tors and the desultory bestowments of "miscellaneous" donors, have gone back- 
ward, when in nil conscience they were doing badly enough in Home Mission gifts 
before. Through the churches, we pay an average of about sixty cents a member 
annually to Home Missions. With the exception of seven, all the synods in the 
Church have given less than last year. These seven are the Indian Territory, 
Michigan, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota and Texas, all missionary 
synods but just one. The whole Church, virtually, has gone backward in this 
grace of giving, and forward in the crime of self-indulgence. Is it strange that so 
little new work could be undertaken p Is it not rather strange that the old work 
could be maintained ? Is it strange that missionaries have had to wait, on the 
verge of want, through cruel months for their pitiful allowances, and that the 
members and offioera of the Board have sometimes been at their wits' end to know 
how they could piece out the meanness of those who through ( "hrist's poverty are 
rich p Is it strange that the Board has been subjected to criticism for inadequately 
doing its work, when the churches were so careless about supplying either straw or 
clay for the bricks with which it must build p The criticism is unfair ; it is stupid ; 
it is false. It is due not to the Board, but to presbyteries, to sessions, to ministers, 
to churches, to every church member that can in such wise repudiate the claims of 
Jesus Christ and of those for whom He died. Is it strange that so many great 
departments of Home Mission work are languishing? 

Here is the momentuous, intricate and dangerous problem of city evangelization 
standing unsolved, mainly because money, which, under Christ, is the real solvent, 
cannot be obtained. We offer all sorts of excuses for our failure, the rapidity of 
urban growth, the huge mass, bewildering variety and inferior quality of immi- 
grants, the spread of unbelieving socialism, etc , but the real reason is the stingy 
selfishness and luxuriousuess of professing Christians. 

I [ero is the great question of Christianizing the white mountaineers of Keuhicky, 
Tennessee, North Carolina and the two Virginias. There are from 2,000,000 to 
4,000,000 of them. They are ignorant, superstitious and often degraded, and capa- 
ble of the noblest things. Civilization has drifted by them on either hand and left 
them almost untouched in their mountain fastnesses. In their dull and simple lives 
they arc the facile prey of false teachers, like the Mormon agents. But they are 
also easily accessible to the preachers of the cross ; and they have natural affinities 
for <>ur own Church. They are. mainly of Scotch or Scotch-Irish Presbyterian 
ancestry. They stood persistently with us during the bloody years of civil war. 
They have responded with alacrity to every overture that we have made to them, 
they are eager for Christian schools and colleges, such as our Board and our 
Woman's Executive Committee are as eager to give them. They will go many 
miles and attend literally all day long to simple Gospel sermons. There is only the 
one outrageous obstacle in the way of bringing them to Christ, and that is the want 
of money and of preachers And precisely the same thing is true of the 100,000 
white inhabitants of the Indian Territory, who are still more debased, who are 
almost as accessible, and who appear to be neglected by the common consent of all 
churches. 

litre is the despised, but most needy Mexican population of New Mexico and 
Arizona. They are victims of the most wretched phase of North American 
Romanism. Low moral quality is inherited in their contaminated blood, and 
inwrought, with the toxture of their history. Yet Christ cleanses their leprosy, and 
they arc crying after Him like the lepers of old. There are, at this hour, two 
hundred and forty-two more Mexican clmrch members in that extreme southwestern 
synod than there are white church members. They are furnishing more preachers 
in proportion than almost any white synod in the Church. Already about twenty 

* Adding receipts from legacies. Ladies' Societies not elsewhere credited, and from mis- 
cellaneous sources, which aggregate $351,854.55 against $368,746.37 iu '91, there hus been a 
gain iu total receipts of $41 ,000.98, 



152 APPENDIX. 

of these Mexican evangelists are working under the care of these new presbyteries ; 
and they are almost the only preachers to the Spanish- speaking people available by 
our Board. These young preachers long for a competent education in order that 
they may learn to expound the saving word effectively. The synodical missionary 
is here beseeching the Boards of Home Missions and of Education to undertake 
this training jointly. But much as they desire to do so, they find it difficult. Why ? 
Simply because the Church in its ignorance and indifference does not furnish the 
small change necessary for the undertaking. 

But why multiply instances ? Your Committee does not undertake to present 
any comprehensive survey of the wide field. The Board's admirable annual report 
has done that already ; will not ministers at least read it through ? It is not so 
much a survey of the field as a review and equipment of our force that we especially 
require. What is the use of looking at the field if we will not enter it ? We are 
not to amuse ourselves with scenery, but to conquer the mountains, fell the forests, 
and reclaim the desert until it shall blossom as the rose. The great work of the 
Church is to furnish tools and supplies for the pioneer evangelists. A concurrent 
demand is heard for men, whole men, live men, strong, trained and courageous men. 
Let the vulgar fractions of men remain with the stronger churches in the more 
civilized centers where virility and devotion are less needed, and where inadequacy 
will do less harm. Let the best men go to the hardest places, build, like Paul, on 
no other man's foundation, and leave an apostolic impress upon formative condi- 
tions. Ministers and sessions have a high duty at this point, and Christian mothers 
have a higher duty still: by the Spirit of Cod to persuade and enable, to form and 
train integral young men for the highest and holiest and sweetest vocation on earth — 
the preaching of the living Christ to dying men. But God will provide the men, 
when the Church shall have provided the means. 

The instant practical inquiry, then, is, how can we provide the means ? The 
answer seems as easy as putting the empty hand into the pocket and taking it out 
again — full. There are other and partial answers enough ; but they do not fairly 
hit the target's eye. We may say that the older States and cities should provide 
for their own, without taking out of the Board's treasury nearly as much as they 
put in, and should organize and work some such transformed scheme of sustenta- 
tion as may now be found, more or less partially organized and worked, in New 
Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin. True. But 
this ought older regions to do, without leaving the newer work of frontier regions 
undone. They who would take care exclusively of themselves see a heaven which 
is the synonym of selfishness, and the antipodes of that missionary spirit which 
sent our Lord Himself first of all out of heaven. 

We may say that the Board should reduce its grants to all the older communi- 
ties, and exact from them self-support. In many cases that may be true. But 
older communities, like many in New England, are coming into new situations 
which need the Board's cherishing aid ; and, like districts through the East and 
Middle States, as far west as Kansas, our migratory American habits may deplete 
strong churches and leave them too weak for self-support, and yet too useful for 
euthanasia. 

We may say that the Board should insist on " comity," and, while so many 
places are utterly destitute, resolutely refuse to establish or to sustain a Presbyte- 
rian church where it but wastefully duplicates another evangelical church, and 
where it must fight its straggle for existence by preying on its neighbor. Your 
Committee hold that opinion. But it must be remembered that " comity " is a 
imitual relation which either party may destroy, and that Presbyterians have some 
times a very persistent if not saintly perseverance in demanding a Presbyterian 
church for themselves. 

We may say that, imitating certain other denominations, and exalting the 
Episcopal function of the ministry, the Board ought to provide, as in the Synod of 
Minnesota, a larger number of pastors-at-large or evangelists or unattached 
preachers, who, under the guidance of the home missionary committees of presby- 
teries and synods, would be able to go about with roving commissions among vacant 
and discouraged churches, and serve them until they could secure pastors and 
recover confidence, or at least secure them against sheep-stealing wolves. That 



APPENDIX. 153 

would seem wise and promising. But here again the lack of money is at this hour 
so decisive an objection that none other need be named. 

We may say that applications for aid should be candid and accurate ; that they 
should never be influenced by rivalry or selfishness, and that they should call for 
the very least sum that will suffice. All that is very true, and it is all carefully — 
there are missionaries who may have thought that it has sometimes been even too 
carefully — guarded by the Board. But who dare indict the army of applicants ? 
Missionaries and churches may fairly make a general claim at least to honesty. 
Few applications, your Committee believe, are excessive or extravagant. On the 
contrary, they are usually below the full requirements of the fields. 

The real difficulty is in none of these things. It is to be sought in the home 
missionary ignorance of the average contributor, much more of the average non- 
contributor. It is to be removed by the intelligent preaching of the average pastor, 
and by the agitation and canvassing of home missionary needs by average sessions. 
The chief responsibility for success or failure rests immediately upon the shoulders 
of us pastors and elders. If we do our full duty, there is little danger of the 
Church's lagging behind in its gifts. 

We might learn a useful lesson from the consecrated women of our congrega- 
tions. They who were last at the cross and earliest at the grave are still nearest 
to Christ in their devotion. They are diffusing intelligence of missions among 
themselves and their children, line upon line, precept upon precept. It is a comfort 
to recognise their fidelity, their ardor and their zeal. The Woman's Executive 
Committee continues to do noble things. Twenty years ago they were almost 
totally unconscious of their own powers either as missionary teachers in the wide 
field or as organizers of missionary societies in the churches. But now they are 
performing such feats that it is becoming a question whether we do not need male 
missionary organizations to make men also conscious of their hidden powers. These 
women are always studying missionary problems. They are just now about con- 
ferring with the Board to ascertain whether or not they may be using too large a 
proportion of the money derived from the friends of missions in exclusive school- 
work among the Mormons, Mexicans, Indians and " mountain whites." Certainly, 
there is need of far larger sums for this beneficent work. But, in view of the fact 
that, leaving out the white mountaineers, among whom about one-sixth of the 
schools are found, there can hardly be more than 600,000 in these " exceptional 
populations," it would seem to be a fair question whether an approximate $300,000, 
devoted in all these schools, be not disproportionately large, when the Board has 
only about $500,000 for the general work of evangelization in mission churches ? 
But they will settle this question as wisely and thoughtfully as they have settled 
others. Meantime, we can have nothing but praise and honor for them. 

If we, like them, are disciples of the Great Physician, difficulties will turn into 
opportunities and incentives, and we shall acquire knowledge of the capital fact 
that, while the risen Redeemer offers Himself freely to lost souls, there can be no 
insuperable difficulty so long as we are intelligent, devoted and generous in sup- 
plying the means for the blessed work of Home Missions. 

Some years ago a gifted English editor wrote a resplendent poem, flashing with 
all the gems known to a sensuous genius, and bedecked with many adornments 
which wero stolen outright from Christianity. Its fascinating lines describe the 
origin and career, the doctrines and destiny of Gautama, the Saviour-prince of 
Buddhism. An oriental king thanked the author for thus setting forth before the 
world, in magnificent array, the boasted " Light of Asia." But ah ! the actual, 
moral and spiritual condition of millions of devotees sadly attested the old truth 
that if the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness. 

But nineteen hundred years ago, the royal prince who became the peasant car- 
penter said, in words whoso majestic simplicity no human genius has ever been 
able to embellish, and whose literal truth all Christian experience has proved : " I 
am the light of the word ; he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness but 
shall have the light of life." These words are not yet realized by all our fellow- 
men, nor even by all our fellow-citizens ; but it remains in no small degree for us 
American Christians by the beauty of holiness in our personal lives and by the 
poetry of devotion in our home and foreign missionary enterprise to disclose the 



154 APPENDIX. 

supreme Saviour-prince first as the light of our own dear country and thence, literally, 
as the light of the world. 

In order to emphasize, and, if possible, to realize certain salient points in the 
foregoing statement, your Committee would make the following recommendations 
for adoption by this Assembly : 

First. — That the Assembly expresses its grateful appreciation of the onerous, 
wise and faithful labors of the Board and its executive officers, and earnestly com- 
mends their administration of its affairs to the scrutiny and hearty confidence and 
support of the entire Church. 

Second. — That the Assembly thankfully acknowledges the continued fidelity and 
increasing usefulness of the Woman's Executive Committee, and urges all pastors 
and sessions to foster this work among the ladies and children of their churches. 

Third. — That the various devoted and self-sacrificing services of the home mis- 
sionaries deserve the constant remembrance and cordial recognition of the Assembly, 
the Board and the membership of the Church at large. 

Fourth. — That the minutes of the Board, having been examined by the Standing 
Committee, and found to be a careful record of the large, faithful and often unap- 
preciated work, be approved as far as written. 

Fifth. — That, in accordance with the recommendation of the last three Assem- 
blies, all Sabbath-schools be urged to make an annual contribution to the school 
work under the care of the Woman's Executive Committee, and that, so far as con- 
venient, their offerings for this purpose be received on the Sabbath before Thanks- 
giving. 

Sixth. — That all our Sabbath-schools, Societies of Christian Endeavor and other 
Young People's Organizations, be requested to make a special annual contribution 
to the general work of the Board on the Sabbath nearest Washington's birthday. 

Seventh. — That all churches be invited to make a special Columbian thank-offer- 
ing to the Board on October 9, 1892, as a memorial of the discovery of the American 
continent. 

Eighth. — That all the pastors be enjoined to study the excellent annual report 
of the Board, and to make their churches acquainted with its leading facts. 

Ninth. — That in view of the painful arrest of new and aggressive work, due to 
the inadequate income of the Board, to the continued existence of debt and to the 
actual decrease of aggregate gifts by the churches, all the churches, ladies' societies 
and miscellaneous contributors be urged to make honest, prayerful and persistent 
efforts to add fifteen per cent, to their gifts during the current year. 

Tenth. — That pastors and sessions be enjoined to have a personal canvass of their 
congregations made in addition to having the subject presented from their pulpits, 
in order that the people may be better instructed in our Home Mission work, and 
that sufficient means may be provided for its maintenance and enlargement. 

Eleventh. — That, inasmuch as many thousands of our countrymen are still 
wholly without church privileges, the Board be instructed, in the best exercise of 
its own judgment to refrain, as far as possible, from intrenching upon fields already 
supplied with evangelical churches. 

Twelfth. — That the Board be earnestly requested to consider whether more of 
its means and energies should not be devoted to reclaiming the lost multitudes of 
our large cities. 

Thirteenth. — That the Board and the Woman's Executive Committee be re- 
quested to further confer as to whether the time has come when a larger proportion 
of their total funds should be used in organizing and maintaining churches, and a 
smaller proportion in the support of schools among our " exceptional populations." 

Fourteenth. — That the Board be requested to confer with the Board of Education, 
in order to ascertain whether more adequate educational training cannot be pro- 
vided within their own field for the Mexican evangelists of the Synod of New 
Mexico. 



APPENDIX. 155 

Fifteenth. — That the Board be requested to consider whether a large number of 
evangelists, pastors-at-large or unattached ministers of the right stamp, and under 
the supervision of Presbyterial or Synodical ( 'ommittees of Home Missions, could 
not be profitable ; provided, that as the Board, acting in accordance with the per- 
mission of the Assembly of 1889, and with the injunction of the Assembly of 1891, 
has secured the necessary change in its charter for a legal increase in its member- 
ship, the gentlemen whose names follow be appointed as additional members of the 
Board; Rev. J. S. Ramsey, D.D., and Robert Henderson, Layman, for three years; 
Rev. John W. Teal, D.D., and George H. Southard, Layman, for two years ; Rev. 
George L. Spinning. D.D., and H. E. Rowland, Layman, for one year. 

Sixteenth. — That the following members of the Board, whose terms of service 
expire with this Assembly, be reappointed: Ministers — Thomas S. Hastings, D.D., 
and Charles L. Thompson, D.D. ; Laymen — John Crosby Brown and W. M. Aikman ; 
and that E. H. Brinkerhoff be appointed in place of J. D. Vermilye, deceased. 

Respectfully submitted for the Committee. 

S. J. McPHERSON, Chairman. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WOMAN'S EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE. 



To the Hoard of Home Missions : 

Gentlemen : 

The Woman's Executive Committee of Home Missions presents herewith 
the thirteenth Annual Report. So even has been the course of events during the past 
twelve months that we are constrained to believe the omnipotent power of God has gra- 
ciously kept us from painful trials or untoward discouragements, and we would gratefully 
recognize this evidence of Divine favor. A work which represents such vast and varied 
interests, involving issues of great importance, calls for the most careful management, and 
the wisest adjustment of manifold details. Here, again, we would record our profound 
thankfulness that we have not been limited by our own range of vision, or made depen- 
dent on human wisdom, but that the good hand of our God has been upon us, and to Him 
do we ascribe all the honor which the prosperity of the year has wrought. 

A backward glance reveals encouraging progress in the various departments of work. 
Perhaps the most visible token of this is shown in the receipts which exceed by $25,000 
those of the preceding year, reaching a total of $364,179.19. Figures may be briefly 
stated, but, for their intelligent comprehension, a closer look at the facts which they con- 
tain may not be amiss. 

Apprehending the harm which might easily result from too generous aid, we have 
steadily striven to develop self-reliance among the classes where our missions are stationed. 
To this end we have directed our teachers to secure, when possible, some return, accord- 
ing to the ability of the parents, for the privileges of instruction which our schools afford. 
During the past year there has thus been obtained from tuition $9,749. We have also 
received supplementary aid from the Government, from Indian Nations and from distinctly 
miscellaneous sources, making a total sum of over $100,000, which would not have been 
in any wise available for mission work had it not been for this educational department of 
the Board of Home Missions. 

There has also been received during the year $22,745 in legacies. The Woman's 
Kxecutive Committee have been earnestly desirous to secure the advantages accruing from 
invested or permanent funds, which should serve as collaterals, lessening the embarrass- 
ment and distress resulting, at times, from an utterly exhausted treasury. Accordingly 
this amount has been thus invested, and will afford very material relief during the sum- 
mer months when receipts are small. It is desired to increase these permanent funds to 
at least $60,000. 

From the items thus enumerated it will be observed that $122,4(50 has come from 
miscellaneous sources, which, when deducted from the total amount leaves about two- 



156 APPENDIX. 

thirds of the receipts as coining from regular contributors. Of this sum $45,052.20 has 
been designated for work among the Freedmen, and has been forwarded for disbursement 
to the Treasurer of the Freedmen's Board at Pittsburgh. 

It will thus be seen that there is still a large work to do in arousing and enlisting the 
women of the Church in the support of this educational work of the Board of Home 
Missions, which depends upon funds raised by the Woman's Executive Committee for its 
maintenance. 

In this enumeration of details, attention is called to the fact that 725 Sunday-schools 
have contributed $18,500, an increase of $2,500 over the offerings of the preceding year. 
Young People's Societies of Christian Endeavor have also been among the welcomed con- 
tributors. It seems peculiarly fitting, since the future destiny of our nation is in the 
hands of the rising generation, that the young in our churches should be enlisted in the 
elevation of less fortunate and needy youth in our land, and we shall look to this source 
in the future for yet more abundant aid. 

Encouragement is also derived from the increased sales of our publications. Over 
156,383 leaflets have been sent out in response to orders, in payment for which we have 
received $1,358. Our leaflets have gone to all parts of the United States, aud to Canada, 
Scotland, Ireland and Turkey; 19,674 mite boxes and 125,790 envelopes have also been 
distributed, and have aided in increasing systematic contributions. 

The list of subscribers to the Home Mission Monthly is steadily increasing. It may 
be well to call attention again to the gratifying fact that this magazine has never been 
obliged to draw on funds outside of those received from subscriptions. It has been from 
the first, and continues to be, wholly self-supporting. 

Turning now from this brief review of the receipts of the year to a glance at the work 
itself, we are not without further encouragement. 

Each year brings fresh demonstration of the very practical and satisfactory nature of 
our form of organization. Beginning with the local church auxiliaries which are grouped 
together into Presbyterial Societies, from which, in turn, are formed the various Synodical 
organizations, we come to the Woman's Executive Committee, chosen by Synodical repre- 
sentatives to have the care and management of the work, in connection with and under 
the directing power of the Board of Home Missions. In view of the increasing efficiency, 
unity and strength, developed by this plan, whereby our organization is thus incorporated 
into the ecclesiastical life of the Church, it would seem as if the wise foresight of those 
who shaped the work at the beginning should be again recognized, and grateful acknow- 
ledgment made for the Divine guidance vouchsafed them. 

To the loyal and zealous efforts of co-laborers throughout the various auxiliary societies 
we ascribe much of the manifest prosperity. Nor has the work been done by women of 
leisure. Busy mothers in remote and isolated homes and small country churches, as well 
as those upon whom the duties of life press with that insistent power incident to the 
manifold work in the larger churches of crowded cities, have cheerfully and persistently 
aided by prayer, by pen and by purse. As a result of this kindly co-operation, twenty of 
the twenty-eight Synodical Societies have made an advance in their contributions. Even 
though the advance in some cases has been small, it is yet a hopeful token of the future. 
Notable increase has been made in a number of the Synods, Pennsylvania making an 
advance of $1,000; Indiana, $1,600; New Jersey, $2,000; Illinois, $4,500; and New 
York, $5,500 ; while the Synods of Oregon, Pacific, Michigan and Missouri, have each 
made vigorous forward strides. 

It was recommended that a twenty per cent, advance be made in each of the Synods, 
in order not only to meet existing obligations, but with a view to the relinquishment of 
the aid received from the Government in the case of some of our Indian schools. As this 
has not been realized, the matter must be held, for the present, somewhat in abeyance. 

Some idea may be gained of the amount of labor entailed, and the varied interests 
involved in the official management of the work, by the statement that, during the year, 
14,600 letters have been received, each of which has had careful attention. Besides this 
large correspondence, the formulated plans for work, and the oversight of the field have 
demanded the most careful thought and action. 

In pursuance of our plan to place our income on as secure a basis as possible, we have 
obtained from societies and individuals the pledged support of 152 teachers and 781 
scholarships, amounting altogether to $106,365, which sum we may depend on with 
reasonable certainty. 



APPENDIX. 157 

Lest our receipts should lessen the amount which would otherwise be given directly to 
the Board of Home Missions, we hare steadily striven to develop new resources and to 
enlist those hitherto indifferent to Home Mission work. We would make note of the fact 
that we have, as heretofore, received funds for the direct work of the Board in sustaining 
weak churches. These amounts have been credited to the donors on our books, and have 
then been paid to the Treasurer of the Board to be used for the purpose intended. The 
Woman's Executive Committee stands ready to encourage such gifts from auxiliaries if 
made through our treasury. Value, to many thousands of dollars, has been furnished by 
our auxiliary societies, thus adding comfort and cheer to many a household. 

The planting of a Presbyterian Mission School means, sooner or later, the establish- 
ment of a Christian Church which calls for the fostering care of a minister or evangelist. 
Already the work of aiding the Board of Home Missious in the support of these mission- 
aries has been begun, especially in the case of Mexican evangelists, and we now reiterate 
a willingness to increase this assistance as may be deemed expedient by the Board. 

One other point remains to be emphasized in this connection. Upon the Woman's 
Executive Committee has devolved the task of providing funds, not only for the support 
of mission schools and teachers, but also for structural work, which, unlike any other 
portion of the Board's operations, the educational department eutails. To provide the 
requisite buildings for an Industrial School of 150 pupils, involves, even on the most 
economical basis, no inconsiderable outlay, and a moment's reflection will make it apparent 
that the buildings and grounds of our various boarding and day schools absorb inevitably 
a goodly amount. While this has been a heavy task, yet as these various properties are 
vested in the Board, and arc not without the promise of increased value, the expenditure 
commends itself on the ground of present necessity and ultimate benefits. 

Turning now to the mission field proper, we note a few leading features. 

Results are not always easily estimated or made speedily apparent in a work which 
deals largely with youth whose ancestry is one of ignorance, degradation or heathenism. 
To overcome this unfortunate inheritance no power is more potent than Christian training 
and education. Were proof wanting of the fidelity and piety with which our mission 
teachers are performing this work, abundant evidence exists in the changed lives of the 
pupils under their care, and in the moral and intellectual advancement among the classes 
where they labor. During the past few months gracious evidences have not been wanting 
of the converting and transforming power of the Gospel. 

The Superintendent of one of our largest Indian Schools writes, " The trend towards 
religious life is becoming more decided among our pupils, and the purpose for which they 
are in school is more clearly defined in their own minds." An Indian youth in this school, 
in preferring the request to receive special instruction in the Bible two or three evenings 
in the week, explained, " 1 don't think God want me to learn something about the Bible 
just for myself. I think He want me to try hard to learn something good for my people." 
This permeating influence of the Gospel in the homes of our pupils is one of the most 
hopeful features of our work. 

Our schools and teachers are distributed as follows : 

Schools. Teachers.* Pupils. 

Indians 38 174 2,662 

Mormons 83 88 2,162 

Mexicans 29 52 1,416 

Southern Whites 20 46 1,556 

Total 120 860 7,686 

Our auxiliary societies have also contributed towards the support of twenty-five schools 
and thirty-four teachers among the Freedmen, thus increasing the total number of teachers 
to 394. 

During the past mouths one of our honored Vice-Presidents, Mrs. B. F. Potter, of New 
York, whose name has long been connected with our organization, has been translated to 
higher service. Death, however, has made no vacancy in the ranks of our teachers, but 
an unusual degree of health has prevailed at most of our mission stations. 

♦This number includes all teachers, matrons or assistants who have been commissioned 
for the whole or any part of the year. 



158 APPENDIX. 

As we turn to the work of the opening year, we find that we must at once accustom 
our eyes to broader vision and wider outlook. Strong appeals come for the establishment 
of Christian schools, especially in the mountains of the South. The harvest of our first 
seed-sowing has been so gracious and so bounteous, that much fallow ground is now ready 
for cultivation. Everywhere throughout the mountains of North Carolina, Kentucky and 
Tennessee, earnest calls come to reclaim this long neglected portion of our land, which is 
now rich in promise of abundant fruitage. Elsewhere the need is also great. From the 
stalwart and hitherto fierce tribes of Apaches, Comanches and Navahoes, as well as from 
Utes and other wild Indians, the appeal for aid which shall enable them to cast 08' bar- 
barism and to rise to a higher plane of life and thought, comes with well nigh irresistible 
force. The opportunity is ours to provide the means for transforming savages into Chris- 
tian citizens. Nor can we delay this task, depending on time to work the necessary 
change. " It is only the forces brought to bear in time which works changes." 

Meanwhile we are not unmindful of the direct work of the Board of Home Missions ; 
towns and cities are springing up on the frontier with unparalleled rapidity, calling for 
the establishment of new churches ; great numbers of immigrants are also swarming to 
our shores, and if, as in the vision of Ezekiel, our nation is to be a tree " in the shadow 
of whose branches " " shall dwell every fowl of every wing," we would not withhold our 
help, if it be needed, in planting this goodly cedar in the "top of the mountain of the 
Lord." Presbyterian women have never yet held back when the voice of God and the 
Church called them to go forward. 

Gathering courage for the untried duties of the future from the conviction that one 
task completed prepares for the accomplishment of a greater, and humbly recognizing the 
Hand which has thus far led us steadily onward, we turn to the coming year with hope 
and faith. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Mrs. D. E. FINKS, 

Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 



159 



TREASURER'S ANNUAL REPORT. 



Miss S. F. LINCOLN, TREASURER, 171 account irith Hit Woman's Executive 

COMMITIKK 01 lluMK MISSIONS OF THE PrESBYTF.UIAN CHURCH. 

Dr. Or. 



1892. 

March 31— Synod of Atlantic * 2 76 

" Baltimore 8,026 71 

" Catawba 5 00 

Colorado 8,681 40 

" Illinois. 23,070 41 

Indiana 8,297 21 

" Indian Territory, 170 15 

Iowa 7,024 84 

Kansas 2,083 47 

Kentucky 2,110 56 

Michigan 9,154 48 

" Minnesota 5,135 43 

" Missouri 4,979 67 

Nebraska 1,484 09 

New Jersey 19,06185 

" New Mexico 40 02 

New York 67,068 18 

North Dakota. 266 38 

" Ohio 81,647 20 

Oregon 1,276 21 

Pacific 4,505 70 

Pennsylvania . . . 48,603 34 

South Dakota. .. 429 30 

Tennessee 035 21 

Texas 276 47 

Utah 445 01 

Washington 218 08 

Wisconsin 1,013 43 

Miscellaneous 122,76-1 78 



$304,179 19 



1892. 

March 31- 



-Ky Board of Home Mis- 
sions 1319,079 99 

By Board of Home Mis- 
sions for the Board of 
Freedmen 45,052 20 

l'.\ Board of Home Mis- 
sions for the New York 
Synodical Aid Fund 48 00 



$804,179 19 



Examined and found correct. 

W. E. HONEYMAN, Auditor. 



New York, May !'. 1892. 



T 1 1 E 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



PRESENTED TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MAY, 1892, 



NEW YORK: 
MISSION HOUSE, 53 FIFTH AVENUE 

1892. 



BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 

1890-1893. Rev. George W. Alexander, D.D., Rev. Joseph R. Kerr, D.D., 
Messrs. Henry Ide, Warner Van Norden, and D. W. Mc- 

WlLLIAMS. 

1891-1894. Rev. R. R. Booth, D.D., Rev. C. H. Parkhurst, D.D., Rev. 

W. R. Richards, D.D., Edward Wells, Esq., Messrs. G. S. 

Coe and D. R. James. 
1892-1895. Rev. W. M. Paxton, D.D., Rev. J. D. Wells, D.D., Rev. J. 

Balcom Shaw, Rev. David Gregg, D.D., Messrs. W. A. 

Booth, E. M. Kingsley, and Alexander Maitland. 



OFFICERS OF THE BOARD. 
Rev. John D. Wells, D.D., President. 
Mr. William A. Booth, Vice-President. 
Rev. Frank F. Ellinwood, D.D., "] 
Rev. Arthur Mitchell, D.D., \ Secretaries. 

Rev. John Gillespie, D.D., 
Mr. Robert .E. Speer, Assistant Secretary. 
William Dulles, Jr., Esq , Treasurer. 
Rev. John C. Lowrie, D.D., Secretary Emeritus. 



Rev. Thomas Marshall, Field Secretary. 



Letters relating to the Missions, or other operations of the Board, may be 
addressed to any of the Corresponding Secretaries, 53 Fifth Avenue, New 
York. 

Letters relating to the pecuniary affairs of the Board, or containing remit- 
tances of money, should be sent to William Dulles, Jr., Treasurer, same 
address. 

The Church at Home and Abroad contains a large amount of Foreign 
Missionary matter. It is the organ of all the Boards ; price, one dollar a 
year ; published by the Board of Publication and Sabbath-School Work, 1334 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Penn. 



Woman's Work for Woman and Our Mission Field, published monthly, 
under direction of the Woman's Foreign Boards and Societies, at 53 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. Price, 60 cents a year. Address orders as above. 



Children's Work for Children, published monthly for the Woman's 
Foreign Boards. Price, 35 cents a year. Address, 1334 Chestnut Street, 
Room 25, Philadelphia, Penn. 



Form of Bequest. — The Board is incorporated by an Act of the Legislature 
of the State of New York. The corporate name to be used is — The Board of 
Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. 



Certificates of Honorary Membership may be had on the payment of 
thirty dollars ; and of Honorary Directorship on the payment of one hundred 
dollars. 

Press of Edward O. Jenkins' Son, 20 North William St., New York. 



ACTION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

At Portland, Ore., May 25, 1892. 



The Fifty-fifth Annual Report of the Board of Foreign 
Missions, and the manuscript volume of its Minutes for the 
year ending April 30, 1892, were presented to the General 
Assembly in session at Portland, Ore., May, 1892, and were re- 
ferred to the Standing Committee on Foreign Missions. The 
Committee consisted of — Ministers : Alexander Alison, D.D., 
Henry C. Minton, D.D., William M. Taylor, D.D., Thomas D. 
Wallace, D.D., Alfred H. Moment, D.D., Paul D. Bergen, 
Charles W. Forman, D.D., and Clarence Dillard. 

Elders: Allen B. Endicott, Joshua Williams, Edward M. 
Semple, John C. Knowlton, Levi W. Ballard, James S. Thomas, 
and John Shirley Ward. 

On Wednesday, May 25th, this Committee reported to the 
Assembly, and, on its recommendation, the following action 
was taken : 

First — That the Minutes of the Board be approved. 

Second — That the following members of the Board, whose term of office 
has expired, be re-elected, to wit : Ministers: Rev. W. M. Paxton, D.D., 
Rev. J. D. Wells, D.D., Rev. J. Balcom Shaw, Rev. David Gregg, D.D.; 
laymen, Messrs. E. M. Kingsley and Alexander Maitland. 

Third — That a special offering, to be known as the " Columbian Offering," 
be taken in all our Sabbath-schools and young people's societies for Foreign 
Mission work on this Western Hemisphere, on Sabbath, the 9th of October. 

Fourth — That we emphasize the work of our young people and encourage 
them in their endeavors to Christianize the world. 

Fifth — That we heartily commend the splendid work which has been ac- 
complished by our Women's Boards, especially commending them for the 
spirit of prayer and intelligent study of the work which have so steadily ac- 
companied their labors of love. 

Sixth — That our pastors and Sessions increase their diligence in regard to 
this work. 

Seventh — That the Standing Committees on Foreign Missions in Synods and 



4 ACTION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 

Presbyteries be urged to co-operate with the Assembly's Board of Foreign 
Missions in efforts to secure the necessary funds for the carrying on of this 
important work. 

Eighth — That, God helping us, we shall this year reach, without fail, the 
mark set by the last Assembly, to wit : $1,100,000. 

Ninth — That this General Assembly earnestly commend to the churches' 
special attention the Chinese Christian work in every place where the China- 
man is to be found. 

On recommendation of the Standing Committee the follow- 
ing was also unanimously adopted : 

The General Assembly has learned with pleasure that during the past year 
conference and correspondence have been had by the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions with the Committee on Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States, touching co-operation in Foreign Mission fields. On the 
invitation of the Executive Council of our Board, the Rev. M. H. Houston, 
D.D., Secretary of the Committee on Foreign Missions, visited New York 
last March for a conference on this subject. Subsequently, under date of 
April 12, 1892, Dr. Houston forwarded to our Board a minute from the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Missions suggesting that the General Assemblies of the two 
churches be requested to authorize farther conference on the subject, with a 
view to framing some recommendations to be submitted to the respective As- 
semblies. 

In response to this minute, our Board took the following action : " The 
Board of Foreign Missions acknowledges with devout gratitude to God the 
receipt of the above minute from the Committee on Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States and welcomes it as an important 
step in the direction of practical co-operation in the foreign field. The Board 
cordially acquiesces in the suggestion of the Committee that steps should be 
taken without delay to bring about this much-desired result. It is therefore 
ordered that the General Assembly be requested to authorize the Board to confer 
with the Committee of the Southern General Assembly on the whole question 
of practical co-operation on the foreign field, it being understood that the 
Board shall have no power in the premises except to consult and to frame 
recommendations, which shall be submitted to the General Assembly." 

The General Assembly most cordially approves this action of the Board and 
hereby authorizes it to confer with the Committee on Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States on the subject named and to submit 
a report of the conference, together with any recommendation which may be 
agreed upon, to the next General Assembly. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO 

FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



In presenting to the General Assembly its Fifty-fifth Annual 
Report the Board would recognize with gratitude to God not 
only the tokens of His favor during the last year, but also the 
stability with which so great and extended a work has been 
providentially maintained for more than half a century. As an 
enterprise which depends not upon vested funds, but upon 
seemingly fortuitous gifts from year to year, and which is af- 
fected by all the vicissitudes to which the Church and the coun- 
try are subject, its dependence upon Divine power and direc- 
tion are most manifest. It is impossible to review this protracted 
history, or even the work of a single year, without recognizing 
a fulfillment of Christ's promise to be with His Church in its 
great commission, always, even unto the end of the world." 

But the Board has been reminded during the year that, al- 
though this great cause advances forever, the laborers hold their 
places in its service by a transient tenure. One veteran member 
of the Board, Rev. Charles K. Imbrie, D.D., after a long and 
faithful service, has been called to his reward during the year. 

Dr. Imbrie had been a member of the Board for thirty-five 
years, having been elected in 1856. He became a member of 
the Executive Committee in 1865. His protracted service was 
characterized by great regularity and promptness of attend- 
ance, by rare fidelity in the discharge of all duties laid upon 
him, and by a genial and devoted spirit. 

On the mission fields, two veterans — Rev. John Newton, D.D., 
of the Lodiana Mission, and Rev. Augustus W. Loomis, D.D., 
of the Chinese Mission in California — have rested from their 
labors, and their works do follow them. Both were men of 
rare and long-tried fidelity and worth. Several younger mis- 
sionaries, also, namely: Rev. Wellington J. White, of the Can- 
ton Mission; Miss Sarah C. Seward, M.D., of the Farrukhabad 
Mission: Miss J. M. Small, of the Siam Mission; Mrs. A. V. 
Bryan, of the AVest Japan Mission; Mrs. W. A. Briggs, of the 
Laos Mission; Rev. E. M. Pinkerton and Mrs. W. A. Carring- 
ton, of the Brazil Mission; and Miss M. L. Ewalt, of the Kol- 
htapur Mission, have died since the presentation of our last Re- 
port. Thus the missionary ranks have suffered an unusual 



6 FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

mortality, many circles of kindred have been filled with sorrow, 
and the whole cause has experienced irreparable loss. The 
year has been signalized, also, by the death of the first native 
convert of the India Mission, Rev. Golaknath, a man whose 
stable Christian character and faithful ministerial labor had 
entitled him to the esteem and love of the Lodiana Mission. 

During the year Mr. Robert Elliott Speer was appointed as 
an Assistant Secretary, in view of the resignation of the Rev. 
John C. Lowrie, D.D., in the previous year, and of the greatly 
increasing work of the Board in its executive department. Mr. 
Speer has been closely identified with the work of arousing the 
missionary spirit among the young, and his work in the office 
and in the churches gives great satisfaction. Rev. John Gilles- 
pie, D.D., having been commissioned by the Board to visit the 
India Missions for the purpose of making a thorough inspec- 
tion of their work, in order to communicate to the Board a 
fuller knowledge of its extensive work in India, left New York 
about the first of August and returned early in March. He 
was authorized, also, to make a brief visit to the East Japan 
Mission, with which, as Secretary, he has the correspondence. 
Dr. and Mrs. Gillespie were greatly favored by the Divine 
providence which preserved their lives and health and secured 
a full and satisfactory result of their long journey. The full 
and able report of this visit of the Secretary is presented to the 
General Assembly as a supplement to this Report. During Dr. 
Gillespie's absence his work was in the hands of Rev. James S. 
Dennis, D.D., of Syria, at present in this country, who freely 
gave his time to the Board and to whom for this and other 
services the Board is peculiarly grateful. 

The Board has great reason for gratitude for the peace and 
quiet which have attended its work in many fields, notwith- 
standing rumors of disturbances which have been rife through- 
out the year, and the many anxieties to which the missionaries 
and their friends have been subject. The war in Chili, which 
threatened to bring disaster to the Chili Mission, and even to 
result in serious complications with our Government, has hap- 
pily passed without in any way compromising or disturbing 
our missionaries, or creating any impressions which are likely 
to seriously affect our American influence. There is reason, on 
the contrary, to hope that with the firm establishment of right- 
ful government in Chili, and with the maintenance of unbroken 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 7 

confidence in our missionaries on the part of the people, in- 
creased opportunities may be afforded for the prosecution of 
an earnest and increasingly successful work. 

Notwithstanding the political difficulties which throughout 
the whole year have disturbed the republic of Guatemala, no 
serious injury has befallen our mission. In Syria, as in other 
parts of the Turkish empire, severe restrictions have been 
placed by the Government upon various forms of mission work, 
and yet, happily, that work has gone forward without serious 
curtailment and with a gratifying degree of success. Special 
gratitude to the great Head of the Church is due for that over- 
ruling providence which has turned the many threatenings of 
disturbance to the missions in China into signal advantages, 
— to a freer access and safer prosecution of the work than have 
been known for many years past. 

For a full decade some of the stations of the Shantung 
Mission have been thwarted in their efforts to secure property 
for missionary purposes ; but a recent edict of the Imperial 
Government, called forth by the mobs and political disturb- 
ances of the year, have placed the cause of missions upon 
a sounder basis than ever before, authorizing the sale of 
property to our missionaries, enjoining upon local authorities 
thorough protection, and even commending the work of the 
missionaries as loyal, disinterested, and humane. 

The apprehensions which have been felt in regard to the re- 
actionary influences in Japan have been, in part at least, miti- 
gated, and, although there is less readiness to receive the Gospel 
than in some former years, it is believed that the prospects of 
the Japanese church and of the missionary operations which 
promote its growth are upon a sound basis which promises 
continued prosperity in the years to come. 

While there has not been a general outpouring of the Spirit 
upon the mission fields as a whole, there have been some most 
gratifying indications of the Divine presence in the ingathering 
of many souls. The missionaries in the Laos Mission have 
been permitted to welcome 241 native converts to the church, 
and in the Shantung Mission 760 have been added. There has 
also been a very marked advance toward the self-support of 
the Shantung churches. 

The fact that the aggregate gifts received by the Board from 
many of the presbyteries have fallen off, as compared with the 



8 FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

contributions of the previous year, has caused no little anxiety. 
The offerings of its living membership, made through the Church 
itself,ought to constitute the chief reliance of this great work ; and 
the Board would respectfully call attention to the importance of 
maintaining this resource, which is under the immediate direc- 
tion of the sessions, presbyteries, and synods. While gifts from 
other sources are most gladly welcomed, it is indispensable to 
keep in mind the fact that this great enterprise of Foreign 
Missions rests upon the divine organization of the Church it- 
self, of which the Board is but a servant, through the appoint- 
ment and direction of the General Assembly, and that the good 
faith of the whole Church as a Church is plighted for the prose- 
cution and support of its work. 

The report of the Standing Committee on Foreign Missions, 
which was adopted by the last General Assembly, urged 
upon pastors and sessions, upon presbyterial and synodical 
committees, to take the matter of means and methods, of 
stimulating interest and securing necessary funds, upon their 
hearts, and to devise liberal things. And it especially urged 
that, in addition to a generous annual collection, other means 
should be devised by the churches themselves for supple- 
menting the aggregate supply required for so great a work. 
It recommended that devoted possessors of ample means 
be encouraged to go forth at their own charges; and that 
others who are able should individually assume the support 
of missionaries or of native helpers. It directed that such 
special work should be done through the Board. Finally, it 
was resolved, "that the recommendation of the previous year 
as to expenditure ($1,000,000) be reaffirmed for this year, with 
instructions to the Board to obey the injunction of the General 
Assembly if its expenditures should demand so much. And 
the churches are urged to at once plan to meet the requisition 
by raising the sum of a million and one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, that this Board may incur no debt." The Board has felt 
authorized to expend $1,002,327.94, which is quite within the 
$1,100,000 called for by the Assembly. 

The Board would respectfully request that the large and 
generous plans which are devised by the Assembly from year 
to year may be studiously and effectively carried out by 
synods, presbyteries, and sessions, in order that the solemn 
responsibilities involved in appropriating such large amounts 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 9 

may be shared by the whole Church. The Board, while 
thankful for the measure of support given by the Church at 
large, would especially record its grateful appreciation of the 
efforts of many pastors, churches, and individuals who have 
striven to secure a decided advance in their contributions over 
those of previous years; it recognizes, with gratitude to God, 
the untiring and assiduous efforts of the various Woman's 
Boards and their numerous auxiliaries in not only maintaining, 
but as far as possible advancing, the contributions made for 
this great work; and it would thankfully encourage the laud- 
able efforts of the Christian Endeavor Societies and other or- 
ganizations of the young, as well as the Sabbath-schools of the 
Church, which have shown an increased interest in the support 
of missionaries or helpers or the maintenance of other special 
objects under the direction of the Board. And in this connec- 
tion the Board would take occasion to commend to all pastors, 
sessions, and Sabbath-school superintendents the encourage- 
ment and cultivation of the missionary spirit in the young, who 
at the present time seem so generally and so deeply interested 
in all forms of Christian activity, and it would emphasize the 
importance of leading them to bring their contributions within 
the lines of work to which the Board by its appropriations 
stands pledged. 

Special mention should be made of the fact that during the 
last year fifteen missionaries have been sustained by individuals, 
some of whom have shown a very unusual degree of liberality 
in this method of preaching the Gospel in distant lands by 
proxy. Twenty-five have been supported by individual churches, 
and it has been found in several instances that bv adopting 
this plan the aggregate gifts of such churches have been 
increased two and sometimes three fold. The Christian En- 
deavor Societies, by grouping their contributions under the 
wise and systematic direction of Mrs. H. H. Fry. who has par- 
ticular oversight of all recognized special objects, have fur- 
nished the means of supporting twelve missionaries. 

Rev. Thomas Marshall, D.D., acting as Field Secretary of 
the Board, under the authorization of the General Assembly 
of 1890, has rendered a full and encouraging report of his ex- 
tended labors in the various synods of the Central West. His 
work has met with the approval and co-operation of pastors 
and churches so far as known. His labors have been unre- 



10 FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

mitted, b >th in correspondence with a view to the permanent 
organization of effort in the churches and Sabbath-schools, and 
in visitation of congregations, presbyteries, and synods. He has 
given encouragement to Woman's work for Missions by attend- 
ing the meetings of presbyterial societies and their auxiliaries. 
He has also visited, to some extent, colleges, theological semi- 
naries, and ladies' seminaries. Special attention has been given 
to stimulating the united co-operation of presbyterial and syn- 
odical committees. 

The Board has received during the year the following con- 
tributions: 

From Churches $332,960. 18 

Women's Boards 316,731.11 

Sabbath-schools 34,928.47 

Christian Endeavor Societies 9,035.60 

Individuals and miscellaneous sources . . 104,584.18 

Legacies 133,049.93 



Total $931,292.47 

The particulars of these receipts and of the Board's disburse- 
ments will be found in the financial report herewith sub- 
mitted. 

As the term of office of the following members of the Board 
has expired, the Board would respectfully request the Assem- 
bly to fill the vacancies by re-election or otherwise: Rev. W. 
M. Paxton, D.D.; Rev. J. D.Wells, D.D.; Rev. J. Balcom Shaw; 
Rev. David Gregg, D.D.; Messrs. E. M. Kingsley and Alexan- 
der Maitland. 

Finally, the Board would ask the General Assembly and the 
whole Church to unite with it in thanksgiving to the great 
Head of the Church for His continued blessing upon the many 
fields of labor and their laborers, and in earnest prayer that the 
cause so vital to the spread and to the very existence of the 
Church, may continue to share, and in ever-increasing measure, 
that Divine oversight and inspiration which are indispensable 
to its success. 

Special action of the Board in relation to certain matters handed 
down by the General Assembly. 

The attention of the Board has been called to a letter from 
Rev. William H. Roberts, D.D., Stated Clerk of the General 
Assembly, dated December 26th, stating that a letter had re- 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. I I 

cently been received by him from Rev. Norman L. Walker, 
D.D., of Dysart, Scotland, proposing that our Church under- 
take the maintenance of preaching at San Moritz, in the Enga- 
dine. Dr. Roberts also stated that the general subject of the 
supply of preaching stations in Europe by our ministry was re- 
ferred by the last General Assembly to the Board of Foreign 
Missions. (See Minutes of General Assembly, 1891, p. 134.) 

The action of the Assembly related to a report of its Com- 
mittee on Co-operation with the Protestant Churches on the 
Continent of Europe. The important clause in that action is 
as follows: 

"The necessity for this Committee does not appear to con- 
tinue, and it is suggested that it be discharged, and that the 
American Secretary of the Alliance be requested to communi- 
cate with the Secretaries of the Board of Foreign Missions, 
through which Board aid has been rendered to continental 
churches." 

"The resolution and recommendation was adopted and the 
committee discharged." (See Minutes of the General Assem- 
bly, 1890, pp. 47, 48.) 

The Board decided that in the present condition of its 
finances, and also in view of the nature of the work proposed, 
it be deemed inexpedient for the Board to make provision for 
the pulpit at San Moritz. (See Minutes of the Board herewith 
submitted, p. 136.) 

A letter of March 10, 1891, from Rev. Ben Oliel, of Jerusa- 
lem, addressed to the Stated Clerk of the General Assembly, 
and by him brought before the Assembly, was referred by that 
body to the Board of Foreign Missions. (See Minutes of Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1891, p. 109.) This letter proposed the co-op- 
eration in missionary work in Jerusalem by some one or more 
of the Presbyterian bodies in the U. S. A. with the writer. It 
was accompanied by a pamphlet complaining of the alleged 
persecution of a Presbyterian missionary in Jerusalem by an- 
other Protestant missionary society. Having given the above 
communications due consideration, the Board took the follow- 
ing action. (Minutes of Board, p. 134.) 

That inasmuch as the city of Jerusalem is already well occu- 
pied by other evangelical mission bodies, it is not properly a 
Presbyterian mission field, and that the Rev. A. Ben Oliel is 



12 FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

not sufficiently known to the Board to enable it to take any 
action regarding his plans or his complaint. (Letter of Rev. 
W. H. Roberts, D.D., Nov. 18, 1891, enclosing letter of Rabbi 
Ben Oliel, March 10, 1891.) 

The following action was taken upon a resolution of the As- 
sembly of 1S91 relating to the Board's Manual. (See Minutes 
of the Assembly, p. 109.) 

The committee on Dr. Nevius' resolution, relative to changes 
in the Manual, reported as follows: 

"The following resolution, introduced to the General Assem- 
bly in May, 1891, by Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D., of the Shantung 
Presbytery, was referred by the Assembly, upon recommenda- 
tion of its Standing Committee, to the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions, and the Board referred it to the undersigned for report 
after conference with the Council: 

' Resolved, That all rules proposed by the Board of Foreign Missions for 
the direction and control of the missionaries of our Church be first submitted 
to the missionaries in the different mission fields for suggestion and reported 
to the General Assembly, together with the other business proceedings of the 
Board.' 

"Your Committee held a meeting October 5, 1891, at which 
the author of the resolution presented to the Assembly, Rev. 
Dr. Nevius, was present by invitation. 

" In a carefully drawn paper, to which reference is made, Dr. 
Nevius, for himself and others, presented several objections to 
the matter and manner of the Manual last issued by the Board, 
also the reasons which led him to offer his resolution in the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

" The interview with Dr. Nevius was free, candid, and cordial. 

"A subsequent meeting in conjunction with the Council was 
held November 2, 1891, at which inquiries were made as to the 
character and extent of similar objections reaching the office 
through the regular correspondence. 

"As a result of these inquiries and examinations, your Com- 
mittee are of the opinion that the alleged grievances are sus- 
ceptible of easy adjustment by frank and friendly communica- 
tion with the Executive Officers and the concurrent action of 
the Board. 

"Neither this Board nor its Executive Officers have any wish 
or purpose to burden our missionaries unnecessarily, but the 
operations of the Board have attained such magnitude as to 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 13 

demand for its proper control a working code, general in its 
scope, simple in form, as moderate as the circumstances will 
allow in its demands upon the time of the missionaries, and 
easy of adaptation to the widely differing circumstances of the 
various nationalities and individualities with which we have to 
deal. 

"If, in the administration of the Board's affairs, 'all rules 
proposed by the Board are first to be submitted to the mission- 
aries in the different mission fields for suggestion,' every 
change of rules will require a special correspondence, not with 
twenty or thirty missions, but with three hundred or more mis- 
sionaries, bringing a harvest of 'suggestions,' and occasioning 
unreasonable delay. 

"In reply to the above resolution, your Committee recom- 
mend the adoption of the following Minute: 

"With regard to the first section of the resolution, while it 
would seem not always practicable that new rules should be 
submitted to the missions before adoption, yet, in the case of 
any amendment to the Manual, introducing radical changes in 
the internal administration of the missions themselves, the 
Board recognizes the propriety of consulting the missions be- 
fore final action. 

"As to the second section, the entire Minutes of the Board, 
including all its rules, being now subject to the review and ap- 
proval of the Assembly, the object aimed at in the resolution 
seems fully accomplished by the Assembly's present method. 

"Certain points in the statement of Dr. Nevius above men- 
tioned were referred to the same Committee and the Council." 

Further action was taken by the Board (see Minutes of the 
Board, March 21, 1892) as follows : 

" In view of the resolution touching the government of our foreign mis- 
sions, referred to the Hoard by the General Assembly at Detroit, upon which 
the Board has already taken action (see Minutes, pages 124 and 126), and sug- 
gestions received from time to time from missions and missionaries, it was 
resolved to take steps looking to the revision of the Manual now in use. The 
Council was directed to issue a circular-letter to the missionaries, asking them 
at their first regular meeting to consider the Manual, and to suggest such 
modifications as in their judgment are wise. It was also agreed that the in- 
dividual missionaries on furlough in the United States who would not return 
to their fields in season for the regular meeting of their respective missions, 
be requested to give their views on. the same subject in writing ; when the 



14 FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

answers are received, the Board to consider the consensus of opinion thus 
secured and take action in the premises." 

A communication was received from the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, dated 
April 12, iSy2, suggesting mutual correspondence and co- 
operation between that Committee and this Board in relation 
to the Foreign Mission work of these two branches of the Pres- 
byterian Church. This communication was heartily responded 
to by formal action of the Board, taken April 18th. Copies of 
the communication of the Executive Committee and the re- 
sponse of the Board are incorporated in the Board's Minutes. 
(See action of the meeting of April 18, 1892.) 

MISSIONARIES SENT OUT IN 1891-1892. 

Missions in Mexico. 
Miss M. L. Hammond. 

Mission in Colombia. 
Mrs. T. S. Pond. 

Mission in Brazil. 

Rev. and Mrs. Geo. W. Chamberlain, and children, returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. John M. Kyle, and child, returning. 

Dr. Horace M. Lane and daughter, returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. E. M. Pinkerton. 

Rev. F. J. Perkins. 

Miss M. K. Scott. 

Mission i?i Syria. 

Rev. and Mrs. W. W. Eddy, D.D., returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. F. W. March, and children, returning. 

Missions in Persia. 

Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Havvkes, returning. 

Miss Sue S. Lienbach. 

Miss Jessie C Wilson, M.D. 

Miss Letitia H. McCampbell. 

Mr. E. T. Allen. 

Miss Grace G. Russell. 

Miss H. L. Medberry. 

Miss Emma T. Miller, M.D. 



FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. I 5 

Mission in Siam. 



Miss Margaret Gait. 

Miss Annabel Gait. 

Dr. and Mrs. Walter B. Toy. 

Miss Elsie J. Bates. 

Mission to Laos. 

Rev. and Mrs. E. B. McGilvary. 
Miss Margaret A. McGilvary. 

Mission in Korea. 

Dr. and Mrs. H. M. Brown. 

Mr. J. S. Gale, appointed on the field. 

Missions in China. 

Rev. and Mrs. A. A. Fulton, returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. J. H. Laughlin, returning. 

Miss M. W. Niles, M.D., returning. 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert Coltman, returning. 

Mr. C. C. Jeremiassen, returning. 

Mrs. John Butler, returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. J. N. B. Smith, returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. J. N. Hayes, returning. 

Rev. and Mrs. S. B. Groves. 

Rev. Alfred E. Street. 

Miss J. M. S. Suter. 

Miss Margaret E. Woods. 

Rev. J. N. Young. 

Miss Edwina Cunningham. 

Rev. and Mrs. T. W. Houston. 

Rev. W. N. Crozier. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Mcintosh. 

Missions in Japan. 
Rev. A. V. Bryan, returning. 

Mission in Africa. 

Mrs. A. W. Marling, returning. 
Mr. Edward A. Ford. 
Miss Hulda Christiansen. 



16 FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 

Missions in India. 

Rev. and Mrs. J. M. McComb, returning. 

Rev. W. F. Johnson, D.D., returning. 

Rev. Dr. and Mrs. C B. Newton, returning. 

Rev. J. P. Graham, returning. 

Dr. F. J. Newton, returning. 

Miss Clara Thiede, returning. 

Miss Annie S. Geisinger, returning. 

Miss Emily G. Marston, M.D. 

Miss Clara E. Hutchison. 

Miss Mary K. Johnson. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Jolly. 

Miss Amanda Jefferson. 

Miss Emily T. Minor. 



J//SSIONS IN AFRICA. 
Gaboon and Corisco Mission. 

Baraka : on the Gaboon River, near the equator, 10 miles from the sea ; occupied as 
a station. 1842; transferred from American Board, 1870; laborers— Mr. E. A. Ford; 
Rev. Ntaka Truman ; two licentiates and one Bible-woman. 

ANGOM : above Nengenenge, on the Como River; occupied as a station, 1881 ; la- 
borers — Rev. and Mrs. Arthur \V. Marling, and Mrs. T. Spencer Ogden. 

Corisco : 55 miles north of the equator, and from 15 to 20 miles from the mainland ; 
occupied as a station, 1850 ; laborers — Rev. IHa F. Jkenge ; one native assistant and 
one Bible-woman. Outstation at Mbiko, on the mainland, opposite Corisco. 

Benito : 92 miles north of Gaboon ; occupied as a station, 1864 ; laborers — Rev. 
John McMillan, M.D., and wife; Mrs. Louise Reutlinsrer, Mrs. C. De Heer, Miss 
Hulda Christiansen, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Menkel, and Rev. Frank Myoiigo ; 4 male and 
1 female helpers, and 1 Bible-woman. Six outstations. 

Batanga : 170 miles north of Gaboon; occupied as a station, 1875; laborers — Rev. 
Messrs. G. A. Godduhn and W. C. Gault and their wives ; five male helpers, and one 
licentiate. Four outstations. 

KANGWE : on the Ogowe River, 130 miles from the sea, or 90 miles direct ; occupied 
as a station, 1876 ; laborers — Rev. Messrs. A. C. Good and Herman Jacot, and their 
wives ; French assistant, M. E. Presset ; two licentiates and four male helpers. Six 
outstations. 

Talaguga : on the Ogowe River, 80 miles above Kangwe ; occupied as a station, 
1882; laborers —Rev. Robert H. Nassau, M.D., Rev. and Mrs. W. A. Bannerman, Miss 
Isabella A. Nassau, and one native teacher. 

In this country : Rev. R. H. Nassau, M.D., and Miss Isabella A. Nassau. 

It is to be recorded with gratitude that the health of our missionaries 
in this trying climate has been quite up to the average during the year, 
although some of them had to seek a brief change south of the Congo. 
The sudden death of Mr. Robert Tissot, one of the French teachers, 
after a service of one month on the Ogowe, cast a dark shadow over 
the mission. Mr. Tissot, though a stranger, had impressed the mission 
as a man of devout piety, earnest purpose, and excellent ability. The 
force was increased during the year by the addition of Mr. E. A. Ford 
and Miss Hulda Christiansen, and by the return of Mrs. A. VV. Mar- 

It will be seen from the detailed reports that the ingatherings on the 
Ogowe and in the northern part of the field continue to be encouraging, 
while at most of the stations there seems to be evidence of an increas- 
ing spiritual life. After much patient waiting and earnest prayer a 
partial transfer of our mission work on the Ogowe has recently been 
made by the Board to the Societe des Kvangelique of Paris. Messrs. 
Allegret and Tiesseres of this Society, who spent a number of months 
last year in examining our field, with a view to selecting a location for 
permanent work in West Africa, reported so favorably that the Society 
immediately took steps looking to the accepting of at least some of 
our mission stations within French territory. After a careful examina- 
tion of the whole question, the Society signified its willingness to ac- 
cept Talaguga, our most northern station on the Ogowe. The Board 
promptly and cordially ordered its transfer, and it is expected that the 
French missionaries will enter upon their work in May. This intro- 

2 



18 GABOON AND CORISCO— KANGWE. 

duction of a French Protestant element into the field is welcomed by 
the Board as a pledge and promise of better things, as it is believed 
that the French Government will be more generous toward their own 
subjects than they have been toward American missionaries, and that 
their presence may secure some relaxation of the stringent rules in 
force. It is the purpose of the Board to labor side by side with the 
Evangelical Society unless, in the providence of God, the way shall 
open for a further transfer of the work. In view of the transfer of 
Talaguga the Board has authorized two members of the mission to ex- 
amine the country back of Batanga, and report on the feasibility of 
opening work in the interior. If the reports of explorers are to be 
credited, a relatively healthy country, peopled by a superior class of 
people, lies behind the coast belt. May the providence of God pro- 
tect the brethren who go on this pioneer mission and guide them into 
a promising field, removed from the blighting influence of foreign 
traders and from the malaria which infests the coast ! 

Kangwe Station. 

Beginning at the south the first station of importance is Kangwe, 
the centre of a great work which has already frequently gladdened the 
heart of the Church. Of the churches along the river Mr. Good 
writes : " The little church of thirty-five members which I found at 
Kangwe in 1885 nas novv become four flourishing churches, with an 
aggregate membership of three hundred and twenty-seven. During 
the year sixty-eight have professed their faith in Christ in baptism, 
eighty-nine have been enrolled as inquirers, and deducting all losses 
we have left two hundred and fifty-eight inquirers." Of these four 
churches, that at Olamba, twenty-five miles below Kangwe on the 
smaller branch of the river, was organized during the year with a member- 
ship of forty-three, and the inquiry-class numbers forty-five. Mr. Good 
has devoted about one week each month to these river churches, and 
held a quarterly communion in each. In some villages and churches 
a coldness had crept over many of the Christians, but at the close of 
the year there was a decided revival, especially among some of the 
young men. Six Bible-readers labored most of the year at various 
points along the Ogowe, and on the lakes connected with the river. 
These Bible-readers, besides being visited quarterly by Mr. Good, 
spent a month in Kangwe, receiving instruction in the Scriptures. 
Licentiate Mbora continues to hold forth the Word of Life among the 
Nkami at Enyonga, 75 miles below Kangwe. 

Educational. — Early in the year a school, which finally numbered 
60 boys, was opened by Mr. Jacot, and continued under his care until 
the arrival of Mr. Robert Tissot, a French teacher, whose unexpected 
death at the end of three months has been noted elsewhere. This sore 
dispensation again threw the school on Mr. Jacot until Mr. Presset, 
formerly of Baraka, returned from his furlough and was transferred to 
Kangwe. Eight of the lads were baptized on confession of their faith, 
and four were enrolled in the inquiry-class. Mr. Jacot thus refers to 
a difficulty in school work : "The chief obstacle to thorough work in 



GABOON AND CORISCO— TALAGUGA. 19 

the school has been the temptation for our scholars to get work as 
house-boys, etc., in the factories. The demand for Kangwe trained 
lads is constant, and on the other side the present dowry system com- 
pels a boy as soon as he can work to find from $70 to $100 in goods 
with which to purchase a wife. So far trade has been almost the only 
means open to them for getting goods, so that as soon as our scholars 
get a smattering of French, or are able to read a little, the temptation 
to find work at the factories is almost irresistible. When the dowry 
system has been overthrown, as is now already the case in our northern 
field, one motive for seeking goods will have been removed." Special 
instruction was given to some of the older boys who are likely to be- 
come useful helpers in the work. Two students for the ministry re- 
ceived such training as it was possible to give them by brethren who 
are pressed out of measure even without this added burden. It is 
much to be desired that some more adequate provision could be made 
for training helpers and preachers in this great field. 

Mrs. Good, whose health is far from rugged, has had a school for 
giils numbering from ten to twelve. They have been taught not only 
the rudiments of education, but such household industries as sewing, 
washing, etc. Six of them were enrolled during the year in the inquiry- 
class, and their lives are such as to encourage the hope that they are 
trying to follow Christ. This school meets a long-felt want. Much 
has been done for the men, but scarcely anything for the women. 
Were the way open this school could readily be greatly increased in 
numbers. 

Literary. — Notwithstanding his outside cares, Mr. Good devoted a 
good deal of time to the revision of the Mpongwe hymn-book in use, 
and the Mpongwe New Testament. Concerning the latter he writes : 
" Even in the Gospels there is hardly one verse in five that does not 
need some change, and when we come to the Epistles the old version 
is simply unintelligible in some places." It is hoped that provision 
will be made for the publishing of these books in the near future. 

Talaguga Station. 

Mr. Bannerman writes of his first year at this station almost enthu- 
siastically. With the aid of efficient native helpers regular services 
were maintained at the station, and a good deal of work done along 
the river. The missionary usually made three trips each week on the 
river, covering a distance of twenty-six miles, visiting and speaking in 
the various towns scattered along the banks. The only visible out- 
come thus far is the appearance of more tenderness and thoughtfulness 
in some lives and less of cruelty in others. Indifference and ingratitude 
seem to be giving place to a kindling of interest in the truth. In one 
instance the son of the chief met the missionary at the landing with 
the greeting: "Why are you so long in coming? Go to my father's 
palaver-house and I will call the people. We are glad to have you 
come to-day, for there are many strangers here from a three days' 
journey in the bush who will be glad to hear the Word of God." In 
this same direction Mr. Bannerman writes : " Besides our going out to 
meet the Pangvves many times, canoe loads of them come to our land- 



20 GABOON AND CORISCO — BARAKA. 

ing, usually having some strangers from the bush asking us to take 
them to the ' House of the Sabbath,' and tell them the ' words of 
God.' Occasionally they frankly tell us that they don't believe us ; 
that they have lived and died many generations ; that we are the first 
to tell them these wonderful words ; that they keep turning and turn- 
ing them over in their hearts and talking about them ; that we must 
not grow wearied telling them and visiting them, and perhaps by and 
by they will follow us. Should we neglect for some time to visit a 
town, they always complain at our next visit. Pangwes from the bush 
have many times prayed us to visit their towns and speak to their 
people, promising us all hospitality. The outlook for the future is 
promising. We believe that before many years there will be a large 
river population within easy reach of Talaguga. During this year 
thirteen towns have been built." 

Baraka Station. 

The time of the missionary in charge of this station continues to be 
largely occupied with secular cares. " Storing and shipping goods, 
declaring and computing duties, visiting Custom House officials, call- 
ing on other officials, overseeing workmen, making repairs and keeping 
accounts," are among the duties which have claimed much of Mr. 
Gault's time and strength. Happily he was relieved in a measure by 
Mr. Ford in July, so that he was able to turn his attention more fully 
to the spiritual part of the station work. Regular services have been 
maintained on the Sabbath, including, during part of the year, an 
afternoon service on the plateau, a mile from the mission premises, 
which was undertaken with the hope of reaching native Government 
employees. Mr. Ford has also given instruction to a class of Kroo 
boys, who are the boatmen and laborers on that part of the West 
Coast. Several indications of increasing interest in the church ser- 
vices and in the spiritual condition of the people are noted. Seven 
persons united with the church during the year, making a total mem- 
bership of fifty-one. Some outlying villages and plantations have been 
regularly visited by one of the elders, while the women and children in 
the villages within easy access of the station have been looked after by 
an experienced Bible-woman. A licentiate has been stationed at 
Ovendo Point, from which he has itinerated among the villages, but 
without being able to report any visible spiritual results. 

The school at this station felt the absence of Mr. Presset, who had 
been on furlough in Fiance on account of ill health, and who has 
since been transferred to Kangwe. The main difficulty with the school 
is that no adequate provision is made for boarding pupils, and that the 
children in the surrounding district cannot be relied upon to attend 
with regularity, their parents not sufficiently appreciating the oppor- 
tunity wiihin reach. Provision has been made for a fesv boys at the 
station, but if the school is to be conducted with success it is thought 
that boys must be secured from other parts of the field and kept under 
the immediate eye of the missionary. 

In addition to exacting household cares which devolve upon the 




Enokavfp by A-ir 



2 2 GABOON AND CORISCO — ANGOM. 

missionary lady at the port of entry, Mrs. Gault has revived the Women's 
Missionary Society, where in addition to regular services the women 
have been furnished with sewing, thereby contributing to the work of 
the Board. She has also conducted a women's prayer-meeting on 
Sunday afternoons, and organized a society for the improvement of the 
women, composed largely of those who as girls had attended the mis- 
sion school. These various efforts among the women are telling favor- 
ably in increased attendance on the usual means of grace. 

Angom Station. 

Mr. Marling, after an absence in the United States, resumed the 
charge of this station early last year. In addition to the usual relig- 
ious services at the station, he made several itinerating tours, preach- 
ing in the villages at a distance from Angom, where he reports attentive 
listeners to the Word. With a view to furthering the interests of the 
people, he also introduced several new kinds of industrial work, such 
as the planting of cacao and rubber trees and the making of bricks. 
It would be difficult to overestimate the importance of industrial 
training to the untutored African, especially when linked with instruc- 
tion for developing the mind and heart. 

The missionary in charge has conducted a school for boys in the 
Fang language, teaching enough French to meet the letter of the 
requirement of the Government. Mrs. Ogden has done a similar 
work for the girls, some of whom she had in her own family. Several 
things in Mrs. Ogden's report illustrate the difficulties under which 
work in Africa must be prosecuted. She writes : " Nearly all our 
little girls are wives, and are under the care of the older wives, who 
require their services every day. Last night one of the young wives 
was disrespectful to her husband, and received a cruel beating ; an 
older wife, attempting to remonstrate, was quickly informed that her 
own safety lay in her silence." Educational work prosecuted under 
such circumstances is not likely to make rapid progress. 

Another paragraph refers to the great confusion in two towns near 
by because of the death of one of the chiefs. A number of people, 
according to African custom, were accused of hastening his death, 
which was avenged by the tearing down of all his houses but one. 
The confusion thus occasioned could not fail for a time to operate 
adversely against mission work. She notes also the death of a little 
girl whose friends thought she would not be allowed to enter the spirit 
world because her cloth was not sufficiently fine. Some friends car- 
ried a few yards of bright new print and laid it upon her bed beside 
her so that the spirits might see it and not hinder her passage to the 
spirit world. Mrs. Ogden reports increasing interest in the prayer- 
meeting for women. Two of those in attendance seemed impressed 
with a sense of the wickedness of their hearts and lives and expressed 
a desire to lead a new life, inquiring anxiously whether it was possible 
to change when they were old. 

Literary. — Mr. Marling, with a native assistant, has translated the 
Gospel of Matthew into the Fang, composed several new hymns, and 



GABOON AND CORISCO — BENITO. 23 

prepared a catechism exposing some of the errors of Romanism with 
which the people of Angom are brought into close contact. This 
latter step seemed imperative because of the efforts of the French 
priests to entice the children away from Protestant influence. 

Mrs. Ogden has added to her numerous duties that of caring for the 
sick. 

The missionaries at Angom are full of hope, although they are 
unable as yet to report any ingathering into the kingdom. 

Benito Station. 

Hitherto the territory in this region has been understood to be in 
dispute between the Spanish and French Governments. Now, how- 
ever, the French seem to have assumed the control, and are insisting, 
though mildly as yet, on the restrictions which have so embarrassed 
our work on the Gaboon and Ogowe. Whether this is the result of an 
official compact between the governments or not, has not yet transpired. 
A letter was received during the year front Count De Brazza, the 
Governor-General of the French possessions along the coast, express- 
ing his appreciation of the efforts of our missionaries toward the 
civilization and moral uplifting of the people under the French flag. 
The reports mention with deep regret the breaking out of a tribal war 
during the year which greatly interfered with the ordinary current of 
life, and necessarily reacted against the mission work. Fields were 
left untilled, and a scarcity of food was the necessary consequence. 
Happily the war has terminated, and affairs are now moving on in the 
usual course. 

Dr. and Mrs. McMillan, who were assigned to this station with Mrs. 
DeHeer and Mrs. Reutlinger, have rendered good service at this sta- 
tion and outstations, as well as to our missionaries at the several 
stations where sickness had invaded the homes. 

The church has been under the care of a native pastor, Rev. Frank 
Myongo. Several persons had been received on confession of faith. 
Quite a step in advance has been taken by this church in the line of 
systematic beneficence. In addition to their usual collections for the 
Boards of the Church, the pastor suggested that the men should con- 
tribute each $1 every six months, and the women fifty cents. The 
congregation met on the day succeeding communion, and found that 
$50 had been raised in answer to the pastor's suggestion. After the 
fashion of American churches on an occasion of great rejoicing, the 
people rose and sang enthusiastically the old doxology. The collec- 
tion consisted of iron pots, oil, pomade, ringlets, calico, a keg of 
powder, cutlasses, etc. These goods were to be turned into money, 
and the proceeds applied to some specific object, possibly the support 
of a Bible-reader on the Benito river to labor among the strangers 
from the interior who are crowding down toward the coast. One of 
the Bible-readers had been up there holding services with over a 
hundred persons in attendance, and had learned that there were several 
inquirers still farther in the interior. A more recent account speaks of 
twenty-six inquirers among the people three days' journey in the in- 



24 GABOON AND CORISCO — BATANGA. 

terior, while six were admitted to the Bata church at the last com- 
munion. 

Dr. McMillan and Mr. Myongo visited the outstation Evitni, 
where there is a church organization. They found a deeply interesting 
state of things, and after some days' public services fifty-four persons 
were baptized on profession of their faith. The people at this place, 
as in other places already noted, have expressed a great desire for a 
school that their children may not be permitted to grow up in igno- 
rance. Possibly the enlargement of the school at Benito might answer 
the purpose for a time. 

Concerning the Girls Boarding-School, Mrs. DeHeer writes : 
" Our girls' boarding-school has been full and the health of the pupils 
very good. Their progress in study is the more marked as they began 
at the rudiments, and now nearly all can read the Word of God for 
themselves. Over thirty hymns have been committed to memory, as 
well as a child's Scripture catechism and a number of verses from 
God's Word for repeating at our family worship. In some instances, 
the parents, especially those who are Christians, have provided 
entirely or partially the clothing for their children in the school." 
This school is one of the most promising parts of the work at this 
station. 

Batanga Station. 

The year has been one of great blessing at this station. Fifty-six 
were baptized on confession of faith, and one hundred and seventy 
are still enrolled as inquirers. That the people have had " a mind to 
work " is evidenced by the extensive repairs made to the church build- 
ing at their own charges, and the contributing of $122 with which to 
send a Bible-reader into the " bush," besides liberal gifts at the 
monthly concert services. The ripeness of the whole field along the 
coast is illustrated by the call which Mr. Godduhn had to visit 
Mbenje and Bwenje, towns near the Campo river. In responding to 
these calls Mr. Godduhn made a very exhausting journey on foot. To 
his joyful surprise he found on arriving at his destination a house with 
rude benches and something answering the purpose of a pulpit. The 
house was soon filled to overflowing. The secret of this welcome to 
the missionary was that a young man who had been baptized by Mr. 
DeHeer some years before had returned to his home, telling of what 
he had seen and heard. The young people became interested and 
built the house for prayer. They had learned 'the Lord's Prayer and 
Catechism, and had told from Sabbath to Sabbath, as well as they 
could, the story of the Gospel. 

Provision for schools at this station is lamentably inadequate. 
There is urgent need of a boarding-school in which the boys from the 
towns along the coast may be gathered and trained for usefulness. An 
earnest plea is also made for a school for girls. Even the native men 
complain that their wives are ignorant and inefficient. The missionary 
here is also greatly burdened because of lack of time for instructing 
the Bible-readers and candidates for the ministry. With such a field, 
white to the harvest, well-equipped natives are indispensable if the 



LIBERIA. 25 

harvest is to be gathered. Mrs. Godduhn has done what she could to 
take up the work among the women formerly conducted by Mrs. Brier. 

The mission has recently assigned Mr. and Mrs. Gault to Batanga 
to be associated with Mr. and Mrs. Godduhn. 

No report has been received from Corisco, doubtless owing to the 
fact that Rev. Ibia K. Jkenje, the native minister in charge, has been 
for some time under arrest by the Spanish Government at Fernando 
Po for some supposed indignity to the Spanish authorities. While 
Ibia may have been in some measure at fault, he has by no means lost 
the confidence of the mission. Although forbidden to reside within 
Spanish territory for a year, he is now at Esterias, where he is in com- 
munication with the Bible-readers on Corisco Island and at Mbike on 
the mainland opposite. It is earnestly hoped that the way may open 
soon for his return to the field where for many years he has labored 
zealously and faithfully. 

The missionaries bear cheerful testimony to the efficiency of Captain 
Menkel, not only in the running of the Nassau, but also in the super- 
vising of building and repairs. Mrs. Menkel by her excellent spirit 
and her deep interest in the work has endeared herself to the mission- 
aries, and gained a firm hold on the affections of the natives. 

Statistics for Gaboon and Corisco. 

Ordained missionaries (one a physician) 8 

Married lady missionaries 8 

Unmarried lady missionaries 5 

Lay missionaries 3 

Ordained natives 3 

Native licentiates ■ 5 

Native teachers and helpers (male) 15 

Native teachers and helpers (female) 3 

Number of churches 10 

Communicants J.459 

Added during the year ... 292 

Number of schools 7 

Boys in boarding-school 78 

Girls in boarding-school 36 

Boys in day-school 47 

Girls in day-school 15 

Pupils in Sabbath-school 1,077 

Students for ministry 6 

Contributions $369 

Mission in Liberia. 

Monrovia : Rev. Frank R Perry. 

Brewerville: Rev. J. \V. N. Hilton. 

Clay-Ashland : Rev. Philip F. Flournoy, Prof. Alfred B. King. 

Glima, in the Vey country : Mr. R. D. King. 

Schieffelin : Mr. W. H. Blaine. 

Careysburgh : Rev. R. A. M. Deputie. 

Grassdale : Mr. John M. Deputie ; Mrs. S. E. Nurse at outstation of Mount Tabor. 

Greenville, Sinoe : Rev. D. \V. Frazier; Mr. J. E. Jones at outstation of Warney. 

Johnsonvillk : Elizabeth C. A. Perry. 

Qrsn, in Upper Virginia : Samuel J. George. 

The work in Liberia presents one of the most perplexing prob- 
lems in the missionary field. It lacks the large importance of the 



26 LIBERIA. 

general question of missionary work in Africa, and it is differen- 
tiated from the general question by the special and peculiar condi- 
tions which mark the population of Liberia. The elements which 
enter into the problem are indefinite, and the way in which they can 
best be handled is undetermined. The whole problem is an inter- 
esting one because of the light which it throws on the future of the 
colored race ; but the results which have thus far been attained in 
attempting to solve it have been unsatisfactory. 

The first settlement on the Liberian coast was made in 1821, by 
eighty-nine free blacks who sailed from New York. In April, 1822, 
a colony of manumitted slaves from the United States was planted 
by the American Colonization Society, which for twenty-five years 
retained the supervision of them, until the establishment of the re- 
public in 1847. The people have had their own government since 
then, modeled on that of the United States, having a President 
with his Cabinet, a Senate and a House of Representatives. The 
large number of political offices and the natural ambition of the 
people have not contributed to the best missionary results. In 
1890 the population comprised about 20,000 civilized negroes, 
chiefly of American origin, and 1,050,000 half wild natives gradu- 
ally coming under the influence of civilization. The government 
has had a large burden to carry in the poverty and ignorance of 
many of its subjects, even those who have come from the United 
States. Many of these colonists, instead of being missionaries to 
the heathen, became degraded themselves, adopting the vices and 
even the superstitions of heathenism. The principal native tribes 
are the Veys, the Bassos, the Kroos, and the Mandingoes. The 
Veys are so far remarkable that, with the exception of the Tauriks, 
they are the only indigenous people in Africa who have invented an 
alphabet for their language. The hope that the Liberians would 
evangelize these tribes has not been realized ; but, remembering 
how disorders of various kinds have often marked the beginnings of 
communities which have subsequently exercised important and 
beneficial influence, there is no reason to despair of Liberia ; for, 
while compared with more civilized countries its present condition 
is unfavorable, it is far superior to the normal barbarism of West 
Africa. 

Among the societies working in Liberia are the African Baptists' 
Foreign Missionary Convention, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the Free Methodist 
Church, the Protestant Episcopal Church, the United Brethren in 
Christ, and our own Board. Some years ago the policy of sending 
white missionaries to Liberia was abandoned by the Board, with re- 
sults not wholly satisfactory, although at the time there was some- 
thing to be said on each side of the question. The Board has not 
had, therefore, in the field during the past year any one who was so 
thoroughly en rapport with its conditions and needs as to keep it 
accurately informed of the state and progress of the work. Even 
the minutes of the last meeting of the Presbytery of Liberia were 
not sent to the Board, and any facts have had to be gathered from 



LIBERIA. 27 

the scattered reports of the schools and churches. During the year 
Mr. Hilton was ordained by the Presbytery, and Mr. Flournoy, for 
a gross offence, was suspended. It was with some surprise that the 
Board received a visit from the Rev. D. W. Frazier during the year. 
He had come from Greenville, Liberia, to obtain the release of a 
young Liberian imprisoned in the State of New York. By remark- 
able energy and persistence he attained his end, and went back im- 
mediately to his work. 

The schools have been maintained as usual, although the policy 
is not altogether an unquestionable one, unless they can receive 
more supervision and be placed on a satisfactory basis. One or two 
of the schools have not sent any reports, and this may account for 
the apparent decrease in the number of pupils. The largest and 
best school is that taught by Alfred B. King, at Clay-Ashland, upon 
which, as a foundation, the reports for some years have spoken of 
erecting a larger and better equipped establishment, with special 
reference also to training young men for the ministry. Seme of the 
teachers show an excellent spirit, not alone teaching the children 
ordinary branches, but also helping them spiritually. Little sen- 
tences like this occur : " There are many in Glima brambles seek- 
ing redemption." "I feel that I am doing so little for Christ when 
He has done so much for me." School work is not free from diffi- 
culties. One of the teachers writes that not very much can be 
accomplished in a native town, because just as soon as school hours 
are over the children take up the practices of their parents. There 
seems to be a general lack of books also. 

Some of the churches may not have reported, but the aggregate 
number of members, apparently, is larger than that of last year. The 
workers in charge of the churches seem to have been faithful with 
one or two exceptions, but there is not enough earnest, intense, aggres- 
sive spiritual power among them. Almost all the letters from them 
speak of the ignorance against which they have to contend, and be- 
seech the Board to support and encourage them. Thus one writes, 
naively: " Presbyterianism does not favor ignorance; therefore, to 
destroy the pernicious effects of it, you must maintain the vindi- 
cators of your mission, that our plants may have depth of earth to 
withstand the storm." 

It is not difficult to point out the special needs of the work in 
Liberia. The first of them is spirituality — not religiousness, but 
the true Christian spirit, unselfishly dominating the whole life. The 
second is aggressiveness. The climate is against it. It has been 
the general belief that there is no such element in the character of 
the people ; but the large increase of men employed in the carrying 
trade in Central Africa indicates that the African will work. The 
third need is that the Christians of Liberia should set to work earn- 
estly and vigorously to evangelize the native tribes, and to open 
the way, if it be possible, into the interior. Great good could un- 
doubtedly be done if there should be schools for the education of 
the children and for the training of young men of an intense and 
Christian character. It will not do to train these young people in 



28 LIBERIA — CHURCHES, SCHOOLS. 

this country; that rather disqualifies them for service among their 
own people. Much could be done, doubtless, also, if the recom- 
mendation in the report of 1890 were adopted, and a few qualified 
white ministers were sent to Liberia. It is with this purpose in 
mind that the Board has recently appointed the Rev. Robert Coch- 
ran, of Harrisburg, Pa., a missionary to Liberia. There is need 
for renewed and earnest study of the whole question of the Liberian 
work, and, having assumed the responsibility of a share in it, we 
dare not be content with anything less than the fullest and most 
intelligent efforts for the Christianization of the State and the 
evangelization of the native tribes lying inland from the coast. 
Rev. A. C. Good, of the Gaboon and Corisco Mission, has been 
sent to Liberia to ascertain the condition of the work and report to 
the Board. This report has not been received in time to be incor- 
porated here. 

CJmrchcs. 

Monrovia 55 

Clay-Ashland 51 

Brewerville 18 

Careysburgh 14 

Beadle Memorial at Grassdale 32 

Marshall 16 

Schieffelin 36 

Greenville, Sinoe 8r 

Granger, Johnsonville 12 

315 
Schools. 

Clay-Ashland 54 

Schieffelin 10 

Grassdale 19 

Mt. Tabor 10 

Careysburgh 19 

Glima 5 

Qush, Upper Virginia 15 

Warney 16 

Granger, Johnsonville 22 

Brewerville 30 



MISSIONS IN CHINA. 
Canton Mission. 

Canton : Rev. Messrs. H. V. Noyes, B. C. Henry, D.D., A. A. Fulton, O. F. Wis- 
ner, and A. Beattie and their wives; J. G. Kerr, M.D., J. M. Swan, M.D., and their 
wives; Miss Hattie Lewis and Miss Mary W. Niles, M.D. At Macao: Rev. J. C. 
Thomson, M.D., and wife. At Mui-luk : Mr. C. A. Colman. 

Lien Chow: E. C. Machle, M.D., Rev. \V. H. Lingle, and their wives; and Miss 
Louise Johnston. 

Hainan: Kiung Chow : H. M. McCandliss, M.D., Rev. J. C. Melrose and their 
wives ; Mr. C. C. Jeremiassen, Rev. Alfred E. Street, and Miss J. M. S. Suter. Nodoa : 
Rev. Frank P. Oilman and wife. 

In this country : Mrs. \V. J. White, Miss Hattie Noyes, Miss E. M. Butler, and Miss 
M. H. Fulton, M.D. 

Native ministers : Rev. Lai Po Tsttn, Canton ; Rev. U. Sik-kau, Mui-luk ; and Rev. 
Kwan Lot, Lien Chow. Unordained evangelists, 23 ; assistants, 19 ; teachers, 44 ; Bible- 
women, 15. 

The health of the missionaries of the Canton Mission has remained 
good during the year, with a few serious exceptions. In the month of 
July, Rev. Wellington White, while at home on leave of absence, was 
instantly killed by being thrown from a carriage at Elmira, N. Y. At 
the same time two children, one of whom was a daughter of Mr. White, 
were killed, and Mrs. White was so seriously injured that she has 
been laid aside for many months. This sad accident, produced by 
collision with a railroad train, gave a violent shock to the mission 
circle in Canton, to the Board, and to thousands of friends of missions 
at home and abroad. 

During the year Miss Hattie Noyes, Miss E. M. Butler, and Miss 
M. H. Fulton, M.D., returned to the United States on leave of 
absence. Mr. and Mrs. A. A. Fulton and family, and Miss M. W. 
Niles, M.D., returned after a leave of absence to their work in the 
mission. Mr. C. C. Jeremiassen returned to his field after a short 
leave of absence, and late in the year Rev. Alfred E. Street and Miss 
J. M. S. Suter were added to the mission force in Hainan. Miss N. E. 
Hartwell was also received into the Canton Mission by marriage to 
Rev. Andrew Beattie. 

A new station at Lien Chow was formally established, it having 
been occupied by Dr. and Mrs. E. C. Machle, Rev. and Mrs. W. H. 
Lingle, and Miss Louise Johnston. During the year Rev. Frank P. 
Oilman and wife, of Hainan, took up their residence at Nodoa, 90 
miles from Kiung Chow. 

Although various parts of China have been more or less disturbed 
by mob violence during the year, the Canton Province has remained 
tranquil with the exception of some tritling demonstrations at Yeung 
Kong. 

The mission received a short visit from Dr. Gillespie, Secretary of 
the Board. 



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CHINA — CANTON. 3 1 

Churches of the Canton Mission. 

i. The Canton First Church has been under the care of Messrs. 
Noyes and Wisner, its native pastor having resigned during the year. 
The chapel in which this congregation had long worshipped having 
been sold, it united with another organization, occupying its chapel 
jointly. 

2. Canton Second Church, Rev. B. C. Henry, D.D., stated supply. 
This church was organized in 1872 with 12 members. It is the focus 
of various forms of work, and gathers in the results of schools, hospital, 
and general evangelistic work in a large and important section of the 
city. The audiences have been large, including pupils of the Girls' 
School and patients from the Canton hospital. Rev. Kwan Loi, who 
for some years has been pastor of this church, was removed to the Lien 
Chow church in April. The various religious services of the week 
have been kept up. 

3. San-ui First Church, Rev. J. C. Thomson, M.D., stated supply. 
A revival of religious interest is reported in this church, especially 
toward the latter part of the year. The death of Rev. Wellington 
White was particularly felt in this church and community. Generous 
contributions have been made for a memorial chapel to be built at 
this point which shall serve as a monument to the years of faithful 
service rendered by Mr. White. Five baptisms were reported during 
the year. 

4. Canton Third Church, Rev. Dr. Henry, stated supply, reports 
regular and well-attended services and a good degree of interest. An 
important dispensary work is carried on in connection with this 
church. 

5. Chik Horn First Church. — This organization was formed in 1882 
with 19 members. A good degree of interest is reported during 
the year. A faithful native elder who died in June is much lamented 
by the congregation. Eight additions have been made and three new 
elders ordained. The membership of the church represents two or 
three outstations. 

6. Shck Lung Church has been under the supervision of Dr. Henry. 
Regular services have been maintained in connection with this church. 
The aggregate attendance has been good. 

7. Liu Po Church, which is also under the care of Dr. Henry, has 
shown a good degree of activity. The services held at two points 
have been well attended. At one communion seventy communicants 
were in attendance. The fidelity of the church members in striving to 
win others to Christ is commended. 

8. Lien Chow First Church, under the care of Rev. Kwan Loi, has 
maintained regular services, which at times have been largely attended. 
Two new elders have been elected. The communion services, both at 
Sam Kong and at Lien Chow, have been largely attended. Outstation 
services have been maintained. 

9. Yeung Kong Church. — Organized in 1890 by Rev. J. C. Thom- 
son, with 12 members. During the year the interest has been 
good, and six adults and four infants have been baptized. There is a 



32 CHINA — CANTON. 

goodly number of inquirers, about twenty of whom seem near the 
point of openly professing Christ. One elder has been elected. 

10. Kang Hau Church. — This organization, formed in 1890 by Dr. 
Henry, began with n members. This place is in what is known as 
the Hakka District. During the year the Board made a grant of $800 
for the erection of mission buildings which shall supply at least a tem- 
porary provision for this new and interesting field. The Hakkas are 
regarded as among the most hopeful of all the various classes of popu- 
lation in the Canton Province. 

11. Tai Kat Church. — This was organized by Dr. Henry in 1891. 
Tai Kat is one of the outstations which gather in church members 
who have removed from Canton, together with others who have been 
won more or less through their influence. Two elders have been 
elected and ordained. There are several applicants for baptism. 
Services are maintained at three adjacent points. 

12. San-ning First Church was organized in 1891 by Dr. Thom- 
son. Two elders were ordained by Messrs. Noyes and Thomson. 
Twenty-three Christians united in celebration of the Lord's Supper. 
The place is regarded as a centre of excellent promise, several small 
outstations feeling its influence. The presence of numerous returned 
Californian Chinamen gives thrift and prosperity to this district, and 
it is a fact which should give great encouragement to all who are 
laboring for the Chinese in America to know that of eighty persons 
enrolled as followers of Christ in this region, seventy were converted 
abroad. 

13. Fa-ti Church in the suburb of Canton, and in connection with 
the Men's and Boys' Training School, was organized in 1891. Services 
are conducted by the missionaries and native teachers of the school. 
At the organization 32 were received, and 5 joined on the following 
Sabbath. 

It will thus be seen that thirteen churches have been established in 
the Canton Province, including those of Canton City. These are 
centres in a vast population which is mainly and almost exclusively 
the original home of Chinese in this country. They are so placed as 
to be able to welcome back those who return from the United States 
and other lands, where thousands of their number have seen only 
damaging misrepresentations of Christianity, but where, also, an im- 
portant and influential class have not only learned the difference be- 
tween Christian nations and Christianity, but have become experi- 
mentally the followers of Christ. This Province occupied by these 
churches is therefore, in a sense, a great battle-ground of moral and 
religious influence with the evil prejudice and multiform error in our 
day and generation. It is a field which should call forth the earnest 
prayers of the Church of every name ; and it must be a matter of re- 
joicing, that, although great numbers are not reported as having been 
received into the fellowship of the Church, yet healthy progress is 
seen, and for the most part a spirit of fidelity and self-denying effort 
is witnessed in the churches. It is a matter of further encouragement, 
that the little organizations of Christian Chinamen on our own Pacific 
coast are not only interested in, but contributors to, this hopeful work 



CHINA— CANTON. 33 

of the Canton Province In addition to the churches two chapels in 
Canton City have been kept open and supplied with regular preach- 
ing during the year. The contributions of the year in the thirteen 
churches have amounted to $363. There are 587 pupils reported in 
the Sunday-schools. The total membership is 814, a gain of 116 
over last year. 

Educational J I 'ork. 

The Training and Boarding-school for Men and Boys at Fa-ti has 
enjoyed an unusual degree of prosperity. It has three departments 
of instruction, embracing secular instruction, but with the constant 
aim to develop Christian life. Its motto is, "For Christ and the 
Church." As heretofore, the institution has been under the care of 
Revs. H. V. Noyes and O. F. Wisner, the former having charge of 
the Biblical and Theological, the latter of the Scientific Department. 
The total enrollment has been 97, with a constant attendance of 80. 
Fifteen of the pupils in the advanced department are theological 
students. Sabbath services, including preaching, prayer-meetings, 
Sunday-school, etc., have been regularly maintained. Forty of the 
ninety-seven pupils are communicants ; twenty-five more not yet 
communicants have been baptized in childhood. Nearly all the out- 
stations are represented in this school. Its capacity is full, and further 
applicants are necessarily rejected. The school report says, "Some 
time since, a gentleman gave us $100, to be a nucleus of funds for an 
industrial department, enabling scholars in some measure to become 
self-supporting"; and it further adds, "The number of missionaries 
must always be limited, and the bulk of the routine work and preach- 
ing must be done by trained assistants. Every new outstation, school, 
and church calls for assistants, and there must be a new supply to re- 
place those who have finished their work on earth. Hence the urgent 
necessity for enlarging and strengthening the training-schools of the 
mission. In view of the blessing which has rested upon the institu- 
tion during the year now past and its present hopeful outlook, our 
friends who support it at home, as well as those who manage it here, 
may thank God and take courage." 

Day-schools for Boys. — Eight of these are under the care of Dr. 
Henry, one of which is in Canton City. The others are connected 
with churches and outstations in the country. In several instances 
school-houses are provided rent-free by generous-hearted Chinese, who 
thus evince their interest in the Christian schools of their neighbor- 
hood. In these day-schools the total enrollment is 180, and the prog- 
ress satisfactory. Eight day-schools have been under the care of Dr. 
J. C. Thomson, with an enrollment of 140. These, also, are scat- 
tered among various stations. A number are in those districts from 
which the Chinese go to California and elsewhere; one is supported 
by a Chinese Sunday-school in Buffalo, N. Y. ; another by a Chinese 
class in the First Presbyterian Church of Bergen, Jersey City, N. J ; 
another is supported by a lady in San Rafael, Cal. Numbers from 
these schools have come to Canton to pursue their studies in the 
training-school. These day-schools in the outstations are seed-beds 
of Christian influence. 



34 CHINA — CANTON. 

The Canton Girls' Seminary is well known throughout the Church. 
It is unfortunate that its founder and veteran teacher, Miss Hattie 
Noyes, is compelled to be absent on account of impaired health. 
Miss Butler has also been obliged to ask leave of absence. Miss 
Hattie Lewis has been left, therefore, in responsible charge of the 
institution, but fortunately the work of past years has largely supplied 
the needs of the school in this emergency. Six well-trained Chinese 
Christian teachers have shown faithfulness and ability in maintaining 
the course of instruction, and the general prosperity of the school. 
A seventh teacher also labored faithfully during three months of the 
year. The number of pupils enrolled during the year, exclusive of 
the medical ciass, was 142. The medical women and girls were trans- 
ferred to the medical school department of the hospital in November. 

The instruction in this girls' school is, to a large extent, religious. 
The text-books are the Bible and the various books explaining the 
Scriptures, or bearing upon religious life, and are graded from the 
simplest primers up to Church History and the evidences of Chris- 
tianity. The more advanced pupils are taught to write abstracts of 
the Sabbath morning sermons. Western science is taught to a limited 
extent, also more or less of the Chinese Classics. There is a class in 
instrumental and vocal music. Moreover, all are taught to join in 
singing. A Monday evening prayer-meeting is attended and con- 
ducted by pupils in the institution. On Tuesdays there is a more 
general prayer-meeting. The school missionary society, which meets 
once a month, employs a Bible-reader and a tract distributor ; and a 
sewing circle makes garments for the needy. During the year 13 of 
the pupils have been received into the Church. The total number 
who have been hopefully converted in this school and have joined the 
Church from the first is 168. At the quarterly communion seasons of 
the Second Church various Bible-readers who have been trained in 
this school and are now employed in outstations, are accustomed to 
meet and bring in their reports of encouragements or discouragements 
in their work. Jt is difficult to accommodate all who come in at these 
times, as they are accompanied by inquirers seeking instruction. 
"When," says the school report, "are we to have the funds for the 
needed expansion of our work?" 

Girls' Day-Schools. — Twelve of these are under the care of Miss 
Lewis, mostly in and around Canton. They are regularly visited each 
week, and examined upon Christian lessons which have been studied. 
At such visits a service is held for the school and the women who 
gather from the neighborhood. It is to be regretted that, although 
these pupils receive many truths of the Gospel, yet the fact that they 
live in heathen homes is a barrier in most cases against an open pro- 
fession. Mrs. Dr. Kerr, Mrs. Noyes, and Mrs. Henry have girls' 
schools under their care, in which regular instruction is given. The 
total number in these schools is 370. 

The Orphanage, under the care of Mrs. Henry, has this year re- 
ceived four additional waifs, one of whom died in spite of excellent 
care. There are now sixteen girls, the two eldest studying medicine 
under Dr. Niles, and nine of them are in the Canton Seminary, where 



CHINA — CANTON. 35 

one of them acts as assistant teacher and gives much satisfaction. 
Six of the number are members of the church. 

Literary Work. 

Dr. Henry has finished the translation of the book of Daniel into 
Cantonese. He is also far advanced in the translation of Isaiah. 
Mr. Wisner has prepared a volume of sermons, selected from those 
preached by members of the mission during the year. An edition of 
200 will be printed and distributed among the native helpers. 

Hospital and Medical Work. 

The work at the hospital has been conducted under the direction 
of Drs. Kerr and Swan. During the first half of the year Dr. Mary 
Fulton assisted in the women's department, and Dr. Mary W. Niles 
assumed charge on her return from the United States in September. 
Two thoroughly-trained medical assistants have been able to dis- 
charge a large part of the routine duties in this institution, and an 
efficient female assistant, though still a student, has rendered valuable 
help. Dr. Kerr has been obliged, on account of impaired health, to 
be absent from his post for some time, and has at length sought a 
leave of absence for a year in the United States. Important surgical 
operations have been performed by Drs. Kerr, Swan, and Niles, and 
many minor operations by the medical assistants. The reported list 
of 22,452 out-patients, 1,269 in-patients, and about 2,200 surgical 
operations will convey some idea of the extent of this benevolent 
and Christlike work. The influence of Medical Missions carried on 
in the name and in the spirit of Christ becomes continually more and 
more manifest, as leavening heathen communities with favorable im- 
pressions, and a corresponding readiness to receive Christianity with 
all the munificent and blessed influences which attend it. 

Evangelistic work among the patients was carried on during the 
year by Rev. Kwan Loi, while pastor of the Second Church, and by 
a Chinese evangelist, Mr. Sz To Nam Tat. Among other services, 
daily morning and evening prayers were maintained, and preaching 
services on the Sabbath about half the time. Dr. Henry has preached 
in the hospital chapel, and conducted morning prayers when his other 
engagements admitted. The patients are gathered into classes on 
Sunday mornings, and religious instruction is given by the physicians 
and members of the church. The patients are visited in the wards 
by native evangelists, the physicians also taking part in this work. 
Christian books are kept in the wards for those who can read. 
Many of the patients have their own attendants, and the aim is to 
give these, as well as the patients, as much knowledge of the Gospel 
as possible. Mr. Wong, the blind colporteur, has gone daily from 
ward to ward instructing the patients, but in December he was called 
to his rest. Four men and eight women have been received into the 
church from the hospital. During the year Dr. Swan has sent out to 
the missionary in charge of country work over one thousand names 
and addresses of patients who have been in the hospital, that they 



36 CHINA — CANTON. 

might continue to be the objects of religious influence. A native 
colporteur has also been furnished with a duplicate of this list, and 
has made thirteen trips in the province, visiting them in their homes. 
He has been well received, and of three hundred and ninety thus 
visited, forty-two have shown special interest in the truth. Another 
colporteur has been doing the same kind of work in and around the 
city. 

A hospital school has been maintained without interruption and 
with good success. The largest attendance at any one time was 
forty, and the least twenty-eight. A number of the pupils have 
entered the training-schools. Through this school Christian instruc- 
tion, in the form of books, has been sent into nearly two hundred 
families. 

Two Bible-women have been faithfully at work in the hospital 
wards. Another Bible-woman, supported by the Long Run Church, 
has been working in the wards, and has paid particular attention to 
out-patients. 

A medical class has been conducted by Dr. Leung Kin Cho, a 
former graduate. The class numbers ten young men and seven 
young women. Lectures have been given by Drs. Kerr, Niles, and 
Fulton, also Messrs. Ho and Wan. Dr. Wan has translated into 
Chinese Bruce's "Therapeutics," Semple's "Pathology and Morbid 
Anatomy," and is now working at Powell's " Diseases of Children." 

The dispensary work at Sz Pai Lau, on the premises of the Third 
Church, has been carried on by Dr. Fulton, and later in the year by 
Dr. Niles. The Fa-ti dispensary has been conducted by the same 
physicians and assistants. Evangelistic work is maintained, as far as 
possible, at both these points. 

Ontstations. 

Eleven of these are under the care of Dr. Henry, namely : 

Sha-ho. — Six miles east of Canton, opened in 1880. There is 
regular preaching on market days, which occur two or three times a 
week, and considerable itinerating is done in the district. 

Tai-kat. — Thirty miles north of Canton, opened in 1887. The 
chief event of the year has been the organization of the Tai-kat 
Church, the result of four years' work in the neighborhood. Scores 
of neighboring villages are reached from this point. 

Ching-to-ling. — Fifteen miles north of Tai-kat, opened 1891. The 
work here centres about an interesting school, whose teacher is a 
graduate. 

Ngo-tau. — Thirty miles north of Tai-kat, opened in 1889. The 
chapel and school constitute an interesting centre. A widespread 
community is reached. 

Shek-lung. — Sixty miles east of Canton, opened in 1880. This is a 
hard field, the people being given wholly to idolatry. The assistant, 
however, visits the people in their villages, and is faithful and per- 
sistent. The chapel is kept open. One woman, the wife of a man 
who has long suffered persecution, has been baptized, together with 
her son. 



CHINA — CANTON. 37 

Sam-Kong. — Eight miles east of Shek-lung. Sixteen Christians 
reside here. Regular services have been maintained. Three have 
been received into the church. 

Wong-un. — Twenty miles northeast of Shek-lung, opened in 1889. 
The school at this point having been broken up by evil-minded per- 
sons, the teacher is engaged in itineration, visiting many villages. 
Four persons have been baptized. 

Liu-po. — Seventy miles east of Canton, opened in 1880. Here are 
the Liu-po Church and Chapel, and a school for girls and one for boys. 
Faithful work has been done by the native preacher and a Bible- 
woman in the surrounding villages. Daily evening services are held. 
Eight persons have been received into the church. 

Tai-long. — Six miles from Liu-po, opened in 1882. Regular visits 
have been made to this place, and services have been held at the 
homes of Christians. 

Ap-chi-ling. — Twelve miles from Liu-po, opened in 1889. The 
work is very encouraging, the truth having spread into six or seven 
neighboring villages, in each of which Christians may now be found. 
The people are erecting a building for chapel and school-house with- 
out any pecuniary help from the Board. Eight of the members 
received into the Liu-po Church are the fruit of the work at this place. 
The people are very poor, but hopeful and devoted. 

Kang-hau. — On the lower section of the Lien Chow River, 210 
miles by water from Canton, opened in 1888. In connection with 
the work at this point, there are the chapel and school at Kang-hau, 
and the school at Shui-sam-pa. The work here, which is among the 
Hakkas, is full of interest and encouragement. The native assistant 
and colporteur have faithfully visited many villages, finding a favor- 
able reception. From several places requests have been sent for 
schools, with offers of buildings rent free. Eight hopeful converts 
have been received into the church. The number of earnest inquirers 
is increasing, and the circle of Christian influence constantly widening. 

Nine outstations have been under the care of Rev. J. C. Thom- 
son, M.D. 

San-ui City. — Eighty miles southwest of Canton ; work begun in 
1S71 with a boys' school, followed by a chapel in 1872. The Tai-chak 
school has been carried on successfully. 

Chik-hom. — One hundred and fifteen miles southwest from Canton, 
opened in 1877. The interest is increasing, with opening oppor- 
tunities for substations and schools. 

Chung- lau. — One hundred and forty-five miles southwest of Canton, 
opened in 1880. The evangelistic opportunities are good. The recent 
establishment of the San-ning Church, with an elder from this point, is 
an auspicious indication. The surrounding field is populous and 
prosperous. 

JSio-fu. — One hundred and forty-five miles southwest from Canton, 
opened in 1880. The receptiveness of the people at this point is 
marked. Arrangements have been made for a Christian school. A 
newly-elected elder resides at this place. 

San-cheung-fau. — One hundred and five miles southwest from 



38 CHINA — CANTON. 

Canton, opened in 1S84. A number of Christians reside at this place, 
among whom is an elder of one of the churches. Christians of all 
denominations are constantly passing this point. 

Lo-kwan-f ong. — In the Yan-ping district, 12 miles from Chik-hom 
(which is 115 miles southwest from Canton), work begun 1887. Here 
resides " the faithful basket-maker," who was this year ordained elder 
of the Chik-hom Church. His name and character are widely known. 
One member was received into the church. The school has been 
prosperous. 

San-ning City. — The largest walled city in a populous district of the 
same name, about 140 miles southwest of Canton. The chapel was 
opened in 1888. The preacher of this church was sent in August to 
assist in the Chinese work in California, but was sent back from 
Yokohama by the United States Consul on the ground that he would 
be regarded as only a laborer, and therefore could not be permitted to 
enter the United States. In his absence a volunteer has done a good 
work without compensation. 

Ku-tsing, — The chapel built at this point has centralized the work 
of the district. It was erected by the subscriptions of Chinese Chris- 
tians in America, and services have been maintained by an elder of the 
San-ui Church. Six have been received by baptism and certificate 
into the San-ui Church from this place. There is an earnest call for 
an extension of the work in this promising district. 

Macao. — Since 1884 good work has been done in the chapel and 
schools at this place. The Sunday services have been well attended 
throughout the year. Work from house to house has been done by 
missionary ladies and a Bible-woman. Two natives from this place 
have been enrolled in the San-ui Church. 

Yeung Kong and Mui-luk, under the care of Messrs. Thomson, 
Beattie, and Colman. These places, situated in the southwestern part 
of the province, were opened (Yeung Kong) in 1886 and (Mui-luk) 
1888. In July there were serious threatenings of disturbance ; placards 
urging expulsion were posted up, but the difficulty gradually subsided. 
Four adults were received in April into the Yeung Kong Church, and 
two others in December. The native minister, Rev. U. Sik-kau, for- 
merly pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Canton, has 
been stationed at Mui-luk, where he has been well received. Dur- 
ing the year a "plague" broke out in Mui-luk, where two or three 
thousand persons died. The medical work carried on through native 
assistants under the direction of Dr. Thomson embraced 16,587 
patients. Mr. Beattie has fitted up comfortable headquarters for 
mission work at Yeung Kong, and through the liberality of a 
friend in Morristown, N. J., has also opened a reading-room. Dr. 
Thomson has had the happiness of baptizing a native friend of 
whom he was a guest some years since, and through whom several 
neighbors have received the truth. The prospects of work in Yeung 
Kong are good. The greater accessibility of the southwest field is 
specially noted by the mission, on account of the opening up of lines 
of steam launches from Hong Kong and Macao. 

Since Mr. Fulton's return to China he has been busy with his 



CHINA — LIEN CHOW. 39 

" floating chapel and dispensary," in which, with a full force of assist- 
ants, he can go from place to place along the rivers. Especially in 
the region of San Cheung-fau has his work been satisfactory. 

In a little more than two months he and his assistants have preached 
in a hundred villages, and had 1,500 applicants for medical aid. These 
also heard the Gospel and received tracts on the boat. The expenses 
of the boat and preachers' salaries are met by Young People's So- 
cieties of Christian Endeavor in America. 

Lien Chow Station. 

The full occupation of the Lien Chow Station is a matter of much 
satisfaction and gratitude. The work connected with this station has 
been already referred to among the different departments named 
above, but special reference to the general interests and outlook of 
the station seems called for. Dr. and Mrs. Machle, and Miss John- 
ston assumed occupation of the new buildings which had been pre- 
pared at Sam Kong, ten miles from Lien Chow, early in May. For- 
tunately, Mrs. Machle's health, which had been precarious, has im- 
proved in her new residence. Their work has been unmolested. At 
the end of October they were joined by Mr. and Mrs. Lingle, whose 
accession to the force created no apparent hostility. The efforts and 
desires of years have thus been crowned with success, though an ear- 
lier occupation of Lien Chow was violently resisted. This is the more 
remarkable, as Sam Kong lies very near the border of the Province 
of Hunan, which during the year has been so violently disturbed. 
"While the hostile gentry and officials have been guarding the front 
entrance toward the Yang-tsze, we have quietly entered by the back 
entrance over the hills of Lien Chow, and found a favorable recep- 
tion amongst the people, and believe that a most important work is 
to be done in this direction for the evangelization of Hunan." More- 
over, the Ius, who inhabit the mountain districts on the borders of 
Kwangtung, Kwangsai, and Hunan Provinces, are within easy reach. 
These people are a section of the aboriginal race whose scattered 
tribes in great numbers inhabit the mountain regions of Southern 
China. Their proximity to and constant attendance at the Sam Kong 
market, where large numbers of them are always found, gives them a 
peculiar claim upon the mission. Some interest has already been 
awakened among them. Many of them have been treated in the 
hospital, and numbers of invitations have been received by Dr. Machle 
to visit their mountain villages. One cannot avoid asking with deep 
concern, When will the Canton Mission be strong enough in men and 
in means to enter this wide-open door? As a rule, well established 
in missionary history, mountaineer tribes of aborigines found in the 
great mission fields where Confucianism, Buddhism, or Hinduism have 
for ages borne sway, stiffening and strengthening the forces of resist- 
ance, have constituted most favorable exceptions. Their religious 
beliefs and customs have been found far less invincible ; and as the 
Santhals, Bhils, and Khols of India are more impressible than Hindus, 
and the Karens of Bunnah more easily reached than their Buddhist 



4<D CHINA — LIEN CHOW. 

fellow-countrymen, so there is reason to believe that these simple abo- 
rigines of China may be more easily won than those who have been 
strengthened by generations of Confucian ethics and the self-right- 
eousness of ancestral worship. 

A chapel was opened at Lien Chow in 1879. The attendance has 
generally been large. Seven persons have been received into the 
Church during the year. At Sam Kong, a chapel was opened in 1886. 
Besides preaching on the Sabbath and on market days, there has been 
a meeting for Bible study every evening under the direction of the 
native pastor, Rev. Kwan Loi. Day-schools have been opened at 
Lung-hau (1889) with 18 pupils, and at Kong-wa (1891) with 20 
pupils. At Sam Kong there has been a quarterly class for the in- 
struction of Christians, with an attendance of 20. This nurture and 
strengthening of Christians is especially hopeful, imparting not only 
character, but qualification for work. Every Sabbath morning during 
the month some of these have gone out in little companies to labor 
in the neighboring villages and tell others of the Saviour they have 
found. 

Miss Johnston has conducted a school at Sam Kong at her own 
expense, assisted by a native teacher, one of the elders of the Lien 
Chow Church. 

Hospital and Medical Work. 

A hospital and dispensary has been opened by Dr. Machle. The 
building for these purposes, which is in process of erection, is a part of 
the lower floor of the building in which the missionaries reside. 
There have been 2,000 out-patients and 48 in-patients treated ; 58 vis- 
its have been made at homes ; 160 surgical operations have been per- 
formed. The 2,000 out-patients represent seventy villages, five of 
which are among the Ius. The truth has been made known to all in- 
patients who were able to hear. A graduate of the Medical School 
in Canton Hospital is now assisting Dr. Machle. 

Outstations. 

Four outstations are connected with Lien Chow. 

1. Lung-hau, between Lien Chow and Sam Kong, opened in 1887. 
The place is visited regularly by a native pastor and assistant from 
Lien Chow. 

2. Kong-wa, in Hunan Province, opened in 1S87. Mr. Lau Luk- 
ting, a native of this place, returned to his home after a course of 
study in Canton. He opened a school, which was well attended until 
hostility was manifested. Assistants have visited different parts of the 
district, preaching and selling tracts. 

3. Lam-mo y also in Hunan Province, opened in 1889. There has 
been much interest at this point, large numbers having been favorably 
impressed. Pour have been baptized, and others are applicants for 
baptism. This place has been visited by Rev. Kwan Loi and assistant, 
Mr. Tang Tak On. Services have been held in the house of one of 
the members. 



CHINA — HAINAN, KIUNG CHOW. 41 

4. Kang T'an Ping, being 12 miles below Lien Chow, on the river. 
Arrangements have been made for opening a school. A Bible-woman, 
under the care of Miss Johnston, has been active in the work at Sam 
Kong and the neighboring villages. 

Hainan Station, 

The great island of Hainan is as yet occupied by no other mission 
but that of the Presbyterian Board. It numbers a million and a half 
of inhabitants. Those among whom our missionaries have labored 
are mostly of the Hakka race, and have been found unusually receptive. 
The work in this island was begun in 1881 by Mr. C. C. Jeremiassen 
as an independent missionary. In 1885 he joined the Canton Mission, 
with which his work was from that time incorporated. The present 
force consists of Mr. Jeremiassen, Dr. and Mrs. H. M. McCandliss, 
Revs. Frank P. Oilman and J. C. Melrose and their wives. As be- 
fore stated, in the latter part of the year this force was augmented by 
Rev. A. E. Street and Miss J. M. S. Suter. Seven native assistants 
are employed. The island is entered by the harbor of Hoi How, at 
a point nearest to the mainland of China. Three miles from this city 
is Kiung Chow, the principal station of Hainan. Ninety miles in the 
interior is Nodoa, which is now virtually a station, and is occupied by 
Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Gilman, although it has not been formally opened 
as a separate station. Permanent accommodations have been pur- 
chased and built at Nodoa for the residence of a missionary and for a 
school. 

During the year there have been some rumors of disturbance, but 
no open demonstrations except some slight interference with the 
school work at Kiung Chow. The missionaries have, on the whole, 
enjoyed good health, though Dr. McCandliss in the latter part of the 
year suffered from an attack of pneumonia, from which, however, he 
is recovered. 

Three chapels are opened, namely, at Kiung Chow, Nodoa, and 
Nan Fung. At Kiung Chow and Nodoa are mission schools, and at 
Kiung Chow is located the station hospital and dispensary, carried on 
by Dr. McCandliss. 

Through special gifts of friends of the Hainan Station a small press 
has been secured and paid for, together with the necessary type for 
printing the Romanized Hainanese. The Gospels and some other 
translations are now ready to be printed. 

Kiung Chow* 

In speaking of the work at Kiung Chow, the mission report says : 
"The continuous efforts made for some years past to rent a larger 
and drier place for hospital and chapel are now, at the close of the 
year, about to be successful. The in patents have, for the most part, 
occupied the hall, back of the chapel, as the two wards in the rear 
were too damp for any but moribund cases. There has been very 
little dry weather during the year, the rainfalls in August and September 
being excessive. In the absence of any native helper that could preach 



42 CHINA — NODOA. 

in Hainanese, the religious services were left almost entirely to the 
physician in charge." The Sabbath services have been maintained 
during the year, and during a large part ot the year the regular Tues- 
day and Thursday morning services have been held. 

Medical Work. 

The dispensary was open daily, and at the time of the doctor's 
itinerations in the country the work was carried on by native assistants. 
The violent excitement has had its effect upon the medical as well as 
on the other work. Except in cases of poverty, all medicines to be 
taken home are charged for at cost price, but in such a manner as not 
to destroy the missionary character of the hospital. This has not 
caused any falling off in the attendance. During the trips in the 
country the physician in charge attended to 665 applications for relief. 
The whole number of out-patients at the hospital have been 8,575 ; 
visited in country, as above, 665 ; in-patients, 120 ; surgical operations 
of all kinds, 645. The hospital has received from sources other than 
the mission treasury the sum of $360 (Mexican). 

Schools. 

In answer to an urgent need for work among the women at Kiung 
Chow, the Kiung Chow Girls School was opened in February by 
Mrs. McCandliss. About ten women and ten girls have made rapid 
progress. The school has been a centre for religious work, with daily 
services by the missionary in charge. Many of the women have visited 
the school and shown much interest. As soon as women teachers can 
be trained for their work in Hainanese other such schools should be 
opened. The teaching of women and girls in Hainan is a new thing, 
and some hostility has been created. 

The Boys School at Kiung Chow was opened in April by Mr. 
Melrose. There is great need of teachers trained up in the use of the 
Hainanese language. Those who only know the Cantonese cannot 
meet the want. The work done thus far has been very satisfactory. 

Nodoa. 

Nodoa was opened by Mr. Jeremiassen in 1882. To reach this 
place from Kiung Chow occupies nearly four days. The interest 
manifest at this point at first has somewhat subsided, but it is hoped 
that the reaction will be only temporary. 

A boarding-school has been established at Nodoa, and though small 
it has made good progress. One of the advanced students has be- 
come a promising native assistant. 

A medical work has been carried on under Mr. Gilman's direction. 
Over 2,000 applicants asked for medical relief. 

"In June Mr. Oilman made a journey into the Loi country ad- 
jacent to Nodoa, where he learned that the aborigines are religiously 
in a transition stage, having forsaken their primitive worship, and 
partly adopted the idol worship of the neighboring Chinese. This 
peculiar condition seems like a providential call on our mission to 



CHINA — CANTON STATISTICS. 43 

give them the Gospel, and the station is taking steps to give them the 
Scriptures, and to send Mr. Jeremiassen, with Christian helpers, to 
teach them how to read and understand God's Word." 

It is impossible to give too great emphasis to this providential call 
upon the Presbyterian Church. It is entrusted with the only mission 
in the great island of Hainan. In the centre of the island there is a 
numerous population of stalwart mountaineers, the Lois, who are 
abandoning their simple superstitious faith, and seem ready to 
receive either the Chinese religions — a mixture of Confucianism, 
Buddhism, and Taouism — or, on the other hand, to receive the simple 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. Are there not thousands whose missionary 
interest will be quick to realize the force of this call, and come for- 
ward with means and influence sufficient to supply this pressing need — 
nay, to embrace joyfully this auspicious opportunity ? 

The preacher and other assistants at Nodoa have made frequent 
journeys to the near towns and villages, and have found many willing 
listeners. Two of the assistants have itinerated through eight of the 
thirteen districts of the island. 

The Christians of Nodoa, feeling the need of a bell for their chapel, 
subscribed liberally for that purpose, and with the aid of friends in 
Western New York they will soon have a suitable bell to call them to 
the house of God. 

Nam-fung is an outstation about ten miles south of Nodoa. It is 
the very outpost of our work thus far. Work has been carried on by 
a native preacher who has itinerated in the surrounding district. The 
town is on the outskirts of the Loi country, and is visited by the Lois 
in great numbers. 

Early in the year Mr. Jeremiassen made some tours in the north- 
eastern part of the island. He had previously visited the same region 
in 1 88 1, and he now found that his early visit had been remembered, 
and also the brief message of life which, with his then imperfect 
knowledge of the language, he was able to proclaim. On this journey 
he treated 1^500 patients for various simple ailments, and sold a 
thousand books and leaflets. 

Statistics of Canton Mission. 

Ordained missionaries, of whom one is a physician. . . 10 

Physicians, of whom two are women 6 

Lay helpers 2 

Married female missionaries 13 

Unmarried female missionaries 6 

Native pastors 3 

Unordained evangelists (including 3 licentiates) 23 

Colporteurs 13 

Teachers 44 

Bible-readers 15 

Churches 13 

Total membership 814 

Number added on profession of faith 125 

Contributions $363 

Boarding-schools 3 

Men and boys in boarding-schools 97 

Girls in boarding-schools 150 



44 CHINA — MEDICAL WORK. 

Boys' day-schools 22 

Girls' day-schools 17 

Boys in day-schools 452 

Girls in day-schools 370 

Total attendance in schools 1,069 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 587 

St tin mar y of Ale die al Work. 

CANTON HOSPITAL. 

Out-patients (attendances) 22,452 

In-patients 1.269 

Surgical operations 2,209 

Visits at homes 379 

YEUNG KONG DISPENSARY. 

Out-patients (attendances) 16,587 

Surgical operations 421 

SZ PAI LAU DISPENSARY. 

Out-patients (attendances) 7,647 

Surgical operations 350 

FA-TI DISPENSARY. 

Out-patients (attendances) 2,903 

Surgical operations 152 

SAM KONG HOSPITAL. 

Out-patients (attendances) 2,000 

In-patients 48 

Surgical operations 160 

Visits at homes 58 

KIUNG CHOW HOSPITAL. 

Out-patients (attendances) 9,240 

In-patients 120 

Surgical operations 645 

Visits at homes 46 

NODOA DISPENSARY AND ITINERATIONS. 

Out-patients (attendances) 3,769 

In-patients 13 

FLOATING DISPENSARY. 

Out-patients (attendances) 1,500 

dr. Thomson's itinerations. 

Out-patients (attendances) 290 

Surgical operations 40 

UN HA t'in. 

Out-patients (attendances) 715 

TOTAL. 

Out-patients (attendances) 67,103 

In-patients 1,450 

Surgical operations 3,977 

V isits at homes 483 



CENTRAL CHINA. 45 

Central China Mission. 

NiNGPO: on the Ningpo River, 12 miles from the sea ; occupied as a mission station, 
1845 ; laborers — Rev. and Mrs. VV. J. McKee, Rev. and Mrs. V. F. I J arlch, Mrs. 
John Butler, Miss Annie R. Morton, Miss Edwina Cunningham. 

Shanghai : on the Woosung River, 14 miles from the sea ; occupied as a mission 
station, 1850; laborers — Rev. and Mrs. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D., Rev. and Mrs. J. N. 
B. Smith, D.D., Rev. and Mrs. George F. Fitch, Rev. and Mrs. John A. Silsby, Mr. 
and Mrs. Gilbert Mcintosh, Miss Mary Posey, Miss Mary E. Cogdal. 

Hangchow : the provincial capital of Chekiang province, 156 miles northwest of 
Ningpo; occupied as a mission station, 1859; laborers — Rev. and Mrs. J. II. Judson, 
Rev. and Mrs. J. C. Garrilt. 

Soochow : 70 miles from Shanghai ; occupied as a mission station, 1871 ; laborers — 
Rev. and Mrs. J. N. Hayes, Rev. D. N. Lyon, Rev. and Mrs. Joseph Bailie, Rev. W. 
N. Crozier. 

Nanking : on the Yang-tse Kiang, 90 miles from its mouth ; occupied as a mission 
station, 1876; laborers — Rev. and Mrs. Charles Leaman, Rev. and Mrs. W.J. Drum- 
mond, Rev. and Mrs. T. W. Houston, Miss Mary Lattimore. 

In this country : Rev. and Mrs. George F. Fitch ; Mrs. R. E. Abbey. 

The five stations of the Central China Mission occupy a command- 
ing position with reference to the richest and most populous part of 
China, — what may be called the temperate zone of the Chinese world. 
The parallels which include the provinces of Cliehkiang and Kiangsu, 
within which our five stations are located, form the central belt, 
through which flows the great river of China, the Yang-tse Kiang. 
This position commands the whole broad valley of this " Son of the 
Ocean," with all his tributaries. Under the Governor-General, whose 
palace is at Nanking, are grouped three provinces — Kiangsu, Kiangsi, 
and Nganhui — with an aggregate population of 95,058,559, in an area 
of 165,137 square miles. Add to these the province of Chehkiang, 
with a population of 26,256,784, in an area of 39,150 square miles, 
and we have as the field within easy reach of our stations over 121,- 
000,000 people, in an area of 204,287 square miles. In other 
words, in a territory only one-fourth as large as the United States 
east of the Mississippi, there is a population about double that of the 
whole United States. 

The mission is anxious to press into the interior and occupy the 
opening provinces. A glance at the map will show that Providence 
has given us an open door into the very heart of China. The whole 
valley of the Yang-tse- Kiang and its tributaries lies before us. Eight 
of the twenty provinces border on this great river, and their popula- 
tions aggregate 200,000,000 of people. 

The mission asks attention to the needs of the province of Szchuen 
and the desirability of opening a new missionary centre of our Board 
in some one of the fourteen great cities of the Upper Yang-tse 
within that province. 

The Roman Catholic missionaries, who till within a few years have 
had sole possession, estimate the population of Szchuen at 45,000,000. 
Others have estimated it as high as 71,000,000. Its remoteness, and 
the difficulty of navigating the rapids, secured it effectually against the 
inroads of the Tai-ping rebels, so that it retains all the glory and pros- 
perity of ante- rebellion times. The people are a hardy, straightfor- 
ward, enterprising race. 



46 CENTRAL CHINA — SOOCHOW. 

The present year will be known in history as the year of missionary 
riots in Central China. Various theories have been propounded 
as to the probable cause of these lawless outbreaks. The most 
plausible is that which traces them to the free distribution of slander- 
ous tracts and placards by the gentry and officials of Changsha, the 
capital of the Hunan province. 

One of these so-called high-class Chinese gentlemen, Mr. Chao 
Han, holding the rank of Taotai, in a letter to the Governor of the 
adjoining province of Hupeh, confesses boastingly of having printed 
and circulated the "anti-heresy tracts," with the advice and co-opera- 
tion of the literati of Changsha. Not only so, but he protests having 
done this out of a good conscience from a sincere desire to requite 
the favor he has received from the ancient sages and worthies from 
the Great Yii down to the present Emperor and Empress of the 
Great Pure Dynasty. The results of this misguided zeal have been 
the destruction of mission property, which it will take at least a mill- 
ion dollars to replace, and the sacrifice of two valuable lives. 

These riots extend from the first outbreak at Wuhu on the 12th of 
May, till the last, at Ichang on the 3d of September. It is needless 
to say that these nearly four months were full of anxiety and appre- 
hension to the missionaries of Central China, and seriously interrupted 
them in their work. 

The missionary force was strengthened during the year by the ad- 
dition of Rev. W. N. Crozier, who has been stationed at Soochow ; 
Rev. and Mrs. Thos. W. Houston, who has been placed at Nanking ; 
and Miss Edvvina Cunningham, who is at Ningpo. These have not 
been nearly enough, however, to meet the large needs of the mission. 

Soochow Statio7i. 

Soochow is a city of five hundred thousand inhabitants. It is 
situated seventy miles from Shanghai, is the centre of an immense 
population, and is sometimes called " the Paris of China." Mr. Lyon 
writes the report : 

"We have great reason to be thankful that the incipient riot which threat- 
ened us in Soochow was averted by the timely and strenuous efforts of the 
officials. On the 9th of May word reached us of the destruction of the Roman 
Catholic mission at Wusih, thirty miles north. On the same day a telegram 
from the U. S. Consul, Leonard, at Shanghai warned us of danger and or- 
dered the missionary ladies and children to Shanghai. The excitement of 
calling a number of boats attracted a crowd which, toward evening, began to 
assume a riotous aspect. Rev. Dr. Parker and myself, in company with a 
native teacher, visited the district magistrate and requested him to disperse 
the crowd. 

" He immediately sent a message to the military commander near by, and 
went in his chair to the scene of disturbance. Very soon the soldiers 
came and took possession of the foreign compound of the Methodist Mission 
and kept the crowd back. Aside from the throwing of a few bricks, and break- 
ing a window glass or two, no damage was done. 

" The next day, May 10th, an attack was made by a mob on our chapel in 
the northwest part of the city. A good many stones were thrown upon the 
roof and a hole broken through the rear wall. Immediate notice was given 
the local magistrate, and he came with his posse comitatus and dispersed the 
mob before any serious damage was done. 



CENTRAL CHINA — NANKING. 47 

" This attack was made by some local roughs, the leader of whom was ar- 
rested and is said to be still in prison. 

"It is a cause for special gratitude to God that the people are as friendly 
toward us as they were before the riots ; another evidence that the opposition 
came not from the common people, but from the so-called higher classes of 
Chinese society." 

City Work. — Mr. Lyon has been the only available foreign mission- 
ary worker at the Soochow station, and the year has been one of 
uninterrupted labor, the usual summer vacation being spent in im- 
portant literary work. 

Two young men have completed their theological course, and are 
licensed to preach by the Shanghai Presbytery, and assigned to work 
at the Soochow station. 

On May ist Rev. Jos. Bailie and Miss Effie Deane Worley, M.D., 
were married, thus leaving the Soochow ladies' mission again vacant. 
Owing to various interruptions the medical work of the station has 
been of a desultory character. A number of patients have received 
medicines at the missionary's residence. 

The return of Rev. J. N. Hayes and family from the United States, 
reinforced by the Rev. W. N. Crozier, gives Soochow a business-like 
aspect again. This enables one of the missionaries to devote his 
whole time to the very promising country work west of the city. 

Country Work. — Mr. Lyon has taken up his abode at the Lion 
Mountain chapel with a view to being near the work ; 40,000 people 
in 400 villages are within easy visiting distance. His influence is 
already felt in the central village to such an extent that the Chu-ka 
village is reputed far and near to have believed the foreign religion. 
A collector for one of the neighboring temples on his annual visit, 
went away empty-handed. 

A number of the village women are learning the doctrine, but the 
slave-like life they are compelled to lead makes it impossible for them 
to fulfill the external duties of a Christian profession, though some of 
them would gladly do so. 

Mr. Lyon's heart is in this work : 

"There can be no doubt as to the practicability of living in the country, 
and no question either as to the advantage of being intimately acquainted 
with those we try to influence spiritually. The demand on all hands is that 
we get nearer the people, that we learn to sympathize with them in their daily 
trials and enjoyments. The apostolic injunction, ' Be not high-minded, but 
condescend to men of low estate,' applies to our intercourse with the people 
we seek to benefit. We need to avoid the extreme on the one hand of self- 
isolation, and on the other of stooping so low as to be despised. Showing 
kindly interest in the poorest of the people by daily meeting and greeting 
them in a friendly way, is the way to win their hearts." 

Nanking Station. 

Nanking is on the Yang-tse-Kiang, about 180 miles northwest of 
Shanghai. 

The past year has been one of many ups and downs, but the work 
began with cheer and bright hopes. Mr. Drummond was added to 
the station just after the last mission meeting. At the communion in 



48 CENTRAL CHINA— NANKING. 

December five adults — all men — united with the Christian community 
by profession of faith and public baptism. The winter passed in quiet 
and joyous work in school and Sunday-school, chapel and street. In 
the spring three women, two girls from the school, one man and a 
child were baptized. About the same time Miss Jessie P. Rhind 
joined the mission at her own charges. She is a Scotch lady and a 
member of one of the Scotch Presbyterian churches. She has had 
two years' experience in China, most of the time being spent in 
Nanking and on the Nanking dialect. 

This peaceful work was disturbed suddenly, on a bright Sabbath 
afternoon toward the close of May, and the missionaries were sum- 
moned to leave their homes. This it was thought best to do, and our 
mission, in common with others of the city, left on Monday morning. 
Since then the work has been desultory, yet not without its fruit ; for 
on the day of the proposed riot, which was attempted according to 
appointment, a young man of good family, and the head of it, joined 
himself to the mission in the face of the mob, and has continued a 
faithful inquirer, and he, with several others, are candidates for baptism. 

Since the riot the ladies have been absent from the station up to 
the time of the report ; yet neither the boys' and girls' schools, nor 
any part of our work, has been wholly abandoned at any time, but all 
has been kept up to a greater or less extent. This has been made 
possible only by the faithfulness of the natives, not any of whom, up 
to this time, have turned from their faith, or behaved in any way to 
cast suspicion on their Christian character. No personal injury was 
done, and even our compound buildings and fences have escaped 
better than those of others, who have sustained some losses by fire and 
looting. 

Boys Boar ding- School. — The Boys' Boarding-School has been con- 
tinued as usual during the entire disturbance, and on account of the 
trouble was continued without interruption through the summer. The 
day-schools for the present are closed, and it has been thought best 
also to close the Boarding-School to new scholars until the state of 
the country is more settled. The progress of the school has been 
satisfactory. 

Mrs. Leaman reports for this school, which was opened Oct. 15, 
1884: 

" From the time of our opening last September until we left in May, the 
school work went on most satisfactorily. The new pupils added were from 
Christian homes, so that the whole influence of the school was decidedly 
Christian. At the spring communion five of the girls from the Boarding- 
School and three of the women from my class of women asked for baptism. 
At that time all of the girls over twelve years of age were professing Christians, 
or were expecting to unite with the church. We were so happy then, and our 
hearts were so full in view of all the Lord had done for us, and we had so 
many plans for widening our work — we were to take our older girls for pupil 
teachers, and the departments were at last to have their separate teachers — 
when all in a day our dear work seemed scattered to the four winds, the girls 
hastening to their homes and we fleeing for our lives. But our faith never 
wavered ; we left each little fleeing lamb to the tender care of the Good Shep- 
herd, feeling sure that He would shield them and keep them without the loss 
of one. 



CENTRAL CHINA — SHANGHAI. 49 

" Since the last of August some fifteen of the girls have been gathered back 
into the school by our good Chinese teacher, Mrs. Li. Mrs. Li is a pupil from 
our Tungchow girls' school. 

" When the school closed at the New Year we had twenty-six girls in the 
Boarding-School, twelve day pupils, and twelve women in the women's class. 
Some of these women are now able to go out as Bible-women, and erne of the 
number, we trust, will, from this time on, give her whole time to the work, 
except such time as is needed for better preparation for the work. Five years 
ago she came to me, a poor, ignorant countrywoman, to help me in the house- 
work ; now she is a bright, earnest Christian woman, zealous for the glory of 
God." 

Shanghai Station. 

Shanghai is the Liverpool of China, and has a population of half a 
million. There are three churches, at South Gate, at Hongkew, and 
at the Mission Press. Their work can best be described separately. 

South Gate Work. 

The absence in America of Dr. and Mrs. Smith has thrown the 
work at the South Gate upon less experienced missionaries, but on 
the other hand the station has been reinforced since the last report by 
the addition of two ladies, and has had the continued assistance of 
Miss Brunton, who consented to remain in charge of the Girls' School 
for another year. 

The South Gate Church has had 17 additions to its communion this 
year, 15 of whom were on confession of faith. Two of these had been 
baptized in infancy. It is also gratifying to note that six of those 
admitted were converted from heathenism, having had no previous 
instruction in our Christian schools. The total number is 116. The 
contributions for the year, as reported to Presbytery, are $106.57 
Mexican. The church owns property at Song-kaung, and the rentals 
received, added to voluntary contributions of members, enable the 
church to meet expenses without aid from the Board. 

The pastor has aided in making tours in the neighboring portion of 
the city, preaching and selling books, and in preaching in the street 
chapel. 

Sunday-School. — The Sunday-school has been greatly prospered 
this year. The largest attendance was 345. The average attendance 
for the year has been about 185. This school is quite an attraction 
to visitors, and through it the Gospel is preached to many who come 
out of curiosity or for amusement. 

Chapel Preaching. — The chapel near the river was closed early in 
the year because two assistants who helped to maintain preaching in 
it had been sent to other places ; but a chapel has been fitted up on 
the mission premises, which is opened twice a week, and the old build- 
ing in the native city has been repaired and is available for occasional 
services. 

A new chapel has been opened and carried on by the Mission Press 
Church, which is partly sustained by mission funds. It is an enter- 
prise of the Chinese Christians, and has been opened and sustained 
by them with the assistance of five dollars a month from the mission 
treasury. 

4 



50 CENTRAL CHINA — SHANGHAI. 

Work among the Women. — A monthly meeting for Christian women 
is held by the ladies. This meeting combines social and devotional 
features, and is largely attended by the church members and by others 
invited by them. A weekly meeting for women, designed especially 
to reach the mothers of the day-school children, has been commenced 
by Miss Posey. 

The ladies of the mission have also made quite a number of visits 
to the homes of Chinese women, and, assisted by a Bible-woman or 
other Christian worker, have preached the Word as they have had op- 
portunity. 

Line rie Hi<rh- School. — The Boys' Boarding-School has been con- 
ducted much as formerly, but with some change as to minor details. 
It is desired to make the school more and more a training-school for 
those who are likelv to be useful as Christian workers. The number 
of pupils enrolled for the year is 40. The number in attendance at 
persent is 35. 

Two former pupils are studying for the ministry, having been for 
some time in Mr. Judson's School at Hangchow. They seem to have 
derived great benefit from their stay there, and have been rendering 
valuable help for some months in our boarding-school, although this 
arrangement is only temporary. P'our of the boys have been admitted 
to the communion of the South Gate Church. 

Dr. Farnham, who had spent many years at the South Gate in 
charge of the Lowrie High-School, arrived at the age of sixty on 
Christmas Day. This event was made the occasion of a gathering of 
his many Chinese friends and former students, who presented him 
with a silver tablet in token of their esteem. 

After thirty years' of labor the little church, which was organized at 
the beginning with only one Chinese member, has grown into three 
churches, with a combined membership of nearly 200, and many pupils 
educated in the schools which were opened by Dr. and Mrs. Farnham 
are now valued preachers and teachers, or rilling other positions of 
usefulness. 

Girls' Boarding-School. — Miss Brunton's report is as follows : 

" It is with great pleasure and thankfulness that I can write the word 
' improvement ' upon every department of our work. Cleanliness, order, com- 
fortable bedrooms, warm clothing, plain, good, wholesome food, are very 
important, and much attention has been given to these things ; but the main 
object for which the school is kept up, that of spiritual teaching and growth in 
grace, is not forgotten. This term the improvement has been remarkable. 
Several times lately have the girls expressed their thanks to me for the teach- 
ing they are receiving in the Bible. I personally teach the older classes their 
Scripture lessons, translating from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's Com- 
mentary, which Mr. Silsby very kindly lends me. We are now studying 
Genesis and St. Matthew's Gospel. At our morning prayers we are all study- 
ing the Epistles, and have just finished both Epistles of Paul to the Corinthians, 
each verse having been explained and questions answered and given. Our 
morning prayers are a treat for the day, and our girls are now trying to live 
each day for the Lord. 

" On Sunday morning we have a praise meeting instead of our regular read- 
ing, which the ^irls enjoy very much. I have been teaching them knitting, 
darning, fancy wool-work, crewels, and also their own native embroidery, the 
proceeds of which work, while they are with us in the school, I am using to re- 
seat the school, as we are very badly off for good seats. 



CENTRAL CHINA— HONGKEW. 5 I 

" I have had the pleasure of sending out in the beginning of the year four of 
our large girls as teachers for day-schools. All are doing fairly well, consider- 
ing it is their first attempt to be useful in the mission." 

Day-Schools. — Miss Posey reports as follows : 

" We have good reports to make of three of our five day-schools. The 
other two are struggling to gain a foothold. The total enrollment for the year 
just closed is 173 : boys, 132 ; girls, .jr. The present attendance is 99 : boys, 
73 ; girls, 26. All of the pupils are from heathen homes. They come quite 
regularly, and since the schools have been reopened this autumn and more 
time given to this work, we see hopeful and encouraging signs of improvement. 

" A little visiting has been done in the homes of the pupils, and as we have 
had but little time for this most important feature of the work, a Woman's 
Class has just been opened in the little chapel on our compound, inviting the 
mothers, once a week, on Thursday afternoons, to come to hear the Word of 
Life. Last Thursday afternoon we had the pleasure of meeting fifteen women, 
aad I know that God will bless the earnest and faithful labors of Mrs Li, our 
cook's wife, and dear old Waung T'a-t'a, the mother of our pastor's wife. 
The faces of many of the women showed that they were trying to take hold of 
what was said, and there was the hush and quietness of their really and truly 
coming face to face into the presence of the Holy One." 

Itinerations and Outstation Work. — Pressure of other duties and 
the unsettled condition of the country have prevented much work in 
this department. Mr. and Mrs. Silsby and Rev. Mr. T'aung, the South 
Gate pastor, have made one tour of the outstations. 

At 'Au-so they found a flourishing school and were much pleased 
with the evidences of faithful work by the teacher in charge ; but the 
schools at Song-kaung and Tseu-p'oo have not been satisfactory. 

Rev. Mr. Bau has been doing good work at Tseu-p'oo. His inter- 
est in the day-schools has helped much to an improvement in their 
attendance and efficiency. Mr. Bau delights in preaching the Word, 
and he has made several short evangelistic trips into neighboring 
villages. Mr. Tsang, a young licentiate, is now associated with Mr. 
Bau in evangelistic work. 

Interest of Foreign Friends. — A number of friends of the foreign 
community have been interested in the South Gate work, and this in- 
terest has been shown in a very practical way by contributions which 
enabled needed repairs to be made without expense to the mission. 

Mr. Silsby writes : 

" During the times of rioting on the Yang-tse, we were made to feel anxious 
for the safety of our own premises and of the pupils and helpers under our 
care. It seemed advisable to dismiss the girls' school a month earlier than 
usual, but the other work went on without serious interruption. The neigh- 
bors have all along seemed friendly, and the day-schools and Sunday-school 
have suffered little if any from the prevailing excitement." 

Honghe:^. 

Literary.- — The editorial care of the periodicals — The Chinese Illus- 
trated News (now in its twelfth year) and The Child's Paper (now in 
its seventeenth) — has occupied a portion of Dr. Farnham's time. The 
Child's Paper has been enlarged, and now contains the International 
Series of Sunday- school Lessons. Each of these magazines contains 
twenty-four pages of reading matter, making for the year nearly a 
million and a half of pages. 



52 CENTRAL CHINA— MISSION PRESS. 

The Rev. E. H. Thomson, who is associated with Dr. Farnham as 
Corresponding Secretary of the Religious Tract Society, has returned 
to China, and takes his share of the work, assuming the entire charge 
during Dr. Farnham's absence last summer. Circulating manuscripts 
and publishing books, when approved, still falls to Dr. Farnham, and 
the last Annual Report shows that 265,838 books, tracts, and leaflets 
were disposed of during the year, making about 3,624,181 pages of 
matter in the Chinese language, besides more than 100 foreign books 
and nearly 400 lithographed cards for New Year, Christmas, prizes, 
etc. 

Mrs. Farnham has done a similar work for the National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, of which she is the President, while 
prayer-meetings, benevolent organizations, and entertainment have 
made the usual calls upon her time and strength. 

The Church. — Dr. Farnham is acting pastor of the church, though 
Mr. Woo, a graduate of our Boys' Boarding-School, who is also one 
of the elders, does most of the pastoral work and preaches every Sun- 
day morning. He takes a lively interest in the work and preaches 
excellent Gospel sermons, enforcing the truth with beautiful and 
pointed illustrations. The afternoon is devoted to the Sunday-school 
attended by many of the church members and all the day-school 
pupils. Dr. Farnham takes charge of this service, using the Chinese 
weekly Sunday-school lesson papers. The attendance in the forenoon 
is from sixty to seventy, though there have been as many as eighty 
present. 

Mr. Woo, besides preaching and pastoral calls, has done consider- 
able other work. Among other things he and Mrs. Farnham have 
translated Dr. Davis' Life of Neesima into Chinese. 

Schools. — There have been two day-schools all the year, and three 
part of the time, with a total attendance of eighty-seven — fifty-one 
boys and thirty-six girls. 

The pupils answer a good purpose as guides to their homes when 
Mrs. Farnham and the Bible-woman go out in their weekly visits 
among the women. These mothers generally give them a kind recep- 
tion into homes where the children have already been, in a sense, 
Gospel messengers. 

Mr. Woo and Mr. Tsang, the Bible student, have visited the 
neighboring villages and hamlets as they could spare the time from 
other duties. Dr. Farnham regards this as important work : 

" If faithful, earnest, native Christians can be sent to the villages, having 
the time and means to make acquaintances among the leading families and 
influential and religiously disposed, the Gospel as presented by them would 
likely be received favorably, and we might hope to see whole villages brought 
to Christ." 

Mission Press. 

Mr. Fitch's return to the United States on furlough left the press 
wholly in the care of Mr. Mcintosh, who writes warmly of the work 
done by Mr. Fitch. The usefulness of the press increases yearly. 

Among the notable works issued from the press during the year 



CENTRAL CHINA — MISSION PRESS. 



53 



were the Records of the General Missionary Conference of 1890, and 
a Manual of Therapeutics and Pharmacy, by Rev. Dr. S. A. Hunter. 
A second and enlarged edition of Rev. F. W. Bailer's Mandarin 
Primer has also been printed. 

Apart from the printing, another very important agency to be re- 
ported is the receipt and forwarding of goods from home, etc., for in- 
land stations. During the year 394 packages have been imported, 
406 exported, and 469 transhipped, making a total of 1,269. ^ n a ^- 
dition to this the Mission Press has, to a great extent, to act as a kind 
of " General Provider" for many missionaries all over China. 

That the influence of the press is increasing is seen in the number 
of names on the books. On June 30th there were 370 debtors owing 
the press $9,523.84 ; whilst there were 109 creditors to whom the 
press owed $4,061.49. The total number of names on the ledger is 
761. In March, 1891, $2,000 were drawn from the press funds and 
placed to the credit of the Central China Mission. 

There are 86 workmen in the employment of the press (not includ- 
ing 16 outside binders), and it is with thankfulness we record the fact 
that 27 of them are members of the Presbyterian church connected 
with the press. There are others who are members of other denom- 
inations. Pastor Sz labors faithfully and earnestly, and his zeal has 
been helpful in stimulating others to help in spreading Gospel truth 
among their heathen neighbors. The Thursday evening prayer-meeting 
and gathering of the Christian Endeavor Society has been well at- 
tended, and has been mostly conducted by workmen and members of 
the church. The total contributions, exclusive of help from for- 
eigners, is $359.81. The members are able to support the native 
pastor, defray running expenses of the church, and conduct a day- 
school for the benefit of the children of workmen at the press. 

The following is a statistical epitome of the work done during 
the year : 

Nutnbcr of Copies and Pages of Books and Tracts Printed. 



Scriptures 

Religious Books and Tracts 

Miscellaneous 

Calendars and Sheet Tracts. 

Illustrated News 

Child's Paper 

Review of Times 

Missionary Review 

Chinese Recorder 

Messenger 

Scientific Magazine 



Copies. 



330.75O 
177,600 



26,400 
39,200 
10,800 
9, 600 
7,200 
2,400 
2,500 



Page6. 



6i5.45o 



25,873,800 

9,677,800 

2,229,500 

261,000 

677,600 

722,400 

864,000 

562,200 

504,000 

48 000 

257,000 



41,677,300 



We are thankful to be able to record the printing and distribution 
of these millions of pages, but how these figures shrink into less sig 



54 CENTRAL CHINA — HANGCHOW. 

nificant proportions when compared with the hundreds of millions of 
people in China. One important lesson can be learned from the re- 
cent anti-foreign outbreaks in China as to the need for the Mission 
Press here. The power of the native press in Hunan and elsewhere, 
as subsidized and utilized by the Evil One, has been alike strikingly 
illustrated. Whether the riots have been caused by secret societies, 
aiming at the expulsion of the present dynasty, or is an anti-foreign 
propaganda by the officials, gentry, and literati, for the purpose of 
keeping China exclusively for the Chinese ; we have at least one very 
evident fact: that from the province of Hunan — considered by many 
Chinese as the palladium of the empire, and whose inhabitants have 
for a fixed article in their creed the ultimate expulsion of the hated 
"outer barbarian" — there has poured forth a steady stream of anti- 
foreign pamphlets and placards untranslatable on account of their 
blasphemy and filth, and gradually poisoning the minds of the people 
all along the Yang-tse valley. If ever the Mission Press was wanted, 
it is wanted now in China. 

Hangchow Station. 

Hangchow is the capital of the Chehkiang province, 156 miles 
northwest of Ningpo, and is one of the renowned cities of China. It 
was for a short time the capital of the empire, in the Sung dynasty, 
some eight hundred years ago. It was always noted for its magnifi- 
cence until the Tai-ping rebellion, when (1863) the city was almost 
demolished. The city has grown much, however, since then, but 
great tracts of ruins and unclaimed ground tell of the fallen splendor. 
Yet to-day Hangchow and Soochow are named together as the wealth- 
iest and most influential cities of Central China. 

The Roman Catholics of course were the first foreigners in Hang- 
chow. In an old Roman Catholic cemetery, outside the city, are 
buried missionaries of that church of the seventeenth century. The 
Catholic Church is still strong here, and the lady missionaries of our 
Protestant missions say they occasionally feel the hindrance of the 
" Sisters' " work. But Hangchow is so large that there is no great 
danger of our getting in each other's way. 

The city lies out of the path which the riots took, and the temper 
of the people here has always seemed more friendly to foreigners 
than in some of the cities along the Yang-tse. In June, just after the 
disturbance at Soochow, a riot was threatened here. But at the ap- 
pointed time no trouble was attempted, as the officials took prompt 
precautionary measures. Not the slightest trouble took place during 
the fall examinations, though there were ten thousand scholars in the 
city, besides the large following of tradesmen, servants, and " worth- 
less fellows" that came with them. 

Mr. Garritt has been almost constantly engaged in the study of the 
language, and Mr. Judson in the school, so that the native helpers 
have had to bear the whole brunt of the evangelistic work this year. 
The helpers, we feel sure, are earnest and prayerful in their preaching; 
but there seems an apathy among many of the Christians, a need of 



CENTRAL CHINA — HAN GCHOW. 55 

the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, demanding the prayers of the 
church especially in their behalf. The station calls urgently for more 
helpers. 

The Churches. — The Hangchow church, including Zang-peh, has 
had 1 1 additions during the Presbyterial year, 4 by letter and 7 by 
profession of faith. One inquirer is a man of middle age, a dyer by 
trade, who is quite constant in attendance upon church services and in 
study of the Bible ; this, too, in the face of many sneers and entice- 
ments from the heathen with whom he works. He has been bringing 
his son to church, too, of late. This man was first interested in the 
Gospel in one of the street chapels. 

Mrs. Judson has this year found time to carry out a long-cherished 
plan in organizing a Bible-class among the Christian women. This 
class serves both as a mid-week prayer-meeting and as a class for 
closer study of the Bible. A number of the women are very faithful 
in attendance, and all enjoy the study. 

The Sin-z church is not in so flourishing a condition as formerly. 

The members are faithful in attendance at church ; but there is 
neither the growth nor the earnestness that was found among them 
some years ago. 

The triumphant death of an old member of this church should be 
recorded. His name was Yang, and he was over seventy years old, 
having entered the church 23 years ago under Mr. Dodd's ministry. 
A day or so before his death he asked for the pastor. Mr. Yii asked 
as to his spiritual condition, and he said he felt deep peace — that the 
Heavenly Father was calling him away from the sorrows of earth to 
joy in heaven. He asked that the Christians should gather about his 
coffin and sing hymns of praise. 

The Schools. — At the Chinese New Year the day-school in the south 
part of the city was dissolved, as the teacher was about to leave the 
mission employ and a new teacher was not obtainable. Three other 
schools have been conducted, one under Mrs. Judson's oversight. 

Evangelistic Work. — Mr. Garritt has made some itinerating trips 
and sold some books. Many books were sold to the "Incense-guests," 
or pilgrims, who pour into the city in March and April to worship in 
the temples. 

Our two licentiates itinerated to the west of Hangchow, toward An- 
hwui. They found two families of old believers, who had moved out 
there years ago, from churches in the Ningpo field. They also found 
many to buy and some to study the Christian books. 

At the new year, a Ningpo licentiate, Wang Hyao-kwe, was trans- 
ferred by Presbytery to Hangchow, and has gone to Hai-ning, a city 
thirty miles east of Hangchow. He is expected to spend his time not 
in a street chapel, but in going about the city and country preaching 
and selling books. There is a Christian, a poor tradesman, living 
there, who, with his family, forms a nucleus for a church. They and 
some others gather on the Sabbath for divine service, and two sons of 
this Christian are asking for admission into the church. Several others, 
mainly from the country, are studying the Bible and Mrs. Nevius' 
catechism, Along the road from Hangchow to Hai-ning, the canals 



56 CENTRAL CHINA — HANGCHOW. 

are thickly dotted with villages, and there are some large towns. Sev- 
eral men might well be employed in this small but needy region. 

High-School. — There are now forty-four boys in the school, and the 
names of nine others are on the list of applications for admission, who 
are waiting to enter. 

The riots in June did not affect the school work so very seriously, 
though during the time when Hangchow was threatened, there was 
more or less uneasiness among the students. 

The first half year closed its term at the middle of July, and the 
examinations were held as usual, at which time quite a large number 
of gentlemen and literati were present and took part in the examina- 
tions of the native books. Among them, a member of the noted Hyii 
family, who had just returned from Russia, where he had been Secre- 
tary of the Chinese Legation, was present for two days in succession, 
and remarked upon the good work that was being done and the dis- 
grace that the people should cause such disturbances and hinder the 
work. 

The Y. M. C. A., of which Mr. Garritt has taken the oversight, has 
been continued during the year. Mr. Judson writes regarding it: 
" Weekly prayer-meetings, monthly missionary meetings — when the 
work in other countries has been brought before them — and also 
monthly business meetings have been held. Mr. Garritt also has 
taught the class in the Acts of the Apostles, which comes in the regu- 
lar course of study. It has been the usual custom on Sunday even- 
ings to review all the boys on the sermon preached at the morning 
service, but this year Mrs. Judson has thought it better to have the 
younger boys come to her, when she has had singing and prayer with 
them, and also read and conversed with them on The Miracles of Our 
Lord. At every meeting of the church session, quite a number have 
presented themselves for church membership, and during the year 
three have been received." 

The industrial department in carpentry has still been continued, 
and nearly all the woodwork in connection with physical apparatus, 
together with some beds for the school, have been made by the boys. 

During the year considerable apparatus has been added, the larger 
portion of which has been made in the school shop. Among the 
pieces received from home is a fine theodolite, priced at three hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. The inscription upon it reads thus : " From 
the First Presbyterian Church of Batavia, N. Y., U. S. A., to the 
Presbyterian School at Hangchow, China." 

The classes in English have been taught entirely by Mrs. Judson. 
The advanced class is making rapid progress in the reading of the 
New Testament and a Primary Grammar. 

Regarding his desires for the future of the school, Mr. Judson writes : 

" We have advocated all along, and still do advocate, that one high-graded 
school should be established for Central China. The Southern Methodists are 
doing this at Soochow, the Northern Methodists are doing the same at Nan- 
king. We think it not presumptive to say that the foundation is laid here. 
The building should now be carried on and up ; help should be sent, that the 
work may be done well, and the building should stand, not for a season, but 
for time." 



I ENTRAL CHINA— NINGPO. 57 

Ningpo Station. 

Ningpo, one of the ports opened in 1842, is located on the Ningpo 
river, twelve miles from the sea, and contains, with its suburbs, a 
population of 300,000. The beautiful and fertile plain stretching to 
the west and south of the city, intersected with canals, has been called 
'' the very garden of China." 

The "Peaceful Wave" city has been true to its name during the 
year, notwithstanding the disturbances in other parts. However, in 
some of the outstations there has been more or less disquiet caused by 
false rumors and exaggerated reports of the riots along the Yang-tse. 

Mr. McKee writes of some troubles during the year: 

" Some excitement, which for a time threatened serious trouble, was raised 
over the alleged desecration of graves and stealing of human bones therefrom 
in the Saen-poh region, where we have several chapels. Night after night the 
people kept watch, ami gongs were beaten to frighten off the miscreants. At 
last four strange men were caught, and were said to have two bags of human 
bones in their possession. Two of the men were beaten to death on the spot, 
and the other two were taken bruised and bleeding to the yamen of the district 
magistrate, where one of them soon died from the effects of his wounds. It 
was reported that these men stated the bones were to be sold to foreigners for 
the purpose of making medicine. On this report, instantly there were threats 
made to tear down all the chapels in that vicinity. However, in the yamen the 
men denied having made such a statement. The magistrate went in person 
to the places where the outrages were said to have been committed and made 
an investigation. The bones said to have been taken from the accused being 
brought to him, he pronounced them bones of animals. This so incensed the 
people that they began throwing stones, and the magistrate retracted his state- 
ment and retired as quickly as possible. Proclamations were issued endeavor- 
ing to pacify the people and threatening most severe punishment to desecrators 
of graves. Our chapels were left unharmed, and after a time the excitement 
subsided. 

" About the same time, in the same district, occurred a severe case of persecu- 
tion of one of our Christian families. The clan to which this family belonged 
had long threatened to punish them for not contributing toward idolatrous 
theatricals and processions, and they chose this time for putting their threat 
into execution. Rut with the assistance of Mr. Fowler, the United States 
Consul, the persecutors were compelled to pay damages to the church mem- 
ber, make a small feast to the neighbors in his honor, and sign a paper 
promising that they would not again demand money from Christians for these 
purposes." 

Churches, Outstations, Evangelistic Work- — The Ningpo church 
has prospered. During the year there have been twenty additions 
on profession of faith. Eight of these were from the Girls' Board- 
ing-School and six from the Presbyterial Academy. There are nine 
hopeful inquirers. The church now numbers 154 members, and its 
contributions amount to $191. With this amount it supports its 
pastor, helps the poor, and assists in various good causes. The Sun- 
day-school numbers about 100, of whom 40 are adults. There are ten 
classes taught by native teachers. The lessons for the present year are 
from the book of Exodus. 

There is a small church at Kao-gyiao, eight miles west of Ningpo, 
and eight miles east of Ningpo is the Bao-ko-t'ah church, numbering 
83 members, and being two-thirds self-supporting. This church is in 



58 CENTRAL CHINA — NINGPO. 

the centre of a large country population, and is surrounded by large 
towns and villages. In this large field last spring Mr. and Mrs. 
Partch, together with native preachers and Bible-readers, carried on 
special evangelistic work for a time, and met with great encouragement 
in the readiness of the people to listen. 

Yii-yao church, forty miles northwest of Ningpo, has been blessed 
in the addition of eight members by profession of faith. Two of the 
number, a man and wife of seventy years of age, were members of the 
Tea. or Do-nothing sect, and had under a solemn vow abstained from 
animal food for twenty years. After four or five years of inquiring 
and hesitating this aged couple have been enabled by God's Spirit to 
renounce the false and embrace the true religion. # 

At quite a number of places in the country, especially in the Saen- 
poh district, there are churches. Medical work and evangelistic work 
have been carried on together. Last spring four native preachers and 
our two native physicians, accompanied by the writer, went to this 
district, and the natives were divided into two bands, each consisting 
of a physician and two preachers. One band was stationed in the 
city of Tong-yiang, having about 15,000 inhabitants, and the other in 
Nyi-u, a city of about 8,000 inhabitants. Much interest was aroused. 
The work had its difficulties, however. In one place it came from 
the old charge of grave desecration. At another, in some other way. 
For example, at one time a patient, observing that nearly all the 
other patients received tinctures while he was given pills, concluded 
that he was not fairly treated, and, seizing a good opportunity, he 
swallowed part of the contents of a bottle of poisonous medicine. He 
was discovered in a dying condition, but still able to tell the physician 
what he had done. An antidote was administered, and his life was 
saved. Had he died there is little or no doubt that his relatives would 
have made false charges against the physician, and might have caused 
us much trouble and injur)'. 

In every place where this special medical and evangelistic work has 
been carried on for a time a new interest in the Gospel is reported. 
Many who have received physical healing show deep gratitude and in- 
terest, and it is our conviction that, on the whole, the medical work 
wins friends and is a help to the preaching. The two native young 
men in charge of the work have shown themselves discreet and skillful 
in the practice of medicine, and they seem fully as earnest in preach- 
ing the Gospel as any of the preachers. 

Bible-Readers. — During eight months of the year four of these 
labored in Ningpo and suburbs, one in the bounds of Bao-ko-t'ah 
church, and two in Yii-yao and its suburbs. In the spring and 
autumn they are sent out two-and-two to work in the bounds of other 
churches. The work of itineration, which at first was so distasteful 
to, and difficult for, these women, is now becoming to them so con- 
genial that we almost fear their zeal in this direction is surpassing 
that of the male preachers. Two or three new members in Ningpo 
church are regarded as the fruits of the Bible-readers' labors. 

The Womaris Industrial Class. — Mr. McKee says in his report : 
"This class for heathen women has met as usual weekly through the year 



CENTRAL CHINA — NINGPO. 59 

The attendance has not been large, but the few who attend regularly show 
the benefits of continued systematic religious instruction. Last summer one 
member of the class, after satisfactory examination, was received into the 
church. She is a woman of unusual ability, and being a widow with two sons, 
supports her family by sewing. When she embraced Christianity she de- 
stroyed papers over which she had chanted prayers for years, making them, as 
she had supposed, of almost inestimable value in the future world, and had she 
chosen to sell them to heathen she might have been some dollars richer." 

Schools. — The Presbyterial Academy continues to be well patron- 
ized, there being thirty-two enrolled — twenty-nine boarders and three 
day pupils. More than this number could hardly be accommodated. 
There is a good spiritual interest. Six of the pupils united with the 
church, and there are three inquirers. There are now eleven commu- 
nicants. A weekly prayer-meeting, something after the nature of a 
Christian Endeavor Society, is kept up by the older boys. One of the 
young men who graduates this year is to be taken on as a day-school 
teacher, and we trust the way may be opened for him to study for the 
ministry. He is an earnest Christian, belonging to the fourth genera- 
tion of an eminently pious family, the Lu family. 

The Ningpo Boys' Day-School has twenty pupils enrolled. Three 
of the pupils have been promoted to the Presbyterial Academy. Of 
the present number all except one are the children of heathen. 

The Bao-ko t'ah Boys' Day-School numbers fifteen pupils, all the 
children of heathen, except two. The teacher of this school has done 
faithful work, both in the school and in preaching the Gospel. He 
desires to enter the ministry, and he is to be tried next year as a 
helper, that he may give himself to evangelistic work. 

The Yii-yao Boys' Day-School has sixteen pupils. The teacher is 
young and inexperienced, but pastor Bao is as a father to both teacher 
and pupils, and their spiritual interests are not neglected. 

The Ningpo Girls' Day-School has been continued under the same 
teacher, a graduate of the Girls' Boarding-School. There are thirteen 
pupils enrolled. Miss Morton, after a year's faithful study of the lan- 
guage, is able to take full charge of the Girls' Boarding-School, and 
the school is flourishing under her care. 

Work among the Women. — Mrs. Butier has been establishing and 
superintending girls' day-schools. She superintends three Bible- 
readers, using one to assist in teaching the Christian woman's class, 
and the other two to visit from house to house in Yii-yao and vicinity. 
Mrs. Partch retains three Bible-readers and continues in charge of the 
Ningpo Girls' Day-School. Mrs. McK.ee has taken charge of the 
Woman's Industrial Class, and uses the remaining Bible-reader to 
assist in conducting the class and visiting heathen homes in Ningpo 
City. 

A new feature in the work of the station is a mothers' meeting con- 
ducted by Mrs. McKee. The want of such a meeting has long been 
felt, but it is only recently that the way has been opened to start it. 
The women highly appreciate the meeting, and the attendance is 
gratifyingly good. Those who have small children who cannot be left, 
are encouraged to bring them with them, and the presence of these, 
so far from being a hindrance to the meeting, are only an inspiration 



60 CENTRAL CHINA — NINGPO. 

to the prayer of faith unto Him who said, " Suffer little children to come 
unto me," Each member signs a pledge to pray for her own and the 
children of the ot;ier members, to try to train them for God and set 
them a godly example. 

Girls Boarding-School. — Mrs. Butler reports : 

" It was not without a tinge of regret that I turned over to another the care 
of the school, for although there are many trials and responsibilities connected 
with this work, there are also many privileges, and not a few joys and pleas- 
ures. These duties and responsibilities now rest upon Miss Morton as super- 
intendent. May she be greatly blessed in the work and have the joy and 
privilege of gathering the fruit of her labors ! 

" The school roll for the year numbered 51 names ; the largest number in 
attendance at any time was 42, the smallest 33, and the average for the last 
term was 40. 

" The matron, Mrs. Lee, who had served faithfully in the school for more 
than ten years, was compelled, on account of her failing health, to resign her 
position about the 1st of December. She went to make her home with her 
daughter in Soochow, and died very suddenly and unexpectedly a few months 
later. Her work will tell in growing families for years to come, as mothers 
tell their children of their school-days and good Mrs. Lee's work, in precept 
and practice, during her connection with the Ningpo school. 

" For several weeks during the autumn, the school was more a hospital than 
anything else ; influenza ran its course amongst the girls ; ten were at one time 
confined to bed with it, and sixteen were at the same time under treatment for 
ophthalmia. 

" We had mumps, whooping-cough, sore-throat, an epidemic of a feverish 
rash, and also our old enemies, malarial fever and ague. Eighteen of the 
fifty-one girls were professing Christians. Of these, eight were received into 
the church during the last term, and still another should have been, but was 
deterred from making a public confession on account of an illness. Of those 
received into the church, several gave unusual evidence of a changed life, and 
all seemed to earnestly strive by walk and conversation to show that they were 
followers of Jesus." 

Mrs. Butler writes pleasantly : 

" One source of pleasure to me in this last term of my work in the school 
was that the girls gave me their confidence almost unreservedly. Those who 
left during the school year write to me in the most filial and confidential way 
of their trials and difficulties, and confess with sorrow their lack of appreciation 
as to their advantages while attending the school ; many things they then con- 
sidered hardships they can now see were for their advantage and for their good 
in the battle against evil. 

" Some of the girls write to me of unusual trials in their home life. ' My 
parents are Christians,' says one, 'but there is constant strife and contention 
in my home. Pray for my parents and for me that I may so love Christ as to 
show them how Christians should act.' Another says, 'Oh that I were still in 
the school, and might again hear my " teacher mother's " voice. and see her 
face. In my own home, now that my mother has gone to heaven, all are 
heathen and despise the religion of Jesus. My father, brothers, and sister-in- 
law combine to destroy my faith. My father will not consent to my going to 
the Sabbath worship. He says it is disgraceful for a young miss of nineteen 
to go out ; so I cannot even meet to worship with God's people. I am so un- 
happy in my home. Oh, pray for me that my faith fail not ! ' Still another 
writes to tell of her unhappy marriage, and the wicked and dissipated habits of 
her husband. 'Ah, how happy was my school life ! Now I can only live in 
fear and dread, and have not wherewith to protect me from the winter's cold, 
or to nourish my life.' Another, living at Nanking, writes to tell me of the 
troublous times there, and that in the midst of all the fear and anxiety she has 



CENTRAL CHINA — NINGPO. 61 

heart-peace, for she trusts in Jesus. ' I know that Jesus my Lord cares for 
me, and harm cannot come to me except He wills it should. Even though 
they burn our house and send us out as wanderers, I will not deny that I am a 
Christian.' I must not take more time to add to these glimpses into the home- 
life of the girls who leave us, but hope these few instances will serve to show 
you some of their trials, and enable you to see that they need your prayers and 
sympathy, as much, if not more, after leaving the school, as when under our 
care. 

"Our great aim and desire is to so train the girls in our care as to enable 
them to make happy Christian homes. No better work can be done for China 
than to send out from our schools Christian girls who as wives and mothers 
will show what true home-life is ; and in this sphere each girl should be a 
shining light. The majority of them will find their life-service for the Master 
to consist of ruling well their own households and training their children in the 
knowledge and fear of the Lord. Comparatively few of them will doubtless 
be called to active work amongst their own people as teachers and Bible- 
women, and we shall be thankful that they can so labor for the Master ; but 
we can ask nothing better for them than that they faithfully show forth the 
Gospel in their own homes, and that they walk worthy of the name they 
bear — that Blessed Name ' " 



62 



CENTRAL CHINA — STATISTICS. 



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CHINA— PEKING. 63 



Peking Mission. 

Peking : the capital of the country ; occupied as a mission station, 1863 ; missionary 
laborers— Rev. and Mrs. John Wherry, Rev. and Mrs. A. M. Cunningham, Rev. J. N. 
Young, B. C. Atterbury, M.D., and wife, G. Y. Taylor, M.D., Miss Grace Newton, 
Miss Marion E. Sinclair, M.D., and Miss Jennie McKillican. 

/;; this country : Rev. and Mrs. J. L. Whiting, Rev. J. W. Lowrie, Rev. W. M. 
Langdon, and Mrs. Reuben Lowrie. 

Peking, the imperial capital, lying in the latitude of Philadelphia, 
includes within its walls an area of twenty-seven square miles, and has 
a population of about two millions. It consists of three cities. The 
southern is occupied by pure Chinamen, the northern by descendants 
of the Tartars ; and within this is the forbidden or imperial city, sur- 
rounded by a high wall, and a moat, forty feet wide, filled with water. 
As Peking is the educational centre of China, an opportunity is here 
presented to meet and influence men from every part of the empire. 
Fortunately there were no such disturbances and turmoils in the city 
of Peking, as harassed the missionaries in the Central China Mission, 
although of course rumors of troubles and the consequent uneasiness 
were not escaped. Dr. Atterbury wrote in December : '' Here in 
Peking we are now having our anxieties as to the troubles and riots 
which have been and are still springing up all over China. Before 
the last two weeks, all we had to think about was the fears of others 
in the South ; but now fresh disorders have broken out much nearer 
home. At two points in Manchuria, bands of rebels are burning and 
looting everything they can reach. The point further north is near 
the Amon River, and is not, of course, very near Peking. In Lower 
Manchuria and the upper portion of this Province, there is really 
serious trouble. The Chinese authorities are greatly alarmed because 
so near the capital. Troops are being sent forward from Tientsin 
and this place, but as yet, little definite news is known. Many vil- 
lages have been pillaged, several hundred of Roman Catholics killed, 
and other damage done; but beyond this, just what is the state of 
affairs, how strong are the rebels or what their intentions are, is 
uncertain." 

No active outbreak, however, occurred at Peking. The mission- 
aries were undisturbed in their work, only the general restlessness 
showed itself in more than usual indifference to the Gospel. 

The mission has been seriously crippled during part of the year by 
the loss of Mrs Reuben Lowrie, and Revs. VV. M. Langdon, J. W. 
Lowrie, and J. L. Whiting. Mr. Langdon's return to America in the 
spring was made necessary by continued ill health, that unfitted him 
for regular work of any kind. Mr. Lowrie's dangerous illness in 
April and May merely hastened his return on furlough, after eight years 
of service on the field. During the last two years his labors as super- 
intendent of the day-school for boys — in both city and country — to- 
gether with the charge of the boys' boarding-school, had been specially 
arduous. Mr. Whiting's furlough was already overdue, and he felt 
unable to postpone longer his return home. 

The arrival of J. Newton Young gives promise of future help, when 



64 CHINA — PEKING. 

he shall have mastered the language, but the mission urgently needs 
further reinforcement for the prosecution of work already undertaken. 

Country Work. — The most encouraging work of the year has been 
that in the San Ho district. An interesting work was begun here over 
a year ago through the influence of a peanut peddler who had strayed 
into a street-chapel in Peking, and had heard there what was a strange 
story to him, of salvation and joy in Jesus Christ. He told what he 
had heard to his neighbors, and a little company of believers was 
gathered. Most of the time this field has been under the immediate 
care of native evangelists, three of the native helpers taking the 
charge in town, while Mr. Whiting has made several protracted visits, 
during which he gave special attention to the systematic instruction of 
inquirers able to read. Miss Newton and Dr. Sinclair conducted in- 
quirers' classes for women during two weeks at the Chinese New Year, 
Miss Newton returning later for another visit of three weeks ; and 
Miss McKillican spent nine weeks teaching the women in classes and 
visiting from village to village. Altogether about fifty women were 
under instruction with most gratifying results. Forty- five persons 
have been baptized in this district within little more than a year, and 
there is still a widespread interest. The mission deeply regrets that 
the lack of workers prevents its accepting more fully this great oppor- 
tunity. Miss McKillican also spent about three weeks visiting other 
villages north and south of Peking. It is important that the work in 
the country districts should be prosecuted earnestly. These people 
have souls. They are in need of the Gospel. The influence of work 
among them will react upon the work in the city. Moreover, gener- 
ally, in the mission fields gains have been made most largely in com- 
munities not massed as cities are. 

Street Chapel Preaching. — For the preaching services in the street 
chapel, the latter part of the year the mission has been obliged to de- 
pend more than usual upon the native helpers, Mr. Whiting being 
absent from the city much of the time, and Mr. Wherry having new 
duties as a member of the committee for re-translating the Bible into 
high classical Chinese. This latter work required Mr. Wherry's pres- 
ence in Shanghai the month of November, and hereafter will demand 
much more of his time. Chapel preaching, which is well attended 
at Peking, has been regarded as a satisfactory method of work, since 
it reaches not only those in the neighborhood, but many from the 
country and from other cities. A chapel is a seed-planting institution. 
The seed must be watered and cared for in other ways, but chapel 
preaching scatters it far and wide. 

Churches. — The condition of the three churches within the bounds 
of the mission is not altogether favorable, although two of them have 
made gains since the last report, and the Peking Second Church has 
paid nearly half the salary of its native pastor. 

Boar ding-Schools. — The boarding-schools are both flourishing, the 
boys' school having thirty-five on its roll, and the girls' school thirty- 
two. Since the beginning of Mr. Lowrie's illness in the spring Mr. 
Wherry has had the general management of the boys' school and Dr. 
Atterbury has attended to the accounts. Mr. Cunningham, while un- 



CHINA — PEKING. 65 

able as yet to take part in the teaching, and being very busy with his 
own studies, has exercised supervision of lhe general order and dis- 
cipline of the school since its reopening in September. Sixteen of the 
pupils are church members. 

Miss Newton reports the year in the girls' boarding-school as ex- 
ceptionally quiet and peaceful. " There has been no special religious 
interest, though there has been a healthy religious feeling, manifested 
by a more sensitive conscientiousness, greater earnestness in prayer- 
meetings, more diligence in study, and unusual freedom from quarrel- 
ling and jealousy. Only seven or eight of the pupils are from heathen 
homes, and eleven are professing Christians." The young assistant 
teacher — a graduate of the school — has done her duty faithfully, hav- 
ing the respect of all the pupils. She is also organist of the First 
Church. The rule of giving no clothing to girls has been in force 
throughout the year, and seems to be working well. Each scholar is 
required to be provided with a sufficient amount. of decent clothing of 
her own before she is admitted to the school ; and the Chinese find it 
hard to live up to this rule. During the intense heat last September, 
when the school opened, three of the older girls walked back to the 
school from their homes in the country — a distance of 140 miles — 
their fathers, two elderly men, walking with them and canning their 
bundles. Two of the older girls accompanied Miss Newton to San 
Ho in the spring, and were of great assistance in teaching the women. 

Day-Schools. — There are two day-schools for girls in the city, under 
Miss McKillican's charge, having twenty -five pupils. One is taught 
by a very capable young woman ; the other by a not very capable old 
lady. Still, under Miss McKillican's careful supervision, the old lady 
does fairly good work. The two city day-schools for boys have had 
eighteen pupils, while that at Cheng Chia Chuang has had ten. Three 
Christian teachers in the San Ho district have made the study of 
Christian books a regular part of school duties for all boys whose 
parents are willing to have them do that work. Nine boys are so 
studying. 

Medical Work. — An advance is to be noted in the medical work. 
The Woman's Hospital, which was established at our western compound 
in the autumn of 1890, is becoming better known and increasing in 
usefulness. It has been open throughout the year, with the excep- 
tion of two months in the summer. By employing a native woman 
assistant Dr. Sinclair has managed to free Miss McKilhcan a large 
part of the time for visits to the country stations and other work. But 
with the increase in number of patients that is to be expected, this 
will soon cease to be possible. The attendances at the dispensary 
have been 5,006, and in-patients have numbered 70. A large ma- 
jority of the latter have been surgical cases. 

At the An Ting Hospital in the eastern compound a separate wait- 
ing-room, with a Bible-woman in attendance, under Mrs. Atterbury's 
direction, is provided for the women who come as out-patients. Of 
course gynecological cases and those requiring treatment as in-patients 
are referred to the other hospital ; but there are not a few women suf- 

5 



66 CHINA — PEKING. 

fering from ordinary diseases for whom the distance to the Woman's 
Hospital is too great. 

The regular work has been carried on as in previous years. The 
hospital has been open all the year, receiving at its two city dispensa- 
ries 22,203 visits from out-patients, and admitting 195 in-patients to its 
wards. 

The opium smokers offer an especially difficult field. They de- 
mand both firmness and patience. The Chinese have a story which 
well illustrates the foolMiness of the habit. A smoker, having wasted 
his all and being unable further to gratify his appetite, resolved to 
find some means to have just one more smoke and then kill himself. 
On the street he met a man crying bitterly On asking the cause 
the man told him that his old father was dying, and that the doctor 
had prescribed human brains as the only medicine which could save 
him. Of course these could not be bought and the son was in despair. 
A thought struck the opium smoker. " See here," he said to the 
other, ''give me money enough for one good smoke and you can have 
my brains." A bargain was soon made. The man had his smoke, 
then jumped head foremost against a stone wall. The buyer of human 
brains rushed eagerly forward, bowl in hand, to secure what was to re- 
store health to the parent. Alas ! he could not find what he so earn- 
estly desired, for, continues the story, "opium smokers have no 
brains." 

One of the best medical students died of phthisis early in the year ; 
two have begun practice for themselves at their homes ; and one left 
to engage in evangelistic work fur the Church of England mission, to 
which he belonged. Three new pupils were added — two of them 
graduates from our boarding-school — thus making five under instruc- 
tion at the end of the year. 

Four country dispensaries have been maintained, two of which have 
been visited twice monthly and the other two once. To these about 
3,000 visits have been made by patients. 

Concerning the work at two places in the country, the report of the 
An Ting Hospital says: 'The experience of the past year in 
country work has justified the often-heard saying that 'in China the 
unexpected always happens.' Last year we chronicled the belief that 
in Kao-li-ying, a busy market-town, 17 miles north of Peking, we had 
secured a permanent foothold ; while of Nin-lan-shan, a market-town 
10 miles further to the northeast, evidently much doubt was felt. 
Confidence and fear alike have proved unfounded. In spite of sev- 
eral marked successes in treatment of surgical cases, the Kao-li-ying 
people could not be persuaded that our science possessed anything of 
value to them ; and as to the doctrines taught in our books they were 
convinced of their dangerous character. Several of the boys in the 
free school opened in our rented house, declared that study of the 
catechism made their heads ache, which was conclusive evidence to 
the parents that there was something vitally wrong. Consequently all 
but two pupils were withdrawn and the school was broken up. After 
being maintained a year and a half, the dispensary was abandoned for 
lack of patients. No opposition of any sort was ever manifested ; we 



CHINA— PEKING STATISTICS. 67 

were simply let severely alone. At Nin-lan-shan, while there has been 
no great advance, we have never been entirely without patients, and 
the prospect for the year to come is at least ab bright as it was a year 

a §°-" 

Inquirers. — With the aid of Mr. Whiting and native helpers, Dr. At- 

terbury has conducted three classes of inquirers from the country sta- 
tions, who seemed worthy of more attention than could be given them 
at their homes, each class spending three or four weeks in the city. 

Woman s Work. — Special work for the women has been carried on 
in both compounds as hitherto by Mrs. Atterbury and Miss Mc- 
Killican. 

Literary Work. — As one of the publication committee of the North 
China Tract Society Mr. Wherry has had much to do in the way of criti- 
cising and revising tracts, as well as in translating the Sunday-school 
lessons that are in general use throughout North China. Mr. Whiting 
also has been engaged upon the translation of several religious books. 

Personal. — Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have passed their first ex- 
amination very satisfactorily, and continue to give most of their time 
to study of the language. Apart from Mr. l.owrie's serious illness, 
already alluded to, and an attack of varioloid, from which Dr. Sinclair 
suffered, as the result of exposure to small-pox while at San Ho, the 
health of the mission has been very good, although China was not ex- 
empted in the general prevalence of influenza. 

It is earnestly hoped that the work of the Peking Mission will be 
developed increasingly along evangelistic lines, and that the growing 
work of the hospital may lead to a growing presentation and accept- 
ance of Christ. The force of the mission should be so increased 
that it can push out into the country, found new outstations, and 
spread the light of the Gospel widely through Northern China. 

Statistics of Peking Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 6 

Missionary physicians, including Miss Sinclair, M.D. 3 

Married female missionaries 4 

Unmarried female missionaries 3 

Ordained natives 3 

Christian helpers 4 

Medical assistants 5 

Native teachers (male and female) 12 

Bible-women ... 2 

Churches 3 

Communicants 272 

Added during the year 52 

Pupils in boys' day-schools 37 

Pupils in girls' day-schools 25 

Pupils in boarding-schools (2) 67 

Total number of schools 10 

Total number of pupils 129 

Sabbath-school pupils 200 

Visits of patients to dispensaries. 30,209 

Contributions (82 



68 CHINA— SHANTUNG. 



Shantung Mission. 

Tungchow : on the coast, 55 miles from Chefoo ; occupied as a mission station, 1861 ; 
missionary laborers — Rev. Messrs. C. W. Mateer, D.D., and Charles R. Mills, D.D. , and 
their wives ; Rev. Messrs. W. M. Hayes, William Lane, and S. B. Groves and their 
wives ; Robt. Coltman, Jr., M.D., and wife, and Mrs. E. G. Ritchie ; Rev. Yue Kih Yin 
and Rev. Tso Loi Wen ; 1 licentiate, 15 teachers. 

Chefoo: the chief foreign port of Shantung; occupied as a mission station, 1862; 
missionary laborers — Rev. Messrs. Hunter Corbett, D.D., and Geo. S. Hays, and their 
wives ; 27 licentiates, 44 helpers, 5 Bible-women. 

Chinanfu : capital of the Shantung province, 300 miles south of Peking ; occupied 
as a mission station, 1872 ; missionary laborers — Rev. John Murray and wife ; Rev. 
Messrs. Gilbert Reid and W. B. Hamilton ; J. L. Van Schoick, M.D., and wife; 3 help- 
ers, 1 Bible-woman. 

Wei Hien: 150 miles southwest from Tungchow; occupied as a station in 1S82 ; 
missionary laborers — Rev. Messrs. R. M. Mateer, J. H. Laughlin, 1". H. Chalfant, J. A. 
Fitch, and their wives ; Rev. J. A. Leyenberger ; W. R. Varies, M.D., and wife; Miss 
Emma Anderson, Miss Emma F. Boughton, Miss Mary Brown, M.D., Miss Fanny 
Wight, and Mrs. M. M. Crossette ; Rev. Chang yu-fujig, Lan yue-hwoa, Lij-ing-i, Lan 
yung-ieng ; 1 licentiate, 51 teachers, 3 Bible-women. 

Ichowfu : 150 miles southwest from Chefoo ; occupied as a station in 1890 ; mission- 
ary laborers — Rev. Messrs. W. P. Chalfant, C. A. Killie, and W. O. Elterich, and their 
wives; C. F. Johnson, M.D., and wife ; 5 native assistants. 

. In chis country : Rev. Messrs. J. L. Nevius, D.D., S. A. Hunter, M.D., Paul D. 
Bergen, and their wives; J. B. Neal, M.D., and wife ; and Mrs. J. A. Leyenberger. 

The past year in the Shantung Mission has been one of the most 
auspicious in all its history, following close upon the famine distress 
of the year before. The labors of the missionaries and native assist- 
ants in the interior cities and villages have met with an unusual re- 
sponse on the part of the people. The increased interest has been 
shown : (1) in the number of little communities which have sought for 
teachers of the truth for the opening of little schools ; (2) by the 
great number of specific and earnest inquirers who desire to learn 
more concerning the "Jesus religion"; (3) by the large numbers 
who have been received into the communion of the churches, forming 
a total of over seven hundred persons ; (4) in the diligence of the 
native preachers and teachers in acquiring increased knowledge in the 
theological training classes, and in the normal classes for teachers ; 
(5) in the greatly enlarged contributions of the people out of their 
extreme poverty for the prosecution of the various lines of Christian 
work.* 

While the mission rejoices in all these tokens of spiritual thrift, it 
is not to be denied that there have been cases in which a mercenary 
spirit or a listless inattention has marred the otherwise favorable im- 
pression made upon their crafty hearts. 

In addition to these spiritual blessings the Shantung Mission has 
had great reason to rejoice in the providential overruling ot the polit- 
ical disturbances which have marked the past year in China. The 
enemies of Christianity in all parts of the world were for a time loud 
in their criticism of the work of missions, charging upon it the re- 
sponsibility of alienating the people of China ; and predictions were rife 
that the mission enterprises would be brought to a close. The friends 

* The reported contributions of last year for the Wei Hien station ($1,115) 
is an error. The amount should have been $115.50. 



CHINA — TUNGCHOW. 69 

of missions also in various parts of our own country were greatly dis- 
turbed by fears of danger to their beloved friends on the field. But it 
became evident in time that the riots were instigated largely by polit- 
ical motives, by a desire to involve the Chinese Government in com- 
plications with foreign powers, and thus at length overthrow the pres- 
ent dynasty. The sagacity of the Government seemed to rise supe- 
rior to all such plans, and for the first time in the history of missions 
in China, an imperial edict was issued, declaring that the charges 
made against missionaries were untrue ; that instead of having sought 
the destruction of the people, missionaries were teachers of virtue and 
advocates of peace and order ; that their influence was good, and 
that they must be protected in life and property. Never before in the 
providence of God has the attitude of the Government of China been 
so favorable as now. In pursuance of this general edict, orders were 
issued from Peking to the local governors in the different provinces, 
calling for the thorough protection of missionaries and the extension 
to them of such privileges as might be required for the quiet prose- 
cution of their work. Rev. Gilbert Reid, who was chiefly instru- 
mental on behalf of the mission in bringing about the purchase of 
property which had long been resisted at Chinanfu, and the establish- 
ment of a station at Chi Ning Chow, where our missionaries had been 
mobbed, sums up the results of efforts made with the Government as 
follows: (1) Ptoclamations have been secured from the local magis- 
trates for the protection of the missionaries and mission property. 
(2) The difficulties at Chi Ning Chow have been satisfactorily settled. 
Two special deputies were sent to meet Mr. Reid and adjust the se- 
curing of property, etc. The missionaries even received presents from 
the official?, guarantees being at the same time made for future pro- 
tection. (3) Property has been secured for the erection of buildings 
at Chinanfu. 

Some changes have occurred in the mission, namely, the return of 
Dr. Hunter and family, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Bergen, and Dr. and Mrs. 
Neal. Meanwhile, Dr. and Mrs. Coltman have returned to their field. 
With the exception of the few particular instances mentioned below 
the health of the mission has been good. 

Tungchow. 

The absence of Dr. and Mrs. C. W. Mateer from Tungchow for a 
part of the year has been greatly felt. Dr. Mateer has been 
devoting himself, with the sanction of the mission and the Board, to 
the publication of certain important works in the Mandarin language, 
upon which he has spent years of labor. He is also chairman of a 
committee appointed by the Missionary Conference of 1890 to trans- 
late the Bible into Mandarin. In the spring of 1891 he began to 
teach Evidences of Christianity to the young men at the Tungchow 
College, but was obliged to relinquish it. He kept up his general 
supervision of the College until November, when he moved to Shang- 
hai. Mrs. Mateer, besides looking after the domestic airangements 
of the College, especially the sick students, had charge also of the 
Girls' High-School. 



yo CHINA — TUNGCHOW. 

She also revised her Principles of Vocal Music. She also taught a 
class in singing. The report of the College says. " Without detracting 
from her other labors it may be truly said that the influence which 
Mrs. Mateer has thus exerted over the young men who have gone out 
from this institution, has been one of the most valuable parts of their 
education." 

The heavy burdens and responsibilities of the Tungchow College 
have now devolved upon Mr. and Mrs. Hayes, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Groves. 

The senior missionary now at the station^, Dr. Mills, has during the 
year preached regularly in the chapel at Tungchow. He has also 
been able, notwithstanding illness in his family, to do something in the 
way of itineration. Mrs. Mills has been prevented by family duties 
from doing much missionary work except in the teaching in the Sab- 
bath-school and in the instruction given to a little class of deaf-mutes. 
Although a leave of absence had been granted Dr. and Mrs. Mills, 
they have remained on the field and at their work. Under Dr. Mills' 
care Mr. Tso Li Wen, a native preacher, has labored in two small 
churches in the country. Through his effort and that of his wife, 18 
persons have been hopefully converted and baptized. These native 
Christians who have been won to the Cross in what is known as the 
Ping Tu district, have been subjected to persecution in the loss of 
property, which was destroyed by incendiary fires. Steps have been 
taken to secure indemnity through the American Consul at Chefoo. 

The work of Rev. W. M. Hayes as senior professor in the College 
is spoken of in high terms by his associate missionaries, his general 
oversight of many forms of work, his fidelity in the class-room and 
elsewhere. In addition to instruction given, he has prepared a com- 
mon school astronomy, which is now in the hands of the printer. He 
has also translated the Introduction to the Loomis Logarithmic Tables 
During the summer vacation he superintended the building of a new 
kitchen and two dormitories to the College. He has also been the 
station treasurer. Mrs. Hayes, during the first half of the year, in 
addition to her family cares, had classes in geography and New Testa- 
ment history, and looked after the commissariat of the College. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the year the condition of her health compelled 
her to relinquish these cares. 

Mrs. Ritchie has been actively and earnestly engaged in study and 
in teaching. She has had two classes in the College, has finished 
reading the New Testament in Mandarin, and has pursued other lines 
of Chinese study. She has also spent some time in preparing a sacred 
geography. She has succeeded Mrs. Mateer in the general oversight 
of the College matronship, and has taken entire charge of the College 
accounts. She has had a class, also, in Sunday-school, and has shared 
in leading the women's prayer-meetings. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lane arrived in Tungchow in September, and took 
charge of the G.rls' School. Mr. Lane made a two weeks' itinera'ing 
tour in October. A large part of their time has been spent in learn- 
ing the language. They are looking forward with high hope to the 



CHINA — CHEFOO. J\ 

work assigned them by the mission at the new station of Chi Ning 
Chow. 

Mr. and Mrs. Groves arrived from America early in the autumn, and 
commenced vigorously the study of the language. In December 
th'-y passed their first quarterly examination with much credit. 

Dr. and Mrs. Van Schoick came from Chinanfu about the first of 
May, and remained till the middle of November, studying the lan- 
guage, Dr. Van Schoick superintending the dispensary and hospital, 
besides caring for the health of the missionaries in the absence of Dr. 
Coltman, who has recently returned to his field. 

The general health of the mission has been good. 

Tungchow College. 

While much of the work in this institution has been set forth in 
individual reports, it should be said in general that the institution has 
been prosperous to a gratifying degree. The number of students en- 
rolled during the year was 98, and the average attendance 94. 
As the college draws its students more and more from schools at 
Chefoo, Chinanfu, and Wei Hien, and less from heathen schools, a 
corresponding improvement is seen in the average attendance, the 
weeding out process having been pretty well finished before the stu- 
dents reach college. The general health of the students has been 
good, though two or three have been obliged to leave on account of 
sickness, and toward the close of the term the influenza for a brief 
season almost broke up the school. The graduating class numbered 
five, all men of good promise. Three others, after completing a par- 
tial course, have entered into useful spheres of labor. The religious 
tone of the school has been kept up to its usual degree. 

The report speaks of the great need of buildings, two or three small 
structures having created a good deal of apprehension lest they should 
fall to the ground. To prevent this, funds were borrowed to rebuild 
them. 

In closing the report says : " All in all the year has been one of 
steady toil for the welfare of the institution, and the fitting of young 
men for responsible positions in the church. Experience has amply 
shown that while here, as elsewhere, there may be shorter cuts to the 
ministry, yet those who are most fully prepa'ed are, as a rule, most 
useful and reliable men, and it is our purpose, while not compelling 
any one to enter the church service, ever to hold the work for Christ 
before them as the noblest work of all." 

The total number of members connected with the Tungchow sta- 
tion is 280. During the year 34 have been added. 

Chefoo. 

The work in connection with the Chefoo station has been carried 
on by Dr. and Mrs. Corbett and Rev. Mr. and Mrs. George S. Hays, 
and has been devoted to evangelization and education. 

During the spring and autumn seasons Dr. Corbett spent ninety- 
three days in outstation work, preaching to the people at numerous 



72 CHINA — CHEFOO. 

markets, conducting services and administering the sacraments at 
Christian centres in the districts of Hai-Yang, Lai-Yang, Chi-Meh, 
and Kiao-Cheu, also in examining boys and girls in the day-schools. 
He found the work encouraging in all these places, but more especially 
in the districts of Hai-Yang and Lai- Yang. New work is springing up 
in all quarters. Four years ago there was but one centre of Christian 
life in all these two districts, and everywhere the native preachers met 
with reviling and opposition ; but a change has come over the people, 
not that there has been any sudden overthrow of idolatry and 
heathenism, attended with the conversion of great numbers, yet a 
gradual weakening of the opposition is manifest, and in many towns 
and villages there is evidence that the Gospel is reaching many hearts. 
Dr. Corbett received into church membership a total number of 67 
during the year. When not occupied in itinerating he has been en- 
gaged in reaching the Normal School and classes of inquirers ; also 
preparing lectures to be used in the school, and conducting the 
regular services in the Chefoo chapel. 

Rev. George S. Hays spent ninety-eight days in itineration. The 
greater portion of this time was occupied in attending markets, dis- 
tributing books and tracts, and preaching to the heathen. Fifty one 
markets were attended, mostly in the district of Chi-Hia. Heretofore 
this region has proved but a barren soil, and throughout its whole 
extent, perhaps forty miles in breadth by fifty in length, there are even 
yet but four or five church members. The present outlook is more 
hopeful, and the seed sown in past years is beginning to spring up. 
Many persons were met who showed more or less interest. Mr. 
Hays paid a visit to the promontory lying southeast of Chefoo, a 
region of great destitution, and giving, as yet, but little encouragement. 
It is constantly overrun by foreigners, who are in the Customs employ- 
ment, and whose influence is not good. Mr. Hays has also been en- 
gaged a part of the time in giving instruction to normal school classes. 
Mrs. Hays has visited among the women in the neighborhood of 
Chefoo ; spending thirty days, and made in all seventy calls. While 
kindly received in nearly all of the homes visited, she did not find 
many who were ready to take a stand on the side of the truth. 

Training- Schools. 

In the work of the country schools considerable effort has been 
made. These were open during the winter months at five different 
centres for the training of inquirers and lay-preachers. The one at 
Chefoo was opened late in November, and continued about two 
months. Thirty-five men were taught by Dr. Corbett and Mr. Hays, 
as above stated. Besides those taught at Chefoo, there were sixty in- 
quirers distributed between four different outstations who received 
more or less instruction, being taught entirely by lay-preachers sta- 
tioned at the different places. There are in connection with Chefoo 
station 28 native helpers or evangelists ; 41 schools with 500 pupils. 
These receive daily instruction in the Word of God, and are exerting 
great good. The Normal School for the training of teachers and 



CHINA — CHINANFU. 71 

evangelists which was opened two years ago continues to prosper. 
During the year 22 young men have been instructed therein. 

Chinanfu. 

The health of the missionaries at the Chinanfu station has been 
good. Peace and quiet in both city and country have prevailed, 
notwithstanding the disturbances in Central China. For many years 
the missionaries at Chinanfu have been striving to secure land upon 
which to place missionary structures, but the local government 
offi< ials have constantly thwarted them. Our United States Minister 
at Peking has made repeated efforts, but without result, until during 
the past )ear. Through the reaction in favor of foreigners, to which 
reference has been made above, the missionaries have been at last 
able to secure eligible sites for missionary buildings outside the wall, 
thus avoiding the malarious atmosphere and intense heat from which 
ihey have always suffered in their close and uncomfortable quarters in 
the Chinese city. On the other hand, it is unfortunate that just now, 
when the opportunities are so enlarged and the favorable auspices for 
the work have been increased, the number of workers is diminished. 
Dr. and Mrs. Neal and Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Bergen being entitled to a 
leave of absence, according to the rules of the Board, left their field 
in December. They are now in this country. No one has yet been 
secured to take their places. Dr. Van Schoick, who has been 
assigned to the Chi Ning Chow station, has rendered temporary 
service at Chinanfu, though under certain disadvantages, as he has 
not had full opportunity to acquire the language. The station calls 
earnestly for some one to supply the place of Mr. Bergen, who has 
been faithful and efficient, and whose acquisition of the language is 
unusually good. 

Mr. Murray assisted a part of the year in theological instruction. 
Through three of the spring months he was engaged in itinerating. 
His work was much interrupted by a period of sickness in the early 
autumn. Another itinerating trip was taken later in the fall. Mr. 
Murray also had a class of inquirers for a month. Mrs. Murray 
attended him in his itinerating work for two months, and had classes 
of women under her instruction at three different times. Mr. Murray's 
field embraces 5 stations, 64 communicants, 55 inquirers, 4 student 
helpers, 3 day-schools. Fourteen persons were baptized during the 
year. Contributions of members, §8.50. Mr. Bergen's work has 
been transferred for the present to Mr. Murray's care. 

Rev. Gilbert Reid, as above stated, has had the great satisfaction 
during the year of securing property for missionary purposes at Chi 
Ning Chow. This fact marks a great advance in the status of 
the mission, as compared with the sad experience of 1890, when 
our missionaries were mobbed during their efforts to secure a set- 
tlement in that place. Mr. Reid reports a prosperous work done 
in country evangelization. Eighty inquirers have presented them- 
selves to him for instruction. He has had the privilege of Ido- 
lizing 8 persons. Three stations with 15 communicants are under 
his care. Two theological students from his field have been added 



74 CHINA— CHINANFU. 

to those who are preparing to preach the Gospel. A medical 
helper under his direction performed good work in introducing west- 
ern science into a new district, where an official was the object of 
his ministration. This helper treated 2,657 cases in eight months. 
Native contributions to the amount of $15 were given him toward his 
work. Mr. Reid, from his deep interest in the opportunities for work 
which open everywhere before him, contributed $250 from his own re- 
sources for its prosecution. He has also had charge of the street chapel 
in Chinanfu, and has given considerable instruction to the native helpers 
gathered for the purpose during portions of the year. One of the most 
important departments of Mr. Reid's work during the year has been 
the securing of proclamations of local officials at stations under his 
care, and some belonging to other missionaries ; also the settlement 
of the difficulties at Chi Ning Chow and the purchase of property ; 
the securing of a deed legally stamped and registered at Chinanfu, and 
the posting of the proclamation demanding protection for the mission- 
aries and for their work. 

Mr. Bergen's work during July and August consisted (t) in the in- 
struction of the theological class in the Old Testament Exegesis, 
Delivery and Criticism of Sermons, Church Discipline, and six lectures 
on Comparative Religion ; (2) instruction daily of four helpers in 
Matthew and Evidences of Chiistianity ; (3) preaching in Chinese on 
Sunday, and leading the mid-week prayer-meetings. During Septem- 
ber and October his time was devoted to a Commentary on Second 
Thessalonians. He also revised Dr. Mateer's Mandarin lessons and 
led the Sunday services. Mrs. Bergen has been ill during a consider- 
able part of the year, but she has been actively engaged in work when 
her strength admitted. Under Mr. Bergen's care were 5 stations, 4 
student helpers, 1 school of 15 pupils, and 57 church members. There 
are 4 baptisms reported. 

Mr. Hamilton has had oversight of the Chinanfu Boys Boarding- 
School, which at present is conducted in Chinese premises in the east 
suburb. He has met with the school three times a week. The school 
averages 20 pupils, five of whom are day-scholars. Two or three 
years ago a fund was raised for a memorial school building by friends 
of the late Mrs. Clara L Hamilton, who was called to her rest very 
soon after reaching the mission field. With the purchase of land which 
has been so long delayed, it is expected that this enterprise will now 
be consummated. In August a portion of Mr. Reid's field was trans- 
ferred to Mr. Hamilton's care. During the autumn thirty days were 
spent in itineration. 

Dr. Hunter, who left his field in May on leave of absence, spent the 
early part of the year in Chinanfu, preaching and giving instruction to 
native helpers. 

During the year the ladies of the mission kept up a systematic work 
for women in Sabbatii-school classes and the Wednesdiy evening 
prayer-meeting, and in personal instruction of those who were en- 
couraged to call at the mission homes. 



CHINA — WEI HIEN. 75 

Medical Work. 

The dispensary under Dr. Neal, superintended for a part of the year 
by Dr. Van Schoick, reports 1 1,010 cases treated, of which 5,377 were 
new or separate cases. This is an increase of 1,000 over last year. 
Dr. Neal's medical class at the beginning of the year numbered 9, but 
some having been dropped, he closed his instruction with 6. 

An unfortunate event occurred in connection with the medical work 
in the death of the local Governor. He had called a foreign doctor 
from Tien-tsin, but too late, so that nothing was done, yet foreigners 
received the credit of killing him, and wild stories were circulated 
against them. 

The medical report speaks with satisfaction of the prospect of 
securing a hospital and dispensary in the east suburb where land has 
recently been purchased for the mission. 

Dr. Neal also had charge of the treasury of the station, and fulfilled 
his duties well. He was also Sunday-school superintendent, and fre- 
quently held a Bible class at his house. 

Mrs. Neal did valuable work among the women, both in the city 
and in the country. 

Wei Hien. 

The mission field connected with the Wei Hien station comprises 
all Presbyterian churches, outstations, schools, and evangelistic work 
in the twelve "hien" or counties lying within the prefectures of Lai 
Chow Fu and Ch'ing Chow Fu, covering an area of about 10,000 
square miles, and containing, perhaps, four millions of people. Besides 
the missionaries, the working force comprises 4 ordained native 
ministers, 25 native helpers, 3 Bible-women, and some 50 school 
teachers. The Mateer Memorial Hospital is under the care of three 
foreign physicians, two of whom are ladies, and one trained native 
doctor, who is an able assistant. 

There are in the Wei Hien field 13 organized churches, with an 
aggregate membership of 1.920, besides an unorganized membership 
of 230, making a total of 2,150 members connected with the station 
and its outstations. During the year there have been added on pro- 
fession 616, making a net gain over deaths and removals of 443. 
There are now 130 outstations where regular services are held. 

In the country schools there are 766 youth, of whom 562 are boys 
and 204 are girls. At Wei Hien there is a high-school for boys, which 
is recruited from the country schools, and which in turn prepares 
students for admission to Tungchow College. 

In this district the native contributions have amounted to $545 
(Mexican) The four native pastors laboring in this field will be fully 
supported during the coming year by the native church contributions, 
thus saving the mission an item of $300. 

Notwithstanding famine, persecution, and strenuous opposition by 
the Roman Catholics, the work has been greatly blessed. 

During the year Mr. Mateer has given Scriptural instruction for 
four or five weeks to about thirty men, preachers and helpers. He 
also gave a season of instruction to the country school teachers. It 



y6 CHINA — WEI HIEN. 

is one of the wise measures of the Shantung Mission to institute these 
substitutes for theological seminaries and normal schools, utilizing such 
seasons as are not favorable for itinerant work. To be brought into 
contact with the missionaries once or twice a year is most valuable as 
a stimulus, intellectually and spiritually, to the native force. The 
quality of work done in the schools has greatly improved. The 
heathen are looking on with admiration, and are beginning to seek the 
transfer of their children from the native schools to those of the mis- 
sion. Out of 227 boys, only 21 are boarded, and they only in part. 
Of these, 18 are in an advanced school, studying the ordinary branches 
of common school education. A day-school costs but from $25 to 
$32. These little centres in a heathen community prove seed-beds 
of influence which reach not only the children, but parents and house- 
holds, and in many instances they have led to the formation of little 
churches. In the heathen schools there is no moral influence. The 
uplifting power of education thus given will tell upon the female sex, 
and thus upon the whole population of Shantung. 

The work of Rev. J. A. Leyenberger has been largely one of 
organization. Hitherto it had been thought best to leave the church 
membership in his portion of the field in an unorganized state, in 
order to test more thoroughly the character of the members and 
ascertain who were most suitable to occupy the responsible position 
of officers. In the present case the results of this sifting process have 
been beneficial, and have justified the delay ; but during the year four 
churches have been organized with a total membership of 439. Nine 
elders and as many deacons have been elected, all of whom are men 
of good character and have given satisfaction. By act of Presbytery 
these churches are under the care of a native pastor, Rev Chang Yu- 
fung, but, at his request, Mr. Leyenberger has been associated with 
him as co-pastor. A large part of the work to the east and southeast 
of Wei Hien still remains unorganized. Mr. Leyenberger has made 
five touis of visitation to the churches and stations during the year. 
He has not, however, been able to visit all of them each time. He 
has traveled mostly by wheelbarrow over a distance of 856 miles, 
spending no days in the country, during which time it was his 
privilege to baptize 109 persons, of whom 10 were children. Seven 
who had been baptized in infancy were also received into the church. 

Mr. F. H. Chalfant has had his time divided between duties at Wei 
Hien and the oversight of country stations. He spent 126 days in 
the country (too in itineration, 17 in teaching a class at an outstation, 
and 9 in organizing churches). He has baptized during the year 127 
adults and 2 children ; restored to membership 6 and excommunicated 
2. He has had under his care 30 preaching stations and 12 country 
schools, not including 30 stations under the care of the native pastors, 
Revs. Lan Yueh Hoa. and Lan Yung Seng. These two brethren have 
received during the year 164 persons to their communions. 

Considerable persecution has existed, due to the coincidence of 
the term " Lao Hui" (meaning presbytery) with the latter part of the 
name Ko Lao Hui, the notorious secret society which is strongly 
suspected of being at the bottom of the recent Central China riots. 



CHINA— WEI IIIKN. J"? 

An edict was issued in all the provinces to ferret out all adherents of 
the infamous Ko Lao Hui, and this has been made a pretext in some 
places for persecuting the innocent "Lao Hui," or presbytery. 

The Roman Catholics are everywhere trying to supplant the Prot- 
estant schools and proselyte the church members. Notwithstanding 
these hindrances, the work has been greatly prospered. 

Something has been done during the year in the distribution of the 
famine fund previously contributed. Mr. Chalfant's report says: 
"We disbursed in all $4,025.85 (Mexican), equal to about 83350 
United Siates gold at the then current rate. With this sum we were 
enabled to give substantial aid to 4,473 persons (including children), 
of whom about one-third were church members and the rest heathen 
members of their families dependent upon them for support. We ap- 
pointed ten men as distributors, and drew up careful regulations con- 
ti oiling the mode of enrollment, and then issued monthly allowances 
to such as were deemed needy, and we required a full account at the 
hands of the distributor. At the close of* the distribution (it lasted 
from December to April) we required each distributor to file an 
itemized account of every cash paid out, and to whom paid, which, 
together with our own account of receipts and disbursements, are now 
on file (in Chinese) for the inspection of any one at any time." 

Rev. and Mrs. J. H. Laughlm and wife have spent a year on leave 
of absence in the United States, and are about to return to their field. 
It is expected that they will be stationed at Chi Ning Chow. 

Rev. J. A. Fitch has devoted his time almost exclusively to the 
learning of the language, though he has also made two trips in the 
country, visiting the villages, besides taking charge of some business 
matters for the mission. 

Medical Work. 

Dr. Faries' report of the Wei Hien Hospital is broken in continuity 
by a removal for a part of the year to Tungchow, to fill the place left 
vacant by Dr. Coltman ; but this has affoided him partial relaxation 
from the pressing duties at Wei Hien, and given, therefore, more time 
for study, which has been well improved. The labor at Wei Hien has 
already outgrown the strength of those who are called to engage in it. 
Dr. Faries reports from forty to sixty visits daily at the dispensary. He 
says : "The lady doctors are frequently overworked. They are often 
called to see patients in well-to-do families. Sometimes there are two 
carts at a time before the door to bear them to comfortable homes on 
visits to patients. Generally every time they go out they must see 
several of these sufferers." Those who have any doubt about medical 
work will be plea>ed to read that M Their work has made a great 
difference in the attitude of the people of Wei Hien toward the mis- 
sionaries. The English Baptist missionaries also notice the difference 
when they pass through the city." A good native assistant is employed 
at the dispensary, but patients will leave the place and try to find 
"the lady doctor" wherever she may be, and "it is ot no use to 
reason with these women." This means oppressive labor and respon- 
sibility for the lady physicians. Dr. Faries gives very cogent reasons 



78 CHINA — WEI HIEN. 

for the appointment of such medical missionaries for other stations in 
Northern China ; well trained, earnest, devoted lady doctors certainly 
have a mission in Shantung. With the hospital and surgical work a 
spiritual effort has been put forth. Two of the patients applied for 
baptism. 

Miss Mary Brown, M.D., has also devoted much of her time to the 
language, but has also, to some extent, begun to engage in the prac- 
tice of medicine, making daily calls from house to house in visiting 
patients, and also in taking charge of the dispensary work every other 
week. She has spent 16 days in the country. The persons treated at 
the dispensary have been about 7.000. The homes of the poor, and 
to some extent those of the wealthiest families, are open to Dr. Brown 
and the other physicians. 

The work of Mrs. Robert Mateer, M.D., in the women's depart- 
ment of the dispensary at Wei Hien, has assumed a more definite and 
efficient character, though patients have been received almost from 
her first arrival on the field. The number of patients has been on the 
increase. The confidence of the people has grown more cordial, 
entrusting the most serious cases to the surgical skill of the physicians. 
There is almost an excessive confidence, since the people are some- 
times not prepared to understand how any case can baffle the doctor's 
skill. "We are making friends far and near," says Mrs. Mateer's 
report. "This is noticeable in a marked degree in Wei Hien City, 
formerly a very hostile place. It is a common occurrence for us to 
be invited to feasts given in our honor. This was never known to 
happen before this department was opened. Wherever physical suffer- 
ing is relieved, there we may count our friends by the score. The 
people are so thankful for relief that they are willing to listen to the 
Word of Life. We find in many of our calls that the tracts, prayers, 
commandments, etc., received from us have been pasted on the wall 
of the Chinese homes, and, although this may be done to please us, it 
is encouraging, as it is not long since the people refused to carry them 
home." 

Mrs. Crossette's work among the patients is noticed elsewhere. 

Miss Emma Anderson, from whom no report has been received, has 
spent altogether about 150 days visiting the Chinese women, and 
speaking to them of Christ and of what the Gospel may do to raise 
them up, not only to a higher life here, but to a blessed immortality in 
the world to come. 

Mrs. Crossette has devoted her time and strength to the patients 
connected with the dispensary service, having visited 1,700 women, 
telling them of a Saviour and a heaven, of God and how to worship 
Him. Her knowledge of the language, the result of many previous 
years of service, and her pleasant and sympathetic manner, fit her 
peculiarly for this kind of work. Her report says, " Many of the 
women get a good start in the Christian Catechism before leaving the 
hospital. Some show brightness of mind and readiness to receive the 
truth." A class of Christian Chinese women are gathered on Sabbath 
afternoons to receive systematic instruction. 

Miss Emma F. Boughton has devoted her time mostly to learning 



I HINA — ICHOWFU. 79 

the language, though about fifty days have been spent visiting among 
the villages. 

Miss Fanny E. Wight has spent 165 days in visiting in the country. 
She has generally accompanied Miss Anderson or Mrs. Crossette,' 
talking with the women in the various villages. 

Ichou>/u. 

With the exception of a visitation of the prevailing influenza, which 
was rather severe, the health of the missionaries at this station has 
been in the main good, though Mr. and Mrs. Killie have both been 
ill, and for a time were obliged to go to Japan for their health. They 
have returned to their field and resumed their work. 

The report from Ichowfu says : "The year has been one of slow but 
steady progress in all the lines of work, and we are to-day on better 
terms with all classes than ever before. We feel profoundly grateful 
for this peaceful condition of our Jchowfu station, especially so as 
news comes to us both from the North and fiom the South of riots and 
bloodshed. Here the Roman Catholic agent seems to be unable to 
obtain the same privileges that have been peacefully granted to us. 
We have no organized church as yet, but hold preaching services 
every Sabbath, followed by Sabbath-school. Prayer-meetings are 
held each Sunday and Wednesday evening ; also public worship 
morning and evening of each day. All patients who have come to 
the dispensary have had the benefit of Christian conversation. Those 
who could read have received Christian literature. Our chief work, 
however, lies in the country. There we have ten outstations, one 
organized this year. In five of these are churches ; the other five are 
only preaching-places. Fifteen have been added to the church roll 
during the year, while five have been stricken off, leaving a net gain 
of ten, and a total membership of 181. There are also 88 baptized 
children." The contributions of these little churches amounted to 
$38.65. There are five native helpers, three of whom spend all their 
time in country work. Five country schools are reported, with 55 
pupils. 

This station has been opened scarcely two years, and much of the 
time of the missionaries has necessarily been occupied with the 
building or thorough modification of residences, chapel, dispensary, etc., 
proper y hiving been secured on a long lease of twenty years, which 
is considered in effect about tantamount to a purchase. The mission- 
aries have succeeded in making themselves comfortable, though in 
very small and humble quarters. The reason why in so short a time 
the station is able to report so large a number of communicants 
is found in the fact that for some years past missionaries from Chefoo 
and their native helpers have preached at the outstations which are 
now embraced in this field. 

Rev. W. P. Chalfant began the work of itinerating soon after the 
Chinese New- Year, visiting first an isolated station twenty-five miles 
southeast of Ichowfu, where there is an interesting Christian family. 
The means of travel are exceedingly poor. For want of better con- 



80 CHINA — ICHOWFU. 

veyance Mr. Chalfant engaged a small donkey, which, however, gave 
out in the midst of his journey, leaving him no alternative but to pro- 
ceed on foot through mud and sometimes in cold and rain. A short 
time after his return he again set forth on a tour to visit three stations 
in the northeast of Ichowfu, where he baptized six converts and en- 
rolled twice that number of candidates for baptism in the future. A 
third visit was made, accompanied by his wife, visiting the churches to 
the northward. The road was little more than a footpath, along 
rugged gorges and over dizzy mountain passes. The vehicle was a 
wheelbarrow. Mrs. Chalfant, it is believed, was the first foreign lady 
that ever visited these mountain stations. Schools were examined, 
religious services were held, and to the women instruction was given 
for the first time by one of their own sex. Mr. Chalfant reports a 
good deal of interest in the little churches lying within a radius of forty 
miles from the\r station. At Pei Tso Chinan he baptized three con- 
verts. On a visit to Shanghai on business Mr. Chalfant encountered 
at Ch'ing Kiang Pu some difficulty from rioters, but escaped without 
injury. Later in the year another visit was made to the churches to 
the northward, accompanied by Dr. Johnson. More or less difficulty 
has been encountered by the proselyting of Roman Catholics in some 
of the outstations. Their influence for evil was greatly increased by 
the fact that they offered to establish a paid day-school in opposition 
to the one carried on by our mission without such pecuniary temp- 
tation. This dangerous diversion was by patience and skill finally 
thwarted. 

Mr. Killie, as stated above, has lost much time through his own ill- 
ness and that of his wife. They have, as time and strength allowed, 
made good progress in the language, and Mr. Killie, besides acting as 
station treasurer, has taken charge of some of the religious services. 
Mrs. Killie has also visited the dispensary a good part of the time 
when at home, talking with the women. The Bible-woman under her 
charge, Mrs. Lieu, has been in daily attendance there for five or six 
months of the year. 

Mr. and Mrs. Elterich arrived at Ichowfu in the month of April, 
and have devoted the year assiduously to the study of the language. 
In the summer months they opened a Sabbath-school for the native 
Christians, and for such strangers as were willing to attend. Mr. El- 
terich is just beginning to make some use of the language, greatly to 
his satisfaction. 

Medical Work. 

The medical work of Dr. Johnson is a very important factor, though 
much of his time has been occupied with learning the language, super- 
intending repairs on a dwelling-house and dispensary, besides looking 
after the health of the missionary community. The dispensary was 
opened April 27th. With the beginning of the rainy season in July 
the attendance began to decrease. This resulted partly from the 
natural reaction after curiosity had subsided, and partly from the 
reports spread abroad by the native doctors, and also tidings of riots 
in the South. No open demonstration was made, however, and it 



CHINA — CHI NING CHOW. 8 I 

seemed impossible by such means to prevent a gradual increase in the 
number of patients applying. 

In August Dr. Johnson left the dispensary in the hands of a native 
medical assistant, and accompanitd Mr. Chalfant on an itinerating 
tour among the outstations, he caring for the sick while Mr. Chalfant 
preached and gave personal instruction to the people. An average of 
about 50 or 60 patients were seen in each town, in all 450. Upon 
one day 141 were seen. The influence of itinerating medical work is 
chiefly valuable in awakening the attention of communities, as there is 
comparatively little satisfaction in treating diseases where a patient 
can be seen but once. 

Giving a summary of the work Dr. Johnson calls most earnestly for 
a lady physician, as nearly one-fourth of the patients have been 
women. About ninety women a month have applied at the dis- 
pensary, and were there a lady physician present this number would 
be increased threefold. From April 27, 1891, to December 31, 1891, 
the dispensary was open 213 days, during which time 3002 cases 
were treated, an average of 14 a day. Of these 1,516 were first visits. 
Of the cases treated 2,313 were men and 689 women. The opera- 
tions performed have been few, and limited to the most simple cases. 
The natural horror of the knife which every Chinaman has been un- 
able to overcome has deterred many. Besides, there are no accom- 
modations at present in which it would be safe to undertake difficult 
cases, as full control of the patient could not be secured. 

This report, taken in connection with those received from Wei 
Hien, presents a strong plea for the appointment of a medical lady. 
No form of work seems to be so greatly in demand or to repay so 
richly the outlay involved as that which bears relief for the body and 
encouragement and hope to the souls of China's millions of degraded 
and suffering women. 

Mrs. Johnson accompanied her husband on an itinerating trip of 
sixteen days. 

Chi Ning Chow. 

It will be remembered by those who have followed the history of 
the Shantung Mission that an effort was made in 1890 by Dr. S. A. 
Hunter and family and Rev. Win. Lane to secure a settlement at Chi 
Ning Chow, but the missionaries were driven out almost immediately, 
though property had been rented for their use. Although at one time 
in extreme peril, the missionaries escaped without injury, except that 
which was involved in the exposure to which they were subjected, and 
in the mental and nervous strain which seemed to affect the health of 
Mrs. Hunter. Although complaint was made almost immediately to 
the United States Minister at Peking, the Government and the local 
authorities were very tardy in giving satisfaction, but during the past 
year, through the efforts of Mr. Reid, efficiently aided by Col. Charles 
Denby, U. S. Minister at Peking, property has been secured at Chi 
Ning Chow, and full permission has been granted for the erection of 
buildings, with emphatic pledges of protection. Money was con- 
tributed by the ladies of the First Presbyterian Church in Utica many 

6 



82 CHINA — STATISTICS OF SHANTUNG MISSION. 

months ago for securing a property at Chi Ning Chow for a hospital. 
The way now seems to be open for carrying out this project. 

Meanwhile, the mission has assigned to this new field Rev. Messrs. 
Laughlin and Lane and their wives, and Dr. J. L. Van Schoick and 
wife ; and it is expected that at as early a day as practicable they will 
occupy Chi Ning Chow as a station, and begin to lay foundations for 
missionary work in a very extensive and promising field. 

Dr. Van Schoick, who has been assigned to Chi Ning Chow, has 
spent a part of the past year at Tungchow, and the remainder at 
Chinanfu, filling the vacancies left by those who were on leaves of 
absence. 

Mr. Lane, who, together with Dr. and Mrs. Hunter, was mobbed at 
Chi Ning Chow, and subjected to great exposure, had suffered so 
seriously from ill health that more than a year ago he was granted a 
leave of absence, but by dint of personal courage and good medical 
care he has apparently recovered his health and continued at his 
work. He has rendered some assistance at Tungchow, as elsewhere 
stated, and for a time he was engaged also at Chefoo. 

Statistics of Shantung Missioti. 

Ordained missionaries, of whom one is a physician. . 21 

Missionary physicians, of whom two are women. ... 7 

Married female missionaries 23 

Unmarried female missionaries 5 

Ordained natives 6 

Licentiates 29 

Native teachets and helpers 139 

Churches 25 

Communicants 3,392 

Added during the year 760 

Boys in boarding-schools 466 

Girls in boarding-schools 262 

Pupils in day-schools 953 

Total number of schools 109 

Total number of pupils 1,681 

Sabbath-school scholars S73 

Contributions $948.25 



MISSIONS TO THE CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN 
THE UNITED STATES. 

San Francisco : mission begun 1852 ; missiorary laborers — Rev. A. J. Kerr and 
wife ; Miss Maggie Culbertson and Miss M. M. Baskin ; three teachers in English ; two 
native helpers. 

Among the Japanese : E. A. Sturge, M.D., and wife ; one native superintendent and 
one native helper. 

Oakland : mission begun 1877 ; R ev - *• M- Condit and wife ; two teachers. 

Portland, Oregon : Rev. W. S. Holt and wife. 

New York : one native superintendent. 

Early in the past year the mission was called to mourn the loss of 
Rev. A. W. Loomis, D. D. For thirty-two years, with the exception 
of about a year and a half vacation, on account of ill health, he had 
worked faithfully and successfully for the Chinese. After much suffer- 
ing he died July 26, 1891. At the funeral service, which was held in 
the Chinese church in San Francisco, the large building was filled 
with sympathizing friends, fully one-half of whom were Mongolians. 
Beautiful offerings of flowers were sent by the Chinamen from several 
of the outstations. The members of the Presbytery acted as honorary 
pall-bearers, while the casket was borne to the cemetery by six mem- 
bers of the Chinese church, dressed in full native mourning. Around 
the grave stood a large company, many of whom had been led to the 
truth through the instrumentality of Dr. Loomis. The hymn, " Nearer, 
my God, to Thee," was sung in Chinese. Dr. Loomis had won the 
esteem of all of whatever nationality who were acquainted with his 
work in San Francisco, and his influence had gained for him the 
affection of Chinamen throughout the entire Pacific coast. Not only 
in his directly spiritual teaching, but in his kindly and courageous 
intervention for the defence of the Chinese against the wrongs visited 
upon them by evil-minded Americans, and by foreigners who incon- 
sistently persecuted them as foreigners, he had honored the cause of 
Christ in the minds of the entire Chinese population. He had come 
to be regarded as a father to all belonging to their race, whether 
Christians or not. At a meeting of the Board, held August 17th, 
resolutions were passed expressing the respect and honor in which 
this worthy veteran was held, for the long and faithful service which he 
had rendered. Dr. Loomis h'as left an honored widow, who had long 
shared his work for the Chinamen in San Francisco. 

Aside from this bereavement the mission has maintained its regular 
work without interruption throughout the year. The results are not 
all that could be wished, and yet are encouraging, considering the fact 
that the Chinese population is being gradually diminished by the strin- 
gent legislation of the General Government, and the continued per- 



84 CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — SAN FRANCISCO. 

secution suffered from local authorities and prejudiced citizens. The 
number of Chinese in the cities of San Francisco and Oakland does 
not diminish in the proportion of the whole population, because 
vacancies occurring in the cities are filled by persons from the smaller 
towns ; hence, the work in these cities continues to be of prime 
importance. " We have had, during the past year," says the report, 
"experience of the unjust discrimination of the present exclusion law. 
Some months ago, being in need of an additional Chinese preacher, 
we endeavored to get one from Canton. The law, however, blocked 
his passage, unless he could get from the Government at Peking a 
certificate of his standing, and stating that he was not a laborer. This 
being out of the question, our missionaries and the American Consul 
at Canton gave him certificates to the Chinese and American Consuls 
at Yokohama, where it was supposed he could secure the necessary 
papers to land on American soil, as Chinese merchants had often 
done. The Chinese Consul-General at Yokohama cheerfully gave 
him the papers asked for ; but the American Consul refused, and upon 
this refusal the Pacific Mail steamers offices declined to sell him a 
ticket to San Francisco. The preacher was obliged to return to 
Canton. Under the present rulings of the law it seems impossible to 
bring a Chinese preacher of the Gospel into the United States." In 
these circumstances the Board has borne the expense of the fruitless 
journey of this preacher, sent for the instruction of his countrymen in 
America, back to Canton. 

The missionaries have made several tours during the year among 
the country towns and camps where Chinese are to be found. In 
these places meetings were held in the streets, tracts distributed, fac- 
tories and stores visited, and earnest efforts made to scatter the seeds 
of the truth. There are three native assistants, two of whom are 
especially faithful and efficient. 

San Francisco. 

At San Francisco the regular Sabbath morning and evening services 
and two Sunday-schools have been maintained. The morning con- 
gregations have continued large, averaging about 200, and have given 
patient attention. Rev. Mr. Condit, of Oakland, has rendered occa- 
sional assistance in maintaining these services. There were 8 persons 
received during the year into the church, 7 on confession of faith and 
1 by letter. Four infants were baptized. The Sunday-schools have 
shown an increase in attendance toward the latter part of the year. 
The number of children in Chinatown is increasing, but public schools 
have been established for the Chinese children. 

A foreign missionary society was recently organized in the church. 
All of its officers are Chinese young men. Its object is to support, in 
connection with a similar organization in Oakland, a native preacher 
in Canton. Each member contributes a special monthly sum. 

The exercises in the evening mission-school are conducted in 
English and in Chinese. Special preaching services with prayer-meet- 
ings are held on Wednesday and Saturday evenings. On Sunday after- 
noon an open-air service is held on the street near one of the heathen 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — OCCIDENTAL BOARD. 85 

temples, at which often two or three hundred persons assemble. A 
Bible-class is maintained in the church at the close of the even- 
ing-school. 

The Chinese Christian Association holds regular meetings. Several 
young men have united with it during the year, "declaring on doing 
so that they had forsaken all idolatrous and sinful practices, and now 
believe in the true God and henceforth would worship Him."' 

One member of the church is a student in the San Francisco Pres- 
byterian Theological Seminary. The professors speak highly of him 
as a student. At the time the report was written he was on the eve 
of graduating, and will at once enter upon mission work. 

The Loomis Memorial Presbyterian Mission Sc/iool for boys and 
girls has been carried on under the immediate direction of the Board. 
It has been found necessary to remove this school from the Globe hotel, 
which had become a den of gamblers, opium smokers, etc. A new 
place has been found at No. 1 108 Stockton Street, to which the school 
was removed January 1st. There are 71 pupils enrolled, 13 of whom 
are girls. About three-fourths of the pupils are members of the 
children's department of the church Sunday-school. This school, 
formerly known as the Globe Hotel School, will hereafter be known 
as a memorial of Dr. Loomis, who through many years was its earnest 
supporter. It has been under the efficient care of Miss J. E. Wisner, 
formerly of Canton. All accounts represent her work as faithful and 
successful. 

The Occidental Board. 

This Board maintains the Chinese Mission Home (and School) for 
girls at 933 Sacramento Street, and also the Occidental Day-School 
for boys and girls. The Home has been crowded throughout the 
year. About 350 have been received into it from the beginning. 
The total number for the year has been 71. A large number of the 
inmates are young girls under sixteen years of age ; also a six months' 
old female infant was given during the year to the superintendent. 
Miss Culbertson. Excellent work has been done in industrial as well 
as in Christian training during the year. Four of the inmates were 
baptized. This noble work, which appeals so strongly to the hearts 
of Christian women throughout the land, has suffered greatly, and 
more and more from year to year, from the cramped quarters in 
which it has been carried on. The total number during the year has 
been nearly twice the average that could be accommodated, and yet, 
when once the poor waifs whose good the institution seeks have been 
received under protection, they cannot be turned away without re- 
manding them again to even worse perils. This Home deals with the 
only surviving type of American slavery, and it should be the deter- 
mined purpose of all right-minded people to put it down : and inasmuch 
as this home and school are the most effective means of accomplishing 
this, the institution should be efficiently supported. The necessity for 
the erection of new buildings with enlarged accommodations has been 
fully recognized by the Board within the last two or three months, 
and an effort has been authorized for the raising of $6,000 in connec- 



86 CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S.— SLAVERY. 

tion with Children's Work for Children during the coming fiscal year. 
Thi<= it is believed, will, with the local subscriptions gained by the 
Occidental Board, accomplish the much to-be-desired object. 

The Occidental Day-School, under the care of Miss Baskin, has an 
enrollment of 58 pupils. The scholars are making good progress. 

A Relic of Slavery. 

With reference to the infamous system of enslaving Chinese girls, 
we quote a passage or two from the Occident of March 1 6th as fol- 
lows. It is part of a letter written from Pasadena, and evidently 
from the pen of Rev. A. M. Merwin, formerly missionary of the Board 
in Chili : 

" That rescue last week of a Chinese slave woman in Los Angeles 
was more than a romantic affair. From what may be gathered from 
the press it appears that she was abducted from San Francisco, brought 
hither, and obliged to marry a Chinaman, who made use of the cer- 
emony as a legal shield to protect him while he held the woman as a 
slave. Miss Culbertson, of the Presbyterian Chinese Home in San 
Francisco, quickly followed the victim, arranged to meet her privately 
at night, found her only too glad to escape from servitude, and the 
two were soon on their way to San Francisco on the midnight train. 
At Fresno they were detained by a deputy sheriff, who had telegraphic 
orders from Los Angeles to arrest the woman on a trumped-up charge 
of larceny. Miss Culbertson appealed to a lawyer of that city, Mr. 
Drew to render aid 'for humanity's sake.' Prompt assistance was 
given. The warrant was found to be illegal in its form, and the pris- 
oner was released on the same day as the arrest. By private convey- 
ance and a roundabout route the hunted woman and her kind pro- 
tectress reached a railway station, from whence they proceeded to 
San Francisco without molestation, and thus far ' the hounds of the 
law' have been unsuccessful in ferreting out the hiding-place of the 
rescued slave. If Miss Culbertson were to appear on our streets to- 
day, and were recognized, hundreds of men would uncover their heads 
in token of their respect and admiration. More than ordinary wisdom 
was needed to convict ' the heathen Chinee,' and bring to bay officials 
that ' likee China money all same Melican.' Love for that poor slave, 
and for Him who died for her, made swift the feet of the rescuer, and 
her steps were divinely guided as she hourly looked upward. It is 
most refreshing to see in this morning's Times of Los Angeles a long 
editorial in which this form of Chinese slavery is strongly condemned, 
and the statement made that 'officers of the law, attorneys, and courts, 
at least in this city, are becoming more wary about lending their influ- 
ence, under legal processes, to sustain the iniquity.' And you can 
judge of public sentiment on this question by the significant closing 
of that editorial : ' Thus, in one more instance, Chinese slavery, aided 
and abetted by forms of law, has been defeated. There are many 
more unfortunates to rescue, and the public will wish Miss Culbertson 
and her associates God-speed in their good work.' " 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — VISITATIONS. 87 

House-to-House Visitation. 

An interesting work is carried on under the auspices of the Women's 
Occidental Board in house-to-house visitation in San Francisco, Oak- 
land, and other cities. Mrs. Page, of San Francisco, and Mrs. Rus- 
sell, of East Oakland, made nearly three hundred calls at Chinese 
and Japanese homes, giving away tracts and cards. When not ad- 
mitted into the Japanese homes they passed in beautiful Japanese cards, 
with Scripture texts, under the windows. The Chinese women are 
more and more anxious to have their children taught. "The 'shut-in' 
women," says the report, "will ask me to buy woiking material for 
them, thus showing confidence by trusting me with their money. One 
silk merchant seemed pleased that I called upon his wife and children, 
and said he would tack our card on the wall. He asked several ques- 
tions about Dr. Loomis. For example: 'Where did he go when he 
died? Would he always sleep? Was the other life like this r* Do 
we eat in that place ? ' One Japanese woman begged that we would 
not come again ; for she said she had learned about the Gospel and 
knew she was doing wrong, and our words troubled her so much that 
she did not want to see us." " There is an immense work to be 
done," says Mrs. Page's report, "and it can be effectively done only 
by dividing up Chinatown into small districts and dividing the labor." 
Mrs. Russell's work in East Oakland has been most encouraging. 

From Los Angeles Mrs. Chapin reports: "A new song of thanks- 
giving is put into the lips of your missionary after years of crying to 
God for it. The women of the churches have become so awakened 
in the work for the women in Chinatown that in the spirit of the 
Master they go from house to house patiently and tenderly showing 
and telling of the love of Jesus. They are gathering all the women 
that can be induced to come together for prayers. They sing beau- 
tiful hymns, and several not Christians are learning to pray. A new 
interest is shown in the reading of the Bible, which is loaned a week 
at a time." 

In San Diego Mrs. Tyler has been engaged in this same kind of 
work, with a good degree of success. The increased number of women 
in all parts of California is greatly arousing the interest of Christian 
women, and this new department of work seems likely to be among 
the most promising. 

At San Jose Miss Cary has also had a part in the same noble cause, 
having visited more or less eighteen different families. Her heart has 
been pained by seeing young girls bought and taken away from her 
influence over them. 

Mrs. Wheeler, of San Rafael ; Miss M. E. Alexander and Miss A. 
M. Houseworth, of San Francisco, and Miss M. Wilson, of Sacra- 
mento, have also been engaged in house-to-house visitation. 

It is a matter of great regret that Miss E. R. Cable, who began this 
work with much bravery years ago, has been laid aside by ill health. 
Her effort and her courage in overcoming obstacles and prej- 
udices, and persisting in finding her way into the homes and dens where 
Chinese women were found, have wrought an influence which is now 



88 CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — OAKLAND. 

bearing fruit, and bids fair to bear fruit in the years to come, all over 
California. 

Oakland. 

The work in Oakland, now under the immediate care of Rev. Mr. 
and Mrs Condit, has been very encouraging during the year. There 
is a marked increase of interest all along the line. The evening- 
schools grow in numbers in spite of the gradual decrease of the 
Chinese population. The two new teachers, Miss Smith and Miss 
Burbank, have entered upon the work with new courage. At the 
close of the school before Chinese New- Year exercises were held, in 
which the Chinese, by singing and speaking, interested and surprised 
a crowded house of American people. The Sabbath-school, under 
the superintendence of Mr. N. W. Winton, has greatly prospered. 
With a corps of earnest and faithful teachers he has doubled the 
numbers of the school. Sometimes thirty-two pupils have been 
present. Eight persons have been added to the church during the 
year, making a total at present of fifty members. Five of the eight 
were received by baptism. Five religious services are held in the 
Chinese language during each week. These have been well attended, 
as also the prayer-meeting of the week. Mr. Condit has occasionally 
changed with Mr. Kerr, who has charge of the church in San 
Francisco, in the Sabbath morning services. The discouraging point 
in the work at Oakland is the lack of new material. Most of those 
who attend are already Christians. New Chinese residents are few. 
Still, a few new ones do attend, as the five baptisms of the year will 
show. The contributions of the church during the year have been 
gratifying, amounting to $375. The Mission Band, under the direc- 
tion of Mrs. Condit, has raised over $100, the Chinese having set 
their hearts on using the same for the support of a native helper in 
China, who is to spend his whole time in going about from place to 
place in preaching the Gospel. Mrs. Condit, always efficient, has 
continued her labors in various lines of missionary work. 

Sacramento. 

During part of the year the work of the mission was maintained with 
encouiagement. Dissensions, however, arose at length, caused by the 
conduct of two or three unworthy members, and the work suffered. 
The evening-school has been suspended. Visiting in the homes and 
teaching the women and children are pursued, however, as vigorously 
as possible by Miss Wilson. 

Stockton. 

At the beginning of the year a good teacher was secured for the 
new mission at Stockton. Excellent work has been done. Two 
promising young men were baptized and received into the Presbyterian 
Church, the first-fruits of the mission. Others are preparing for bap- 
tism. The school meets in the parlor of the Presbyterian church. 
At Chinese New- Year a pleasant entertainment was given by the 
Chinese to their American friends. 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — LOS ANGELES. 89 

Los Angeles. 

The Los Angeles Chinese Christian young men hold on faithfully 
to their work. They have no missionary now living among them, and 
a native helper only a part of the time. Mr. Condit visited this work 
recently, and found some increase in the school. A number who are 
not in the school attend the evening lectures which are given at the 
close of the school session. The Morrison Band still prospers, their 
contributions being given for the support of a native helper in China. 
Mrs. Noble and Miss Boone are still faithfully at work, teaching in the 
evening- school. Not less than 50 Chinamen have been in attend- 
ance during the year. The Kindergarten has grown in numbers, and 
now has 12 children in attendance. Its teacher, Miss Quick, is very 
successful in her work. Mrs. Chapin, formerly a missionary in China, 
is employed by the ladies to do work among the women in Chinatown. 
She also holds meetings among the men, whom she gathers into a 
school, and she reports a deep interest being taken by several of the 
number in learning the truths of Christianity. A Christian layman, 
whom Mr. and Mrs. Condit taught many years ago, preaches on the 
Sabbath when the native helper is absent. 

San Diego. 

This little Chinese community now numbers 28 Christians who are 
connected with the First Presbyterian Church. Three have been 
baptized during the year. There are 72 names on the school roll, 
though the average attendance is somewhat diminished. Mrs. Mc- 
Kenzie, who has taught for ten or twelve years, still continues her 
faithful labors. Rev. Dr. Noble takes a warm interest in the work, 
and sets a noble example for other pastors to follow. The success in 
San Diego is largely due to his care and work. A small school for 
children is maintained in Chinatown. The work among women is 
done by a lady who is supported by the Occidental Board. 

Santa Barbara. 

The school at this place has been very successful during the year. 
Its former teacher, Miss Twitchell, was obliged to resign on account 
of health, and the work was taken up by Mrs. S. B. Bell, aided by Miss 
L. Flo)d. Under their management the school has grown in num. 
bers, 40 scholars having been in attendance. The young men here 
have been struggling with a debt for an Association Hall and Home, 
which, by their perseverance and aid of friends, is nearly extinguished. 
The Chinese Adams Mission Band has contributed for the support of 
a native helper in China. 

San Jose. 

The Evening School, which was carried on by volunteer teachers 
for several months of the year, with a fair attendance, was, on account 
of local causes, suspended. '* We desire," says the mission report, " to 
reopen it as soon as a teacher can be found. Chinatown is a long 
distance from the American population, the roads leading to it are 



90 JAPANESE IN CALIFORNIA. 

dark at night and often muddy, and it is difficult to find a suitable 
teacher who would endure the burden of the work at a salary of even 
twice that which we are able to offer." The Sabbath-school is main- 
tained in the First Presbyterian Church. 

Alameda. 

F Under the devoted teaching of Mrs. Fraser and her daughter the 
Alameda Mission continues to accomplish excellent results. Three 
young men have just been received into the church by baptism, and 
two others expect to present themselves for examination at the next 
communion season. One of those baptized manifested in former 
years much hostility to the school, and repeatedly induced pupils who 
had become interested in Christian truth to leave it. But led in by 
repeated invitations, and perhaps by curiosity, he became a pupil and 
is now a sincere follower of Christ. 

Regular preaching services are maintained on Thursday and Sabbath 
evenings by the missionaries from San Francisco and Oakland and by 
native assistants. A delightful Christmas service was held in the 
school. The new chapel is highly appreciated, and has repeatedly on 
special occasions been filled to overflowing. 

Napa. 

The little company of Christian Chinese at Napa has been encour- 
aged during the year by the faithful teaching of Mr. Goodman and a 
few other friends. The number attending the school is not large, but 
all are interested, and some display earnestness and sincerity in seek- 
ing to know the truth and follow it. 

Santa Rosa. 

The Santa Rosa Mission has suffered from removals, no less than 
five of its oldest members having left to accept places in the larger 
cities during the year. Nevertheless the mission has done good work 
under the care of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson and other friends, and two of 
the scholars have formally renounced idolatry and united with the 
Christian Association. They are not, however, yet prepared for 
baptism. 

San Rafael. 

The mission in San Rafael, under the consecrated teaching of Mrs. 
Shaver, has had, probably, the most prosperous year in its history. 
Six united with the Christian Association ; one was baptized and re- 
ceived into the church, and an earnest class meets for Bible study at 
the close of the school every night. 

The contributions during the year were $205, besides generous aid 
given for medical treatment to a sick member. 

Mission among the Japanese in California. 

This work has been conducted during the year by Dr. and Mrs. 
Sturge, assisted by Mr. K. Mitani, an educated Japanese. It has sev- 



JAPANESE IN CALIFORNIA. 91 

eral peculiarities. It is carried on among young men, even more 
exclusively than that which is done among the Chinese. It also deals 
not with common laborers so much, as with partially educated young 
men who are seeking for an increased knowledge and preparation for 
professional or other forms of work in Japan. All this implies a con- 
stantly changing condition of thing?. Probably no mission field in the 
world has greater promise in proportion, either to the numbers reached 
or to the expense involved. At the same time it is true that an actual 
exhibit of results must be limited, because those who have received 
Christian influences and training soon disappear from the field. Dr. 
Sturge in his report has aptly described the condition of the work as 
follows : 

"As a grapevine will sometimes climb over the enclosure where it 
has been carefully tended and bear its choicest clusters on the other 
side, so is it with our work here. We plant and water, but the finest 
fruit must be sought on the other side of the Pacific. The purpose of 
the majority of the Japanese who come under our care is to get an edu- 
cation rather than to accumulate money, and having accomplished their 
purpose they return to their beautiful island home. We are always sorry 
to have our boys leave us, but we rejoice that many of them go back to 
use their influence for the advancement of the Master's cause. At the 
present time four of our young men who were converted while study- 
ing here are practicing as Christian physicians in Japan. A few of 
our former pupils are teaching in Japanese schools ; one is a professor 
in the Agricultural College at Osaka; one is a Christian interpreter in 
Honolulu, and two are evangelists among their own people. One 
young man, formerly an elder in our church, will graduate this spring 
from the Y. M. C. A. Training School at Springfield, Mass. Two 
others are taking the regular course in the Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary here. All these in time will tell in the good work in Japan 
and Hawaii. 

" Two of our former members have written to us from Japan that 
their wives (through their influence) have recently accepted the 
Saviour and been baptized. Unlike the Chinese of California, who 
come almost exclusively from one province, our boys come from every 
part of the 'Sunrise Kingdom,' and in the future their influence will 
be widely felt in Japan. Though the Japanese among us are nearly 
all poor and obliged to support themselves by working in families, they 
have contributed liberally to the work. 

"The rent of the two houses, at present used as a home, church, and 
school, is, including gas and water, more than $100 per month. Of 
this sum the young men have paid two-thirds, the other third being 
appropriated by the Board. Besides this the members have con- 
tributed S3 1 1 for the church and benevolent purposes, $53 being sent 
to the sufferers from the recent earthquake in Japan. We have had no 
religious awalcening during the past year, and the accessions to the 
church have numbered but nine, six upon profession and three by letter. 
We are not at all satisfied with this, and confidently look for better 
things in the future." 

The present quarters of the Japanese Mission in California are 



92 CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — PORTLAND. 

poorly adapted to the work. The building is crowded, and the rooms 
used for religions services are wholly inadequate. Fifty or sixty fre- 
quently crowd into a room in which only forty can be seated. The 
mission report expresses a hope that the building formerly occupied 
by the Presbyterian Theological Seminary may be found available for 
this work. Surely such a step is desirable if it be found at all within 
the reach of the mission. 

The Japanese Young Men's Christian Association connected with 
this church now numbers 90 members, all the active members being 
connected with the church. 

There has been an average attendance of about 20 at the night- 
school. Some of the young men find occupation during the mornings 
and evenings, and attend in school hours some of the day-schrols of 
the city. A year ago one of the members of the church graduated 
from the High School, and is now a student in Stanford University. 
During all his studies he supported himself by working as a servant in 
a family. 

On the whole, the work among the Japanese in San Francisco be- 
comes every day more important, as increasing numbers are arriving 
and are taking the places of departing Chinamen. The station report 
savs : '■ Were it not for this work and a similar one being done by our 
Methodist brethren, most of the Japanese who come here, away from 
all restraint of home, and surrounded by the influences of this wicked 
city, would go to destruction, instead of returning, as many of them 
do, to be a blessing to their own land." 

During the first three months of the year Rev. A. Hattori was 
associated with Dr. Sturge. During the last seven months Mr. K. 
Mitani has rendered efficient set vice. Rev. A. J. Kerr officiates at 
all the communion services. 

The mission report urges the extension of the work for the Japanese 
to other cities of the Pacific coast. Five hundred Japanese are al- 
ready found in Portland and in other cities. They are establishing 
themselves as at least temporary lesidents, and it is desirable, if pos- 
sible, to meet them at once with a saving influence of Christian 
instruction and sympathy. 

Portland. 

Mr. and Mrs. Holt have continued their work among the Chinese 
in Portland and elsewhere without interruption during the year. 
There are in Oregon and Washington from 8,000 to 10.000 Chinamen, 
of whom about 3,000 are in Portland; a number varjing from 500 to 
r.ooo in Astoria, according to the salmon season ; a few hundred at 
The Dalles, and about 100 each in Salem, Albany, Pendleton, and 
elsewhere. 

The church services have been kept up during the year, the attend- 
ance in the summer months being considerably diminished by reasons 
above stated. Eight converts have been received into the church 
since the last report, making a total of 28 members. These are 
widely scattered. One is in Duluth, two in Boston, one in St. Louis, 
one in San Francisco, and two in China. Of contributions of the 



CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN U. S. — PORTLAND. 93 

Chinamen $19.90 have been sent to the Treasurer of the Board; 
$22.25 have been paid toward the employment of a Chinese lay- 
preacher. 

The work of the station is to a considerable extent that of Christian 
night-schools. In the Portland school many pupils have been enrolled, 
but the average has been only about 20 The work done has from 
the first been systematic and efficient. The numbers in attendance 
vary according to the attraciions of summer work in the mines or 
elsewhere. Efforts have been made to maintain schools in Astoria, 
Salem, Ashland, and other towns, but it has been found impossible to 
continue them amid the vicissitudes to which these smaller places 
are liable. The report says : " While Dr. S. M. Campbell was in 
Astoria a school of forty pupils was maintained. It continued until 
the Chinese obtained work on a railroad, and until Dr. Campbell re- 
moved from the place, and the church was left without a minister. 
During the interval die Baptist Church started a school, and so the 
work pissed into other hands" Meanwhile, schools were started by 
the Presbyterian Church among the Finns and Scandinavians. This 
called for the services of all the available teachers. These facts are 
given to show that changes in the work Ho not always indicate an 
abandonment of effort, nor necessarily the neglect of the Chinese. In 
Portland there are six schools among the Chinese, carried on by 
different denominations. 

An important element connected with the mission station in Port- 
land is that of possible influence exerted on Chinese communities 
scattered through the great Northwest. In Washington there are 
a few hundred Chinese ; in Olympia, Seattle, Port Tovvnsend, Ellens- 
burg, Yakina, Spokane, and Walla Walla also. To follow up by at least 
indirect influence all these little communities is exceedingly desirable, 
and it is hoped that our missionary, Mr Holt, by correspondence 
with pastors of his own or other denominations, may be able to give 
impulse to effort in these various places. 

Colportage has received more attention than ever before, through 
the assistance of a Chinaman who is glad to do this work. Several 
hundred tracts and portions of the Bible have been distributed. A 
systematic visitation of the Chinese has been made at Astoria, and is 
now in progress in Portland. 

The Chinese Home in Portland. 

The Chinese Home for women and girls has continued its good 
work. Most of the pupils have been eligibly married, so that only 
three girls are at present in the institution, but outside of the Home 
important assistance has been given to several women without ex- 
pense to the mission. This is to be preferred, when found practicable, 
to receiving them into the Home, which involves their support. Mr. 
Holt's report says : u Our Home is worth more than a school, and has 
done good work, having helped twenty Chinese women and girls. 
It is beset by many difficulties and anxieties, and takes most of Mrs. 
Holt's time, as well as that of the matron, who cannot yet speak 
Chinese, and who cannot leave the Home for outside work." 



94 CHINESE IN NEW YORK — STATISTICS. 



The Chinese in JVew York. 

The woik among the Chinese in New York, of which the Hoard has 
the supervision, has seen little change, but it has held its steady course 
of prosperity. Mr. Huie Kin, an educated Chinaman, has had the 
superintendence, living with his family in the house occupied as mis- 
sion headquarters. The number enrolled in the Sabbath-school is 159. 
Classes are taught, also, on one or two evenings of the week, and 
one on Monday mornings by Mrs. Huie. The mission-rooms are 
always open for men who may be attracted thither. Two young men 
have united with the church — one by profession, the other by letter. 
Five have been hopefully converted. One child has been baptized. 

Mr. Huie has given care to seventeen sick men of his own race, 
taking some to the hospital and caring for others privately. Some 
assistance has also been rendered to those who had fallen into trouble, 
involving law questions and calling for defense. 

One young man is preparing to enter a medical college, with a view 
to returning to his country as a medical missionary. Ten Christian 
young men have returned to China from this mission, and are scat- 
tered in different parts of trfe country, exerting more or less influence 
for good. 

Stiff prejudices are still encountered in the conduct of this work, 
but there are also many friends ready to give a helping hand. Mem- 
bers of the University Place Church, Dr. George Alexander, pastor, 
have put forth assiduous efforts in the Sunday-school and other ser- 
vices. Some effort has been made for the women and children found 
in Mott Street, of whom there is a constantly increasing number. The 
Boy's Mission Band of the University Place Church gave an exhibition 
of stereopticon views for the benefit of these women and children. 

The contributions of the young men connected with this mission 
have amounted to $209.46, of which $144.69 was given for the Board 
of Foreign Missions. 

Statistics of Chinese and Japanese in the United States. 

Ordained missionaries 3 

Physician 1 

Married female missionaries 4 

Unmarried female missionaries 5 

Native helpers 8 

Churches 4 

Communicants 345 

Added during the year 44 

Girls in boarding-schools So 

Day and night schools 20 

Pupils in day and night schools i,oi 1 

Total number of pupils 1,091 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 691 

Students for the ministry 4 

Contributions $2, 490. 61 



MISSION IN GUATEMALA. 

Organized in 18S2 : station, Guatemala City, about 60 miles from the seaport of San 
Jose ; laborers — Rev. Messrs. E. M. Haymaker and D. Y. Iddings, and their wives. 

The most notable event connected with this mission during the 
year is the dedication of the house of worship, which has been in 
process of erection for a year or two past. The building, though 
not quite completed, is sufficiently so for the holding of seniles 
The dedication took place on Sabbath, February 29th, and was at- 
tended by upwards of three hundred persons, including represent- 
atives of the diplomatic corps. The secular press of the city was 
represented in the audience, and one liberal paper, Las Notia'as, 
devoted three of its editorial columns to a highly commendatory 
article on the dedication. President Barrios, when notified by our 
missionaries of the completion of the church, remarked : " I wish 
that instead of one there were many such churches in the Republic, 
for they and the Protestant schools are a moral power which greatly 
improve our people." The political excitement through which the 
country has been passing, and which has necessarily retarded mis- 
sion work, has subsided since the inauguration of General Barrios as 
President of the Republic, which took place March 15th. The at- 
tendance on both English and Spanish preaching has increased since 
the opening of the new church. 

The Boys' School, established last year, has succeeded quite be- 
yond the expectation of the missionaries. It had a roll of thirty-four 
pupils in the day-school, and twenty-four in the night-school. The 
attendance of the former was regular, that of the latter somewhat 
irregular. In both sections of the school religious instruction is 
given without restriction. " Besides a daily lecture on morals, there 
is a class for studying religious truth each day, the interrogatory 
method being used, the older pupils being required both to write 
and explain portions of the Bible." 

In the line of evangelistic work, Mr. Haymaker reports a tour 
over the territory covered by Victor Gonzalez, with the magic lan- 
tern, some two years ago. His route lay over a rough, mountainous 
road, which could only be travelled on horseback or on foot. He 
encountered a serious difficulty in the scourge of small-pox, which 
last year was confined mainly to the capital and western towns. Mr. 
Haymaker writes : " For about two-thirds of the way around the 
circuit the towns were fairly prostrated with it, and great numbers 
were dying daily. In one small town of five hundred houses, four 
hundred and sixty persons had died, and the disease had not abated. 
In another of the same size, two hundred and twenty had died, and 
persons were still dying at the rate of from eight to fifteen daily. 
These poor people, knowing nothing about contagion, do nothing 
toward isolation and precaution. I have known them to sleep, 



GUA'I EMALA — STATIS1 ICS. 97 

wrapped in the same cotton covering that had wrapped a well- 
developed case of small-pox a few hours before." in view of this 
statement, it is not to be wondered at that 80,000 people fell under 
this terrible disease during the year. Itineration in such circum- 
stances could only be undertaken at the peril of life. 

Concerning the issuing of tracts, Mr. Haymaker writes: "We 
have a beautiful little building, an attractive salesroom, a good sup- 
ply of type and presses, turning out tracts a good part of the time, 
and a constantly increasing number of tract agencies through the 
country." It is a growing conviction with the brethren at this mis- 
sion that the distribution of tracts and the selling of books are 
among the most important agencies for the dissemination of the 
Gospel in Guatemala. 

Statistics 

Ordained missionaries 2 

Married lady missionaries 2 

Native teacher 1 

Church r 

Communicants 4 

School 1 

Pupils (boys) 58 

Students for ministry 2 

Pupils in Sabbath-school 60 

Pages printed 25,000 



MISSIONS IN INDIA. 
Lodiana Mission. 

Rawal Pindi : 170 miles northwest of Lahore ; mission station commenced, 1855 ; 
missionary laborers — Rev. J. F. Ullmann ; Rev. Ralla Ram ; licentiate, one ; native 
helpers, seven, of whom two are women. Outstation : Murree. 

Lahore : the political capital of the Punjab, 1,225 miles northwest of Calcutta ; mis- 
sion station commenced, 1849; missionary laborers — Rev. Charles W. Forman, D.D., 
Rev. J. C. Rhea Ewing, D.D., Rev. J. Harris Orbison, M.D., Rev. Henry C. Velte, 
and Prof. J. G. Gilbertson and their wives ; Rev. U. S. G. Jones, Rev. Isa Charan, Rev. 
Dharm Das ; two licentiates, two native doctors, and eleven native assistants, of whom 
four are women — three Christian lady teachers. Gutstation at Waga, Miss Clara Thiede, 
one native teacher. 

In England : Mrs. John Newton. 

Ferozepore : 50 miles southwest of Lodiana ; occupied as a station, 1882 ; Rev. 
F. J. Newton, M.D.,and wife, and Rev. Howard Fisher; one native minister, one licen- 
tiate ; native assistants, three. 

Hoshyarpore : 45 miles north of Lodiana ; mission station commenced, 1867 ; Rev. 
and Mrs. K. C. Chatterjee and Rev. Muhammed Shah ; licentiates, two ; native helpers, 
seven. 

Jalandhar : 120 miles east of Lahore, 30 miles west of Lodiana ; mission station 
commenced, 1846; missionary laborers — Rev. Charles W. Forman, Jr., M.D., Rev. C. 

B. Newton, D.D., and their wives; Miss Caroline C. Downs and Miss Margaret 

C. Given ; Rev. Abdullah ; three licentiates ; native helpers, four, of whom two are 
women. 

Lodiana: near the river Sutlej, 1,100 miles northwest of Calcutta; mission station 
commenced, 1834 ; missionary laborers — Rev. Edward P. Newton and Rev. Arthur H. 
Ewing and their wives ; Rev. John B. Dales ; native assistants, fourteen. Outstations 
— at Jagraon, Rev. Ahmad Shah; native assistants, five ; at Khanna, Rev. Jaimal Singh ; 
one native assistant. 

Ambala : 55 miles southeast of Lodiana ; mission station commenced, 1848 ; mission- 
ary laborers— Rev. and Mrs. Benjamin D. Wyckoff, Rev. W. J. P. Morrison, Mrs. Wm. 
Calderwood, Miss J. R. Carleton, M.D., Miss Emily Marston, M.D.; one lady assistant; 
Rev. IV. Basten, Rev. Sandar Lai, Rev. Hemy Golok Nath ; licentiates, three ; native 
assistants, ten. At a station in the plains, in the cold season, and at Ani, in the hills, 
in the hot season, Rev. and Mrs. Marcus M. Carleton, post-office, Ambala Cantonments ; 
one licentiate and one helper. Outstation at Jagadri. Outstation at Rupar : Rev. P. 
C. Uppal, Rev. Matthias and one native helper. Outstation at Morinda : three native 
Christian assistants. 

Sabathu : in the lower Himalaya Mountains, no miles east of Lodiana; mission 
station commenced, 1836; missionary laborers— M. B. Carleton, M.D., and Mrs. Carle- 
ton; Rev. T. IV. y. Wylie ; one native teacher, one Bible-ieader. 

Dehra : 47 miles east of Saharanpur ; mission station commenced, 1853 ; missionary 
laborers — Rev. and Mrs. Reese Thackwell ; Miss Harriet A. Savage, Miss Elma Don- 
aldson, and Miss A. S. Geisinger; one licentiate; four lady assistants in teaching and 
zenana work ; ten native teachers, etc., of whom seven are Bible-women. 

Woodstock : in Landour, 15 miles eastward from Dehra ; school begun, 1874 ; 
missionary laborers — Mrs. James L.Scott, Miss Annie E. Scott, Miss Clara C. Giddings, 
Miss Mary E. Bailey, Miss Susan A. Hutchison, and Miss Clara E. Hutchison. 

Saharanpur : 130 miles southeast of Lodiana ; mission station commenced, 1836 ; 
missionary laborers — Rev. Alexander P. Kelso, Rev. R. Morrison, Rev. J. M. McComb, 
Rev. Henry Forman, and their wives ; Rev. Kamvar Sain ; licentiates, four ; native 
assistants, eight, of whom five are women. 

In this country: Rev. C. W. Forman, D.D., Rev. C. W. Forman, Jr., M.D., Rev. 
A. P. Kelso, and their wives ; Mrs. F. J. Newton, Miss Sarah M. Wherry, Miss Clara G. 
Williamson, and Miss Bessie Babbitt. 



INDIA — LODIANA. 99 



Farrukhabad Mission. 

Fatehgarh — Farrukhabad : the former the civil station and the latter the native 
c i tv « 733 miles northwest of Calcutta ; mission station begun, 1844 ; missionary laborers — 
Rev. C. A. Rodney Janvier, Rev. John N. Forman, and their wives ; Miss Mary P. For- 
man ; Rev. Mohan Lai ; native assistants, twenty-three, of whom nine are women. 

Fatehpur : 70 miles northwest of • Allahabad ; station begun, 1853; missionary 
laborers — one native licentiate, two native helpers. 

Mynpurie: 40 miles west of Fatehgarh ; mission station commenced, 1843; mission- 
ary laborers — Rev. Thomas Tracy, Rev. T. Edward Inglis, Rev. H. M. Andrews, and 
their wives ; one lady teacher ; nineteen native helpers, of whom ten are women ; and 
at Outstation, four. Etah : three native Christian helpers. 

Etavvah : on the Jumna, 5° miles southwest of Mynpurie ; mission station com- 
menced, 1863 ; missionary laborers — Rev. John S. Woodside and his wife ; one native 
licentiate; nine native assistants. Miss Christine Belz, teacher and zenana visitor. Two 
outstations. 

Gwalior : capital of a native state ; mission station commenced, 1874 ; Mrs. Joseph 
Warren ; Rev. Sukh Pal. 

Jhansi : 65 miles south of Gwalior; occupied as a mission station in 1886; Rev. 
James F. Holcomb, Rev. Hervy D. Griswold, and their wives ; two lady assistants; Rev. 
Nabi Baksh ; one licentiate ; four native assistants, of whom one is a woman. 

Allahabad : at the junction of the Ganges and the Jumna, 506 miles northwest of 
Calcutta ; mission station commenced, 1836 ; missionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. James 
M. Alexander, Rev. W. F. Johnson, D.D., Miss Mary E. Johnson, Mrs. John Newton, Jr., 
Miss Mary L. Symes, Miss Jennie L. Colman, and Miss Margaret J. Morrow ; one 
Christian female teacher and zenana visitor ; Rev. John S. Caleb, Rev. Isaac Field- 
brave ; three native licentiates ; native assistants, thirteen, of whom six are women. 

/// this country : Rev. J. J. Lucas, D.D., Rev. C. A. R. Janvier, Rev. John N. Forman, 
Rev. T. Edward Inglis, Rev. James F. Holcomb, and their wives ; Mrs. Thomas Tracy, 
Miss Mary P. Forman. 

Lodiana Mission. 

This mission has been greatly bereaved during the year by the death 
of the Rev. John Newton, D.D., which occurred at Murree, July 2, 
1891. Dr. Newton was the oldest missionary of any society in the 
Punjab, and the oldest connected with our India missions. He. was 
the last of the second company of missionaries sent to that field by 
the Presbyterian Church. He landed in Calcutta February 25, 183s, 
not yet twenty-five years of age, and immediately joined the mission 
which had just been planted in the Punjab, and where for fifty-six 
years he continued to live and labor with the exception of an occa- 
sional furlough for rest and change. Dr. Newton was eminently a 
man of God, and was greatly beloved and honored by all classes of 
people both native and foreign. His life was singularly pure and 
beautiful, admirably illustrating the power of the Gospel he com- 
mended to others. He was earnest and faithful in his preaching, wise 
in counsel, and broad and hopeful in his views of mission work. 
Dr. Newton devoted much time and strength to literary work, and is 
said to have " laid the foundations of Christian literature in the Punjabi 
language." He was the author of the Grammar in that language, 
and joint author of the only Dictionary in it. He also translated the 
New Testament into Punjabi, prepared a number of tracts and small 
books in that tongue and in the Hindi and Urdu, and published a 
commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians in Roman Urdu. This 
veteran missionary had the joy of welcoming four sons and one 



IOO INDIA — RAWAL PINDI. 

daughter to the missionary work in India, of whom three sons still 
survive. Mrs. Newton, whose health did not admit of longer resi- 
dence in India, has returned to her friends in England. 

The Rev. J M. and Mrs. McComb, Rev. C. B. Newton, D.D., and 
Mrs. Newton, Dr. F. J. Newton and Miss Geisinger have rejoined the 
mission after a furlough in the United States. 

The death of another veteran laborer in India deserves mention — 
that of the Rev. Goloknath, the first convert of our India missions. 
He belonged to a Brahmin family, was born in Bengal in 1816, and 
was educated in the Free Church College in Calcutta under the care 
of Dr. Duff. The late Rev. John Newton, D.D., had much to do 
with guiding this young inquirer into the light. He made a public pro- 
fession of his faith in 1835, and at once began to prepare for the 
ministry. In 1847 he was ordained by the Lodiana Presbytery and 
assigned to the Jalandhar station, where he remained until his death. 
Mr. Goloknath, in addition to his labors as preacher and teacher, 
wrote a number of books and tracts in the Urdu and Punjabi lan- 
guages. The three best known are "The Destroyer of Pantheism," 
"The Whole Duty of Man," and "A Christian Inquirer." 

Rawal Pindi Station. 

This station, one hundred and seventy miles northwest of Lahore, 
and some sixty miles east of the Indus, has a population of between 
25,000 and 30,000, including the natives of the neighboring canton- 
ment. The distance of Rawal Pindi from the other stations con- 
nected with our mission, and the necessity of concentration in order 
to bestow more labor upon the districts within this mission, has led 
the Board of Foreign Missions to take steps for the transfer of our 
work there to a sister denomination. Negotiations have been opened 
with this in view, but no decision has yet been reached. 

The church at this station is ministered to by a native pastor, 
Rev. Rala Ram. It numbers forty-two, of whom one was received 
by examination during the year. The Sabbath- school connected 
with the church has been superintended by the senior missionary, 
Rev. J. F. Ullman, who has also taught a Bible-class in the school. 
In addition to the services on Sunday, Mr. Ullman has delivered an 
expository lecture on one of the Gospels and two of the Epistles on 
Thursdays to the members of the church. 

Educational. — There are five schools connected with this station, 
with a total enrollment of 1,037. The High-School has been under 
the superintendence of Rev. Robert Morrison, who has devoted 
from three to four hours each day to giving instruction in the Bible, 
and also on secular subjects. The Sunday-school held in the High- 
School building has been attended by a large number of the stu- 
dents, and some of the teachers, and is regarded by Mr. Morrison as 
a very encouraging field for Christian effort. Of the schools refer- 
red to above, one is for girls with a roll of one hundred and fourteen, 
under the care of the lady missionaries, Miss Donaldson and Miss 
Orbison. A Sunday-school for girls has also been conducted by 




Washing ton 



B^M h. Am.r,»«n n.nk Sc>.» f».S.Y 






102 INDIA— LAHORE. 

the ladies in the same room where this day-school is held. Another 
school for girls was opened in March, but the transfer of these 
ladies to Saharanpur, in anticipation of our withdrawal from Rawal 
Pindi, has necessarily arrested this form of educational work for a 
time. 

Mr. Ullman, now well stricken in years, writes as follows concern- 
ing his work among the lepers : 

" From the beginning of this year I have regularly, once a week, visited the 
Leper Asylum at this place, trying to do good to the poor lepers in various 
ways. I had not the strength for preaching there the Gospel myself, but our 
dear native pastor, who always accompanied me, and latterly also a catechist 
of our church, did it for me, better than I could have done it myself. There 
are about sixty inmates, men, women, and children, who are supported by the 
Municipal Committee of Rawal Pindi, and with one or two exceptions are all 
Mohammedans. Though enfeebled in body and mind by their leprosy, they 
are yet as bigoted in their religion as if they were in good health, and are 
ready to oppose the preacher of the Gospel as much as they can. The mis- 
sionaries who have to preach to Mohammedan crowds know how difficult it is 
to produce a good impression upon them, and how self-satisfied they are with 
their own religious system. There is one Mohammedan in the Asylum, whose 
hands are nearly altogether eaten away by leprosy, but who when he thinks 
his own religion is not considered the right one, and when he hears that only 
Jesus can give him salvation, will in his anger lift up his stumps of arms, and 
wave them wildly about, as if he were ready to fight, to show his opposition 
to Christianity, though he is only beating the air. He has lately absented 
himself entirely from those who are seated to hear the Gospel. There are, 
however, many others, who listen attentively, or at any rate who do not show 
their opposition. One of them is a man called Monlawbe (Doctor of Moham- 
medan theology) who is able to read, and knows something of the Koran, who 
will quietly and very gently bring forward his kind of arguments in favor of 
his own religion. When we first commenced preaching salvation by Christ, 
the men and women, or many of them, would for a while continue to repeat 
in a low voice their Kalima, ' There is no God but God, and Mohammed is 
his apostle,' as if by so doing they wanted to avert any evil effects that might 
be produced by the Gospel of Jesus which they heard from the preacher ; but 
they soon gave up that kind of procedure, and now generally listen quietly 
to our message, and only occasionally one or another will show his dislike. 
I have gradually been gaining their hearts by showing them particular kind- 
ness." 

Mr. Ullman has also devoted much time to literary work in Hin- 
dustani. The great success among the low castes during the past 
few years has attracted the attention of the Romish Church. Mis- 
sionaries have been sent to proselyte among the native Christian 
communities. Because of this Mr. Ullman has prepared and pub- 
lished a work on Romanism in Hindustani. He has also completed 
and published a metrical version of the Book of Psalms for use in 
the native churches, and has devoted some time to the examination 
of manuscripts offered to the Punjab Religious Book Society. 

Lahore Station. 

Lahore is the capital of the Punjab, the most northern political di- 
vision of British India. Its commanding position marks it as an im- 
portant centre of missionary operations, not only because of the 
opportunity it affords of touching the educational life of the Empire 



INDIA — LAHORE. 103 

at one of its great centres, but because of the populous district 
within easy reach. Lahore is one of the strongholds of the Arya 
Somaj, noted for its uncompromising hostility to Christianity. Because 
of this, and the number of educational institutions in the capital with- 
out the leaven of the Gospel, our mission is brought into immediate 
contact with the more philosophic phases of opposition to the Chris- 
tian system. 

Educational. 

Mission College. — This institution is undoubtedly one of the most 
promising agencies for the building up of Christ's kingdom in the Pun- 
jab. Besides exerting a direct healthful influence on the students in 
attendance, it is recognized as standing in the front rank of educational 
institutions. The past year is regarded as the most successful in its 
history, the results of the University examinations being in advance of 
those of any preceding year. In the educational system of India 
these examinations are a necessity, the universities alone being com- 
petent to confer degrees. Of sixteen candidates examined for the 
degree of B.A., ten were successful, of whom one took the highest 
place in mathematics in the province, receiving a Government schol- 
arship and a prize in money ; while another took the highest place in 
Sanskrit and philosophy, and secured a university scholarship and a 
prize in money. In what is known as the "intermediate" examina- 
tion thirty out of forty-seven candidates were passed, of whom one 
took the highest place in Sanskrit and another in mathematics. One 
hundred and fifty-six students were enrolled during the year, of whom 
ten are Christians — the largest proportion yet reached. Concerning 
the religions training of the students the report, from the pen of 
Principal Ewing, says : 

"All our teaching in the college is more or less permeated and saturated 
with Christianity. In the Bible hour, however, we have a special opportunity 
of exalting Christ day after day and week after week before the eyes of young 
men fix m all parts of the province. It is gratifying to note that with each suc- 
ceeding year interest in matters pertaining to our Lord and to His kingdom 
seems to be deepening in intensity and gathering volume. From what many 
of the students themselves say we feel that they have correctly caught the 
spirit, the motive power which underlies and prompts all that we do, and that 
they have in some measure a true appreciation of our aim. Many of them are 
free to confess that for them life and character have been greatly modified and 
moulded by the influences brought to bear on them, and, indeed, there is visi- 
ble and noticeable improvement in many cases, especially as regards truthful- 
ness, courtesy, manliness, and general conscientiousness. Some of them even 
exhibit such conduct and demeanor as to lead us to think that they may be 
trying :o follow in the footsteps of the Master." 

As will be seen from other parts of the report, the professors in 
this institution are all engaged in some phase of evangelistic work in 
addition to their duties in the college. 

Boys' Schools. — These consist of the main school and eight branch 
schools, all under the general superintendence of Rev. C. W. Forman, 
whose reputation as an educator, and whose personal influence on his 
students, are well known throughout North India. Of these schools 
the report says : 



104 INDIA — LAHORE. 

"From the branch schools are drafted pupils into the main school, which 
contains five departments — ihe infant school, the lower primary, the upper 
primary, the middle school, and the two entrance classes, besides two special 
classes in which English only is taught to pupils who have passed high exam- 
inations in the vernacular and Persian. There are now in the main school 
498 pupils, 408 in the branch schools, and 51 in the adult school, making a 
total of 957. The fees realized during the year amount to Rs. 449-9-3. The 
results of the Government and departmental examinations are as follows : 
Entrance examination, eight passes ; middle school examination, 25 ; upper 
primary, 61; lower primary, 83; infant standard, 114. All the pupils have 
been taught regularly in the Scriptures, and a great amount of Christian truth 
has thus been communicated to these young minds. Several Sunday-schools 
are carried on in connection with the day-schools, the attendance being about 
250." 

Girls' Schools. — The girls' schools have continued under the care 
of Mrs. C. W. Forman and Mrs. J. G. Gilbertson. It is to be re- 
gretted that lack of funds required the closing of four of these during 
the year. The total number of pupils in attendance was 415, and the 
girls are reported as having acquitted themselves well in the examina- 
tion held by the Government inspectress. " The schools are always 
opened with prayer, and the first lesson given is a Bible lesson. Sat- 
urday is devoted entirely to the study of the Bible. Mrs. Humphrey 
and Mrs. Jsa Charan, assisted by a Chiistian Bible- woman, have done 
most of the Christian teaching in these schools, and they have all 
worked very faithfully and earnestly." The Christian girls' school, 
under the auspices of the Indian Female Normal Society, though not 
organically connected with our mission, is an essential part of its 
working force and receives an annual grant from the Board. The 
ladies in charge of this work are noted for their missionary character 
and zeal. Miss Keay, the superintendent, writes ; " We are glad to 
know that many of our girls are true followers of the Lord Jesus. A 
number belong to the Y. W. C. A., and we have special readings for 
these. We have also a society peculiar to ourselves called the G. U. 
F. (Gather Up the Fragments Society), the design of which is to 
foster a spirit of carefulness in making use of little things, especially 
the margins of time." 

The native church in Lahore has been under the pastoral care of 
Mr. Forman. The roll now numbers one hundred and seventy-seven, 
being a net increase of fifty-five over last year, all but five of whom 
were received at the outstations. Among those received, special men- 
tion is made of two young men, one a graduate of the local medical 
school, and the other an employee in the Canal Department. They 
both received their first impression of Christianity in the Lodiana 
Mission School. The young physician was subjected to severe trial 
by his relatives and the Arya Somaj, but is reported as having re- 
mained firm. 

There is also what is known as the English Presbyterian Church in 
connection with our mission. Dr. Ewing has acted as pastor during 
the past year, the other professors rendeiing assistance, and Prof, and 
Mrs. Gilbertson having charge of the Sunday-school, which numbered 
106, including officers and teachers. This church is largely attended 
by English-speaking natives and Eurasians, and, because of this, is 
justly regarded as an important evangelizing agency. 



INDIA — LAHORE. 105 

Evangelistic — In the city, preaching has been carried on both in 
the vernacular and in English for non-Christians. This has been done 
in two chapels, one situated at the Lohari (Blacksmith) Gate, and the 
other at the Delhi Gate, and also at Rang Mahal, where the boys' 
main school is located. Effective volunteer service has been ren- 
dered in this connection by six or eight young men, members of the 
Indian Christian Association, of which Dr. Orbison, of our mission, is 
president. Of the work at the Lohari Gate the report says : 

" Every Sunday evening Messrs. Forman, Orbison, and Gilbertson, assisted 
also by Mr. Das, have conducted a service in English for educated natives in 
the Lohari Gate Chapel. This chapel is very favorably situated for such a 
service, being near one of the great gates of the city, and at the centre of the 
chief thoroughfare, along which passes every evening a steady stream of hu- 
man beings. Numbers find their way into the chapel, some through a desire 
to hear English spoken, some by the singing, and not a few, we have reason 
to think, by more serious considerations. Short addresses are made, inter- 
spersed with the singing of Gospel hymns, which are printed upon slips and 
distributed to each one in the audience, some of whom join with us in the 
singing. These leaflets, as well as the tracts distributed, are carried away into 
hundreds of homes, and are as ' bread cast upon the waters ' which cannot 
fail of a return." 

These services have quite stirred up both Mohammedans and Hin- 
doos ; but this very opposition is working for the wider dissemination 
of the truth. 

The work at the outstations has been continued and extended. At 
Wagah, under the care of Mr. Velte, and during the absence of Miss 
Thiede, work was carried on by a native preacher. Miss Thiede has 
again returned to her field, and with her accustomed zeal has entered 
upon the various departments of Christian effort. 

At Sharakpur two native preachers ministered during part of the 
year, — one, however, having died of pneumonia on January 27th. 
Though a man of humble attainments, he had been a very earnest and 
successful preacher and had gained the respect of all classes in 
Sharakpur. 

One of the most encouraging features of this work during the year 
was the opening of two new places for evangelistic services — Mani- 
hala and Soga. In the former village there is a large community of 
Sweepers which had been visited frequently by our missionaries from 
Lahore. In November last Mr. Eorman baptized twenty of them 
on profession of faith, and there is now a Christian community of 
about thirty-five persons. A school has also been opened and a 
Christian teacher is now teaching them the rudiments of education in 
the Persian character. In Soga, some twenty-five miles southeast of 
Lahore, work was begun at the request of a Sirdar, formerly an officer 
in a native regiment, who had been baptized by a missionary of the 
C. M. S. at Amritsar. Rev. Dharm Das and his brother, just graduated 
from Saharanpur Seminary, have been assigned to work in that field 
among the Sweepers. In October twenty men and sixteen women 
were received into the church on confession of their faith and thirty- 
two children were baptized. 



106 INDIA— HOSHYARPUR. 

Medical Work. 

" Medical work is carried on in two dispensaries, one just outside 
the Delhi Gate, being for men ; the other in the city not far from the 
Kotwali, being for women. Both have flourished under the efficient 
management of Dr. Isa Das and his wife, Dr. Phoebe Isa Das. The 
statistics up to the end of November (*'. e., for eleven months) are as 
follows: Male Dispensary: Total number of cases 19,206; minor 
operations, 804. Female Dispensary: Total number of cases 12,- 
471 ; minor operations, 276. At both places the Gospel has been 
daily presented to the patients. Mrs. N. Prem Das is doing volun- 
tary work in the Female dispensary, visiting the place daily and read- 
ing and speaking to the patients." 

In addition to this Dr. Orbison, of the college, has given profes- 
sional attention to our missionary families, and has rendered such 
other service as was possible. 

Literary. — " The True Light" a paper issued semi monthly for non- 
Christians, under the joint editorship of Dr. Ewing, of our mission, and 
the Rev. Mr. Allnutt, of the Cambridge Mission, Delhi, with Dr. Orbison 
as manager, had a successful year. Though all our missionaries have 
been engaged in various phases of literary work, some of them in 
connection with the Punjab religious book society, no mention is 
made of any special volumes issued during the year. 

Hoshyarpur Station. 

Hoshyarpur means the " city of the wise," and contains a population 
of about 21,000. It is also the centre of a large district bearing 
the same name, the population being about half Mohammedans and 
half Hindus. Our Church is the only evangelizing agency at work in 
this district. The Rev. K. C. Chatterjee, who has had charge of this 
station from the beginning, on February 1, 1891, removed with his 
family into the new mission premises, just outside the city line, though 
within a few minutes' walk of the crowded bazaar. The mission was 
fortunate in securing at a very moderate price a beautiful orchard of 
orange, mango, and other trees, upon which have been erected plain, 
substantial brick buildings for the Orphanage, and a neat and comfort- 
able home for the superintendent. 

The native church connected with this station consists of thirty-five 
members, worshipping in three different cungregations, one in the city 
and two in the villages. Ten men were baptized dining the year on 
confession of their faith, all of them being from the two villages of 
Dosnah and Ghorawaha. These men all belonged to the low caste, 
Sweepers and Chamars. The report mentions with gratitude that in 
the latter village all the Christian women now attend the public ser- 
vices. As these belong to the Rajput caste, one of the highest, and 
had been brought up in strict pardah (behind the veil), it involved a 
great struggle for them to break through their early training and appear 
in public in the house of God. Mr. Chatterjee has also continued to 
conduct an English service in the church at the station. 

Evangelistic work has been carried on in the city and villages with 



INDIA— HOSHYARPUR. 107 

earnestness and encouragement. A preaching service has been held 
on the veranda of the reading-room daily, and in the chapel in the 
city three times a week. There were daily conferences also with 
visitors in the reading-rocm, and Bible instruction was given in the 
mission house during the summer months. In connection with this 
work Mr. Chattetjee writes : 

"The feeling amongst the thinking people of the city seems to be, 'your 
religion is very good, but ours is just as good, if not better,' and with this feel- 
ing they are endeavoring to reform their own religions of their abuses and 
improve them, and make them appear as good as possible. Dharm Sabha, 
Singh Sabha, and the Arya Somaj have been in full swing. The first two rep- 
resent the orthodox Hindu and Sikh faiths. The last is a reformation in 
Hinduism on the basis of the Vedas. The first two are friendly to Christian- 
ity, or rather tolerant of it. The last is unfriendly, and makes most virulent 
and unjust attacks on it. Still I am disposed to think the last is nearer to us 
than the other two, and paving the way, though unconsciously, for the accept- 
ance of the Gospel. For one thing the Arya Somaj has given up idolatry and 
publicly preaches against it. We don't have now to fight battles against image 
worship. The Aryas do this work for us. For another thing, it has given up 
Pantheism and believes in the existence of a personal God by whom all our 
actions are weighed. This, too, is a great gain on our side. The Arya Somaj 
also ignores caste, though only theoretically, and teaches people not to be 
bound by the fetters of custom, but to seek truth and follow it. All these are 
our gain. It is founded on two falsehoods — a false interpretation of the 
Vedas and a false feeling of patriotism. Spread of true knowledge and enlight- 
enment will dispel both, and lead its followers to look for peace and happiness 
to Christ." 

The work among the villages has been carried on from four different 
centres, and also by means of itinerations in the winter season. In 
each of these centres there is a native preacher, evangelist, or catechist 
who preaches at the central points, and visits the villages within a 
radius of several miles. At each centre there is also a bookstall for 
the sale and distribution of religious literature. Concerning the vil- 
lagers the report says : 

" " The attitude of the village people is exceedingly favorable to our work. 
The moral precepts of Christianity were always admired by them. They are 
now getting accustomed to the distinctive doctrines of Christianity. Even in 
many Mohammedan villages, the divinity and the Sonship of Christ and His 
sacrificial death are listened to without much gainsaying. It is the growing 
conviction of my assistants and of myself that caste is the only barrier that 
keeps many from accepting Christianity." 

Educational. — The Orphanage and Boarding- School for Girls, as in- 
timated above, removed to its new quarters during the year. Thirty girls 
were enrolled. All the larger girls take part in the domestic work of the 
school, the aim being to prepare them for usefulness in their respective 
spheres. Under the admirable supervision of Mrs. Chatterjee the 
girls are trained to habits of industry and cleanliness. Bible instruc- 
tion occupies a large place in the daily round of study, as also such 
useful employments as sewing, knitting, and embroidery work. Rev. 
C. W. Forman, who visited the Orphanage as a committee of the mis- 
sion, was much pleased with the clean and neat appearance of the 
girls, as well as with all the domestic arrangements. He was especially 



I08 INDIA— JALANDHAR. 

gratified by the evident care which had been taken with the religious 
instruction, a large amount of Scripture having been memorized. The 
cost of supporting a girl in this school is three rupees per month, a 
fraction over a dollar in our currency at the present rate of exchange. 
There are two day-schools for heathen girls under the supervision of 
Miss Lena Chatterjee, daughter of the superintendent. These together 
had an attendance of sixty-three pupils, all high-caste Hindus. Great 
care is taken to instruct these children in the Bible and Bible history. 

Jalandhar Station. 

The death of Rev. Goloknath, referred to at the beginning of this 
report, left the general station work entirely in the hands of Rev. C. 
W. Forman, M.D. Dr. Forman, in addition to his professional work 
as a physician, preached regularly to the native church on Sundays, 
and also taught the Bible to the two upper classes of the High-School. 
The church numbers twenty-nine members. 

Educational. — There are four schools connected with this station, one 
of them being for low caste boys, located at Kartapore, having a roll of 
thirty pupils. The High-School, with its two branches, had an enroll- 
ment of four hundred and seventy-nine scholars. Eleven of the last 
class passed what is called the " Entrance Examination," receiving their 
degree from the Government University, and twenty-five passed the 
Middle School Examination. The results are regarded as highly en- 
couraging. The missionary in charge reports with gratitude the bap- 
tism of one of the students who last year took the degree at the en- 
trance examination. 

Five schools for girls have been conducted under the direction of 
Miss Given and Miss Downs, having a total attendance of one hun- 
dred and thirty-one pupils. Three of these schools are for Moham- 
medan girls, one of them being located in a village three miles from 
Jalandhar. Of the other two, one is for Hindu girls, and one for 
Hindu widows. The latter is an experiment entered upon about a 
year since in order to bring under Christian influence those who are 
the household drudges in the homes of their mothers in-law. It has 
been necessary to furnish small scholarships so that they might have 
permission to attend the school. These scholai ships are provided by 
the women's foreign missionary society of Jalandhar. Of this experi- 
ment the report says : " The women in this school have surprised us 
by their diligence, and by the progress they have made. When they 
finished their examination last month one of them asked, ' Did we do 
well, are you pleased with us ? ' ' You have done well and we are 
much pleased.' ' It is all her doing,' the widow responded, pointing 
to the teacher, ' she did it all, we are only stones,' and the rest nodded 
their heads and said in chorus, ' Yes, we are only stones.' " 

Preaching has been conducted in the city in front of the dispensary, 
and also in those sections occupied by Sweepers. During the winter 
two of the native preachers were out in the district for three months, 
and visited one hundred and twenty-eight villages. About forty vil- 
lages within easy reach of Kartapore were also visited by one of the 



INDIA — FEROZEPORE. IO9 

native preachers. Among the latter he reports several inquirers. One 
family, consisting of father, mother, and three children, had decided to 
become Christians, and were to be baptized in the near future. 
Medical Work. — Of this Dr. Korman reports : 

" The Dispensary has been open during eight months of the year. The 
number of visits has been nearly 14,000. It is made as far as possible a con- 
dition of getting medical treatment that all should be present at the religious 
exercises which precede the medical work. As there are always a number who 
were present the day before, 1 usually begin by asking questions about what 
was read and said then. They are always quite able and willing to answer, 
which shows that they pay attention. Very many patients, especially those 
with eye diseases, come every day for weeks and some for months, and so must 
get a pretty fair knowledge of Christianity. The Dispensary gains many 
friends for us in the district. Wherever we go we meet some of our old pa- 
tients, and they are generally ready to show us every attention." 

Zenana Work. — The ladies in charge report as follows : 

" We have taught this year in eighteen zenanas and in these houses have 
had thirty-three pupils. Besides these there are several places where, though 
the women have not wished to learn to read, they have given us such a cordial 
invitation to visit them, that we have done so occasionally. In these places 
we usually find quite a number of women sitting in the court-yard at their 
spinning-wheels. They always give us a warm welcome, and always ask us to 
say something to them, which, of course, we are glad to do. We enjoy very 
much these occasional visits to the spinning-bees." 

In addition to their work in the zenanas and schools, Miss Given 
and Miss Downs, during the winter months, spent two days each week 
in visiting villages within a few miles of the city, where they found 
easy access to the women. 

Ferozepore Station. 

Ferozepore is .a walled town some six miles south of the Sutlej, 
having a population of upwards of 20,000, or, including the military 
cantonment and adjacent villages, about 40,000. The Hindu ele- 
ment predominates, although the Mohammedan is large. The dis- 
trict has a population of but little less than 700,000. The absence 
of Dr. and Mrs. Newton on furlough left the responsibility of the 
station with Mr. Jones and Mr. Fisher. The church reports a mem- 
bership of thirty-four, of whom five were added during the year on 
confession of faith. Bazaar preaching was conducted on at least 
four evenings of the week, the audience varying in size, as is usual 
with such services. The brethren at this station are increasingly 
anxious to secure some hall or room in which evangelistic services 
can be held, away from the distracting noise of the busy street. 
Mr. Jones and Mr. Fisher, with the Rev. P. C. Uppal, spent some- 
time in the district preaching in the villages, where they were well 
received. As in other districts of this mission, the door seems to 
be wide open in the district, so that the question is not so much one 
of access to the people as of laborers to enter in and occupy. 

Medical Work. — During the absence of Dr. Newton, the dispen- 
sary work was carried on with some success by a native physician 
who had been an assistant of Dr. Newton. No detailed report has 



I 10 INDIA — LODIANA. 

been received of the number of visits. The recent return of Dr. 
Newton to his field, after a special course of medical study in the 
United States, will give a great impetus to this branch of the work, 
and it is confidently expected that with his evangelistic spirit, which 
subordinates the medical to the spiritual, the work will be a source 
of increasing blessing to the people. 

Lodiana Station. 

The pastor of the church at this station, having withdrawn 
during the year, the Rev. E. P. Newton and the elders of the church 
took charge of the services on Sundays and during the week. The 
church reports one hundred and fifty-six members enrolled, of whom 
fifty-two were added during the year. The greater part of these, 
however, were received at the outstation Khanna, where a profound 
interest has been manifested in Christianity by the low-caste people. 
Mr. Newton has given much attention to this work in connection 
with native helpers, and regards it as most hopeful. The mission 
has authorized the establishing of a training-school at Khanna for 
the purpose of fitting the most promising young men for giving in- 
struction to their people. The Sunday-schools connected with this 
station have a membership of six hundred and twenty-six. 

Educational. — There are ten schools under the care of this station, 
with a total enrollment of six hundred and sixty-two, fifty-eight of 
whom are girls. It is to be regretted that detailed reports of these 
schools have not reached the Board in time to be incorporated in 
this report. Concerning the Boys' Boarding-School, for sons of 
Christian parents^ under the charge of the Rev. A. H. Ewing, the fol- 
lowing from the report of Mr. Chatterjee, appointed by the mission 
to examine the school, is of interest : " I visited the Boys' Boarding- 
School on the 14th of November, and in company with the princi- 
pal inspected the working of all its departments and examined all 
the classes in their knowledge of the Scriptures. There are ninety- 
six boys on the roll, seventy-five boarders and twenty-one day 
scholars. The school is divided into two departments, literary and 
industrial. There are eighty pupils in the former and sixteen in the 
latter. Twenty-four pupils attending the literary department also 
spend a portion of their time in learning some mechanical art. 

" The literary department consists of high, middle, and primary 
departments. There are ten pupils in the high department, thirty- 
one in the middle, and fifty-five in the primary. The scheme of 
secular studies is the same as prescribed by the Government educa- 
tional code. Religious instruction has been carefully imparted, and 
the knowledge of the Scriptures manifested by the boys was fair. I 
was glad to learn from the principal that some of the boys of the 
high department took interest in teaching a Sunday-school and five 
had joined the church. The industrial department consists of car- 
pentering, carpet-weaving, shoemaking, tailoring, and printing. 
There are nine boys in the carpenter's shop, nine in carpet-weaving, 
six in shoemaking, fourteen in tailoring, and two in the printing 



INDIA — SAHARANPUR. Ill 

press. I was told by the principal that the prejudices of the native 
Christian community against this department are wearing out, and 
he has had several applications from parents to have their boys 
taught in some mechanical art. On the whole, the inspection made 
a very favorable impression on me, and I congratulate the principal 
on the success attending his efforts." 

In addition to other kinds of work, Mr. Newton has devoted 
some time to reading proofs of the Roman Urdu Hymn-book, and 
as a member of the Punjabi Bible Society has attended its meetings. 

Sabathu Station. 

For part of the year this station, with its Leper Asylum, has been 
under the superintendence of Dr. M. C. Carleton. The native evan- 
gelist, Rev. T. W. J. Wylie, has conducted religious services in the 
asylum every day, and has also visited the lepers in their rooms. Dr. 
Carleton has, in addition to his professional labors in behalf of the 
lepers, given some attention to their spiritual instruction. In the 
supplementary report on India, herewith submitted, will be found a 
fuller statement concerning this station, and the proposition to with- 
draw from it on the part of the Board. 

Saharanpur Station. 

The absence of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Forman, on account of the 
serious illness of the latter, threw the entire burden of the station on 
Mr. and Mrs. Kelso. Each department of work received such atten- 
tion as was possible, so that all were fairly well sustained. The return 
of Mr. and Mrs. Forman, however, and also of Mr. and Mrs. McComb, 
who have been assigned to Saharanpur, and the transfer of Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Morrison and Misses Donaldson and Orbison from Rawal 
Pindi furnish much-needed reinforcements, and make it possible for 
Mr. and Mrs. Kelso to return home for rest. The assignment of Mr. 
Morrison to this station depends on the decision as to the transfer of 
Rawal Pindi elsewhere referred to. 

The church at this station consists of sixty-five members, eleven 
having been received during the year, five of them on confession of 
faith. A steady growth in grace has been noticed in many of the 
members. The English service for the railway employees was kept 
up most of the year, with a Sabbath-school having an attendance of 
from thirty to forty. Evangelistic effort has been continued four even- 
ings of the week in front of the city school-house, mainly by the teach- 
ers and students of the Theological Seminary, and during two evenings 
of the week, after the open-air preaching, services have been held in the 
school building, and a Sabbath evening evangelistic service has also 
been maintained. Great disappointment is expressed at the outcome 
in the case of a Mohammedan Munshi, who professed to have accepted 
Christ, and asked for admission to the church. He seemed to be a 
thoroughly converted man, and it was expected that he would be bap- 
tized, but it was found on inquiry that he had left Saharanpur, pre- 
sumably for fear of persecution. 



112 INDIA — SAHARANPUR. 



Theological Seminary. — This institution is under the care of the 
Synod of India, which includes all our missions in the Empire. 
Twenty-eight pupils were in attendance duiing the past year. In 
addition to the three main classes there is a preparatory class, which 
is greatly needed because of the inadequate education of those who 
enter the Seminary. The aim of the Synod is to steadily advance the 
standard until only well equipped men are sent forth to preach the 
Gospel. Within the past four years thirty-four have received a partial 
or complete couise in this institution, most of whom are now actively 
engaged in the work. 

The City High-School reports a roll of one hundred and seventy- 
two boys, of whom seven were Christians, one hundred and sixteen 
Hindus, and forty-nine Mohammedans. As in all such mission 
schools, the prescribed course of study includes a large amount of 
Bible instruction. 

The Orphanage at this station is intended to do for boys what that 
at Hoshyarpur does for girls. Thirty-eight were enrolhd during the 
year. The standard aimed at is that of the Vernacular Upper Primary 
School. Two young men from this school have been admitted to the 
preparatory class of the Theological Seminary, and have been taken 
under the care of the Lodiana Presbytery. In the Industrial Depart- 
ment five boys are learning carpenter work, twenty-eight sewing, and 
one cooking. During the year five pupils made a public profession of 
their faith. 

A boys' school was opened in April, 1891, among the Mintars, one 
of the low castes. This was done in answer to an expressed desire on 
the part of the people. Twenty-five boys were in attendance. In 
connection with this a Sunday-school has been carried on by the 
students of the Seminary, with an attendance of twenty. An evangel- 
istic service was also held after the opening of the Sunday-school. 
One man from among these people has been baptized, and several 
inquirers are reported. 

Girls Schools and Zenanas. — These are reported together. There 
are five schools for Hindu girls, with an aggregate attendance of one 
hundred and twenty-seven, and four for Mohammedan girls, with an 
attendance of sixty-five. Sixty-eight zenana pupils received instruc- 
tion, some of them being women and others girls. Concerning this 
work, Mrs. Kelso writes : 

" The work in the girls' schools and zenanas has gone on as usual. The 
schools were closed for three weeks in June owing to the excessive heat. The 
chief object of the Christian teachers is to impart the principles of Christianity 
to the pupils. Several of the girls were removed by their relatives, who feared 
they would become Christians if they remained. One Brahmin girl, from one 
of the schools, who got married and settled at Kankar, a town near Hardwar, 
sent into Saharanpur for a Testament, hymn-book, Hindu Catechism, and the 
Old, Old Story in Hindi, saying that she wished to have these books and still 
use them, though she had left the school." 

A Sunday-school of eighty-eight pupils and eleven teachers has also 
been maintained in the mission church for the native Christians, Or- 
phanage pupils, and the students of the Theological Seminary. Still 



INDIA — DEHRA. 1 1 3 

another numbering one hundred scholars lias been held in the city 
school-house for Hindu and Mohammedan boys, under the superin- 
tendency of Mr. Sircar, the headmaster of the High-School. The 
roll of this school includes a number not in attendance on the day- 
schools. 

A small school of six women and three children from the families 
of the students attending the Theological Seminary was conducted 
during part of the year, under the supervision of Mrs. Kelso. 

Dehra Station. 

Dehra is situated in a beautiful valley bearing the same name at 
the foot of the Himalayas, and has a population of twelve thousand. 
Two congregations worship in the church known as the Morrison 
Memorial Church, erected some years ago as a memorial to the late 
Dr. Win. Morrison, by funds collected in India. The membership of 
the Hindoo Church is fifty, and that of the English twenty-nine. The 
English Church is in connection with the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church, and has been ministered to by Mr. Thackwell, 
save during his furlough in Australia for health, when Rev. W. J. P. 
Morrison took his place. Prior to sailing for Australia, and in hope 
of re-establishing his health without a change, Mr. Thackwell itiner- 
ated among the hills of the native state of Terhi. He reports that 
the people heard the Gospel with avidity, adding : " The wistful way 
in which the women, as well as the men, listened to the story of God's 
love in giving His Son to die for sinners, moved me so that it has 
been a burden on my heart ever since to get some one to work among 
this people." During Mr. Thackwell's absence, Mr. Morrison began 
night preaching to the coolies on the tea plantation of the Dehra Dun 
Company and others, which has been maintained ever since. Some 
three or four hundred of these coolies have been attending services. 
A faquir among them said : " Show me God and I will at once give 
up my wandering life and become a Christian. I defy you to show 
me God and therefore there is no God." The report states that athe- 
ism is very common among the faquirs. Inquiries concerning the 
way of salvation are more common among the educated than among 
the ignorant in the Dun. 

Educational. — The High-School reports a roll of two hundred and 
eighty pupils, thirty-eight less than last year. This diminished attend- 
ance is accounted for by the increasing strictness of Government 
rules which must be complied with in order to secure a grant in aid. 
Measures have recently been taken by the mission, under direction of 
the Board, to increase the facilities of the school, and improve its sani- 
tary arrangements so as to meet the requirements. In addition to the 
daily study of the Scriptures, a class is held on Sunday, the attend- 
ance on which is voluntary, but the students set such an estimate 
upon it that they are rarely absent. The headmaster also conducts 
a class in Christian Evidences with encouraging success. 

Two day-schools at Karanpur and Harbans report an attendance of 
41 and 18 respectively. These are supported mainly by funds con- 
tributed by the English congregation in Dehra. 
8 



114 INDIA — DEHRA. 

Girls' Boarding-School. — Eighty-one names have been enrolled in 
this school during the year. More could have been admitted had they 
been able to meet the requirement of the mission by paying a pre- 
scribed fee, a requirement insisted on in the interest of self-support. 
The recent issuing of a new code for Girls' Schools by the Govern- 
ment Educational Department, has greatly helped in the conduct of 
the school, being better adapted to girls than the one in use in boys' 
schools. One hour each day is spent by the girls in sewing or knit- 
ting, those more proficient helping those less able to take care of 
their own clothing. The girls have taken a deep interest in their 
prayer-meetings and Bible studies during the year, and it is stated that 
many of them are making commendable efforts to shape their lives in 
accordance with the instruction given. Rev. C. W. Forman D. D., 
appointed by the mission to examine this school, writes : " I think on 
the whole I can say that I have never examined a school with more 
satisfaction ; everything seemed to be done in a systematic, orderly 
way." 

The " Jatie Cross Memorial Home and Zenana Training- School" 
is as yet but a class of young women who are being trained in the 
Dehra Girls' School for zenana work. The class is supported by the 
proceeds of a legacy. There are at present six young ladies in the 
school, all born in India, some of them Eurasians, and some the 
daughters of English parents. Two of these ladies have completed 
the prescribed course, and have been assigned to stations by the mis- 
sion. Part of the training consists of practical experience in connec- 
tion with the zenana work of the station. Concerning them the re- 
port says : " The conduct of all the members of the Training-School 
has been very satisfactory during the year. They have shown marked 
improvement in their general character. They are deeply interested 
in their work, and the evident attachment of their pupils to them 
shows that they have been successful in winning the hearts of the 
women and children they teach." This experiment is regarded with 
much interest and great hope. Young women born in the country, 
and having at least some knowledge of the language, have a great ad- 
vantage in the native home above those who have to learn the lan- 
guage and character of the people, and at the same time become ac- 
customed to the climate. Should the experiment prove a success, it 
is expected that many consecrated young women can be trained to do 
excellent work in this direction, and thus multiply the zenana workers 
without greatly increasing the expense of this department. 

Zenana Work. — This work during the absence of Miss Geisinger 
has been superintended by Miss De Lowza. She reports a total of 
128 homes which are regularly visited, a number of them having been 
opened during the year. Six Bible-readers and three young women 
of the Training Class have been busily employed in addition to the 
superintendent. No opposition has been encountered in this house- 
to-house visitation. Instrumentally this condition of things has been 
brought about in part by the judicious use of simple medicines admin- 
istered by the visiting ladies. On this subject the report says : " I 
think it necessary in a way for the zenana missionary to have a small 



INDIA — AM BALA. 115 

fund for medicines allowed in connection with the zenana work ; for 
these women trust us implicitly, and the very fact of our giving them 
attention when sick enlists their affection and regard for us. The 
strict customs of the Parda do not allow of a doctor's seeing or pre- 
scribing for them, and the men of the house have over and over again 
told me that they would rather let their wives and daughters die than 
have a doctor see them." Grateful mention is made of the fact that 
repeated calls have been made on the zenana workers to visit the vil- 
lages around Dehra and to establish schools in them. In response to 
these calls schools have been established in two villages, reporting an 
enrollment of 55 boys and girls. A Sunday-school is also held in 
each of these villages. 

Ambala Station. 

Ambala is a walled city with a population of 26,000; and the 
Ambala Cantonments, some four miles distant, contain about 
46,000. It is also the centre of a thickly populated district, 
comprising more than one million, of whom one-third are 
Mohammedans. 

There are two churches at this station, one in the city and 
the other at the Cantonments. Both worship in substantial 
edifices, that at the Cantonments answering also the purpose of 
the school-house for the High School. Stated worship has been 
maintained throughout the year, Mr. Wyckoff being responsi- 
ble for the services in the city, and Mr. Goloknath, with an aged 
native pastor, for those in the Cantonments. 

There are two advanced schools for boys connected with this sta- 
tion, one in each of the two localities just mentioned. Mr. 
Wyckoff is superintendent of the one, and Mr. Goloknath princi- 
pal of the other. There are also several branch schools, but 
in the absence of detailed reports, no statistics can be given. 

Mr. Wyckoff spent some time in bazaar preaching and in 
itinerating in the district. Mr. Morrison, who has been re- 
appointed to the Cantonments, expects to devote a large por- 
tion of his time to this kind of work in the future. Of his own 
work at the Cantonments, Mr. Goloknath writes : 

" I have taken up classes in my own house for the heathen, and have meet- 
ings for Christians in the evening, especially for young men, that they may 
study the Bible. I have done my pastoral work by visiting Christian families 
in their respective homes, and carried on evangelistic work both in the bazaar 
and villages. I have adopted the plan of visiting the heathen friends in their 
homes, and bringing the claims of our religion to bear upon them." 

Medical Work. — This department, under the care of Miss 
Jessica C. Carleton, M.D , has so increased that Miss Emily G. 
Marston, M.D., has been sent to Ambala to be associated with 
her. Two dispensaries have been in operation, where healing 
and religious instruction have been given. Of this work a recent 
visitor writes: 

"A good many women come to have their eyes operated upon. The lids, in 
some way, grow so that the lashes turn in and scratch the eyes blind, unless 



Il6 INDIA — WOODSTOCK. 

they are attended to. One old woman had not the courage to have the second 
eye treated and ran home, but after some time her friends came dragging her 
back. One young woman whose husband was about to send her off on account 
of her blindness, came and showed the patience of a statue, or hero, through it 
all. The doctor has patients here for care and treatment in case of operation, 
so between her trips to the dispensaries she attends to them, which keeps her 
flying all the time. The other day she had eighty cases to attend in the after- 
noon at the dispensary." 

Through the efforts of Dr. Carleton a site has been secured 
for a hospital, and a plain substantial building erected in which 
a few in-patients can be received, and which will answer some 
secondary purpose connected with the hospital when more 
adequate quarters are provided. Dr. Carleton has also given 
medical attention to the lepers in the asylum in the city. Like 
similar institutions, this asylum is supported mainly by funds 
secured on the field, the mission being responsible only for 
medical attendance and the religious instruction. Mr. Wyckoff 
has conducted daily worship in this asylum during the year. 

Besides her medical work, Dr. Carleton has recently organ- 
ized a public reading room in the city through gifts of money 
and reading matter from the English residents. 

Mrs. Calderwood has continued her work in the zenanas, as 
also Mrs. Davies, a lady employed by the mission. The latter 
visits nineteen Mohammedan homes in the Cantonments, where 
she has thirty-nine pupils. Mrs. Calderwood superintends four 
day-schools, with an attendance of eighty, where the children 
are taught to sing and are instructed in Scripture truth. Of 
the zenana work Mrs. Calderwood says: 

"Although zenana work seems slow and seldom crowned with immediate 
success, we often overlook how many we reach in one visit ; both women and 
men are often listening, not only those on the neighboring housetops who 
crowd to the edges to be able to hear, but the Brahman servants, as well as the 
low caste water-carrier or sweeper of the house, besides visitors from abroad 
whom one happens to meet. In this way, here a little and there a little, seed- 
sowing is done." 

Rev. and Mrs. M. M. Carleton have continued their labors at 
Am, an outstation in the lower Himalayas, some seventy miles north- 
west of Simla, the summer capital of the India Government. Mr. 
Carleton preaches to a congregation of about forty-five, twenty of 
whom are communicants. During his residence here he has visited 
about a thousand villages, and by the judicious administration of 
medicine has done much to break down prejudice against the Gospel. 
Mrs. Carleton has co-operated with her husband in reaching the 
women and children in and around Ani. 

Woodstock Seminary. 

This institution is located on the first range of the Himalayas, seven 
thousand feet above the sea level, and overlooking the magnificent 
valley called Dehra Dun. The situation is both beautiful and 
healthful. The Seminary was organized for the double purpose of 



I N D I A — WOODSTOCK. I 1 7 

educating missionaries' daughters, and of giving a Christian educa- 
tion to European and Eurasian girls. The uniform testimony is 
that in both directions it has done excellent work. It has helped to 
solve the very difficult problem of the education of our missionaries' 
daughters, while by receiving as day pupils boys up to a certain age, 
who live with their parents in the hills during the hot season, it has 
also enabled some missionary families to remain in India who other- 
wise might have felt constrained to return. The aim of the principal, 
Mrs. J. S. Scott, and her excellent corps of teachers, has been to 
keep the educational standard high, and at the same time to diffuse, 
as much as possible, a home atmosphere in the school. Ninety-five 
boarders were enrolled during the year, and twelve day pupils. The 
institution is largely self-supporting. The depreciation in the value 
of silver, however, during the past year, has been a heavy drain on 
the resources of the school. This, together with the steady increase 
in the cost of living in the Hills, has made it exceedingly difficult to 
meet all obligations. Miss Annie E. Scott writes: "In spiritual 
matters, we have both encouragement and discouragement. Some 
characters are transformed by the mighty, silent Power, while others 
resist all good influences. We are constantly cheered by good news 
from those who have been with us in times past and profit from the 
lessons learned other than those from books at Woodstock." The 
power of this institution in moulding the character of many who are 
to occupy positions of usefulness in the future cannot be estimated. 
It is confidently expected that girls trained within its walls, will more 
and more give themselves to some form of mission work as the years 
go by. 





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INDIA — I'AKKUKHABAD. 1 19 

Farrukhabad Mission. 

The death of Miss Sara C. Seward, M.D., which occurred at Alla- 
habad, June 12, 1891, the return of Miss Bessie Babbitt on account 
of ill health, and serious illness in the families of Rev. C. A. Rodney 
Janvier, and Rev. J. N. Forman, necessitating a temporary furlough 
in America, are among the shadows which have fallen upon this mis- 
sion during the past year. Dr. Seward became connected with this 
Board in 1873, an d succeeded under many discouragements in build- 
ing up a successful dispensary work. Dr. Seward had a wide reputa- 
tion as an able physician and skilful surgeon, and had just realized 
her long-cherished desire of seeing a commodious hospital erected 
when she ceased from her labors. The Board is anxiously looking for 
a successor to Dr. Seward to fill the important position left vacant. 
The return of Rev. W. F. Johnson, D.D., to Allahabad after an ab- 
sence of several years, accompanied by his daughter, Miss Mary E. 
Johnson, recently appointed, affords timely and valuable help to the 
mission in its present straits. 

Farrukhabad — Fategarh Station. 

These cities, some four miles apart, constitute one station, the 
former being the native city, and the latter what is known as the 
" Civil Station," the residence of English and other foreigners. There 
are two churches connected with this station, one in Farrukhabad and 
the other at Rakha in Fategarh. Mr. Forman has acted as stated 
supply to the former, and Mr. Janvier to the latter part of the year, 
because of the illness and absence of Rev. Mohan Lai. The Farruk- 
habad church has a roll of fifty-five communicants, of whom two were 
received during the year, and that at Rakha eighty-five. The Sabbath- 
school connected with the latter reports an encouraging increase in 
the number of men attending. The Sabbath-school in Farrukhabad, 
held in the High-School building, and superintended by Mr. Forman, 
reports an attendance of upwards of two hundred, most of the stu- 
dents attending during the week being present also on Sunday, with 
a number of outsiders. The new church building which has been in 
hand for some time, and to which Mr. Janvier has given much atten- 
tion, has been completed. It stands in the midst of a crowded bazaar 
within easy reach of the multitudes passing to and fro. It is a large 
and commodious structure, intended not only for the accommodation 
of Christians, but as a place in which to hold evangelistic services for 
the heathen. If the people can be induced to attend, which is con- 
fidently expected, it will have a great advantage over the street for 
services, not only being protected in a measure from the noise, but 
being less liable to interruptions. 

Evangelistic. — This has been largely in the hands of Mr. Forman 
with efficient native helpers, Mr. Janvier, however, taking part in the 
bazaar preaching. Whenever possible Mr. Forman conducted services 
in the early evening in some courtyard or lane, and also has opened 
some work among the Sweepers in a certain section of the city, besides 
regular preaching in the bazaar. Accompanied by several native help 



120 INDIA — FARRUKHABAD. 

ers, he also spent several months in the district among the villages. 
Of Gurshai he writes : 

" Within a radius of four miles of this place there are markets every day 
of the week, and some days markets at two places within the four miles. 
These markets are gathering-places for villagers from all directions to buy and 
sell. There are large numbers, and the people are very ready to come and 
listen. Sellers of grain, cloth, shoes, trinkets, and vegetables make a weekly tour 
of these markets, and they should be just as regularly visited by our preachers. 
I have found these capital places for preaching all over our district. At Gursa- 
haigonj we need two strong men to devote their afternoons to this work, and 
their mornings to visiting the villages. There is also a mela of some import- 
ance springing up near Gursahaigonj at the tomb of a Mohammedan ' Martyr.' " 

When visiting Tirwa he was told of an old man over seventy years 
of age who had lived in that place fifty-one years and had never 
known of its being visited by a missionary. Appalling as this fact is, 
it is scarcely to be wondered at when it is remembered that in the dis- 
trict of Farrukhabad alone there are nearly four thousand villages, 
many of which if in our own country would have from one to five 
churches each. Idolatry seems to flourish here, as Mr. Forman re- 
ports several fine new temples, to one of which the Rajah of Tirwa 
is credited with contributing large funds. There is crying need for 
additional help to take hold of this village work which is so full of 
promise. 

Mr. Janvier with the aid of his colleagues during part of the year 
conducted an English service for some two hundred British soldiers 
who were in garrison in P'arrukhabad. As a result of this, eight of the 
men confessed Christ before they were transferred to another station. 

Educational. — The High School, under the efficient management of 
Mr. Rulach, has had a prosperous year. Mr. Janvier writes : " The 
advanced classes are larger than last year, and the fees paid for tuition 
have decidedly increased. In character of work done, in regularity 
of attendance, and in proportion of passes in examination, the pre- 
vious high standard has been fully maintained." Mr. Janvier has con- 
tinued to conduct the morning religious exercises, and to teach the 
first and second classes in the Scriptures. Because of an epidemic of 
cholera in Farrukhabad during August and September, the school was 
closed for one week. Concerning this the report says : 

" One morning, when the disease had just begun to spread and the death- 
rate to increase, the special burden of my opening prayer was that the Lord 
would be graciously pleased to preserve our boys and their families in this 
time of danger. The prayer was heard, and not one of the homes of our 
scholars, scattered all over the city, was visited by death. The boys them- 
selves called Mr. Rulach's attention to the fact, and acknowledged it to be an 
answer to prayer." 

Six vernacular schools have been in operation, one in Farrukhabad 
and five in the surrounding villages, with a total enrollment of two 
hundred and eighty pupils. Mr. Forman and Gulam Masih, a 
native assistant, took charge of the religious instruction in thesa 
schools. Miss Forman had also the superintendence of nine girls' 
schools in addition to work among the women, and the care of a 
Sabbath-school in Farrukhabad numbering twenty-five. 



INDIA — MAINPURIE. 121 

In addition to his ordinary missionary work, Mr. Janvier has 
given some attention to the Presbyterian Widows' and Orphans' 
Fund for native Christians, the object being to stimulate the 
Christians to make provision for the future. The opinion is ex- 
pressed that " widely patronized it would go far toward solving the 
problem of how to support indigent Christians without compromis- 
ing their independence." Mr. Janvier has also acted as one of a 
visiting committee to a Government Reformatory for the Sansias, a 
gipsy race, which has been declared a criminal class, the older per- 
sons being confined to a sort of penal settlement, and the children 
placed in reformatory schools. 

Mainpurie Station. 

This station has been bereaved by the death of Har Pershad, one 
of its oldest and most esteemed catechists. " His simple faith, and 
wonderful personal magnetism, and his clear exposition of the plan of 
salvation, rendered him exceptionally popular and successful in the 
bazaars and villages." The attendance on public worship, both on 
Sunday and during the week, is reported as punctual and regular, and 
the spirit of the worshippers earnest. There has been a large attend- 
ance of non-Christians at these services. Concerning outside work 
Mr. Inglis reports : " During January and February we were all able 
to make a tour among the villages to which we always turn with pleas- 
ure when station duties permit. Fvery morning and evening, Sundays 
excepted, the two catechists and myself visited and preached in the 
villages accessible to our camp and always found ready listeners. On 
Sundays we held a service at the camp and invited the people to wit- 
ness our Christian worship and hear the story of the Cross. In these 
Sunday services Miss Babbitt's portable organ was a great help, for it 
not only brought the people out, but held their attention by the prom- 
ise it gave of a short service of song at the close of our regular wor- 
ship." Work at the outstation Eiah, under the care of a Scripture 
reader and a licentiate, has been carried on. Several inquirers are 
reported. 

Educational. — The High-School, with Mr. C. H. A. Emile as 
headmaster, had an average attendance of ninety-five, and is reported 
as having made decided progress both in numbers and efficiency. In- 
struction in the Scriptures has been given in the first and second 
classes by Mr. Inglis, and in the others by an assistant. At the Scrip- 
ture scholarship examination for this Province four students received 
prizes, and seven received pass marks. Mr. Inglis has also superin- 
tended a Sunday-school consisting of the high-school pupils, and the 
teachers in the primary schools. 

Two Vernacular schools for boys are reported in Mainpurie, with an 
attendance of forty-six, and two at Etah, with an attendance of thirty- 
six. There are also ten schools for girls in Mainpurie, with a total 
enrollment of one hundred and seventy, and two in Etah, with twenty- 
three pupils, Ten Bible schools are also reported as held during the 
week with an attendance of one hundred and sixty-two. 



122 INDIA — ETAWAH. 

Zenana Work. — This has been under the care of Mrs. Jarbo. 
Seventy-eight homes have been regularly visited, and forty- three pu- 
pils received regular instruction. Mrs. Jarbo says : " The women re- 
ceive us with the utmost cordiality, and listen to the Scripture lessons 
with great attention." 

Etawah Station. 

No detailed statement concerning the church and general work of 
this station has been received. Mr. Woodside, assisted by native 
helpers, has maintained the usual religious services during the year. 
From the report of Miss Belz, whose fidelity and zeal are worthy of 
all praise, the following extracts are made : 

" I have met with more inquirers than in any former year, and it seems to 
me as if a great many of those among whom I labor are beginning now to 
think of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of sinners. At one place where I had 
spoken a boy, on my going away, said something against the Lord Jesus, 
when a Brahman with a loud voice said: ' Believe it or do not believe it, as you 
like, but do not speak against him.' An aged Brahman woman here in the city, 
who seems to be not far from the kingdom of heaven, and with her husband 
and sons takes a great interest in the Gospel message, said to me again and 
again : ' When you are going to preach in this quarter of the city, as long as I 
live come to my house and do the same, so that I also may hear the good 
word.' At the house of a washerman, where I had spoken several times be- 
fore, the woman of the house said to me, in the presence of her husband and 
several other people: ' We do not any longer work on Sundays.' A high-caste 
woman said to me: ' When I hear from you the good word, then I can forget 
all my sorrow; but if I have not the opportunity of hearing it for some time, 
I generally feel very sad.' A woman of the writer caste has been showing for 
some years a great interest in the Christian religion, and whenever I came to 
her house some of her neighbors also would come to hear me, and put ques- 
tions to me about Hinduism and the Christian religion, which I had to answer. 
At one of my late visits there, only one of her neighbors, a Thakeer woman, 
was present, and we got at once into an earnest religious conversation. Both 
women confessed to me that they should like to become disciples of the Lord 
Jesus, in order to be saved by Him. I said to them: ' Then you must be bap- 
tized, because that is the rite to be administered to every one who becomes a 
Christian.' The Thakeer woman then put the question: 'Where or at what 
place is baptism to be performed?' Upon which the other woman answered: 
' In the Christians' church here in the city.' But to come to our church here, and 
to be seen by strange men, and to be baptized by a strange gentleman, the 
Padri Sahib, and then to be reviled and persecuted by their own people, and lo 
be turned out of their house, seemed to these two high-caste women more 
than they felt able to bear. Another woman, who also wished to become a 
Christian, confessed her desire to live with me I said to her: 'You ought not 
to live with us Christians, but to remain in your own house and among your 
own people, but you must be baptized, for that is the sign of. becoming a dis- 
ciple of the Lord Jesus.' She then put the question: ' By whom would I be 
baptized?' I answered: ' By the Padri Sahib.' She replied: 'If you would 
baptize me I would be ready to receive baptism, but by a gentleman I could 
not have the rite performed.' She seemed to think that if she could be a 
Christian without being publicly baptized, then her caste people would not turn 
her out of her house. 1 see every day when I am among the people that their 
faith in their own religion is almost gone, and the desire to hear more about 
Je»us Christ is increasing. Though the system of caste is a strong bulwark of 
the devil to keep the people away from Christ, the Lord Jesus is stronger, and 
can destroy all obstacles if He pleases." 

Miss Belz has also superintended a number of zenana schools 
where ninety pupils have been taught by three native teachers. She 



INDIA — MORAR, JHANSI. 1 23 

notes with gratitude that among the higher classes there is an in- 
creasing desire to have their girls educated. Many of those who 
have been under instruction in our zenana schools are now able to 
read and write. Miss Belz examines these schools regularly and 
pays the teachers in proportion to the progress made by the pupils. 
She also gives personal attention to the religious instruction of the 
girls. 

Morar Station. 

This was formerly an English Cantonment adjacent to the u Eash- 
kar," as the capital of Gwalior is called. Gwalior is a native State 
governed by its own Rajah, and has a population of two and a half 
millions. Since the death of the Rev. Dr. Warren, Mrs. Warren has 
continued to reside in the mission house, and to superintend the 
mission work at this place. By means of gifts from English residents 
and friends in America, a stone church has been erected, but remains 
unfinished. The walls afford protection from the intense heat of the 
sun, although not from the cold of the early winter mornings. Mrs. 
Warren superintends a large Sunday-school which is held in this 
place, while a native minister preaches the Gospel here, and also in 
the bazaar and the district. It is understood that Mrs. Warren re- 
mains in Morar by sufferance only, she having persistently refused 
to withdraw at the time when the English Government surrendered 
the place to the native Rajah. No other mission work is being at- 
tempted in this native State, except what is done under the eye of 
this missionary, nor is the way open at present for a larger occupa- 
tion. It is earnestly hoped, however, that by retaining our present 
foothold, God, in His providence, may open the way for a further 
extension of the work. 

Jhansi Station. 

The assignment of Mr. and Mrs. Griswold to this station was a 
welcome reinforcement, as Mr. and Mrs. Holcomb had stood alone 
from the opening of the station. Although the time of the new 
missionaries was largely taken up in the study of the language, they 
rendered valuable service in various departments of the work, and 
have recently had their first experience in itineration accompanied 
only by native helpers. 

Regular services have been maintained on Sunday morning and 
Wednesday afternoon in the school-house on the mission compound. 
The new city church, which will be dedicated before this report 
reaches the General Assembly, and which is built in the very midst of 
the heathen population, will be a valuable addition to the equipment 
of this station. A large amount of the money needed in the erection 
of the building has been secured through the efforts of Mr. and Mrs. 
Holcomb. The building includes a reading-room, which it is pro- 
posed to keep open during the day, and also in the evenings. Mrs. 
Holcomb has already received through friends a library comprising 
about one thousand volumes. Many of the books were contributed 
by American and British publishers. This method of Christian effort, 



124 INDIA — J H ANSI. 

so valuable in parts of South India, is believed to be full of promise. 
It is said that in the various railway and Government offices in Jhansi 
there are at least a thousand English-speaking natives employed. 
Besides English literature, the intention is to secure as much as pos- 
sible of Christian literature in the Urdu and Hindi languages. 

Preaching to the heathen has been maintained part of the time at 
the preaching-stand in the market-place by an evangelist and cate- 
chist ; they have also visited a large number of the lower classes in 
out-of-the-way parts of the city, and by simple discourse or in con- 
versation have told them of Christ. Four Sunday-schools have been 
held in connection with this station in various parts of the city. 

Educational. — Concerning the Girls' School Mrs. Holcomb writes : 

" Our school for girls, still taught in the little building in the mission com- 
pound, is a most interesting feature of our work. We have in this school, 
children from Christian, from Bengali, up-country Hindi, and Parsi families. 
The English, Hindi, Urdu, and Bengali languages are taught. The school is 
opened and closed with prayer, and a season is set apart each day for religi- 
ous instruction, while the singing of Christian hymns set to native airs is a 
feature of the instruction given, which is greatly appreciated by the pupils, 
and at the same time a potent factor in imparting as well as in disseminating 
Christian truth, as the children sing at home the songs they learn in school." 

This effort for the high-caste girls is believed to be full of promise, 
not only because of the direct influence of the work upon the chil- 
dren, but indirectly upon the parents. While reaching out to the high- 
caste girls Mrs. Holcomb has been anxious to establish a school for 
those of a lower grade in the city, but has been hindered for lack of a 
Christian teacher. 

House-to-house visitation has been continued under the direction 
of Mrs. Holcomb, as also by herself in person. One of the many 
difficulties in this work is thus referred to : 

"The lot of many of the child-wives in India is sad indeed. In one kouse, 
which we are permitted to visit, are two of the former pupils of our girls' 
school, one a daughter of the house and the other a daughter-in-law. These 
girls, for they are both mere children still, left our school two years ago, be- 
cause regarded as too old to go abroad. The daughter continues her lessons 
at home, but the daughter-in-law is not allowed to learn, nor indeed often to 
see us. Recently, while giving instruction to the daughter, we saw at the head 
of a flight of stairs the daughter-in law looking wistfully down. ' Do let her 
come,' we pleaded. ' She does not care to come,' answered the mother-in-law. 
'Only give her permission and she will come, I am sure,' we replied. 'Very 
well,' was answered. The child made no response when I called, but as soon 
as she heard the voice of her mother-in-law she came swiftly down, but with a 
look on her face that was pitiful to see. She stood until her mother-in-law gave 
her leave to be seated, and then she dropped at my feet, and lifted to my face 
eyes full of fear, like those of a hunted animal. A book was put into her 
hands, and she was asked to read. 'She is so dull,' said the mother-in-law, 
and she was soon told to go back to her duties, when with swift step she sped 
away, without casting a look behind her. My heart ached to see this child, so 
recently a happy girl in school, leading so sad a life." 

Three vernacular schools for boys have been open during the year, 
the two native preachers having charge of the religious instruction of 
the pupils. The report says : 



INDIA— FATEHPUR, ALLAHABAD. I 25 

" These schools are most valuable as evangelistic agencies, and their value 
is greatly enhanced by the fact that they are essential to the success of our 
Sunday-school work. It seems important, therefore, that these schools should 
be multiplied as fast as we are able to arrange for their being efficiently super- 
intended." 

Literary Work. — Mr. Holcomb, as a member of the Hindi New 
Testament Translation Committee, spent two months with his co- 
laborers on this important work last summer, during which time a new 
version of the Epistle to the Romans and First Epistle to the Cor- 
inthians was completed. 

Fatehpur Station. 

There being no resident missionary at this station, Mr. Alexander 
has had the supervision of it, an assistant native laborer being 
located at the centre. The church numbers eighteen communi- 
cants, of whom two were received on confession of faith during the 
year, one of them being a young man connected with a respectable 
Mohammedan family in Oudhe. As intimated above, Mr. Alex- 
ander, in addition to monthly visits to this place, spent several 
weeks itinerating in the district, which has a population of 700,000. 
Early in the year work was begun at Bindki, a large market town in 
this district, some seventeen miles from the town of Fatehpur. 
The native laborers assigned there were well received by the people 
of all castes. On market days many from distant localities heard 
the word. Mr. Alexander writes : 

"The work soon developed among the low castes, Chamars and Mehtars, 
and now we find many of them ready to receive Christ as their Saviour. 
During a recent tour I visited a'small hamlet in the suburb of Bindki, inhab- 
ited entirely by Mehtars. These people, in answer to my questions, expressed 
clearly their faith in Christ and desire for baptism. I look forward hopefully 
to the work among this people." 

Allahabad Station. 

This station, located at the junction of the Ganges and Jumna, 
and hence peculiarly sacred in the eyes of the Hindus, and a place 
of annual pilgrimage for thousands of Hindus, is justly regarded as 
a fine field for missionary operations. There are two churches at 
this station connected with our mission, respectively located on the 
mission premises at Katra and the Jumna, some three miles apart. 
That at Katra numbers eighty-five communicants, five of whom 
were admitted on confession of faith during the year. It is under 
the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Caleb, but during his serious illness 
of several months Mr. Alexander took his place. The Jumna 
church has a roll of one hundred and twenty-nine, of whom twenty- 
eight were added by confession of faith during the year. This 
church being without a pastor, Dr. Lucas has continued to be 
responsible both for pulpit and pastoral work. 

Evangelistic. — Services for non-Christians were conducted in what 
is known as the City church, located in the midst of the crowded 
bazaar, during the evenings of the week. During part of the year 



1 26 INDIA — ALLAHABAD. 

Mr. Tracy shared the responsibility of these services with Dr. 
Lucas. Mr. Alexander also preached in the bazaars of the city, and 
in the neighboring villages. Dr. Lucas spent five weeks across the 
Jumna, preaching in the villages of the Allahabad district. He 
was accompanied by Mrs. Lucas, who spent the mornings and 
evenings in the villages within three or four miles of the camp 
talking to the women. In connection with work in the district Mr. 
Alexander says : 

" There has been no time since I joined the mission in 1886 in which the 
spirit of earnest inquiry has been so prevalent as during the year under review. 
I noticed this first during our tour in the Fatehpur district in January and 
February, and all through the year indications of the Spirit's work in the 
hearts of many have been manifested, especially among the low castes in the 
Fatehpur district. The preaching tour in this district, which lasted over a 
month, was of more than usual interest. The people received us gladly in 
almost all the villages. At Jahanabal, a town of ten thousand inhabitants 
which had not been visited by a Christian preacher for many years, we spent 
more than a week. The people came in crowds to our tents, remaining hours, 
and some were not inclined to leave the camp. It was a joy to preach to such 
eager crowds. The impression made was manifest, as several expressed a 
desire for baptism." 

Educational. — The Jumna Boys' High-School, of which Dr. Lucas 
is Principal, had an attendance of two hundred and forty, of whom 
thirty are Christians. In addition to the opening religious services 
each day, Dr. Lucas spent half an hour giving Bible instruction to 
the first and second classes, while the religious instruction of the 
other classes has been in the hands of native Christians. The 
branch school in the city reports a roll of sixty boys. 

The Katra Middle School had a roll of one hundred and twenty- 
six boys, of whom sixty-four were Hindus, thirty-five Moham- 
medans, and thirty-seven Christians. Mr. Alexander, when in the 
city, conducts the opening exercises of this school, and also holds a 
special religious service on Saturdays. A number of the boys seem 
deeply interested in the truth, and are only hindered from confessing 
Christ through fear of their friends. 

The Girls' Boarding- School. — This school has continued under 
the superintendence of Mrs. John Newton, with whom Miss Morrow 
and Miss Colman are associated. Fifty boarders were in attendance, 
all daughters of native Christians ; also five day pupils. The number 
of the latter could readily be increased were it not for the distance 
of the school from the homes of the native Christians. The 
spiritual tone of the school is excellent, and four of the girls made 
a public profession of faith during the year. 

Mrs. Lucas, who has charge of the girls' schools in the city, 
reports that the pupils are making excellent progress in their 
studies, but laments that the custom of early marriages takes them 
out of school at the very time when they ought to be retained. A 
Bible-woman, under the direction of Mrs. Lucas, has visited reg- 
ularly twenty-two zenanas, in some of which she has pupils, and in 
all of which she gives Bible instruction. 

Mrs. Alexander has had the supervision of sixty zenanas, where 



INDIA — ALLAHABAD. 1 27 

there are eighty pupils under instruction. She has also the over- 
sight of a school on the Katra compound taught by a native 
Christian, but the religious instruction in the school is given by 
Mrs. Alexander in person. 

In connection with the boys' school in the village of Shadiatad, on 
the bank of the Ganges, Mr. Alexander mentions the remarkable fact 
that the Brahmans of that village decided that caste should not in- 
terfere with the school work established by our mission, but that 
children of all classes, even Mehtars (outcastes), should attend the 
same school. Between fifty and sixty were in attendance, mostly 
low castes, but including some of the higher castes. When visited 
by one of the secretaries of the Board fifty-one boys were in attend- 
ance, of whom 3 were Brahmans, 4 Banyas (shopkeepers), 3 Malla 
(boatmen), 15 Chamars (leather-workers), 18 Pasi (cultivators), 4 
Garariyah (shepherds), 1 Mali (gardener), 1 Sonar (goldsmith), 2 
Teli (oil merchants), 3 Dhobi (washermen), and 2 Mehtar (sweepers, 
outcastes). In the girls school near by, held in a low hut, were 
thirty-six pupils, belonging to the following families: 2 Brahmans, 
1 Sonar, 12 Chamars, 11 Pasi, and 10 Malla. 

Medical Work. — Since the death of Dr. Seward the work at the 
dispensary has been continued by Miss Symes, formerly associated 
with Dr. Seward, and Miss Christian. Miss Symes reports 11,993 
patients during the year, of whom 3,985 were new. The list in- 
cludes Hindus, Mohammedans, native Christians, and a few Eura- 
sians and Europeans. The hospital has not yet been opened, and 
cannot be until a regularly qualified physician is appointed to take 
the place of Dr. Seward. Miss Symes has opened a dispensary in 
Katra, where the patients are mostly native Christians. Miss Symes 
and her assistant devote part of each morning to giving religious 
instruction in the dispensary to the women who come, including 
both high castes and low castes. 

Dr. Lucas has continued to superintend the Leper and Blind 
Asylums at Allahabad, taking entire oversight of the religious in- 
struction. As heretofore reported, these institutions are supported 
entirely by a municipal grant and local contributions. Of the 
thirty-eight lepers in the asylum sixteen are Christians, and of the 
sixty-five inmates of the Blind Asylum twenty are Christians. A 
number of the Christians in both of these institutions are noted for 
their deep-toned piety and earnest Christian life. 

Literary. — Dr. Lucas, after five years' labor at odd minutes, has 
completed and issued his Commentary on First Corinthians in Hin- 
dustani. He has also, with the assistance of Rev. Mr. Fieldbrave, 
continued to act as editor of the Makyzan-i-Masihi, a religious 
paper which has attained a wide circulation. The London Relig- 
ious Tract Society and American Tract Society have both made 
grants towards the support of this paper. As Secretary of the 
Christian Vernacular Educational Society, Dr. Lucas has been 
greatly assisted by the Rev. Joel David, who has attended to all the 
details relating to the publications of the society, as well as the ac- 
counts. 



128 INDIA — KOLHAPUR. 

The Orphanage at Rakha has been under the care of Mrs. 
Andrews during the year. In the absence of a detailed report, it 
may be stated that the number of pupils was about the same as last 
year. Mrs. Andrews, who with her husband has been transferred 
to Mainpurie, had become very much attached to this work, and 
withdrew from it with great regret. Mrs. Lohr, the widow of a 
German missionary, who had resided some years in India, together 
with Mrs. Jarbo, who has had charge of the zenana work in Main- 
purie, have now become responsible for the Orphanage, and the 
school connected with it. Besides superintending the Orphanage, 
Mrs. Andrews has done a large amount of medical work among the 
villages, where, with the help of a Bible-woman, for whose support 
she and her husband were responsible, she has also accomplished 
much in reaching the women with the Gospel. 

Statistics of Farrukhabad Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 1 1 

Single lady missionaries (one medical ) 6 

Married lady missionaries to 

Ordained natives S 

Licentiates 8 

Native helpers, male 42 

Native helpers, female 32 

Number of churches 9 

Communicants 449 

Added during the year 37 

Boarding-schools 2 

Girls in boarding-schools 135 

Day-schools 51 

Boys in day-schools 892 

Girls in day-schools 599 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools i,5°4 

Contributions $445.00 

Kolhapur Mission. 

KoLHAruR : 200 miles southeast of Bombay ; 45,000 inhabitants ; mission station 
commenced, 1853 ; taken under care of the Board, 1870 ; laborers — Rev. and Mrs. G. W. 
Seiler, Rev. and Mrs. James M. Goheen, Rev. J. M. Irwin, Mrs. R. G. Wilder, Miss 
Grace E. Wilder, Miss Esther Patton, Miss Rachel Irwin. 

Panhala : 14 miles north of Kolhapur ; mission station commenced, 1877 ; laborers — 
Rev. and Mrs. George H. Ferris. 

Sangli : 30 miles east of Kolhapur ; work begun 1884 ; laborers— Rev. and Mrs. J. P. 
Graham, Rev. and Mrs. L. B. Tedford, Mr. and Mrs. John Jolly, Miss Jennie Sherman. 

Ratnagiri : 70 miles northwest of Kolhapur ; mission station commenced, 1873 ; mis- 
sionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. W. H. Hannum, Miss E. T. Minor, and Miss Amanda 
Jefferson. 

Mir.^j : about to be occupied as a station, the centre of the medical work. Dr. and 
Mrs. W. J. Wanless. 

In this country : Rev. and Mrs. Galen W. Seiler, Rev. and Mrs. L. B. Tedford, Mrs. 
J. P. Graham. 

The territory occupied by the Kolhapur Mission lies in the Bombay 
Presidency, southwest of Bombay, and covers part of the Deccan. 
Westward it extends to Ratnagiri and eastward to Jath, northward to 
Karar and southward to Nipani. The Ghats, a range of mountains 
some forty or fifty miles from the coast, cut the field into two. The 
Kolhapur State lies east of this range, and has a population of over 



INDIA— KOLHAPUR. 129 

800,000. Neighboring districts in which there are no missionaries 
have a population of 1,700,000. There must be added to these, in 
order truly to understand the field, the Concan, or the land between 
the Ghats and the sea, in which Ratnagiri is situated. Altogether, 
there is a population of 4,000.000 to be reached. The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel has a mission at Kolhapur. With the 
exception of this and our own missions, the nearest stations are 
seventy miles away, at Satara and Belgaum. The mission force has 
not been sufficiently strong to enter all the open doors, and though 
Miss Amanda Jefferson and Miss E. T. Minor were sent during the 
year, there is still a call for laborers. To apply normal training and 
help the native Christians to self-support, Mr. John Jolly has been 
sent to begin industrial work. Mr. and Mrs. Seiler are still in the 
United States. Mrs. Seiler has not gained strength as has been 
desired. Mr. Seiler first went to the field in 1870, and his presence 
and experience are largely missed. Miss Margaret L. Ewalt, who 
joined the mission in 1888, was obliged to return home owing to 
serious illness, and died on March 6th at her mother's home in Hoges- 
town, Pa. There are no serious discouragements in the work. The 
industrial work has been established. The medical work will soon be 
on a firm basis, with every facility for useful and large service. There 
is the need, however, as always, for more men who have the gift of 
preaching Christ with winning and spiritual power. 

Kolhapur Station. 

Kolhapur is a city of about 45,000 people, the capital of the native 
State of the same name, with a population of about 800,000. As seen 
from a distance the city is beautiful for situation. The most com- 
manding object, next to the king's palace, is the towering white dome 
of a very large temple. Few cities or places in India have so high a 
reputation for sanctity. The favorite legend among the people is that 
the gods, in council, once pronounced it the most sacred spot of all 
the earth. 

Early in the year this station lost some of its best workers, Rev. 
G. W. and Mrs. Seiler, Mrs. Hull, and Miss Ewalt. In October Miss 
Minor and Miss Jefferson arrived. On the eve of Mr. Seder's de- 
parture for the United States Rev. J. M. Irwin took charge of the 
Mission High-School in Kolhapur, thus leaving the vernacular schools 
for Mr. Goheen to look after. The theological class was taught this 
year by Rev. G. H. Ferris, who came from Panhala in order to spend 
the rainy season in Kolhapur. 

Pastoral Work. — The church in the city looks almost like a new 
house since it has been repaired. Mr. Goheen writes : " It has been 
a pleasure to preach to the Christians seated as families in their pews — 
a privilege not enjoyed before by them. The Hindu audiences have 
been large and more quiet than in former years. On Communion 
seasons they have been heard to say, ' See how these Christians all 
drink from one cup,' an unheard-of thing among Caste Hindus. I 
have heard that a little company of Hindus meet regularly every Sun- 
day evening to read our Bible, sing and pray. One of them who said 
9 



130 INDIA — KOLHAPUR. 

he didn't believe there was anything good in any religion is becoming 
very interested in these meetings. We hope and pray that these 
young men may all give their hearts to Christ. 

" I have conducted daily prayers in the Christian Girls' School at 
9 a.m. We have gone over eleven chapters of Mark's Gospel. The 
examination on these chapters at Christmas showed that the girls had 
given good attention to this study. 

"The death of Baizoba's wife, Paulinabai, in February, cast a deep 
gloom, not only over the church, but over the neighborhood where she 
lived. She was ' instant in season and out of season,' always more 
concerned for the welfare of others than for herself. I feel her loss as 
pastor, knowing that she was one who prayed earnestly for me. But 
' our loss is her eternal gain.' Our hearts were again saddened in 
October by the death of Hannahbai, a mother whose death makes a 
large vacancy in the home. ' For her to die was gain.' Both these 
women left large families of children, each a little babe only a few 
days old." 

These losses are felt the more because the women are the heads of 
the households truly, and the loss of a mother is far more severe to 
the children than the loss of a father would be, — so much so, that 
provision must be made for little children, not when their fathers die, 
but when the mothers are lost, for they are the real bread-winners. 

Evangelistic Work. — This work has not been carried on regularly 
in Kolhapur City and in the districts. Baizoba has preached daily in 
the city, and Mr. Goheen has helped him at the Monday and Friday 
evening preaching service on the street in front of the City Church. 
Shidaram, who teaches in the Mission High-School, has seldom failed 
to be present, and has greatly assisted in these services. Mr. Goheen 
has preached once a month in Herleh and Wadgaon, after examining 
the Boys' School in each town. Shidaram, who lives in Wadgaon, has 
done good, faithful service this year, and the Hindus, when they send 
for him in case of sickness, always expect him to pray for them, and 
these visits give him a good opportunity to preach also. Mr. Goheen 
relates one incident which occurred there. A boy who had fallen into a 
well a mile away from Wadgaon was carried to the Government dispen- 
sary there ; the native doctor, after having failed to restore respiration, 
advised the parents to take the boy to Shidaram, which they did. The 
native doctor followed them. Shidaram, after praying earnestly for 
the boy, set to work to restore the boy to life. In a little while he sat 
up and asked where he was. The crowd, which had by this time 
assembled, felt that the boy had been raised from the dead. Shidaram 
has given medicine to hundreds of people there and in the surrounding 
towns. A traveling Hindu medicine-man became much interested in 
what Shidaram told him about Christ early in the year. He made 
frequent visits to Wadgaon, and early in December asked to be 
baptized. At the Communion at Kolhapur the last of December, he 
was received into the church on profession of faith, and was baptized 
the following Sabbath, Luke. It is his purpose to carry on his business 
as a Christian and thus support himself. Shidaram and Bussuntroa 
have made several tours during the year. In the towns which they 



[NDIA — KOLHAPUK. I 3 I 

have visited they have found the magic-lantern very useful. They 
have preached during these tours in 9s towns to over 11,000 people, 
and have distributed thousands of tracts. The Kolhapur Church has 
paid the expenses of cart hire, etc., connected with these tours. The 
members have also prayed for them while they were out preaching. 
Bussuntroa has preached during the year in 117 towns. He also 
attended the theological class for three months. Shidaram preached 
in 249 towns. Baizoba preaches daily in Kolhapur City. 

Sunday-schools. — The two Sunday-schools in Shuruwar and Shun- 
war Peths were closed early in the year, owing to the departure of 
Mrs. Seiler and Mrs. Hull, as there were no persons to fill their 
places. The school in the City Church has been kept up all the year. 
During the rains there were often 300 present ; the average attend- 
ance, 250. The International Lessons have been taught. The Sun- 
day-schools at Herleh and Wadgaon have each had an average of 25. 

Bible-Classes. — Mr. Irwin conducted an English Bible-class for 
Christians, after the Sabbath afternoon service. "They studied," he 
says, "during the year, ' Messianic Prophecy,' 'Types and Antitypes,' 
' Fulfilled Prophecy,' ' The Manifestation of the Divine Character in 
the Plan of Salvation,' and 'Striking Confirmations of Scripture.' To 
better illustrate these subjects, I have prepared some charts during 
the year. They have manifested much continued interest, and I feel 
sure that some have been considerably strengthened in their faith in 
the Bible." 

Educational. — 1. Vernacular Schools. — There are six vernacular 
schools, four for boys and two for girls. All the scholars are Hindus. 
Four of these schools are in Kolhapur City, one in Herleh and one in 
Wadgaon, outstations. The school at Herleh has had an attendance 
of thirty, all low-caste boys, and has made very good progress. Mr. 
Goheen examined it once a month, and always found some of the 
boys ready to rise into higher classes. Six were sent from this school 
to the Christian Boys' School at Sangli, during the year. A married 
man about thirty years old, who attended the night-school, was bap- 
tized early in January, and has thus far stood up boldly for Christ, 
although his wife and friends have tried hard to win him back to 
Hinduism. The school at Wadgaon had an attendance of forty ; but 
during the rains the headmaster in the Government School there 
threatened the parents, if they did not stop sending their boys to the 
mission school. This he did because one of the Brahmin boys in his 
school became interested in Christianity, and therefore came to our 
school to be instructed. Consequently our school was almost broken 
up for a time. A school was opened in Aditwar (Sunday) Peth, in 
June, with forty boys, and went on well for two months. While Air. 
Goheen was examining this school one day, a couple of men of 
influence in the Peth came in, and after hearing the boys recite the 
Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments, etc., went out. The result was 
none of the boys were allowed to attend school next day, so it was 
closed. The teacher then opened a school in Mungalwar (Tuesday) 
Peth, which met with similar opposition and had to be closed after a 
couple of months. 



132 INDIA — KOLHAPUR. 

2. Boys' High-School. — Mr. Irwin has had charge of the Boys' High- 
School, and has been gratified at its growth and improvement. The 
building has been made more suitable for school purposes, and the 
school has been better equipped with furniture. The laboratory and 
library have been improved, and a reading-room and little gymnasium 
have been added. Regarding the school as an evangelizing agency, 
Mr. Irwin writes : " It is, I hear, quite proverbial in the town that the 
High-School boys do not conform to the ceremonies of the Hindu 
religion, and they certainly break caste rather freely. Many have, I 
am persuaded, been quite convinced of the truth of Christianity, and 
all, I think, have learned to respect it, and gained much true knowl- 
edge concerning it ; but none have been found this year bold enough 
to openly confess their faith. One boy named Shelke has at dif- 
ferent times manifested great interest and conviction, and still engages 
in prayer on the subject with one of the servants of the family and 
another of his friends, but, like many others, seems unable to break 
away from his people." 

The arrangements for teaching Christianity in the school have been 
somewhat improved in efficiency by — 

ist. The complete system of Bible prizes offered. 

2d. By special care being taken in daily prayers to secure full 
attendance and order. 

3d. By the institution of a regular Bible-class in the school for the 
students on Sabbath morning, which we hope may grow into a 
Sabbath-school. 

4th. By the Bible being taken as a regular text-book in all the 
standards. 

5th. By a special class in Bible-reading, held at the bungalow, at 
their own request. 

6th. By tracts in both Marathi and English being regularly dis- 
tributed both in the Sabbath-class and in the daily classes, besides the 
religious papers in the reading-room. 

The Christian vernacular text-books are continued in regular use 
throughout the school. " We experienced no opposition in teaching 
Christian truth in the school, except at the time of reinstating the 
lower standards and concerning the Christian vernacular text-books. 
Naturally the natives appreciate our opportunity with such young 
boys, and object to our putting them through the same course of 
religious instruction as the rest. However, of course, we held on as 
usual. The boys have ceased to be eager to dispute the truths of the 
Gospel, and many of them blush to advocate Hinduism, while their 
minds are evidently becoming saturated with Christian conceptions 
with regard to religion. They seem pleased to get tracts, and most of 
them are found possessed of New Testaments and other portions of 
the Bible. I have been glad to notice that the heathen students show 
no scruple whatever as to association with Christian students." 

3. Girls' School. — In addition to the study of Marathi, Miss Rachel 
Irwin has assisted Mrs. Goheen in school. At the beginning of the year 
she taught one of the lower classes, but since the close of the hot season 
she had had charge of the girls in their dormitory work and also of the 



INDIA — PANHALA. 1 33 

sewing classes. " This was not always easy work," she writes, " owing 
to my limited knowledge of the language ; but, all things considered, we 
have gotten on very well. We have adopted some of the methods of 
work used in the Asheville Home Industrial School, and have found 
that they work as well in India as in America. I see quite a decided 
improvement in household habits and dispositions. In order to en- 
courage thoroughness in work, the marking system was adopted and a 
prize offered to the one receiving the highest mark. This had the 
desired effect, and on Christmas the prize was given. While the work 
of a native house is little compared with the work of one in America, 
still it seems to me more difficult, because here they have no con- 
veniences. For example, the natives have no stoves with pipes and 
chimneys as we have at home; they have only a little earthen fire- 
place, with no way for the smoke to escape, so of course the room and 
eyes are filled with it. Then the women have all their grinding to do 
between two stones, which is hard work. 

" The girls are doing well in their sewing. This year they have made 
all their own clothing and have clone it well. 

" I have enjoyed visiting, with our missionary ladies, in many homes ; 
but as yet could only look on. It will be a glad day to me when I 
can go and speak myself to these poor women about Christ, and point 
them to the Saviour. I have often been astonished to see how eagerly 
they listen to our missionaries, and then turn away, saying, ' We have 
no time ; it is our fate.' Poor, ignorant, down-trodden women, how 
little they have to brighten their lives ! My heart goes out to them in 
their wretchedness and loneliness, and I long to help them see in our 
Saviour a sympathizing Friend." 

A Commentary on Isaiah, prepared by Mr. Seiler, is now in the 
hands of the sub-committee of the Bombay Tract and Book Society. 

Panhala Station. 

Panhala is about 14 miles north of Kolhapur, and is 1,000 feet 
higher. The station has been in the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Ferris. 
During the hot season Mr. Ferris was prostrated by lack of strength 
from doing much beyond the ordinary station and routine work. He 
had, however, a weekly class with some of the Christians, studying the 
life and character of David. At the beginning of the rains, Mr. Ferris 
went to Kolhapur to take charge of the theological class. " The idea 
in reference to this Annual Class," he writes, "was this, not that we 
were ready to begin a theological school, but that most of our teachers, 
as they were all called on to preach as well as teach, from time to time, 
might be better fitted for their work by a few months devoted to the 
study of the Scriptures, theology, etc. It is our hope, however, that 
as the years go by, this class may grow in importance and numbers 
until we can make it a full-fledged theological school, with a three 
years' course of study. There were only five of the teachers who 
were able to attend — Ramchandra Jingadi, Basantroa Thakur, Tayapa 
Gayakbad, Rama Balokaba, and Babaji Ranbhisi. Babaji did the best, 
all things considered, though most of the others did well. One, how- 
ever, was most too old to get much benefit from the instruction. In 



134 INDIA — PANHALA. 

theology, in discussing the two kinds of creation, from nothing and 
from pre-existing materials, when I asked for an illustration of creation 
from nothing, he answered, ' If I wished to build a fire and had noth- 
ing from which to build it, and went to my neighbors and borrowed 
fuel, etc., from them and made the fire, that would be creation from 
nothing.' 

"From one and a half to two hours every Fiiday were devoted to 
hearing and criticising ten-minute sermons and sermon plans upon 
texts previously assigned. Mr. Goheen assisted me in this, greatly 
to my help and to the benefit of the young men. In these weekly 
exercises, which most did well, Basantroa made the greatest improve- 
ment." 

Itineration. — "We were able to go out for a two weeks' tour in 
December, and were well received in most places. From various 
incidents and conversations with the people, it would seem as though 
the light was slowly finding an entrance. 

"As we drove into the village of Ayatavadi we heard the sound of 
the music of the worshippers of the goddess of cholera, and I feared 
that but few Mhars would come to the school-house to listen to us. 
But as usual the house filled up, and we had a large and attentive au- 
dience. I afterward learned that the religious beggars had reached 
Ayatavadi just a few minutes before our arrival, and the people had 
gathered to listen to the music ; but as soon as they heard of our arri- 
val,every one had left the goddess and her music to come to the school- 
house. The year before, the people had given a contribution of Rs. 
2 or 3 in copper and silver coins, besides other gifts ; but this year 
they gave nothing. The worshippers remained playing on their instru- 
ments for a time, but finding that no one came to hear them and to 
make offerings, they went away cursing the people." 

Educational. — The boys' schools at Ayatavadi and Kodoli have 
been carried on during the year with 30 and 20 names on the respective 
rolls. While Babaji and Ramji were at Kolhapur, the schools were con- 
ducted by Satuba and Santuba. 

Outstations. — The church at Ayatavadi has received into full com- 
munion two of the children of the church, and on profession of faith 
and baptism, Balokoba, the father of one of our teachers. His bap- 
tism was the sign for the beginning of a number of petty persecutions 
on the part of his wife and neighbors. " It is said that at present, 
when the family are alone in the house, his wife is all right, but in the 
presence of other people she is very bitter. May prayers be offered 
up for her conversion to the religion of peace." 

Mr. Ferris writes rejoicingly: "There is one point in particular 
which causes us to rejoice, and that is, of the 26 members two only 
are employed by the mission. Three are girls in our Christian 
school at Kolhapur ; one is a boy in the Christian school at Sangli ; two 
are wives of helpers, and eight are men who are supporting their own 
families by their fields or by day labor, as masons, coolies, etc.; seven 
are wives of these men ; one is a widow who has gone back to Hindu- 
ism and must be excommunicated ; one is a lame boy who is largely 
supported by the gifts of the different Christians of the mission, and 



INDIA — RATNAGIRI. 135 

one is the widowed mother of the two helpers. Three of the families 
are in comfortable circumstances. It is a matter of rejoicing that in 
one of our churches the number of members not supported by the 
mission far exceeds that of those who are in the mission employ." 

"The outstation at Nerla has not been occupied during the year, but 
I hope that before another year goes by we may be able to place a 
man either there or at Islampur, a large and more important place 
four miles from Nerla." 

" One of the members of the church at Ayatavadi has given nearly, 
if not more than, one-fifth of her income for charitable and other re- 
ligious objects during the year, besides what she has put in the regular 
church collections. 

Native Helpers. — " Satuba and Santuba have continued their evan- 
gelistic work during the year. It is always refreshing to meet Satuba 
and to see the great joy expressed on his face as he speaks of Christ. 
For him to live is indeed Christ. He has won the confidence of the 
people, and I have frequent testimony to the faithfulness of his work." 

Ratnagiri Station. 

Ratnagiri is a place of 15,000 inhabitants, one-third of whom are 
Mohammedans. It is situated on the coast, about 120 miles south 
of Bombay. The station was opened in 1873, but for a long time 
was virtually abandoned. During the last year Mr. and Mrs. Hannum 
and Miss Jennie Sherman were located here, and were greatly helped 
in the work by Khandoba Lakshmar Padghalmal, who came from 
Sangli with his family and has settled at Ratnagiri. 

Church Work. — Until May 14th Mr. Tedford was at Ratnagiri, 
and when he left, Khandoba came. Accordingly, there were services 
in the church almost uninterruptedly. There were preaching services 
on Thursdays and Sundays, and during the rainy season Saturday 
afternoon services were held, at which Mr. Hannum expounded twelve 
chapters of Matthew in English. 

Evangelistic Work. — Two short tours have been made from the 
station. In April Mr. Tedford and Mr. Hannum went as far as San- 
gameshwar, thirty-three miles north of Ratnagiri, and were out three 
days. On that journey Mr. Tedford preached in seven villages, sold 
Christian story-books, and distributed many tracts. The region is in 
extreme need of mission work. The people are deeply ignorant of 
Christ. Sangameshwar has 3,400 inhabitants, and the map shows 
more than 150 villages within a radius of ten miles around it. In 
May Mr. Hannum went with Mr. Tedford and Khandoba on a five 
days' tour, reaching Rajapur, 47 miles southeast of Ratnagiri. 
They preached in twelve villages. The people in this region ap- 
peared to be more numerous and somewhat more intelligent than 
those to the north, but equally in need of the Gospel. The popula- 
tion of the town of Rajapur is 4,800, of whom a considerable pro- 
portion are Mussulmans, a few are Goanese Roman Catholics, and 
the majority Hindus. The map shows 160 villages within ten miles 
around. Thousands of pilgrims are said to resort annually to the 
supposed holy waters of the " Ganga " spring at Rajapur. 



I36 INDIA— RATNAGIRI. 

Khandoba's preaching has chiefly been limited to Ratnagiri and the 
villages within three or four miles of it. 

Miss Sherman writes about some smaller itinerations : "Two weeks 
ago to-day Messrs. Tedford and Hannum and I went out three and a 
half miles along the seashore, stopping to preach in three villages by 
the way. While the gentlemen were preaching to the men, I gathered 
crowds of women and talked to them. We returned home by moon- 
light, hungry from our seven-mile walk, yet refreshed by the words of 
salvation which we had been able to preach to the heathen. The fol- 
lowing morning Mr. Hannum and I went out to one of the nearer 
villages again to see a sick man whom I had found the day before. 
While I was in the sick man's house, Mr. Hannum stood out in the 
road distributing tracts, and soon had a small crowd around him. One 
of the passers-by stopped and began to talk vehemently to him. When 
I arrived he asked me most earnestly, ' Who was this Jesus of whom 
this tract tells us? Was He a man, God, or an animal, or what ? ' I 
stood on the road and told him of Christ's work and death. He had 
been to the church before and heard Mr. Tedford preach, and said he 
would come again the following Sabbath (which he did). Before we 
finished speaking a large audience of men had gathered, and I could 
not help smiling to myself as we walked home, as I wondered whether 
some of my home friends would class such work as 'woman's work.'" 

Literature. — Since the reoccupancy of Ratnagiri, 900 books have 
been distributed from the station, nearly 200 being Bibles or parts 
of the Bible, about 200 being text-books given in the schools, and the 
rest directly on Christian subjects. More than 3,000 leaflets were 
gratuitously distributed. Nearly all these leaflets were received free 
from Rev. H. J. Bruce, of Satara. Atmaram Krishnaji, a Christian 
servant employed in the bungalow during part of the year, gave con- 
siderable assistance in selling Christian books. From his work it 
seems probable that if there were some one at the station to give his 
time to the work, much good might be done in scattering good Chris- 
tian literature among the people. 

Educational. — Mr. Hannum has taught two hours a week in the 
new English school of Mr. Joshi, so as to get hold of some of the 
boys for better things. Mr. Joshi has been anxious for the mission to 
take charge of his school, but this course has not seemed expedient. 
There are four schools, two in Ratnagiri — the Chaundewata boys' 
school with 45 pupils, and the Chaundewata girls' school with 12. 
Miss Sherman visits these daily. Regarding the other schools Miss 
Sherman writes : 

" At the village of Kerily the attendance has increased from fifteen 
in May to sixty. The masters there are doing excellent work, and I 
am spending about six hours a week there teaching Bible lessons, 
singing, and sewing. Our third school at Pomindi is too far away to 
admit of frequent visits. The master is a very faithful man, however, 
having himself formerly attended the Mission High-School here in Mr. 
Tedford's time. Beside my own work in the schools, Khandoba goes 
twice a week to each school to teach Scripture lessons, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Hannum pay them occasional visits." 



INDIA— SANGLI. 137 

Mr. Hannum is impressed with the wide-open field. " My atten- 
tion has been forcibly called to the geographical extension of the 
mission's work in the vast Concan section of our territory. Of the 
many favorable points for new stations, Chiplun, Rajapur, and Ven- 
gorla appear most so. Rajapur is the only one of the three that I 
have personally visited, but from all information I believe Vengorla to 
be the most advantageous situation. Vengorla is on the coast about 
ninety miles south of Ratnagiri and accessible in eight hours by steam- 
boat from our station. It has a population of 17,100, and 80 villages 
within ten miles around it. Vengorla, taken together with Malvan, 20 
miles north, and Sawant Wardi, 15 miles east, gives an aggregate popu- 
lation of 42,000. Vengorla is only 20 miles from Portuguese territory 
and would form a good entrance for mission work among the 
Goanese. A Goanese gentleman from Sawant Wardi, who was in 
Ratnagiri a few weeks ago, called on Khandoba and obtained a Bible, 
and invited our preacher to visit at his house in Sawant Wardi. It 
was only the sickness in Khandoba's family that has prevented us 
from making a tour to Malvan, Sawant Wardi, and Vengorla. I hope 
to accomplish this plan within the next few weeks. While it is im- 
portant to establish outstations along the road between Kolhapur and 
Ratnagiri, yet the larger population near the coast seems to indicate 
that extension there would be wiser. I hope soon to see a native 
preacher stationed at Vengorla." 

Sangli Station. 

Mr. Tedford, after a furlough in America, is back in Sangli and at 
work again. He writes concerning the Sabbath-school and general 
work : 

"The attendance at the Sabbath-school was about 12?, and although the 
non-Christian part of the Sabbath congregation was fluctuating, still we often 
had large audiences, and I could see a decided increase of attention to the 
preaching. The people of the Sangli field are beginning to know what Christian 
worship in a Christian church means. They know better now to respect the 
building, the Sabbath, and its services." 

Regular Preaching was kept up in the church on Saturday afternoons 
at the weekly market, where hundreds of people from the surrounding 
country come to buy and sell, see and be seen. Sometimes there 
were large and very attentive audiences. 

One cause for thanksgiving is the friendly spirit manifested by the 
local native officials. Recently during a fierce and hot persecution on 
the part of a large number of street fanatics, the principal Hindu 
officer came out of his house, dismissed the mob, and with a police 
guard conducted the offending Christians to the mission premises. 
Afterwards the Mohammedan Sheriff, unasked, placed disguised police 
in the church on the Sabbath to keep order. 

The Boys Boarding-School, as last year, occupied much of Mr. 
Tedford's time. " Three hours daily were spent there, teaching and 
conducting Bible and devotional exercises. I am glad to report a 
more apt and willing spirit manifested in the out-of-door manual train- 
ing, and in the most necessary duties." 



138 INDIA — SANGLI. 

Evangelistic Work. — " Spending most of the hot season in Ratnagiri, I had 
the opportunity of looking after the general work of that station, and of assist- 
ing our young missionaries there. Accompanied by Mr. Hannum, two very 
interesting tours were made in that great isolated wilderness district. I am 
confident some work was done by the preached and printed word, that will 
be heard from in years to come. 

" Govindrao has done good work during the year at Miraj. He has made a 
great many friends, and his general influence among the people seems to have 
been good. Not having any school, Govindrao has devoted the greater part 
of his time to preaching in Miraj, Sangli, and the surrounding villages. He 
has made 159 visits to villages outside of Miraj. 

" Bhivaji has given most of his time to his school for Mahars and Mangs in 
Tasgaon. The attendance has been very fluctuating, the average being about 
30 ; several boys have risen to higher standards. Bhivaji has preached mostly 
in the Mahar Wada to the people about his school, and seems to have made a 
very good impression upon many of the people. A number of persons seem 
to be real inquirers : included in these are several Mohammedans. 

" People are now much more friendly, which speaks well for Bhivaji's work. 
Tasgaon is a very important and promising outstation, and ought to have 
another preacher. 

" I was glad to have the opportunity of attending the First Conference of 
the Y. M. C. A. of India. It met at Madras, the most Christianized part, 
perhaps, of all India. In seeing and hearing the delegates, I am more con- 
vinced that the cause of Jesus has come to India to stay. Not without a 
struggle, however — for Satan's seat I believe is still in India." 

Mrs. Wilder reports as follows : 

" In looking over the past year, although there have been trials, yet I have 
met with much to encourage, and can truly say, ' Hitherto hath the Lord 
helped us.' My chief work has been in connection with schools. For a time 
I aided my daughter in the Boys' Boarding-School, when her task seemed too 
heavy, for want of competent teachers. But my attention has been given more 
to the Girls' School, which is under my care. This school was on February 5th 
moved to a Musalman's house in the town, and it has done better than last 
year. Parents are beginning to appreciate education for girls, still there is 
much prejudice to be overcome. The Christian woman, Dayabai, who 
teaches the school, has been faithful and patient in her work ; but we find the 
frequent absences for feast days and weddings very trying, and disfavor has 
been shown to our giving Christian instruction, and to the older girls attending 
church services. Some of the parents say it is quite enough if their girls are 
taught to read and write and some arithmetic, but what is the use of their 
girls learning the Lord's Prayer and Ten Commandments and the Catechism ? 
The children seem to like their Christian lessons, especially Bible stories, and 
they like to come to the Sabbath service, and to sing Christian hymns. This 
girls' school has 49 names on the register, but the average daily attendance 
has been only about 17. While it is a pleasure to teach these girls from 
heathen homes, yet the right training of the sons of our native Christians 
seems a much more hopeful work. We hope some of them may become 
preachers and teachers, and that all learning industries will not only become 
self-supporting, but be good examples of Christian living to the heathen around 
them. 

" We have during the year met with some encouragement in our Sunday- 
school work, especially in the village of Budgav, where we have had two 
audiences on Saturday mornings in or near to the Government school-rooms. 
We have had a similar exercise with the children on Friday afternoons in the 
Mahar Wadi of Sangli. The willingness of children to learn Bible verses is en- 
couraging. While talking with a group of Government School boys at Pan- 
hala, I began to repeat the Bible verse, ' God so loved the world,' when a 
bright lad said, ' I know that verse.' He repeated it so well that I inquired 
where he had learned it. He replied, ' In the Dispensary. I saw it hanging 
there on the wall and I read and learned it.' Illustrated cards and leaflets 



INDIA— SANGLI. 1 39 

have been very useful in attracting children, and the children become a nucleus 
for gathering a crowd who listen quietly to reading or to a preaching service. 
In this work we have often had with us a native helper or a Bible-woman. I 
feel that our hope for India is largely in the children. 

" Our church Sunday-school in Sangli has been one of the most interesting 
parts of our work. We hope these dear children take to their homes and 
friends some of the truths that they learn in our church. The presence of the 
Girls' School encourages women to come, but as yet the few who come cling 
to the doorway. I find that during the year I have paid 2S visits to villages, 
mostly in the vicinity of Sangli, and some 90 visits to homes. In most of 
these visits I had the company of my daughter. Everywhere we were welcome. 
It may be sometimes from curiosity, but the women listen attentively as we 
invite them to accept of Christ as their Saviour. 

" We find most of the homes so close, and so dark, that we prefer meeting 
women on their doorsteps or near wells, or on the veranda of some school- 
house, or under a tree, where, if we begin to read or talk to some one, a large 
audience soon gathers around us. We have met with some touching incidents, 
making us feel that these women are our sisters, with hearts and sensibilities 
of womankind the world over. In one village we noticed that a woman who 
sat before us was weeping. When asked the reason for her tears, she said, 
' O it was just seeing you as mother and daughter together, so reminded me 
of my own mother who died some years ago.' The story she told of her sad 
loss gave us an opportunity to urge her to accept of Christ as her dearest 
Friend. A grandmother, said to be over ninety years old, told us that she 
had traveled every month to Pandharpur for 25 years — this journey of some 
100 miles being mostly made on foot. When I asked her why she did not 
make a part of her journey by railroad, she said, ' My god Narayan would not 
be so well pleased if I should ride.' I said to her, ' But you are too aged and 
infirm to go on foot so far. The true God is kind and merciful ; what He 
wants of us is a true heart-service.' To the question of the profit of all her 
journeys, she replied, ' O what profit ! Why should God leave me thus ? 
Why are my grandchildren dead ? Why is my son a poor Fakir, and why am 
I thus?' She said, 'The life of an aged woman is very miserable.' When 
told that it is not so if our lives honor the true God, she said, ' O how can our 
lives honor God ? No, no, as it is written in our foreheads (meaning, as is our 
fate) so everything comes to pass.' This woman mentioned Kashi (Banares) 
and seven other noted shrines that she had visited, but she added, ' We should 
not speak of it, He knows.' The poor creature seemed to take refuge in the 
thought that even sin could not remove us from God. She said, ' Our breath 
is from Him, and though we wander we are His.' Very subtle is Satan in 
perverting thought where he cannot lull it. The attendance at our women's 
prayer-meeting every Tuesday afternoon has been larger than last year. 
Some heathen women and school-girls often attend. Twice our meeting has 
been held in the girls' school-room in the village where the attendance was 
large. Schools are helpful in giving us access and influence among the people. 
Opportunities for Christian work in Sangli seem almost unlimited in schools, 
among the sick and visits to homes." 

Miss Wilder reports concerning the boys' boarding-school : 

"On the 5th of June, school reopened with an attendance of 22, which in- 
creased the following months to 30 and 36. 

"Two of these boys are less than eight years old, and two others being 
employed by Dr. Wanless, do not attend school more than one hour daily. 
Twenty-three of the boys are children of Christian parents, and of the remain- 
ing thirteen, five have been baptized on their profession of faith in Christ. 
One of these, Tatya — a Maratha boy — was an entire stranger to me. For 
weeks he was very slow to learn, then came a marked change. Annoyed to 
see younger boys ahead of him, he took hold of study in earnest. During 
vacation, while on the loom work, he recited to Amrita. Long after Tatya 
had expressed a desire to be baptized, he was kept waiting to better understand 



140 INDIA— SANGLI. 

the heart change required to become a Christian. The week finally arrived 
when he expected to be received. That week a party of boys went out to a 
neighboring field, and annoyed the farmer by pelting stones at his hut. Tatya 
seemed to especially take to heart the reproof for this. The following evening 
when walking with me, he said, ' I think I should not be baptized this Sunday.' 
When I asked why, he referred to the wrong-doing of the previous night. 

" Of the boys from heathen homes, three came from Herla. Two were soon 
followed by their fathers, who insisted on taking them home. Seeing the 
determination of his father, one of the boys, weeping bitterly, came to me to 
intercede for him. We reasoned and urged, but the man insisted, and Dadu 
sorrowfully left us. The other boy disappeared. At night we learned that he 
had taken refuge with a Christian in town. The father's claims in this case 
seemed especially strong, as he is ill and poor, with a family of little children. 
I advised Sawala to go home, but finding him intent on staying, I finally asked 
his father if he wished me to positively refuse to let Sawala remain. He 
looked thoughtful and soon left. 

" The question has been raised as to whether it is wise to take heathen boys 
to live among our Christian boys. This year we have had reason to say, May 
God send us many more boys from heathen homes ! 

" With one exception, these have not been the troublesome ones, but have 
proved rather more willing and faithful in manual work than some of our 
Christian boys. 

" One month a Brahmin boy was a pupil. He wished to eat with our boys, 
but we feared to allow this, until he should break caste for Christ's sake. 

" His regular appearance at church among Christians brought down upon 
him ridicule and abuse, and he found difficulty to get cooked food. He still 
continued to come to me until one morning, as I afterward heard, he was while 
asleep carried to the station, and sent by some Brahmin to Kolhapur. 

"The little boy Daji, whom I found in Wadi, as deserted by his mother, 
returned this year and did well in study. Dr. and Mrs. Wanless had just 
helped to nurse him through a severe illness, when one day, while I was 
absent from the bungalow, his mother came and took him away. Our utter 
dependence upon God in the getting or the keeping of a single boy, has been 
proven not alone in this case. Since October vacation seven boys have not 
returned. One of these telling me of his being persecuted for not worshiping 
idols, said : ' The people say, if your food is refused, you will do it. I an- 
swered : If you cut my throat, I will not worship idols.' 

" Dr. Wanless has helped in Sunday-school lessons, and Mr. Jolly has, 
through an interpreter, given explanation of a Bible chart. In daily recitation, 
the two higher classes have completed a study of the life of Christ. These 
lessons have helped to make very real to us the personality of Jesus. 

" Visiting. — In this work I have been greatly helped by Dayabai, a Christian 
widow. Having a knowledge of Hindustani, this woman is welcomed in 
Mohammedan homes. 

" We both greatly desire to do more of this work, but not because we find a 
ready acceptance of truth. No, the fact was expressed by Dayabai when 
alone with me one evening: she said, ' We tell them and they listen — what 
more can be said.' To feel their need and call upon God— this is their lack. 

"We do at times hear expressions showing thought. One morning in the 
Fakir's quarter, a listener in the group said : ' While we are here a desire for 
God comes into our hearts — then bad desires return. Will God take away the 
bad mind and give a good mind, if I ask Him?' This man said he comes to 
our service in the chapel. 

" In the Chambar Wadi, a man said, ' Sin is what keeps us from coming to 
God.' He gave the story of a renowned devotee who was asking alms, when 
the woman of the house, in anger, hurled a shoe at him. The old sage quietly 
picked up the shoe, and instead of taking the deed as an insult, he accepted it 
as alms, and carrying it to a river-side, began to wash it. As the dirt spots 
disappeared from the shoe, all bitter feeling fled from the old woman's heart. 
As the washing continued her heart was melted to repentance, until in grief 
she flies to the old sage. She confesses her sin, and promises to leave home 



INDIA — SANGLI. 141 

and friends to lead the life of a devotee. Now the woman did this when her 
mind was cleansed. Sin keeps us from God ; this was the man's thought. 

" On our favorite drive, we have met ant-feeders — Maharwadi women. As 
we stepped across a ploughed field to speak to them, one cautioned us about 
our steps. These women were carefully searching out spots where ants could 
be seen. Over these crevices they sprinkled a mixture of flour, sugar, and oil. 

" One paused, turned toward the setting sun, and clasping her hands together 
at her forehead, stood in the attitude of prayer. 'This is great merit,' said 
one. ' Who comes out here to feed these creatures?' 

" I have been much encouraged by the case of a merchant from Jamkundi. 
He seemed truly concerned. One morning after reading to me passages in 
John's Epistle showing the Divinity of Christ, and the necessity of believing on 
Him, the man said : ' It is done in my heart ; all that is left now is the con- 
fessing it before my friends.' After prayer, he said : 'The taking baptism is 
left, but I will, that too is as if done.' " 

Medical Work. — Dr. Wanless began the medical work here in 
December, 1889. He writes concerning the last year : 

" Next to learning the language my time has been mostly taken up 
with the medical work. I have attended the dispensary almost daily 
during the year (Sabbaths excepted), giving the hours between nine 
and twelve mostly to this work, and very frequently, an hour or two in 
the afternoons, as I was required to perform operations. 

"The dispensary at Sangli was open 223 days during the year ; the 
dispensary at Panhala 77 days. 

" The total number of new patients treated in both dispensaries was 
3,660, and the total number of attendances, 7,274. Of the whole 
number of new patients, 28 per cent, were children, 72 per cent, 
adults ; 70 per cent, were males, 30 per cent, females. According to 
caste or religion, 4 per cent, were Christians, 4 per cent. Brahmins, 37 
per cent, low-caste Hindus, 38 per cent, caste Hindus, 5 per cent. 
Jains and Buddhists, 12 per cent. Mohammedans ; 181 operations 
were performed during the year, 24 under the influence of cocaine and 
12 under chloroform; the rest were done without the aid of an 
anaesthetic, being mostly simple operations in the dispensary. 

" In addition to the work in the dispensary, 24 persons were treated 
as in-patients in the two native houses on the compound reserved for 
operation cases. Owing to these unsuitable accommodations only 
selected cases could be admitted. Most of these operations were on 
the eye. The others included one amputation of the thigh and a few 
operations upon the face and upper and lower extremities. The aver- 
age residence with us per patient was 15^ days. Included in these 
are four patients treated in the Panhala Dispensary during our stay 
there in the hot season. 

"A bath-room in the Sangli bungalow has continued to serve as an 
operating-room at times, much to the annoyance and inconvenience 
of the operator and the other occupants of the bungalow. Mrs. 
Wanless assisted me in most of these operations. 85 personal visits 
were made by me to the homes of the sick, including several of the 
highest caste families in Sangli and Miraj, and one visit to the Chief's 
palace at Kurandward. 

" Four hundred and one villages in all were represented in the dis- 



142 INDIA — SANGLI. 

pensary during the year, some of which were over ioo miles distant, a 
great many from 25 to 75 miles, the average distance being about 15 
miles. 

" Mr. Wadier, a Parsee gentleman in Bombay, has very generously 
furnished the dispensary gratuitously with all the empty bottles sold 
and given to the patients. 

" The preaching in the dispensary has been mostly done by Somaji. 
Sayad and Goomdroo, our Miraj helpers, have also preached occasion- 
ally. From half to an hour has been daily spent in preaching to and 
teaching the patients previous to the giving out of medicines. Since 
last May I have been able to take some part in these services, often 
having relieved Somaji altogether. I have esteemed this a great 
privilege after the seemingly long months of patient (?) waiting before 
I was able to take any active part in the religious work in the vernac- 
ular. "I have also appreciated the many opportunities for personal 
conversation with the patients regarding their spiritual diseases. 
Somaj and Sayad, my dispensary assistants, have been faithful in 
speaking personally with the patients, urging them to forsake their 
idols and to turn to Christ, the great Physician of souls. 

" Many hundred tracts sent gratuitously by Rev. Win. Bruce, of Sata- 
ra, were distributed among the patients. More than a hundred Gospel 
portions were sold to those who could read. Scripture verses, too, 
have been pasted on the bottles and each patient was given a Dis- 
pensary number containing a simple tract and suitable Scripture texts 
setting forth the way of life. I am glad to report that all the work of 
the dispensary was done by Christian hands. 

" As for visible spiritual results from the dispensary work there are 
few, if any. Not a few promised to give up idol worship and accept 
Christ, and some went so far as to break off their sacred beads in our 
presence and hand them to us as a token of their sincerity. One man 
after hearing the preaching said that he had already forsaken his idols, 
but when we questioned him regarding the sacred beads on his neck he 
was not so boastful. However, he said that he would throw away his 
beads when he got home. We said why not do so now. He replied, 
' I will,' and he did so, but we afterward learned that by throwing their 
beads into the water — at least the beads of this certain goddess, the 
goddess of plagues — some of the people believe they gain merit, 
hence this man's readiness to dispose of his sacred necklace to our 
satisfaction. 

"Among the patients treated on the compound have been the most 
hopeful cases spiritually. Some of them seemed to manifest a deep 
interest in the religion through which they were receiving bodily bene- 
fit. Most of them promised to give up their idols as they were led 
to see the foolishness of them, but none had the courage to confess 
Christ openly." 

Industrial Work. — One of the difficulties in Christian work in India 
has been the discrimination against native Christians in employment. 
To obviate this difficulty it was decided to supply industrial training to 
the young men and so make them such superior workmen that their 



INDIA— MIRAJ. I43 

services would be in demand. In support of offering a manual educa- 
tion the mission urged — 

1 st. Honest trained native workmen would be a strong argument for 
Christianity. 

2d. A trained Christian artisan would command higher wages than 
an untrained one, and by his honesty will be likely both to obtain con- 
stant employment and to command the respect of all patrons. 

3d. Trained Christian men would be able to earn a livelihood inde- 
pendent of the mission, and thus correct the common accusation that 
they become Christians in order to become supported. 

4th. As soon as the native Christians become self-supporting, we 
may expect a self supporting native church. 

5th. It is very important that every boy trained in the Christian 
Boys' boarding school should have some knowledge of industrial work 
both for his physical good while in the school and for his usefulness 
after leaving school. Moreover, it will make manual labor honorable 
among native Christians. 

6th. It will be the means of bringing heathen boys under Christian 
instruction, and thus become a direct evangelizing agency. 

Mr. Jolly was sent to take charge of such a course of training as 
would best meet the needs. 

The work is in its inception now, but its development will be 
watched with great interest. 

Miraj Station. 

For some time the mission has been desiring to occupy this place 
as a centre, especially of the medical work, which has thus far been 
carried on at Sangli. Miraj is considered a most important position 
because of its railway connections and large population. The railway 
runs through the city, while at Sangli the station is three miles from 
the city. Miraj is now the junction of the Kolhapur and Southern 
Marathi Railway, and is on the main line of the latter, which connects 
with railways to Bombay, Madras, and other important cities north, 
south, and east. A new railway is proposed to Pandharapur, the 
Hindu Jerusalem of the Bombay Presidency, which, if built, will give 
Miraj railways running into it from all four points of the compass ; 
and as a city it is destined to become one of the largest in the 
Southern Marathi country. Moreover, a fine site has been secured. 
It contains nearly ten acres; is situated on the border of the city; 
is a corner lot where six streets meet ; is the highest land about the 
city ; is separated from all other native compounds and houses, and 
has a frontage facing the west from which the sea breeze blows with- 
out having crossed the city, and is within ten minutes' walk of the 
city bazaar. Mr. John H. Converse, of Philadelphia, an earnest 
friend of the work, has kindly offered to bear the expense of opening 
the new station, and building and furnishing the hospital. 



144 



INDIA — KOLHAPUR STATISTICS. 



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MISSIONS AMONG THE INDIANS. 
Dakota Mission. 

Yankton Agency, South Dakota : on the Missouri River, 60 miles above Yankton ; 
station occupied in 1869; Miss Abbie L. Miller; Rev. Henry T. Selwyn ; native helpers, 
3 ; organized churches, 3 ; communicants, 324. 

FLANDREAU, South Dakota : on the Big Sioux River, 40 miles north of Sioux Falls ; 
station occupied in 1869 ; Rev. John Fast man ; churches, 1 ; communicants, 105. 

Lower Brule Agency, South Dakota : on the Missouri River, 80 miles above Yank- 
ton Agency ; station occupied in 1885 ; churches, 2 ; communicants, 131. 

Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota: 300 miles west <>f Yankton Agency ; station 
occupied in 1S86; Rev. John P. Williamson and wife; Miss Jennie B. Dickson, Miss 
Charlotte C. McCreight ; outstations, 3 ; native helpers, 3 ; no organized church ; com- 
municants, 17. 

Poplar Creek, Mont.: on the Missouri River, 70 miles west of Fort Buford ; oc- 
cupied in 1880; Rev. Edwin J. Lindsey and wife ; outstations, 2 ; native helpers, 2. 

The origin of the Dakota Mission dates back to 1835, when Rev. 
Thomas S. Williamson, M.D., Rev. J. D. Stevens, Elder A. G. 
Huggins, with their wives and two other ladies, all under appointment 
of the A. B. C. F. M., entered Minnesota, and commenced laboring 
for the Dakotas then living in that State. In the 57 years since past, 
there have always been from 2 to 6 ordained missionaries carrying on 
the work then begun ; 1 7 ministers have spent one or more years in 
this field, unitedly making about 250 years' labor, of which 90 years 
were expended by Rev. Thomas S. Williamson and Dr. Stephen R. 
Riggs. In their work they have been supported by a large number of 
assistant missionaries, and latterly by a still larger force of native 
preachers and helpers. 

As the direct outgrowth of the Dakota Mission planted in Minne- 
sota in 1835, we now have three Dakota Missions, with their work 
now located principally in South Dakota. They are : The Dakota 
Mission of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions; the Dakota 
Mission of the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions ; and the Da- 
kota Mission of the American Missionary Association. We might add 
the Mission of the Dakota Native Missionary Society, but will include 
its work in the several missions. Now in order that we may thank 
the Lord and take courage in our missionary work, we present the 
following figures, which show the present condition of these three mis- 
sions in the church line : 





Com- 


Con- 


Na- 


Na- 




muni- 


tribu- 


tive 


tive 


Churches. 


cants. 


tions. 


Preach- 
ers. 


Evan- 
gelists. 


6 


577 


$1,255 


3 


7 


10 


582 


I,8oo 


13 


1 


ion ... 7 


400 


900 


4 


12 



Presbyterian Board F. M. 
•' H. M 
American Miss'y Association 

Total 23 1,559 $3,955 20 20 

In the educational line there is also much being done by these mis- 
sions, especially by the American Missionary Association and the 
Presbyterian Board of Home Missions. 
IO 



146 INDIANS— FLANDREAU, YANKTON AGENCY. 

The mission of the Foreign Board has been weakened the past year 
by the departure of Rev. C. G. Sterling from Pine Ridge, and the Board's 
inability to find a man to fill his place. This leaves in our mission only 
two ordained missionaries, Rev. John P. Williamson and Rev. Edwin J. 
Lindsey. The assistant missionaries, besides the wives of the mis- 
sionaries, are the same as last year : Miss Dickson, Miss McCreight, 
and Miss Miller. Miss Agnes Pond has also been employed part of 
the year to assist Miss Miller. The following review will show some- 
thing of the work at each station. 

Flandreau. 

The Indians at Flandreau have been longer under missionary in- 
fluence than those of any other station under our Foreign Board. The 
most of the Indians with whom our missionaries first labored in Min- 
nesota are now at the stations occupied by the Home Board. The 
Flandreau Indians, however, are among those who received faithful 
instruction from the missionaries 40 and 50 years ago in Minnesota. 
Many of them were converted in Davenport prison, or at Camp Fort 
Thompson, 30 years ago. They made the settlement at Flandreau 23 
years ago, and immediately secured a church organization, which was 
afterwards incorporated ; and the house of worship which they now 
occupy, with the lot upon which it stands, is secured to the church by 
deed, the only instance of the kind among the Dakota Indians. The 
house has, however, become too strait for them, and they have com- 
menced raising funds to build a new temple. There are 105 com- 
municants now on the roll. Their present pastor, Rev. John East- 
man, is himself a Flandreau Indian, and has been pastor 16 years. 
He stands at the head of the community in civilization as well as 
Christianity, and under his leadership they are rapidly attaining a re- 
spectable position among their white neighbors and fellow-citizens. 
They are emphatically a church going community. The contributions 
of the church the past year were $429, a little over $4.00 a member. 

Yankton Agency. 

Presbyterians were the first denomination to preach the Gospel to 
the Yankton Sioux, who have inhabited southeastern Dakota since 
the country was first visited by the whites. Mr. H. D. Cunningham, 
a Presbyterian elder, under appointment of the A. B. C. F. M., spent 
several months with the Yanktons in 1865 and 1866. And in 1869 
the station at Yankton Agency was permanently occupied by Rev. 
John P. Williamson, and the work among the Yanktons has been 
under his charge ever since. The Yankton Agency church was or- 
ganized in March, 1871, with 18 members. In 1877 a colony went out 
and formed Hill church (n miles east) with 27 members. In 1887 
a second colony went out and formed Cedar church (14 miles west) 
with 23 members. These three churches now have a total member- 
ship of 324, of which the Agency church has 179, Hill church 108, and 
Cedar church 37. Of these members 28 were added the past year. 
Henry Tawanapin Selwyn, one of the first converts among the Yank- 
tons, studied theology with Mr. Williamson, and was ordained in 1879, 



INDIANS— LOWER BRULE AGENCY. 147 

and has been the faithful assistant of Mr. Williamson in the care of 
these churches ever since. This winter, in the absence of Mr. Will- 
iamson, he has had sole charge of the pastoral work among the Yank- 
tons. Each of the churches has a strong body of elders, who assist the 
pastor, and keep up all the regular services in the absence of a min- 
ister. The regular services in these churches are : two meetings 
every Sabbath and Sabbath-school, a weekly prayer-meeting. Also 
the Women's and the Young Men's Christian Association have weekly 
meetings. The Women's Society has been especially active the past 
year. The total contributions of the three churches the past year were 
$675, or about two dollars per member. 

A good deal of educational work has been done by the mission 
among the Yanktons. When the station was first occupied there 
was no school of any kind. Among 2,000 Indians there was not 
one who could read English, and only two were found who could 
spell out slowly their own language. Mr. Williamson immediately 
started a day-school, which has been kept up ever since. Also two 
or three native teachers have been employed at the camps during 
the winter season much of the time. Now the majority of the 
tribe under 40 can read their own language, and over two hundred 
the English. The greater part of those who read Dakota have 
learned in our schools. For their education in English a large 
Government boarding-school has latterly been built, also an Epis- 
copal boarding-school for boys, and very many are now sent away 
to boarding-schools. Owing to these other schools our day-schools 
are not so largely attended as formerly. Miss Miller, however, has 
an interesting school at the Agency, with an average attendance of 
about 16, which is an important auxiliary to the church. 

Lower Brule Agency. 

This station is about 80 miles above Yankton Agency. The 
Lower Brule Indians have been occasionally visited by our mis- 
sionaries since 1869, but the station was not occupied by us till 
1885. A Presbyterian church was organized in 1887 with 25 
members. It was called White River church. In 1891 a colony 
from this church was organized as Red Hills church (15 miles west 
of White River church) with 31 members. The two churches now 
number 131 members. Rev. Joseph Rogers, a native preacher 
from Flandreau, has been the principal laborer here, and is still 
pushing on. Rev. Henry Selwyn, Rev. John Eastman and elder 
Peter Iynduze each labored for a short time previously, and the 
work has since its initiation been under the care of Rev. Mr. 
Williamson. The embarrassment of the work at this station from 
the beginning has been the uncertain location of the Indians. 
There has been an expectation that the Indians would be removed 
in a few months to some new location ever since mission work was 
begun, and the expectation still remains. In fact, a bill for their 
relocation is now before Congress, and it is hoped it will pass this 
session. On account of this uncertainty no suitable place of worship 



I48 INDIANS — PINE RIDGE AGENCY. 

has been erected. So the worshippers have met in private houses, 
temporary shanties, and last summer in a booth erected for the 
purpose, as no house would hold them. In past years the Lower 
Brules have been feared as one of the fiercest of the Sioux bands. 
They are certainly active and impulsive, and if their powers are 
fully consecrated, will become valuable soldiers of Christ. 

Pine Ridge Agency' 

This station is in the southwest corner of South Dakota, nearly 
south of the Black Hills, which are visible from the surrounding 
ridges. This place was the centre of the last winter's Indian 
troubles. The effects are still visible, not only in the numerous 
earthworks, but also in the deadness of the people to spiritual 
things. Our mission here dates back to 1886, when Rev. Charles 
G. Sterling was appointed to this field. He located at the Agency, 
and afterwards opened outstations successively at Porcupine, While 
Clay, Wounded Knee, and the Cheyenne Camp. Mr. Sterling left 
the field about a year ago. Owing to the inability to secure a new 
missionary it was thought best for Mr. Williamson to remove here 
for a time at least, and he came over in November, and he has since 
occupied the station at the Agency, and visited the outstations as 
he was able. The church work among these Indians is not en- 
couraging at present. The effect of the disturbances has been to 
engross their minds with other thoughts, and draw them away from 
religion. But here are 5,000 souls for whom Christ eame to earth, 
and we must not give them over to delusion. 

At the Agency station the church had been closed most of the 
summer. Mr. Williamson immediately commenced regular services : 
two Indian services and one English, besides Sabbath-school and a 
Thursday evening lecture in Indian. Also an address to the children 
at the Government boarding-school on Tuesday evening. The av- 
erage attendance at all the Indian meetings has been 15, and at the 
English meeting 22. The Sabbath-school has averaged 25. One 
Indian family has made public profession and been baptized — 
Captain Thunder Bear and wife and four children. This man is 
only here temporarily as captain of the Agency police. He lives 
15 miles away. The great difficulty in work for permanent results 
at this Agency station is that there is no permanent population to 
work upon. The Agency policy here is to have all the Indians 
locate at a distance from the Agency. So, although there may be 
an average of 300 Indians living within a mile of the church, they 
are either workmen, only temporarily here, or vagabonds. This 
state of affairs increases the importance of the work at the out- 
stations. 

Porcupine is the most hopeful outstation we have here. It was 
opened by Miss Dickson and Miss McCreight in 1888, and they 
have labored faithfully and without intermission ever since, hence 
the success. They have a congregation of 20 or 30 regular church- 
goers, which cannot be said of any other station on this reservation. 



INDIANS — POPLAR CREEK. I49 

Three have made a profession during the past year, making eight 
who have publicly taken Christian vows at Porcupine. 

At Wounded Knee outstation Edward H. Weston, a helper from 
Flandreau, has with his wife labored faithfully since last October. 
He has both taught school and held services. There are only two 
or three families who can be relied upon to attend. For a few 
weeks the school and meetings were crowded, then they became 
engaged in dances and other things, and nearly all dropped off. 

At White Clay station no regular work has been done since the 
disturbance of last year. The place is 25 miles north of the Agency, 
on the road to the Bad Lands, where the hostiles were located. 
Rev. Louis Mazawakinyama, our native helper there, was compelled 
to leave, and afterwards returned to his home at Sisseton Agency. 
The mission buildings were all burned. A number of the attendants 
have moved elsewhere, and some doubtless had their hearts turned. 
Mr. Williamson has lately visited the place, and finds a number 
desirous of having mission work renewed, and the Mission is 
desirous of doing so as soon as arrangements ean be made for a 
helper and a house. 

The outstation a't Cheyenne Camp, in the neighborhood of White 
Clay, has also been virtually abandoned, no work being done. The 
Cheyenne Indians, among whom the station was established, have 
been removed to Montana. A little log-cabin, for which Mr. 
Sterling paid $20, is all that remains on the ground. About a 
dozen families of Cheyennes remain on this reservation, but are 
scattered. 

No church has been organized on the Pine Ridge field as yet. 
There are about 17 who have made public profession, but they are 
scattered for 50 miles, and the love of some has waxed cold. The 
best nucleus is at Porcupine, where it is hoped a church may be 
regularly organized before a great while. 

Poplar Creek. 

This station, among the Dakotas in Montana, was first occupied 
by Rev. George W. Wood, Jr., in 1880, who remained there until 
1890. It has been occupied now for two years by Rev. Edwin J. 
Lindsey and wife. At one time Rev. Mr. Wood occupied Wolf 
Point (25 miles west of Poplar Creek), and Rev. M. E. Chapin, 
Poplar Creek, and each was considered a station. Now Wolf 
Point is occupied by a native helper under Mr. Lindsey, and the 
field being one it is only an outstation to Poplar Creek. Another 
outstation is Deer Tail (6 miles east). 

In previous years the work at this station has been hindered by 
various causes. One principal embarrassment was the movable 
state of the Indians. This now has passed by, and the Indians are 
fairly in a settled state. Another obstacle has been the evil 
influences of the surrounding white population. This has some- 
what abated, but not entirely. There is probably more drinking 
by these Indians than by any other Sioux, and apparently little 



150 INDIANS— NEZ PERCES. 

effort by Government officials to put a stop to the traffic in whiskey. 
The Indian dances, as elsewhere, are a continual hindrance. Yet 
the work of the mission has been carried on faithfully, and a regular 
attendance on worship is being secured. And especially at Deer Tail 
the work promises speedy results in a turning to the Lord. 

Statistics of the Dakota Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 2 

Single lady missionaries 3 

Married lady missionaries 2 

Ordained natives 3 

Native assistants and teachers 7 

Churches 6 

Communicants 5gi 

Added during the year 110 

Boys in boarding-schools 23 

Girls in boarding-schools 21 

Boys in day-schools 100 

Girls in day-schools 99 

Total number of schools 6 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 269 

Student for the ministry '..... 1 

Amount of contributions $1,465.86 



The Nez Perce Mission. 

Established 1838. Kamiah, Idaho : Miss Sue L. McBeth ; temporarily at Mount Idaho. 

Lapwai : Miss Kate C. McBeth. 

Native ministers : Rev. Robert Williams, Kamiah / Rev. James Hays, Umatilla ; 
Rev. Peter Lindsley, Lapwai ; and Rev. Enoch Pond, Meadow Creek. Evangelist, Rev. 
James Hines. Licentiates, Robert Parsons, Moses Montieth, and Caleb McAfee, 
Kamiah. 

The work among the Nez Perces during the past year has grown in 
the confidence of its friends and supporters. 

The Women's Board of the North Pacific have become especially 
interested in the work of the Misses McBeth, and, considering that 
there is always more or less local prejudice against Indians on the 
part of citizens, the new interest and effort thus awakened may be 
expected to bring a wholesome leaven into all the churches of Idaho, 
Washington, and Oregon. 

An auspicious fact connected with the work done among the Nez 
Perces, especially at Fort Lapwai, is the thorough establishment and 
improved management of the Government School under the influence 
of the present agent and those who are called to give instruction. 
The school is very large (150 pupils), and is thoroughly organized. 

As in former years, Miss Sue L. McBeth has continued her work of 
theological education at Mount Idaho. Her instruction is given en- 
tirely in the vernacular, and those who have been trained under her 
care are placed by the Presbytery over the small Indian congregations 
throughout the reservation. 

There has been no marked success during the year. But 21 per- 
sons have been added to the churches, leaving a present membership 



INDIANS — SENECAS. 151 

of 796.* The churches with which these native Christians are con- 
nected are eight in number; Kamiah (two churches). Lapwai, Spo- 
kane River, Umatilla, Wellpinit, North Foik, and Meadow Creek. 
There are 7 young men studying for the ministry under the care of 
Miss S. L. McBeth. The number of pupils in Sabbath-schools is 377. 
These people are by no means wholly dependent on the Board for the 
support of their Christian work, as the report shows total contribu- 
tions of $466. Of this amount $50 was raised by the Lapwai 
Women's Missionary Society for repairs on the church. Two of the 
native pastors, namely, Revs. Robert Williams and James Hays, 
and three licentiates, Robert Parsons, Moses Montieth, and Caleb 
McAtee, are supported by the Women's Board of Northern New 
York, the others by the Assembly's Board. Miss S. L. McBeth at 
Mount Idaho has been assisted by Mrs. C. Shearer. 

Miss K. C. McBeth has devoted her time to house visitation, Sun- 
day-school instruction, etc. As no man has been employed by the 
Board at either of these stations, the labors and influence of these two 
sisters has been the sole reliance for religious instruction, encourage- 
ment, restraint, and general edification to the people of Kamiah, Lap- 
wai, and adjacent outstations. The time may come at an early day 
when, with the division of land in severalty and the sale of portions 
to white settlers, the opportunities for doing good to the Nez Perces 
will be greatly embarrassed and restricted ; but while the opportuni- 
ties of the present continue, the prayer and sympathy and generous 
support of the Church should be given to this good work. 

Statistics of the Nez Perce Mission. 

Female missionaries 2 

Ordained natives 5 

Licentiates 3 

Native teachers 9 

Churches 8 

* Communicants 796 

Added during the year 21 

Students for the ministry 7 

Pupils in Sabbath-school 377 

Contributions $466.00 

*The reports being incomplete, the number of communicants of last year 
is given. 

Seneca Mission. 

Alleghany : Alleghany Reservation, Western New York ; Rev. M. F. Trippe and 
Rev. William Hall and their wives; seven native assistants. 

Substations : on Tonawanda, Tuscarora, and Cornplanter Reservations. 

Upper Cattaraugus : Cattaraugus Reservation, Western New York ; mission be- 
gun, 1811 ; transferred to the Board, 1870; Rev. George Runciman and wife. 

The Chippewa, Omaha, Sac and Fox Missions have been transferred to the Board 
of Home Missions. 

The Seneca Mission has been more thoroughly organized during 
the past year than ever before, and it is now in a very harmonious 
condition. The work of Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Van Valkenburg, who 



152 INDIANS — SENECAS. 

for several years have superintended the Thomas Orphan Asylum, has 
been terminated. They have had under their care about one hundred 
Indian youth, who constituted the main body of the Sunday-school on 
the Cattaraugus Reservation. The instruction and influence of Mrs. 
Van Valkenburg have been most satisfactory. Mr. and Mrs. Hooker 
have been appointed to take charge of the institution. There is rea- 
son to believe that the new auspices under which the Asylum will be 
conducted will still be favorable to the exertion of religious influence. 

The Alleghany Reservation. 

Mr. Trippe's work on the Alleghany and Tuscarora Reservations, 
together with an oversight of the Tonawanda Reservation, has been 
carried on with the same regularity as in the past ; and although his 
report does not speak of any great ingatherings or marked results of 
any kind, yet it shows that faithful work has been done, and that a 
general influence for good has been kept alive over his widely-extended 
field. The self-denying labor of traveling among the Indians, and 
living much of the time upon their low grade of life as to food and 
lodging, has been cheerfully met by Mr. Trippe, and to some extent 
his wife has rendered faithful service among the women. 

Noticeable in the continued history of the Seneca Mission is the 
persevering labor of Rev. William Hall, who has labored most of the 
time among the Seneca Indians since the year 1834, or about fifty- 
eight years. The recent report says that Mr. Hall has preached almost 
every Sabbath at Jamiesontown. 

The Indians have been more or less disturbed in feeling during the 
last year, as heretofore, by the political operations of men anxious to 
get possession of their land, especially about Salamanca ; nevertheless 
they have given good attention, as a rule, to the preaching of the 
Word. The corner-stone of a new church was laid at Onoville during 
the year, and the people are showing a good deal of zeal in the erec- 
tion of their church. At Cold Spring, a centre of pagan influence, 
regular services have been sustained every Sabbath by the Christian 
Indians from neighboring villages. Meetings have been held at Horse 
Shoe, a destitute village, between Cattaraugus and Salamanca, where 
one family has been received into the church. 

Cattaraugus Reservation. 

Mr. Runciman has held three services on almost every Sabbath, and 
spent much time in house-to-house visitation. The church is more 
united than it has been for many years. The sewing society has con- 
tinued in a flourishing condition. Two services on each Sabbath of 
the year have been maintained at what is known as " No. 1 School- 
House," and they have been often of the deepest interest. At a little 
outstation, known as Pine Woods, services have been held during the 
year, and thirteen persons have taken a stand for Christ. This station 
suffers from its nearness to Gowanda, where, between intoxicating 
spirits and a low state of morals, a baneful influence extends to the 
Indians. At New Town, another little settlement, services have often 
been attended by sixty persons, not one of whom was a Christian. 



INDIAN'S— STATISTICS OF SENECA MISSION. I 53 

Yet these people, who probably would call themselves pagan, have 
taken part in the singing, and have shown an evident understanding 
of the truth. Regular services have been held at Cornplanter Reser- 
vation during the year, with no very manifest results, but at the same 
time a regular attendance and a degree of interest. 

Tonaxuanda and Tuscarora. 

The church at Tonawanda is in a prosperous condition. Services 
have been held every Sabbath during the year, and a mid-week prayer- 
meeting, both well attended. The ladies' sewing society has raised 
about $50 for repairs on the church. Rev. John McMasters has 
been employed to preach to these people on two Sabbaths of each 
month. At Tuscarora the church has been greatly blessed. For 
months the congregation has shown a growing interest and a tender 
spirit. A prayer-meeting has been held every week. The people are 
determined to build a new chapel at an early day. 

The mission expresses its gratitude to Mr. Samuel B. Schieffelin, of 
New York City, for his gift of valuable hymn-books and other books 
in the English language : also to Capt. R. H. Pratt, superintendent of 
the Indian School at Carlisle, for his kindness in assuming the support 
and oversight of twenty Indian children of the Seneca tribes; also to 
Miss Clara F. Guernsey, of Rochester, for her interest in the mission 
work ; and last, but not least, to Rev. W. S. Hubbell, D.D., of Buffalo, 
for his untiring interest and effort in behalf of the rights of the Seneca 
Indians. 

Statistics of the Seneca Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 3 

Married female missionaries 3 

Native helpers 7 

Churches 6 

Communicants 382 

Added during the year 47 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 392 

Contributions $335.oo 



MISSIONS IN JAPAN. 
Eastern Japan Mission. 

Yokohama : on the bay, a few miles below Tokyo ; mission begun, 1859; laborers — 
Dr. and Mrs. James C. Hepburn and Miss Etta W. Case. 

TOKYO: the capital of Japan; station occupied. 1869; laborers — Rev. Messrs David 
Thompson, D.D., William Imbrie, D.D., George Wm. Knox, D. D., James M. McCau- 
ley, D.D., H. M. Landis, and their wives ; Dr. and Mrs. D. B. McCartee, Rev. Theodore 
M. MacNair, Rev. George P. Pierson, Prof, and Mrs. J. C. Ballagh, Mrs. Maria T. True, 
Miss Isabella A Leete, Miss Kate C. Youngman, Miss S. C. Smith, Miss A. K. Davis, 
Miss Carrie T. Alexander, Miss Annie R. West, Miss Annie P. Ballagh, Miss Bessie P. 
Milliken, Miss C. H. Rose, Miss Emma Hays, Miss Lily Murray, and Miss Sarah 
Gardner. 

In (his country: Miss Annie R. West, Mrs. M. T. True. 

Mission work in Japan continues to feel the reaction against foreign 
influence which set in a year or two since. The consensus of opinion 
in mission circles, however, is that a better day has dawned, and that 
the pendulum is swinging back toward the point from which the de- 
cadence began. Even in the Capital, where the hostility has been 
most intense, it is believed that the anti-Christian feeling has almost dis- 
appeared, while the anti-foreign feeling has sensibly abated. Away from 
Tokyo, where neither the anti-Christian nor anti-foreign influence was 
so keenly felt, the improvement within the past year has been marked. 
The only exception noted is along the west coast where Buddhism 
still retains a firm hold upon the people, and where antagonism seems 
for the time to be increasingly bitter. It is recorded also with grati- 
tude that the progress of rationalism, so disturbing during the past few 
years, has met with a decided check, while the discussions which it 
forced upon the Church in Japan have brought to public notice the 
essential truths of Christianity as never before. The tone of mission 
letters and reports is decidedly more encouraging, and the general 
opinion is that the outlook is growing steadily brighter. The last re- 
port of '' The Council of Missions, co-operating with the Church of 
Christ in Japan," which includes our own missions in that Empire, has 
the following : 

" There have been discouragements. General apathy has in various places 
turned to quiet but determined opposition. In some cases the opposition has 
been outspoken and even violent. Scholars have been forbidden to attend 
school. Preaching has been interrupted by Buddhist priests and rude stu- 
dents. Noisy crowds have interfered night after night. The confession of 
Christ has been at the price of daily bread. 

" But there has been much also to encourage. From many places the reports 
are full of cheering news. The gospel has been preached in regions where it 
had been known only in name. Opportunities open in almost every direction ; 
and workers are pressed to the utmost limits of their ability. In the principal 
town of one prefecture public sentiment a few years ago was firmly set against 
Christianity ; now all this is changed. There are places where there is a re- 
spect, even a reverence felt for Christianity. Churches have been organized ; 
chapels dedicated ; congregations become self-supporting ; and old church 
quarrels healed." 



156 EAST JAPAN— YOKOHAMA. 

The meeting of the Synod last November was marked by a devout 
spirit, harmonious co-operation, and an aggressive missionary purpose. 

Educational. 

Perhaps the most notable event in connection with this department 
of work during the past year is the resignation of Dr. Hepburn as 
President of the Meiji Gaku-in, and the inauguration of Rev. K. Ibuka 
as his successor. The inauguration took place in the presence of the 
Synod. In handing over the office to his successor Dr. Hepburn, the 
venerable pioneer of mission work in Japan, spoke as follows : 

" In taking this step we are aware that it is one of peculiar interest in the 
history of this Institution, as well as a radical departure from old lines. From 
a very small beginning as an elementary day-school in Yokohama, for teach- 
ing English only, it has passed through various changes and stages of progress, 
in accordance with the need of more enlarged work, until it has grown to its 
present proportions of a well-equipped High School or College. It has been 
from the first, and until recently necessarily, for the most part under foreign 
management and instruction. But it is now thought that the time has come 
when the Institution may be to a greater extent under the management and 
instruction of educated and competent Japanese. 

"This, it is believed, is a step in the right direction, one that will enhance 
its influence among the Japanese people, and promote its usefulness. It is also 
a step towards the goal which foreign teachers have ever aimed at, and hoped 
to reach in their work — that of preparing the Japanese Christians to take over, 
and carry on the great work of evangelizing the nation, for which we for- 
eigners have come to this country ; to the time, indeed, when there will be no 
further need of foreign aid of any kind. This, from the present outlook, and 
judging from the past history of Christian work in this country and from the 
disposition of the Japanese people, we have every reason to expect will be at 
no distant day." 

In responding, after a touching tribute to Dr. Hepburn, and refer- 
ence to the present condition of Japan, Mr. Ibuka insisted on three 
points as essential to a thorough-going education. These have been 
condensed as follows : 

" (1). The end of education is not mere material gain. This is an idea prev- 
alent in Japan to-day. Parents send their sons to school simply that they may 
increase their commercial value. They invest in education as they invest in 
real estate. That certainly is not the true end of education. The true end of 
education is the making of men. (2). Education should be thorough ; what- 
ever the special line followed may be, the work done should be done thor- 
oughly. Precisely this is the distinguishing mark of the modern scientific 
method. (3). Education must be ethical. The question then arises, What 
ethics shall be inculcated? Confucian ethics? or Christian ethics? It is not to 
be denied that there is an ethical element in Confucianism. Confucianism 
teaches righteousness and love. But Christianity does more than that. It 
teaches what is the true fountain of righteousness and of love — that they are in 
God. To love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and all thy strength, and 
thy neighbor as thyself. That is Christian ethics. That is the moral founda- 
tion of a true education — the ethics which are taught in the Scriptures and ex- 
emplified in Jesus Christ." 

The investing of a Japanese with such important responsibility is in 
the line of what has been already done by some of the large mission 
Boards operating in Japan, notably the American Board, whose col- 
lege (Doshisha) at Kyoto attained such wonderful celebrity under Mr. 



EAST JAPAN — TOKYO. 157 

Neesima. The same is true of the Theological School of the Re- 
formed Church at Nagasaki, which is presided over by a Japanese. 

In the Theological Department, forty-three students were enrolled. 
The past year is regarded as the best in all the history of the institu- 
tion. " Work has been larger in quantity, better in quality, and per- 
formed in an excellent spirit." Many of the students have been en- 
gaged in Sunday-schools, preaching services, and prayer-meetings in 
various parts of the city. 

The number in the Academic Department is seventy-seven, of 
whom forty-four are Christians. Twenty-one young men were grad- 
uated, the largest number in any one year. "The Bible is faithfully 
taught to all the classes for thirty minutes every morning, and almost 
without exception the students have been faithful and earnest in its 
study." 

Of the Joshi Gaku-in, our girls' seminary in Tokyo, the ladies in 
charge furnish the following facts : "The past year has been a pros- 
perous one at the Joshi Gaku-in } if we consider the quality of the work 
done by the pupils, but the numbers have been not as large as could 
have been desired. The number of pupils at the opening of the 
school year in September was one hundred and eight. Last May the 
new and commodious chapel was finished and our first commence- 
ment was held in June. In the graduating class there were four who 
finished the course both in English and Japanese, and one who fin- 
ished in Japanese only. Four are engaged in school work and one is 
studying for a physician." 

The girls are all regular attendants at church and Sunday-school, 
helping in eleven different churches where some are teachers, others 
lead in singing, and still others play the organs. The Christian organ- 
izations of the institution have been the means of good to the girls 
themselves and to others through them. These organizations recently 
united their efforts in giving the proceeds, which amounted to 120 Yen, 
of the sale of their own handiwork and of a concert, to the Nagoya 
earthquake sufferers, and to one of the Tokyo churches which some 
of them attend. 

The ladies connected with this institution, in addition to their regu- 
lar duties in the school, devoted a large amount of time to various 
kinds of evangelistic work. 

Miss Alexander, who has been assisted during the year by Miss 
Leete in the absence of Miss West, reports as follows concerning the 
Women's Bible Institute : 

" This has been a prosperous year for this department of our work. The 
students in attendance now number thirty. Among these several are day 
pupils and self-supporting. Those living in the Institute are for the most part 
beneficiaries. Some are wholly, some are partially supported by the scholar- 
ship fund. The larger part receive only their food. In this way we have 
been able to add to the resident students above the number provided for by 
the estimates for scholarships. The Christian character and faithfulness of 
the students of the Bible Institute cannot be too highly commended. They 
live together in harmony and mutual helpfulness, carrying on all the domestic 
work of the household in a most satisfactory manner. As students they have 
proved themselves in every case to be earnest and diligent. During the school 



I 58 EAST JAPAN — TOKYO. 

year thirteen weekly meetings for women and children have been sustained in 
different parts of Tokyo, and its neighborhood. The aggregate attendance at 
these meetings has been about four hundred and fifty souls. In April, and 
during the summer months, these meetings were kept up by the students of 
the first year, while those of the second and third years were at work in ten 
different stations in the country. These stations were occupied almost without 
exception at the invitation of the pastor or helper in charge, and most sat- 
isfactory reports of efforts of the women to break down prejudice and lead 
both men and women to a knowledge of the truth, have come to us from every 
place where they have been permitted to work." 

Miss Alexander reports that what has been known as the Dai 
Machi school, owned by Mr. Okami, has suffered reverses during the 
past year, a rival school having been opened in the immediate neigh- 
borhood in which a four years' course in English is taught at lower 
rates of tuition than those charged by Mr. Okami. Miss Alexander 
has continued to conduct the religious instruction in this school dur- 
ing the year. 

The Shinagawa School, superintended by Miss Alexander, having 
outgrown its accommodations, has moved into a new and commodious 
building. Ninety- eight pupils were enrolled. The teachers are re- 
ferred to as earnest Christians. Religious instruction occupied a 
prominent place in the curriculum. 

The Ai Ai-Gakko, referred to in last year's report as founded and 
conducted by a converted soldier, has received a good deal of atten- 
tion from the Dai Machi ladies. A new and more desirable school- 
room has been occupied during the year in which preaching services 
are regularly held. 

Mrs. McCauley has continued to superintend the Shiba Keimo 
Gakko, or common school. One hundred and seventy pupils were 
in attendance, of whom one hundred and sixty paid a small tuition 
fee. One hour daily is devoted to religious instruction, and all are 
expected to attend the Sunday-school. Eighteen of the pupils are chil- 
dren of Christian parents, and two of them have united with the 
church during the year. In connection with this work eight of the 
parents have been baptized. The Bible-woman who is employed as 
a teacher in the school has devoted a good deal of time to house-to- 
house visitation. The Sunday-school has contributed about eighty 
cents per month, which has been devoted to furnishing Bibles, tracts, 
etc., to the Charity Hospital and a country preaching station. The 
five native teachers employed are Christians. During part of the year 
a meeting was held in the evening for policemen, and others who 
chose to attend. 

Miss Youngman reports as follows concerning the work under her 
care : 

"The work under my care consists of the Uyeno Mission at 21 Hirokoji 
Machi, the Kamajima Mission near Jizobashi, the Keimo primary school at 
Nos. 4 and 5 Shinsakaicho, open-air meetings in Uyeno Park and near Mon- 
zeki Temple, together with women's Bible-classes in Hogo and Shinsaka 
churches, a prayer-meeting on Wednesday afternoons at No. 6 Tsukiji, for 
evangelistic work and workers, especially in Tokyo, a children's society, sing- 
ing classes, organ teaching, sewing-school, and all the various kinds of work 
carried on at No. 6 Tsukiji." 



EAST JAPAN — YOKOHAMA. I 59 

The mission reports that these several branches of work have pros- 
pered under the direction of Miss Youngman. The open-air preach- 
ing conducted by our missionaries and others has been productive of 
good results. The magic-lantern has rendered good service, in illus- 
trating lessons in Old Testament history and in the life of Christ. A 
number of persons had professed their faith in Christ, and others had 
applied for admission ; the number, however, is not stated. 

The Sumiyoshicho Gakko in Yokohama has continued under the 
superintendence of Miss Case. Organized but nine years ago, it has 
steadily increased until last year it was necessary to occupy part of 
the church building to accommodate the pupils. The total enrollment 
for the year was 309. Nine native teachers were employed, six of 
whom were Christians. Twenty-two pupils completed the course in 
the preparatory department during the year. A domestic, ox indus- 
trial class, was organized for the women in the church and neighbor- 
hood in which foreign and Japanese sewing, knitting, and various 
kinds of fancy-work were taught, and the meetings were closed with a 
Bible lesson. The average attendance was about forty. With the 
consent of the mission, Miss Case has been teaching in the Omatsu 
Government school, where there was an excellent opening for Chris- 
tian work. In the Sumiyoshicho Sunday-school the average attend- 
ance was one hundred and thirty. Miss Case also superintends a 
Sabbath-school in Homoko, held in a private house in that village. 
Sixty scholars were enrolled. In this connection it ought to be men- 
tioned that Mrs. Hepburn, notwithstanding feeble health and advanc- 
ing years, has continued to lend a helping hand according to the 
measure of her strength. 

Concerning the work in Sapporo Miss Smith writes : 

"As to our work in Sapporo I can report it as being in a prosperous condi- 
tion. Our school has never been so well equipped for work as now. The en- 
largement of our school building, so much needed, and completed the first of 
September, gives us two good recitation-rooms, the first we have ever had, 
and an equally necessary addition to our dormitory. A new organ just 
arrived supplies a long-felt need in the music department. We have secured 
new pupils this year; but having the same difficulty to contend with as is felt 
in other schools, the inability to retain the majority of the pupils any length 
of time, the number of attendants remains the same as usual, between sixty 
and seventy of all classes." 

Miss Smith records with gratitude a growing interest on the part of 
the girls in her Bible-class in the subject of religion. She superin- 
tends three Sabbath-schools with a total attendance of about one hun- 
dred pupils. 

Evangelistic. 

The educational work in this mission is so thoroughly evangelistic, 
and the evangelistic is so intimately connected with the educational, 
that it is difficult to draw the line between the two. The professors 
in the Meiji Gaku-in all hold themselves responsible for some phase 
of evangelistic work, while the ladies of our various schools devote a 
large amount of time to such work as Sunday-schools, Bible-classes, 
women's meetings, and kindred efforts. 



l6o EAST JAPAN — TOKYO. 

Dr. Imbrie reports the evangelistic work committed to his care as 
exhibiting signs of promise, especially that in the Hokkaido, where a 
number have been baptized. Mr. MacNair was also encouraged in 
the Province of Shinshu, where he purposes making repeated visits to 
preach the Gospel. Dr. Thompson has devoted his time mainly to 
the churches and stations within the bounds of the Second Presbytery, 
which required frequent journeys into the country. He has also 
preached in Kanda, where a day-school and Sunday-school under the 
care of Mrs. Thompson are carried on. The work in Chiba, reported 
last year as under the care of Mr. Pierson, was continued by him 
during part of the year. Mr. Pierson writes, " We have had excellent 
workers in Chiba, and a blessing has followed our efforts. A special 
effort was made to meet the student class, and we have encouraging 
evidence thai it was not fruitless." Miss Davis and Miss Milliken 
each spent part of the year at Takata, superintending school and 
evangelistic work. Of the school Miss Milliken writes : 

" This school has thirty pupils, more than half of whom are Christians. It 
continues to encounter lively opposition from the Buddhists, but is warmly 
supported by the Christians. The Japanese teachers practically give their 
services gratis. Pupils from the school teach in the church Sabbath-school 
and in a Sunday-school recently opened in Kasuga Machi. A Bible-woman, 
one of the former pupils of the Joshi Gaku-in, came in September. She visits 
among the women, has classes for Bible instruction in two different neighbor- 
hoods, and has opened a children's meeting in Naoetsu." 

The prolonged visits of ladies from the Joshi Gaku-in to Takata 
have done much to strengthen the hands of the Japanese workers in 
that place, and to stimulate to Christian effort. 

Dr. Hepburn has continued to instruct a large Bible-class in the 
Sumiyoshiche church, where an admirable opportunity has been af- 
forded for the preaching of the Word. The church building, the best 
thus far erected in Japan, for which Dr. and Mrs. Hepburn furnished 
or procured the necessary funds without drawing on the mission 
treasury, has been dedicated to the worship of God free from debt. 
The building is a modern structure built of brick and stone in the 
Western style of church architecture, and occupies a commanding 
position in Yokohama. Dr. Hepburn has spared no pains to make 
this Christian church a lighthouse in the great commercial city of the 
Empire. It is a worthy monument to the devotion and fidelity of the 
noble pioneer who first published the Gospel in Japan. 

Literary Work. 

Dr. Hepburn has completed his Bible Dictionary in Japanese, and 
is now seeing it through the press. This book, prepared with the care 
characteristic of this veteran missionary, will be a valuable addition to 
the Christian literature of Japan. Dr. McCartee, in addition to the in- 
struction of Bible-classes, has devoted a good deal of time to the writ- 
ing, translating, and distributing of Christian tracts. Dr. Imbrie, in 
connection with his lectures in the Seminary on the Epistles to the 
Philippians and Galatians, has been preparing a commentary on the 
latter which he hopes to publish soon. Mr. Pierson continued to edit 



WEST JAPAN. 161 

the editorial department of The Monthly Evangelist, a religious paper 
which is intended to meet a felt want in the Japanese Church. 

The mission letter, from the pen of Dr. Thompson, accompanying 
the annual reports contains the following paragraph, which ought to 
challenge attention, and stimulate to earnest prayer in behalf of 
Japan : 

"When we compare the available statistics of the whole Church, contained 
in the Fifteenth Report of the Council of Missions, we find but a small in- 
crease of 350 members in our whole church, while the same report reveals the 
fact that two Presbyteries and several large churches have actually decreased 
in the number of reported members. This retrograde movement may go far- 
ther when the rolls of all the churches are revised and purged of unworthy 
members. Such a state of things is calculated to cause us anxiety, and we 
should diligently seek the causes in order to their ultimate removal." 

Statistics of Eastern Japan. 

Ordained missionaries 7 

Medical missionaries • • 2 

Lay missionary 1 

Married lady missionaries 7 

Single lady missionaries 14 

Meiji Gakuin (Theological Department) 43 

Meiji Gakuin (Academic Department) 77 

Evangelistic Training-school 18 

Boarding-schools 2 

Girls in boarding-schools 173 

Day-schools . ... 10 

Pupils in day-schools I ,04 I 

Total number of pupils 1.291 

(■Pupils in Sabbath-school 7 2 ° 

Statistics of the Church of Christ in Japan. 

Outstations 9 1 

Churches 73 

Communicants n,3 2 7 

Added during the year 844 

Japanese ministers 46 

Japanese licentiates 87 

Contributions $11,972 42 

Of the above summary about one-half may be fairly- 
credited to the Presbyterian Church (North), as it fur- 
nishes about half the missionaries and half the funds 
provided by the foreign missionary societies co-operating 
with the United Church, 
t Last year's report. 

West Japan Mission. 

Kanazawa : on the west coast of the main island, about 180 miles northwest of Tokyo ; 
station occupied, 1879 ; Rev. Messrs. Thomas C. Winn, Marshall C. Hayes, A. G. Tay- 
lor, and their wi"es; Miss Mary K. Ilesser, Miss F. E. Porter, Mrs. L. M. Naylor, Mi^s 
Gertrude L. Bigelow, Miss Kate Shaw ; 3 outstations ; 2 ordained .natives ; 4 native 
licentiates ; 5 helpers and teachers. 

r Osaka: a seaport on the main island, about twenty miles from Hiogo ; station occu- 
pied, 1881; Rev. Messrs. Thomas T. Alexander, B. C. Haworth, George E. Woodhull, 
and their wives ; Miss Ann Eliza Garvin, Miss Alice R. Haworth, Miss M. E, McGuire ; 
7 outstations ; 3 ordained native preachers ; 8 native licentiates ; 3 Bible-women ; 8 
teachers and helpers. 

I I 



1 62 WEST JAPAN. 

Hiroshima: on the Inland Sea; station occupied, 18S7 ; Rev. Arthur V. Bryan, and 
Rev. and Mrs. S. F. Curtis ; 2 outstat'ons ; 1 ordained native preacher ; 2 native licen- 
tiates ; 2 Bible-women ; 1 native teacher. 

Kyoto: station occupied, 1890; Rev. Messrs. J. B. Porter, John P. Hearst, Ph.D., 
and their wives ; 3 oidained native preachers ; 1 native licentiate ; 2 Bible-women ; 1 
native teacher. 

Yamagtjchi : station occupied, i8?t ; Rev. and Mrs. J. B. Ayres, Rev. and Mrs. J. 
W. Doughty, and Miss M. Nellie Cuthbert ; 12 outstations ; 3 ordained native preachers ; 
5 native licentiates ; 1 Bible-woman. 

Fukui : station occupied, i8gr ; Rev. and Mrs. G. W. Fulton ; 1 outstation ; 2 native 
licentiate preachers ; 1 Bible-woman. 

Toyama : station occupied, tS^i ; missionary laborers, Rev. and Mrs. J. M. Leonard ; 
1 ordained native ; 1 native licentiate ; 2 Bible-women. 

In this country : Miss Mary K. Hesser and Miss Helen S. Loveland. 

In the West Japan Mission the year has passed without any spe- 
cial revival to mark the evangelistic work, but in all departments of 
rehgious labor there has been a steady growth. In spite of the fact 
that the year opened gloomily, and with many forebodings of ill, 
the statistics sho^v that the work of the year exceeds that of other 
years. The report of the mission closes with the following signifi- 
cant words : <l There is something which the statistics cannot show — 
a feeling of strength, an undercurrent of assurance among the native 
Christians that is most hopeful. It is not enthusiasm, and yet it is 
as far as possible from apathy and indifference. Opposition has 
been dogged and sullen in some places and violent in others, but it 
has been and is present everywhere. We cannot rent a preaching 
place without trouble. Disturbance at meetings, stone-throwing, 
and the like, are found at times almost everywhere, but usually after 
the first attack at any particular place the police afford tolerably 
adequate protection. Satan uses his old weapons, and the Buddhist 
priests here have not yet learned that physical opposition cannot 
overthrow a spiritual gospel." 

The health of the missionaries has not been as good as usual. 
Several members of the mission have been temporarily laid aside 
from work, while others have suffered more or less, but not so as 
to seriously interfere with their labors. Miss Loveland, owing 
to continued ill health, has been compelled to drop her work and 
return to the United States. Miss Hesser, having completed her 
term of service on the field, has returned to America for a much- 
needed rest and change. Mrs. Bryan, after a faithful missionary life 
of nine years, died at her home in this country May 19th. Her 
husband, Rev. A. V. Bryan, returned to his field of labor in Septem- 
ber, after a year's furlough. Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Doughty were 
transferred to the Yamaguchi station in the early fall. Mr. Hearst, 
owing to a somewhat protracted illness, was compelled, with his 
family, to spend the greater part of the year in Kobe. Miss Cuth- 
bert was temporarily removed from Hiroshima to Yamaguchi, to as- 
sist in the Eiwa Jo Gakko. A permanent foothold seems to have 
been gained in the interesting outstations of Fukui and Toyama, 
and Rev. Messrs. Fulton and Leonard, respectively, with their fam- 
ilies, have taken up their residence in these important cities. 



WEST JAPAN — KANAZAWA. 1 63 

The total number of additions on profession was 205, making a 
membership in the thirteen churches of the mission of 1,541. Nine 
schools have been open continuously, with an enrollment of 246 
pupils. There have been gathered from Sabbath to Sabbath in the 
various Sunday-schools 1,280 children, to whom the Word of Life 
has been faithfully taught. The 13 ordained native preachers and 
23 native licentiates, as well as the 15 native teachers and helpers 
and 11 Bible-women, have been faithful in the dissemination of the 
gospel, and many through their efforts have been brought into the 
churches. 

Educational Work. 

While there has been a marked falling off in many of the denomi- 
national schools of Japan, it is gratifying to report that this has not 
been so with the schools under this Board in the West Japan Mis- 
sion. Nearly all of the schools have kept up to their former num- 
bers, and several have had a much larger attendance, as will be seen 
from the statistics. The Girls' School in Osaka has been renamed 
and placed under a new regime, from which good results are ex- 
pected. The reports from the Kanazawa schools are encouraging, 
especially that of the Bible Training Department of the Girls' 
School. The new schools at Yamaguchi and Fukui are in a pros- 
perous condition. 

Kanazawa. — The three schools of this station, namely, the Chil- 
dren's School, the Girls' School, and the Boys' School, constitute 
one system, each aiming to do a distinct work, which, combined, 
will furnish a thorough school training from kindergarten up for the 
children of the native Christian families, and all otners who choose 
to avail themselves of the opportunity. 

The Kanazawa Girls' School opened with an attendance of 47 
pupils, which number soon increased to 55, with an average attend- 
ance through the year of 47. Miss Hesser furnishes the following 
report of the school: "The religious interest among the girls has 
been most encouraging. One of the older Christian girls has been 
elected deaconess in the church, which office she fills acceptably. 
Six of our boarding pupils testify that they have expetienced a 
change of heart during the year, and their lives give evidence of 
such a change, but nearly all of them are forbidden to confess Christ 
by their heathen parents. Our school was never in a more flourish- 
ing condition than it now is. Seven pupils graduated this year in 
the English course, and five in the Japanese department." 

Miss Hesser also writes that the Girls' Christian Association in the 
school, numbering 39 members, was most active in earning money 
for the rebuilding of the church which was destroyed last year. 
"The Society of King's Daughters, also numbering 39 members, 
holds its meetings twice a month. These meetings often prove a 
means of growth in grace to them, and at such gatherings the 
teachers are often permitted to get a glimpse of their inner life of 
faith, with its trials and victories." Miss Hesser, in closing the re- 
port, adds : " The Sabbath-school work done by the girls of our 



164 WEST JAPAN — KANAZAWA. 

school will tell on the future growth of the church. Every Satur- 
day morning we have a prayer-meeting with them, and then after- 
wards spend an hour with them in the study of the lesson for the 
next day ; and on Sunday morning sixteen girls go out to teach in 
nine different schools, and in this way over 300 children are brought 
under Christian instruction every Sunday in Kanazawa." 

This Girls' School has been materially equipped during the year by 
the erection of a chapel and recitation-rooms, the funds for which 
were most generously provided by friends on the field ; also a new 
school building which was occupied toward the close of the year, and 
with reference to which Mrs. Naylor writes: "We have now ample 
and comfortable accommodations for forty boarders, and are earnestly 
praying that all the rooms may be occupied. I wish it were possible 
to convey our expressions of gratitude to every individual who helped 
us to such a blessing as this new building has already been to us, and 
will be to us and our work we hope through many years to come. It 
is not ours to know who the kind donors were, but we have tried to 
express our gratitude to One who does know, and who is able to re- 
ward them abundantly." 

The Kanazawa Boys' School report reads as follows : " The year 
past has been one of good faithful work on the part of the students. 
We have had a much more quiet and contented spirit among them 
than last year. This fact has made our work much easier and pleas- 
anter, and gives us hope that the low-water mark has been passed. We 
began the year with $$ pupils and close with 35 enrolled. Fifteen of 
our boys are Christians ; 6 of these are expecting to enter the minis- 
try. Most of the Christian boys are active in helping to carry on 
work at the preaching places, and in the Y. M. C. A. work. Special 
emphasis is put upon the daily study of the Scriptures, and still greater 
care will be taken next year to maintain an active interest in the 
thorough and systematic study of God's Word. Four students were 
graduated during the year." 

The Kanazawa Children s School began the year with an attend- 
ance of 41 pupils. During the year the number was somewhat les- 
sened by the removal of families to other cities. Miss Loveland, who 
had charge of this work during the year, writes as follows concerning 
the Children's School : " The remarkably regular attendance in all ex- 
cept the severest winter weather is a great encouragement. The 
children are excellent Bible students, studying with much pleasure and 
passing gratifying examinations. We hear of several of the children's 
parents who are interested in the Truth. These are visited by one of 
our native teachers who spends with them what time she can, trying to 
lead them into the light. The fathers of two of our children have 
been received into the Church this year, and the mothers are among 
the women who wish to learn the True Way. Every Friday morning 
prayer-meetings are held in the school-rooms, in which all the chil- 
dren are glad to take part. The Working Society which was organ- 
ized last year flourishes, and is enjoyed by the pupils. There are 
two Sunday-schools connected with our work, both of which have been 
well attended, especially the one in our school building." One of the 



WEST JAPAN— OSAKA, YAMAGUCHI. 165 

brethren of the station writes with reference to this school : " In some 
respects this is perhaps the most important and promising work we are 
doing in Kanazawa." 

The Kanazawa Bible Training Class was organized in January, 
1891. The class began with 7 young women, and 3 more have al- 
ready applied for entrance this year. It has been thought best at 
present to limit the number to 10 members. It is the object of this 
class to give practical instruction in methods of Christian work, and as 
far as possible the members of the class are expected during the two 
years' study to take an active part in Sabbath school teaching, assist- 
ing in woman's meetings and house-to-house visitation in and around 
Kanazawa, and when they have finished the course of study to go out 
into the surrounding cities as Bible-readers. 

Osaka. — The Naniwa Girls School is the only educational work 
connected with this station. Miss McGuire's report is as follows: 
" Our numbers have not been large. We believe, however, that the 
work done directly and indirectly by this school for the cause of 
Christianity has been considerable. We have had an enrollment of 18, 
fifteen of whom were Christians. The older classes have done good 
work in Bible study, and we trust that this knowledge will be used in 
winning souls to Christ. Their prayer-meetings have been regularly 
kept up during the year, and they have been very faithful in their Mis- 
sionary Society. They have also done a great deal of practical mis- 
sionary work during the past year. From 9 to 12 of them have given 
regular assistance in Sunday-schools and other work for children in 
this neighborhood. Several of the girls expect to organize Sunday- 
schools in their homes this summer." 

Miss Haworth, in addition to her work in the Girls' School, has, 
with the aid of two Japanese helpers, taught two day-schools. These 
have had an average attendance of forty, almost all from unbelieving 
homes. These schools for children, with two Sunday-schools, having an 
average attendance of 80 from the homes of unbelievers, have made up a 
part of her routine duties during the year. The cordial thanks of the 
parents of the children for the work done for their children, and the 
urgent requests that Miss Haworth visit them in their own homes, 
more than repaid her, she thinks, for her labor of love. 

Yamaguclii. — The Eiwa Jo Gakko began its sessions on the 15th 
of January, 1891, with two scholars, who went from the Konyo Jo 
Gakko of Hiroshima, and about eight new scholars. The number 
now in actual attendance is 18, and the whole number enrolled from 
the beginning of the year 22. Mr. Ayres writes : ''We have reason 
to feel assured that God has signally blessed us in enabling us to 
close our school for the year with 18 self-supporting scholars in actual 
attendance. The outlook seems to warrant us in believing that if we 
may have one single woman teacher and a little financial aid, we can 
soon have a strong, flourishing school in one of the chief educational 
centres of Western Japan. Under this head mention must be made of 
the three young men now at the Nagasaki Theological School, but 
who are under the fostering care of the Yamaguchi Station, and also of 



1 66 WEST JAPAN— CHURCH WORK. 

one man who is preparing for licensure under the instruction of the mis- 
sionary and the native pastor at Yamaguchi." 

Fukui. — The Seisoku Gakkoiox b^ys and girls was organized during 
the year, and has had an attendance of 8 boys and 6 girls. It has 
been entirely self supporting. 

Church Work. 

The Kanazaiva First Church is still the larger and more influential 
church of Kanazawa. It records a prosperous year under the efficient 
management of its earnest and devoted pastor, Rev. Mr. Banno. 
The membership has been increased during the year by the addition 
of 35, of whom 28 joined on profession of faith. The total mem- 
bership is 170, and the entire number added since the organization 
of the church, 307. The attendance at the Sabbath services, as well 
as at the Friday evening prayer-meeting and the Sabbath-school, has 
been excellent. The contributions of the native members have 
amounted to $250. 

" During the heavy snow of last January the building of this church 
was made almost a total wreck by the caving in of the roof, thus ne- 
cessitating a ne«v building. This will be a much better one than the 
old one. It will seat 250 people, and costs 1,000 yen, besides 220 
yen paid for an additional lot. The church pays half of the cost of 
the building and 20 yen on the lot. The other part will be raised 

among the foreigners This church has a very hopeful future, a 

splendid location, an attractive building, a fairly good membership, 
and a most faithful pastor." 

The Kanazawa Second Church, or the Tonomachi Church, has a 
membership of 60. During the year 5 were added by baptism and 
2 by letter. Preaching services on the Sabbath, as well as a weekly 
prayer-meeting and a Sunday-school, have been maintained with a 
fair attendance. "It has a licentiate ministering to it who has also 
been chosen one of its elders. It has a good building in a central 
locality and is now out of debt. We hope for better things in the 
future for it." 

Osaka Church Work. — There are eight organized church congrega- 
tions under the care of this station, with a total membership of 726, 
of whom 47 were added during the year on profession of faith. Sev- 
eral of the churches have been without pastors, or even evangelists, 
during a whole or a large part of the year. But notwithstanding this 
fact a large number of inquirers, in addition to those who have united 
with the church, are reported as ready for baptism. The Yanagawa 
Church has a membership of 141. During the year the members of 
the church, with funds raised among their friends, completed a new 
church building. The native Christians at Banshu, with a little aid 
from the mission, have raised sufficient money to purchase a new 
house of wor-hip. 

The Hiroshima Church has shown good progress. During the past 
six months ten adults and as many childien have been baptized. The 
aggregate of church membership is 200. The total number of addi- 
tions on profession of faith was 34. Mr. Curtis writes that in money 



WEST JAPAN— EVANGELISTIC WORK. 167 

matters there has been a decided advance, and that with some help 
from the resident mis-ionaries the church has become self-supporting. 

The Yamaguchi Church. — " The church people at Yamaguchi con- 
sider themselves extremely fonunate to have obtained as their pastor 
Rev. Hattori San, anil at the same time to have received into their midst 
the missionaries lately sent there. Thirty-four additions during the 
year mark the progress of the church, which now numbers about 100 
members actually on the field. Besides the regular Sunday services, 
the pastor has meetings for Bible study twice a week, a question and 
answer meeting for unbelievers once a week, and a Wednesday evening 
prayer- meeting. A preaching place has recently been opened in 
another part of the city with two weekly services in charge of a 
licentiate. The meetings here are well attended, and the audiences 
usually attentive and quiet." There are a number in Yamaguchi now 
preparing to receive baptism, and a very large number of inquirers. 

The Kokura Church was organized on the 5th of April, 1891, with 
a membership of twenty-five. A week eailier a neat little chapel was 
dedicated, one half of the cost of which was raised by the native 
Christians themselves and their friends, about twenty dollars being con- 
tributed by a man who was himself not a Christian. The church has 
asked Mr. H. Aoyma, who some months since completed his studies 
at McCormick Seminary, to act as their minister, and he has accepted 
the call and will soon enter upon his duties as stated supply. 

Evangelistic Work. 

Kanazawa. — Beside the evangelistic work done in the schools and 
churches, there are five preaching places open, at all of which once 
a week a preaching service and a Sabbath-school have been held. 
During the year the superintendence of this department of labor has 
rested almost entirely upon Mr. Winn, with the assistance of a few 
native pastors. The brethren of the station write : " We believe 
these preaching places to be of inestimable importance to our work, 
although great discouragements are met with, and stolid indifference or 
active opposition is encountered eveiywhere. But time will certainly 
show that patient, persevering, and withal loving efforts put forth in 
many places will eventually break down prejudices and overcome op- 
position, and give us greater access to the people." Miss Hesser re- 
ports several very interesting meetings held by herself and members 
of the Bible Trail ing Class, in Komatsu, Daishoji, and Fukui. 

Osaka. — ■' The territory entrusted to the care of the Csaka Station 
is over three hundred miles from east to west. This field in extent, 
numbers, and promise, is second, if not first in importance in Japan. 
A few words in regard to numbers and promise may not be out of 
place. Osaka, with its estimated population of six hundred thousand, 
though second in actu.il numbers, is the first in commercial import- 
ance in Japan. Osaka Fu has one million six hundred thousand peo- 
ple, and railroad communication throughout. In Kobe, and the im- 
mense population surrounding it, we have a field which has not yet 
been fully worked by any denomination. In the western end of Shi- 
koku, the third island in size in the Empire, we also have a promising 



l68 WEST JAPAN — HIROSHIMA, KYOTO. 

work waiting for more laborers. Last, but not least, is the great work 
in the island of Kiushu. Railroad and steamship lines now make 
this entire island accessible. The mere mention of these facts will 
show that the importance of this field in regard to population has not 
been overestimated. The promise for a successful work is wonderful. 
Of course all of our work has felt the effect of the political excite- 
ment of last year, but there has been unusual willingness on the part 
of the people to give the Gospel a respectful hearing." 

" In the city of Osaka four new preaching stations have been 
opened during the past thirteen months, two of them, however, being 
merely a change in locality. All these places have had one preach- 
ing service during the week and two have held two weekly services. 
Three of the four places named have had Sunday-schools connected 
with them. All these services have ha'd an encouraging attendance. 
At one point six have received baptism, and at another four are desirous 
of receiving this ordinance. In both of these places Bible-classes for 
adults have been started, in which no small amount of interest has 
been shown." 

Hiroshima. — For several months during the year this station was 
without any of its former members. One of the most encouraging 
features of the year has been that of work among the women, 
vigorously carried on by Miss Cuthbert, and by Miss Hesser, of the 
Kanazawa station, who spent a few months in Hiroshima. For 
some months Miss Cuthbert had a large class of women at her own 
home, once a week, to whom she faithfully taught the Word of Life. 
But her principal work has been that of house-to-house visitation, 
which has been unusually successful. Mr. Curtis writes of the 
difficulty in securing buildings in which to hold their meetings. 
He has, however, been successful in leasing a building in the 
eastern quarter of the city, a most densely populated district, where 
he hopes to hold meetings during the year. Mr. Curtis, in his 
report of the year's work, speaks of visits and preaching tours to 
many of the outstations and surrounding villages where preaching 
services have been held with large audiences at each meeting, and 
an encouraging degree of interest manifested in the Christian 
religion. 

Kyoto. — In the early months of the year Mr. Porter returned to 
the United States on furlough, and shortly after his departure 
Mr. Hearst, owing to ill-health, was ordered by the physician-in- 
charge to remove to Kobe in the hope that the change would 
hasten his recovery. The work, however, has been under the 
supervision and direction of other members of the mission, and 
Mr. Hearst, in a recent letter, speaks of his- return to Kyoto and 
of his occupancy of his new house : " In Kyoto we now have eighty 
believers, notwithstanding a number of removals and deaths, and 
have baptized since last September nineteen adults and two chil- 
dren. The number of inquirers is now greater than it has been at 
any previous time. Twenty have been added on profession of faith 
during the year. There are 120 pupils in Sabbath-school." 



WEST JAPAN — TOYAMA, KOBE, FUKUI. 169 

At Tsuruga there have been five persons baptized. " The persecu- 
tion has been such as to drive many away, and yet persecution is 
beginning to have its reward, and there is now a great deal of 
interest manifested in Christianity." 

Toyama. — Mr. Hayes made a number of visits to this region 
during the year, and furnishes the following report : "During the 
year the prospects in Toyama have perceptibly brightened, and the 
workers and other brethren feel greatly encouraged. The two 
Bible-women are doing a quiet but important work, visiting from 
house to house. A society of ten young men, many of them school- 
teachers, meets every Saturday evening for the purpose of studying 
the Bible." In December of 1891 Mr. and Mrs. Leonard removed 
from Kanazawa to Toyama, which city is to be occupied hereafter 
as a mission station. Mr. Leonard, in a recent letter, writes: '• We 
had a very kind reception by the little band of Christians, which 
numbers twenty-six. They seem to be quite well united, and are 
elated over the prospect of having some one among them to help 
them. We have not been able to secure more than one preaching 
place as yet, though we have two helpers. I have organized a 
small English class of ten boys, to which I give about three hours 
a week. Mrs. Leonard is also teaching a little in the Girls' School 
that has been conducted here for some time by a graduate from the 
Kanazawa Girls' School. I have preached twice in Japanese, and 
am working up other sermons as fast as I can. Oh, if I only had 
the language ! What an abundant harvest, and yet scarcely a 
reaper at work ! Five thousand people here — and to the north, 
and west, and south many smaller places — and barely any work 
being done for Christ ! " 

Kobe. — Mr. Haworth writes as follows: "Our work in Kobe 
shows progress since the last report. Additions by baptism and 
otherwise increased the number of Presbyterians connected with 
our work to about fifty, twice the number reported last year. The 
attendance of the children at Sunday-school is especially encour- 
aging. Preaching services in various outstations have been held 
regularly, and the interest shown by those who attend them is en- 
couraging." 

Fukui. — Mr. and Mrs. Fulton occupied Fukui as a station in 
April, 1S91. Mr. Fulton reports: "We found a small nucleus of 
people already interested in the Gospel through the faithful labors 
of our evangelist, and attending the services regularly. Since we 
have been here we have been gratified to notice the gradual and 
steady growth in the attendance until now it is the exception to 
have a poor audience. We have a membership of eleven, and three 
or four others are applicants for baptism. Thus far we have been 
carrying on work in two preaching places, but hope to open another 
as soon as a house is available. We find it very difficult to rent 
good preaching places, but are fortunate in having one especially 
well adapted for our work and very centrally situated. We have 
an attendance of thirty to forty at Sabbath-school." 



170 WEST JAPAN — STATISTICS. 

Kokura. — The work throughout the Kokura region, and in and 
over the island of Kiushu, is far more encouraging than at any 
time in ihe past. The Kiushu railway is now completed from Moji 
toward Kumamoto for a distance of more than one hundred miles. 
This road runs through Kokura, in consequence of which the place 
is improving and growing rapidly both in size and importance. 
Several other towns, hitherto thought to be of no account, are 
coming rapidly to the front and promise to be centres of influence. 
Miss Garvin, writing from Kokura during a stay of several months 
in that city, says that the work in Kokura is in a most flourishing 
condition, and that among the most earnest inquirers are young 
men who will doubtless soon seek for baptism. 

Statistics of West Japaii Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 14 

Single lady missionaries. ... 10 

Married lady missionaries 13 

Ordained natives 13 

Native licentiate preachers 23 

Bible-women n 

Native helpers and teachers 15 

Churches 13 

Number of communicants 1,54* 

Added during the year 205 

Students for the ministry 22 

Boys in boarding-school II 

Girls in boarding-school 22 

Boys in day-schools 63 

Girls in day schools 150 

Total number of pupils 246 

Number of schools 9 

Pupil- in Sabbath-schools 1,280 

Contributions $2,254 



MISSION IN KOREA. 

Sfoul : the capital, near the western coast, on the Han River, and twenty-five miles 
overland from the commercial port, Chemulpo; mission begun in 1884; laborers — Rev. 
1). I.. Gilford and wife ; Rev. S. A. Moffctt, C. C. Vinton, M.D., and wife, H. M. Brown, 
M.D., and wife, Mr. J. S. Gale, Mrs. J. W. Heron, and Miss S. A. Doty. 

Fusan : on the southeast coast ; occupied as a mission station, 1891; laborers — Rev. 
W. M. Baiid and wife. 

In tins country : Rev. and Mrs. II. G. Underwood. 

About the middle of September, 1884, Dr. H. N. Allen arrived in 
Korea as the first missionary of the Presbyterian Board, and, we may 
say, the first missionary of any Protestant Board. He was received as 
physician to the American Legation under the U. S. Minister, General 
Foote. Very soon after his arrival, on the occasion of an outbreak 
between the Chinese and the Japanese garrisons, who were guarding 
the interests of their respective governments, Dr. Allen was called to 
treat certain high officials who had been dangerously wounded, by 
which he gained at once very great influence with the Korean court. 
During a brief reign of terror, in which the ministers of the foreign 
powers all retired to Chemulpo, the seaport of Seoul, he was left with 
his wife and child wholly unprotected, except that the Government, 
which had learned to appreciate his valuable services, guarded his 
residence anil furnished an armed escort during his visits to the palace. 
Dr. J. W. Heron and Rev. H. G. Underwood were sent out some 
months later as missionaries of the Presbyterian Board, and about the 
same time a mission ot the American Methodist Church was estab- 
lished at Seoul. The King of Korea fitted up a hospital, which was 
placed under the care of Dr. Allen, the Government defraying all 
expense except his salary. About the same time the Government 
established a school or college, in which were employed three Amer- 
ican instructor-, Messrs. Hnlbert, Gilmore, and Bunker. Unexpect- 
edly the missionaries found that a leaven of Protestant Christian 
influence had been at work among Koreans, especially in the north 
and northwest, near the Manchunan border, for some years before 
their anival at Seoul. This was due to the labors of certain native 
helpers who had been educated by Rev. Mr. Ross, of the Irish Pres- 
byterian Mission at Moukden, Manchuria. Certain inquirers found 
in Seoul had received salutary impressions through this channel. 

The work of the Korea Mission has advanced with various fortunes 
through this short period of seven years. There has been more or 
less restriction on the part of the Government, and yet, to a large 
extent, there has been a sort of connivance at supposed infringements 
of existing laws, owing to the favorable auspices under which mission 
work was begun, and also to a general disposition to favor American 
influence. Lately there has, perhaps, been more solicitude on the 



172 KOREA. 

part of the Government, owing to the influx of the Chinese and 
Japanese populations. It is highly probable that there is just ground 
for this fear, and it would not be strange if restrictive measures, which 
could not well discriminate between nationalities, should be rather 
increased. At the same time, the mission work in Korea has taken 
such deep root that there can be no other result, humanly speaking, 
than that of general progress. Through the labors of Rev. Mr. Under- 
wood, a very encouraging and valuable beginning has been made in 
the translation of the Scriptures; also, in the preparation of a grammar 
and a dictionary of the Korean language. 

The present condition of the mission is very encouraging. Large 
accessions of church members have not been made, though the pres- 
ent total membership of the Presbyterian Church in Korea is 119. 
More than half of these, however, are resident in outstations, where 
native helpers have been at work for the last three or four years suc- 
cessfully, and where missionaries upon tours of itineration have care- 
fully examined the candidates and baptized them. But one death 
has occurred in the mission circle since the establishment of the mis- 
sion, that of Dr. J. W. Heron, in August, i8qo, from dysentery. The 
present force actually upon the ground numbers thirteen persons. 
Six are women, of whom two are unmarried; of the men, three are 
clergymen and two physicians. During the year Mr. J. S. Gale, 
already resident in Korea, was appointed a lay missionary of the 
Board, and the force was further enlarged by the arrival in November 
of Dr. and Mrs. H. M. Brown, both fully trained physicians. Rev. 
Mr. Underwood is at present at home on leave of absence, on account 
of the impaired health of his wife. 

The Korea Mission, as shown by the recent report of the Mission 
Meeting, seems to be thoroughly organized. All forms of work are 
admirably systematized, and are brought under the supervision of the 
mission as an organic body. Everything is directed by the united 
wisdom of the mis-ion. The women, as well as the men, are placed 
in charge of certain lines of work, so that every interest is intrusted 
to some particular one, who is considered responsible therefor. The 
importance of oiganization cannot be overestimated, unless it should 
be carried so far as to impair the work by needless over-legislation and 
consequent limitation. The more common danger is that of excessive 
individual independence. 

Large attention is given — and positively required by the mission — 
to the study of the language. In the Korean Mission, according to 
the rules of the Manual, examinations of younger missionaries are 
made for the first two or three years, on their attainment in the lan- 
guage, the whole policy of the Board and of the mission requiring strict 
attention to this all-important matter. 

Mr. Gale, having been appointed one of a committee on Bible 
translation with Mr. Appenzeller of the Methodist Mission, has trans- 
lated the Acts of the Apostles. Such translations are intricate, owing 
to the difference between the literary style and that of the common 
people, and also to the extensive use of Chinese terms in the written 
language of Korea. 



174 KOREA. 

Church Work in Seoul. 

This is under the pastoral care of Rev. D. L. Gifford. The year 
has been marked by quiet but steady and real progress. The regular 
Sunday services have been maintained with an average attendance of 
between forty and fifty, the room being frequently filled to its utmost 
capacity. The preaching has been conducted mainly by two native 
evangelists, and it has been scriptural and instructive. For a long 
time singing was thought to be inadvisable, as it might attract atten- 
tion ; but it now forms an interesting part of the service. The Lord's 
Supper has been administered quarterly, the largest number present 
of the native communicants at any one time being 23. Thus far our 
entire church membership in Korea has been enrolled under the church 
at Seoul, and during the year 21 new members have been received, 
including 5 persons baptized in Kui Ju, and 1 from An San. Five of 
the twenty-one were women. Besides these, 62 have been enrolled as 
applicants for baptism. All of these have been assigned to members 
of the mission for systematic instruction. 

A Bible-class, with an attendance of 18, has been carried on by 
Mr. Gifford. A Sunday-school for boys, numbering 25 pupils, has 
been established. 

A winter theological class has been held for the benefit of the 
native helpers in Seoul and in outstations. It has been under the 
superintendence of Mr. GirTord, who has been aided by Mr. Moffett 
and Mr. Gale. On the first Sabbath after the assembling of the class 
the Communion was observed, at which time ten believers were taken 
into the church. The members of this class, together with the more 
advanced Christians of Seoul, have been encouraged to spend their 
Sundays in Christian work in different parts of the city. 

In addition to his pastoral duties, the work of the treasury has 
fallen to Mr. Gifford, and has necessarily made large demands upon 
his tune. 

In evangelistic work, aside from a tour with Mr. Moffett in Northern 
Korea, Mr. Gale has devoted much time to visitors at his sarang 
(guest-house or preaching-place). It is found that the sarang is in 
Korea a necessary institution for the successful prosecution of the 
work. It is chapel and conversation room, according to the numbers 
who are present ; and whether coming from curiosity or from a deeper 
interest, the natives are taught the way of hope. 

Outstation Work. 

This department of work has been full of interest, and it is regarded 
as especially important in a country like Korea, where the great 
interior is scarcely touched, and where, as compared with the open 
ports, or the capital, the interior cities may be expected to yield the 
most abundant fruits to missionary labor. Mr. Moffett, Mr. Baird, 
and Mr. Gale have from the first shown great interest in aggressive 
pioneer work. During the year Mr. Moffett has done considerable 
itinerating in Northern Korea, accompanied by a native evangelist, 
and once by Mr. Gale. A number of towns and villages were visited, 



KOREA. 175 

among which were Eui Ju, Gensan, Kon Syeng, Pyeng Yang, and 
Chyang Yen. In the fall Mr. Gifford made a five weeks' itinerating 
trip in the south. 

During the year Mr. Baird has established a new station at Fusan 
on the coast, in the southeastern part of the peninsula, where property 
has been secured through the kindly intervention of the U. S. Minister, 
Hon. Augustine Heard. This is destined to become a gate of en- 
trance from Japan, being but a comparatively short sail from Nagasaki. 
Mr. and Mrs. Baird have taken up their residence there, and a house 
for their accommodation has been erected. It is expected that 
this will be little more thr>n a base of operation for missionary 
work in interior cities which are not far distant, but which are 
of far more importance in extent of population and general prom- 
ise of results. Fusan is, to a large extent, a Japanese city, and is 
likely to become so disturbed, and more or less demoralized, by foreign 
contact, as to have in itself but comparatively little promise from 
a missionary standpoint. Yet, it is all-important as a point of depart- 
ure for work in the interior. One of the letters received from the 
mission says : " Fusan is the door to the large province of Kyeng 
Syang Do, and cities like Ta-Kou and Kyeng choo are what we 
ultimately wish to reach. The south of Korea is the most populous, 
and by far the hardest to work in. The language has a sound that is 
hard for the ear to catch; so that Mr. and Mrs. Baird have before 
them no easy task in opening up that region." The Koreans of that 
province are said to receive the truth readily, but, like the seed on the 
stony ground, it soon withers away. There are many listeners, but 
few believers. Nevertheless, some are becoming savingly interested. 
Mr. Haitd, in addition to learning the language, has found his hands 
quite full with the care of erecting the mission house. The difficulty 
of such an enterprise can only be understood by those who have 
undertaken this kind of work in a country where competent and 
reliable mechanics are so difficult to find. Notwithstanding these 
drawbacks, he has been able to accomplish something along the line 
of evangelistic work. His report says: "When not prevented, I have 
had a service every Sabbath with the Korean teachers. I have also 
gone to the surrounding villages into some of the few houses into 
which entrance could be gotten, and attempted to teach some of the 
first things. We cannot claim to have done more than let the Korean 
community know that we are there to teach a new religion different 
from the Roman Catholic." Mrs. Baird has made a beginning in 
▼isiting the homes of the women. 

Eui Ju, lying near the western border, almost on the line of Man- 
churia, is regarded as in many respects one of the most promising of 
the fields that are now inviting the labor of our mission. It is evident 
that Korea must be worked from three or four treaty ports as bases of 
operation, while the different missionary societies entering the field 
must expect to find their chief success in interior cities and their out- 
lying country districts. Probably Eui Ju must, for the time, be 
worked from Seoul, by one or two missionaries spending two or three 
months at a time, co-operating with and directing their native preach- 



1/6 KOREA. 

ers. This tentative occupation will, it is hoped, lead to a permanent 
settlement at that point. Eui Ju has heen visited by missionaries 
twice during the year. Five persons, including two women, were 
baptized at this point, and the entire enrolled membership of this sub- 
station is 34. At the last communion season held there 9 native 
Christians participated. A small house has been purchased as the resi- 
dence and headquarters of a native preacher, and also a temporary 
stopping-place for missionaries while visiting the field. 

Gensan, on the east coast, is open to foreigners as a treaty port. 
This, like Fusan, is merely a gate of entrance to important cities in 
the interior. It has not yet been opened as a mission station, but our 
missionaries are hoping to occupy it at an early day. Mr. Moffett, in 
describing a trip through the region in which Gensan is situated, says : 
" Finding it impossible, as well as undesirable, to go clear across the 
north, we came down through the middle of Korea to the east, reach- 
ing Ham Heung, the capital of the province, and on the way from 
there stopping at Gensan, the eastern treaty port. In this region we 
found what we consider the most beautiful, most wealthy, and appar- 
ently the most prosperous region of Korea, and we feel the importance 
of opening work there as soon as the work already begun has proper 
oversight, and the places more imperatively demanding men are sup- 
plied." 

Kon Syeng is an interior place of importance. Kim Ni Ryun has 
been in charge of the work in this mountain region, though without 
pay, and he is reported as having done his work faithfully and well. 
Nine additional applicants for baptism were enrolled upon the last 
missionary visit, making 19 in all. These people are said to be earn- 
estly studying the Word of God, while the question of their baptism 
is held unsettled. 

In the Province of Pyeng An are various small points where occa- 
sional preaching has been done. At Pyeng Yang, the capital, four 
applicants for baptism have been enrolled, and a class of seven, whose 
members reside in small outlying villages, has been formed for the 
study of the truth. 

Chyang Yen is another important station, where is an enrolled church 
membership of 15, though all are not residing within the city. Mr. 
Moffett and Dr. Brown are looking forward with much hope to a pro- 
longed summer work in this northern region, where the people listen 
with much apparent interest to the truth, and numerous applications 
for baptism are made. 

Educational Work. 

The Boys' School in Seoul has been under the care of Rev. S. A. 
Moffett. It has made substantial progress in several respects. It 
began as an orphanage, but has been much more successful by the 
change of policy which made it a boys' school, in which pupils are 
expected to pay the whole or a part of the expense of their instruction. 
During the year 24 have been enrolled in this school, 18 of whom 
remained to the close of the year. Only ten of these were both fed 
and clothed, the others furnishing partial or entire support. The 



KOREA. 1/7 

course of study has included the Bible in the Chinese language, and 
also the Chinese classics. This is for the reason that the Chinese is, 
to a very large extent, the educational language of Korea. The 
younger boys have been taught the introductory Chinese books, with 
the Ten Commandments, Three Character Christian Classic, and 
" Life of Jesus in Verse." The examinations at the close of the 
school year were of a very satisfactory character. On Sundays instruc- 
tion has been given in the Bible and in the Catechism, the school 
taking the form of a Sunday-school. Four of the boys are members 
of the church, two having been received during the year. The fact 
that five of the new boys were sent by their Christian relatives is 
thought to show a growing confidence in the school. The question of 
establishing an industrial department is being considered. 

The Girls' School during the year has been under the care of Miss 
Susan A. Doty. The number in attendance has been 10. On Sun- 
days Miss Doty has conducted a Sunday-school for the girls. An 
interesting feature of the school is the constant attendance of the 
women who come to visit it. About two hundred of those who have 
thus been present, more or less, have listened very intelligently, and 
with apparent interest, to the presentation of the Gospel. Two of the 
girls have been received into the church. 

Medical Work. 

Dr. Vinton has had charge of the Government Hospital during the 
year, which, notwithstanding various restrictions placed upon evangel- 
istic work in connection with the institution, is believed to place the 
mission upon a favorable vantage ground of influence with the Govern- 
ment and with the native community, inasmuch as it identifies the 
missionaries with the physical relief and temporal as well as spiritual 
welfare of the people. The whole history of our work in Korea has 
given assurance that the Gospel does not ignore the bodily distresses 
of men, but bears with it relief of physical suffering as well as of the 
evils of sin. At the same time Dr. Vinton has carried on a dispensary 
work in a room of his own house since September ist. The statistics 
of this dispensary for four months are as follows : 

Days of attendance 85 

Whole number of patients treated 187 

Number returning a second time 107 

Number of minor surgical operations 6 

A number of patients were also treated at the village of Nam Han 
duiing a summer vacation. To most of these, and to many of those 
who attended tne dispensary at his house, Dr. Vinton has made known 
the offer of salvation in Christ, and in some cases religious books have 
been given or sold. By all accounts, Dr. Vinton has gained constantly 
in his hold upon the confidence and sympaihies of the people, and 
new evidence is furnished that the medical work is of value, as secur- 
ing an open door for the preaching of the Gospel. 
12 



178 KOREA — STATISTICS. 



Work among Women. 

! Mrs. Heron's work among the women has been continued with 
efficiency. A new teaching station was opened during the year in the 
eastern part of the city, where no Christian work had previously been 
done. There has been a good attendance from the first, more than 
twenty women being sometimes present. Three of the attendants 
professed faith in Christ during the year, and wished to be taken into 
the church. According to the rule of the mission they were kept .on 
probation for six months. Meantime, one of them was married, and 
removed to the country, but obtained the Scriptures and such tracts 
as were available, in order that she might teach her countrywomen in 
her new home. By using a magic-lantern to illustrate Bible scenes, 
Mrs. Heron so increased the number of attendants that the home of 
the poor widow, who had opened her doors for the meetings, seemed in 
danger of injury from the press of the crowd. Moreover, prejudice 
was aroused in the neighborhood, and the meetings were at length 
suspended. A number of women, however, have shown their interest 
by walking across the entire city to be instructed by Mrs. Heron at 
her house. A daily Bible-class has been maintained, attended by 
eight or ten women. Four of the number are believed to be earnest 
Christians ; the fifth is deeply interested. Mrs. Heron has held a class 
on Sundays for the instruction of applicants for baptism. She has 
twenty families on her visiting list. Verses of Scripture printed upon 
bright paper, which attract the eye, have been distributed ; also por- 
tions of the Bible and copies of the New Testament. 

The sphere assigned by the mission to Mrs. Gifford was work 
among the women of a particular district of the city. She has held a 
weekly meeting at her house. She has been assisted by two native 
women. The average attendance at the weekly meetings has been 
37. Mrs. Gifford has also assisted in the care of the Girls' School. 

Led by the munificent offers of a devoted friend of the Korea Mis- 
sion, the Board has resolved to make substantial enlargements in the 
mission force during the coming year. 

Statistics of the Korea Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 4 

Physicians (including two ladies) 4 

Married female missionaries 3 

Unmarried female missionaries 2 

Lay missionaries 1 

Added during the year 21 

Present number of communicants 119 

Boys in boarding-school 24 

Girls in boarding-school 10 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 40 



THE MEXICAN MISSION. 
Southern Mexico. 

Begun in 1872 in the City of Mexico ; missionaries — Rev. Messrs. J. Milton Greene, 
D.D., Henry C. Thomson, and Hubert W. Brown, and their wives; Miss A. M. Bartlttt 
and Miss Ella De Baun, in Mexico City. Native ministers : Mexico City, Rev . Arcadio 
Morales, Rev. Abraham Franco ; Toluca, Rev. Luis G. Arias ; Jalapa (Tabasco), Rev. 
Evaristo Ilurtado ; Ozumba, Rev. Jose P. Nevarez ; Zimapan, Rev. Felipe Paslra?ia ; 
Jacala, Rev. Vicente Gomez ; Zitacuaro, Revs. Daniel Rodriguez and Pedro Ballastra . 
Tuxpan (Mich.), Revs. Maximiano Palomino and Enrique BiancJii ; Vera Cruz, Rev; 
PI ut area Arellano ; Galera de Coapilla, Rev. Ilipolito Quesada ; Paraiso, Rev. Miguel 
Arias ; San Juan Bautista, Rev. Leopoldo Diaz ; Comalcalco, Rev. Eligio N. Granados ; 
Cardenas, Rev. Procopio C. Diaz; Tixtla, Rev. Prisciliano Zavaleta ; Frontera, Rev. 
Salomon R. Diaz; Reforma, Rev. Sever iano Gallegos ; licentiates, 5 ; native teachers 
and helpers, 37. 

Northern Mexico. 

Zacatecas : occupied 1873 ; laborers — Rev. Messrs. Thomas F. Wallace and William 
Wallace ; Rev. yesus Martinez, Rev. Brigidio Sepulveda, and Rev. Luis Amayo ; licen- 
tiates, to ; native helpers, 6. 

San Luis Potosi : occupied 1873 ; Rev. M. E. Beall and wife ; licentiates, 2. 

Saltillo: occupied 1884; Rev. Isaac Boyce and wife; Miss Jennie Wheeler and 
Miss M. L. Hammond ; licentiates, 7 ; teachers, 7. 

San MIGUEL del Mezquital : occupied 1876 ; laborers — Rev. David J. Stewart and 
wife ; 1 teacher. 

In this country : Mrs. J. M. Greene and Mrs. T. F. Wallace. 

Faithful work has been done during the year in all departments of 
the mission in Southern Mexico, though the statistics of the churches 
indicate not an advance, but a serious falling off, especially in church 
membership. The deficiency occurs almost wholly at the Vera Cruz 
station, where the population is constantly fluctuating, and where the 
membership of the church, which had long been under the care of 
Rev. Mr. Quesada, though he had tried to observe strict rules in ad- 
mitting members, had for years shown great disparity between the 
total enrollment and the number of actual residents. It was decided 
during the last year to make a reduction of the roll, similar to that 
which is often made in churches of our own land. This caused a fall- 
ing off in total membership of over 400. While there is an increased 
interest shown in the Republic in the education of both sexes, there 
seems to be, by all accounts, a general apathy in the churches. The in- 
crease of material prosperity, and the general secularization that attends 
the new era in Mexico, are apparently absorbing the minds of the 
people, and there is reason to believe, also, that the skepticism, which 
is everywhere active and aggressive under various forms at the pres- 
ent time, finds less resistance in a country like Mexico than in the 
United States, where the settled order of church life and a prevailing 
religious sentiment exert their strong conservative influence. Dr. 
Greene's report describes this condition in the following words : " As 



l8o MEXICO, SOUTH. 

to our work in general, it must be said that we have fallen upon times 
of peculiar discouragement, which is being felt in all the missions. 
Perhaps never was seen more lethargy and supineness on the part of 
our native ministry, nor more cases of defection among our native 
Christians. With the new era of progress in financial and material 
interests, and with the drifting away from Romish faith and practices, 
have come to Mexico a period of licentiousness in faith and morals, 
and a materialism in thought and conduct unexampled hitherto. The 
liberal movement is a free-thinking movement, with a most decided 
prejudice against the Bible and Christianity, as having been the curse 
of the country in centuries past. All this has, no doubt, greatly tried 
our native ministers and laymen, and will largely account for the little 
fruit discernible in our statistics for the last year." 

The activity of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, and the 
Jesuitical means which are used to create impressions favorable to the 
hierarchy and injurious to Protestantism, are illustrated in a statement 
which appeared in El Tiempo, the Jesuit organ, in the late autumn. 
This paper declared that Protestants have never sent aid for the relief 
of physical suffering in times of flood or famine or other physical dis- 
tress. In reply to this falsehood our missionaries published the fol- 
lowing in The Two Republics, a liberal paper of the same city : 

" During the year ending April 30, 1878, sums amounting to over 
$18,000 were contributed for the China famine, and Russo-Turkish 
War. During the year ending April 30, 1880, $20,450 were sent 
to aid the sufferers from famine in Persia. Since 1880 up to date, 
$13 .500 have been sent to China for sufferers from famine. This makes 
a total of about $52,000 contributed through one organization (the 
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions) since 1878." 

There can be no doubt that the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico 
has, in a great measure, regained its former prestige. It is said that 
the losses occasioned by the confiscation of property at the time of the 
re-establishment of the Republic under Juarez have, to a large extent, 
been recovered, and that financially the Church is in a stronger posi- 
tion than ever before. The forced sales which were made at that time 
brought returns of money, and although the amounts were far less than 
those of former landed estates, yet by judicious investments they have 
again placed the Church in a position of power. It is even claimed 
that the Mexican Church has greater resources than the Government. 
Meanwhile, the hierarchy has placed various prohibitions upon the 
people, the effect of which is to nullify the Government authority. 
For example, the law requiring a civil contract in marriage has been 
evaded by priestly order forbidding such marriage. Catholics have 
also been, forbidden to occupy or invest in church property which had 
been confiscated, and in many ways the craft of the priesthood has 
thwarted the laws, and enriched the treasury of the Church. Many 
times in the history of the Republic revolutions have been incited by 
the Church party. And but for the conservative influence of com- 
merce, the large investments of capital, which always tend to prevent 
revolution, the network of railroads, and the complication brought 
about by foreign intercourse and influence, there would be reason to 



1 82 MEXICO, SOUTH. 

ear 'that ere very long the Church in Mexico may use its influence, 
together with its great wealth, to effect governmental changes which 
may promise an increase of ecclesiastical power. 

Field Work. 

Dr. Greene was withdrawn from his post during the first three 
months of the year 1891, on leave of absence, granted him on account 
of ill health. On his return to Mexico, late in March, he proceeded 
to Yucatan, where he spent a season of encouraging labor, especially 
in the city of Merida, where large congregations of earnest listeners 
welcomed him, and where the growth and prosperity of the work 
seemed to demand the formation of a second congregation in a suburb 
of the city. Returning from this trip to the City of Mexico, he also 
visited Vera Cruz, Jalapa, Toluca, Capulhuac, San Lorenzo, and 
Ozumba. 

The work which has devolved upon Dr. Greene in the City of 
Mexico has been manifold, inasmuch as he is treasurer of the mission, 
and has charge of the disbursement of all salaries and other expend- 
itures in the southern field, where the number of preachers, teachers, 
helpers, and students is very large. He has also had principal charge 
of El Faro, which now issues 3,000 copies, and the editing of the les- 
son leaves. He has spent a part of his time upon a translation of Dr. 
Alexander Mair's "Studies in Christian Evidences," a book of 400 
pages. He has also given more or less instruction in the Theological 
Seminary. It is with regret that the Board learns that these multiplied 
duties are again affecting the health of this faithful missionary, and 
imperatively demanding relief and rest. 

Mr. Brown during the early part of the year 1891 was placed in 
charge of the work of Dr. Greene ; also for nine months he gave 
instruction in the Seminary at Tlalpam, and made two visits to out- 
stations. One of these was to the State of Michoacan, in which he 
visited most of the principal places. The general condition of the 
churches was not such as he had hoped to find. As a rule, spiritual 
apathy and indifference seemed to rest upon the congregations. The 
preaching of the Word has not been met by the earnest response 
which was often witnessed in days gone by. He found, however, an 
increasing interest in education, and here and there little congrega- 
tions showed an earnest spirit in many ways. In Tuxpan the mission 
property was being renovated, and in Aguacate a fine large room had 
been given for church services. In a few other places an earnest 
desire to hear the Gospel was manifest, and on the last Sunday of his 
tour ten members were received into the communion of the church in 
Zitacuaro. Two of them were men who hoped to study for the 
ministry. 

A visit was also made during the month of January to the State of 
Hidalgo, where he found a general l?ck of growth, and the same 
apathetic spirit which he had witnessed in Michoacan. It was gratify- 
ing, however, to note that wherever the young men called away from 
the Seminary had been employed there was an indication of more 



MEXICO, SOUTH. 1 83 

life ; the work appeared to have been revived, and Mr. Brown's heart 
was filled with gratitude for the blessing thus given through the theo- 
logical students. In Milpas Viejas the work begun a year ago was 
prospering. The school-house was well filled by an attentive audience. 
Some material had been collected toward the erection of a house of 
worship, and a site selected for the new edifice. Mr. Brown was also 
encouraged by the general thrift of the day-schools taught by the 
young women who have been trained up as teachers. 

In Jiliapan the annual examinations in the day-school were attended 
by the Government inspector, who pronounced them more satisfactory 
than those of the Government school, and it was gratifying to know 
that Miss Belen Labastida, to whom double her present salary had 
been offered for a Government position, had declined the offer, reply- 
ing that she had been educated by the mission, and desired to show 
her gratitude by continuing at her post. Her pay is only $8 a month 
in depreciated Mexican currency. 

Educational Work. 

The Theological Seminary at Tlalpam. — The Theological Seminary 
at Tlalpam has been much under discussion in the mission during the 
last year ; its successes and discouragements have been carefully 
considered and weighed together. The chief of its difficulties from 
the first has been that the demand for laborers is so great, and the 
call of the mission so imperative, that the older and more thoroughly 
furnished young men are prematurely taken from their studies and set 
over small country congregations. This is a difficulty that is deplor- 
able, as it prevents, in most cases, a completion of the excellent cur- 
riculum which the institution presents. It is from this cause that only 
one fully trained theological graduate appears in the report of this 
year. This young man has completed the full six years' course. He 
has also rendered valuable help in teaching primary classes. There 
are, however, eight or nine reported who will pursue the Theological 
Course proper during the year to come. The remaining twenty-five 
or twenty-six young men enrolled will continue in the Preparatory 
Department. While this inability of the mission to bring its students 
up to the required standard is greatly to be regretted, the opposite 
alternative is scarcely less grave, namely, that of leaving many con- 
gregations wholly destitute of the me ins of grace. The San Luis 
Potosi field reports six congregations as wholly without pastoral care ; 
only two out of eight stations are supplied. Several of those con- 
nected with the Mexico City station are in the same condition. These 
facts show that the spirit of inquiry and of general interest in Prot- 
estant Christianity is so widespread as to altogether transcend the 
means which the mission has at hand either of men or of money. The 
field is like a large ranch, whose resources of cultivation are scarcely 
adequate to the requirements of a small one. The question might be 
raised, whether it is not the duty of a mission to shorten its lines and 
contract its work. This were easy as a bare suggestion, but to haul 
down the standard where it has been reared by undeniable indications 



1 84 MEXICO, SOUTH. 

of Providence and the actual requests of the people is a hard task, 
with which neither the mission nor the Board feels able to grapple. 
There has been during the year a disposition to apply rigidly a due 
discrimination in the choice of men. Eight men have left the Train- 
ing School, of whom only three removed on account of ill health ; five 
because they were unable to make progress in their studies. 

Dr. Thomson, in addition to the instruction given in the Seminary, 
has, during the year, rendeied valuable service in the preparation of 
various books required for the school, and also in a revision of the 
Spanish Bible, which is being made by the American Bible Society. 
Rev. H. B. Pratt, agent of this society, and specially entrusted with this 
work, has presented to the Board a letter acknowledging with high 
praise the co-operation of Dr. Thomson, without which he deems it 
well-nigh impossible that the work could have been carried forward to 
successful accomplishment. Considering that the young men trained 
in this institution are likely, in the providence of God, to constitute 
the main reliance and the hope of the Mexican churches in the years 
to come, and, realizing the importance, not only of thorough intel- 
lectual preparation and Biblical furnishing, but of an earnest and 
devoted spirit, it is impossible to urge too strongly upon the churches 
the need of prayer for the baptism of the Holy Ghost, not only now, 
but throughout its entire future. 

It may be of interest to add that the young men, beside a Literary 
Society, have organized a Christian Endeavor Society. 

The Girls' Normal School. — One of the best and most satisfactory 
enterprises undertaken by the women of the church was the purchase 
of the property for the establishment of the Girls' Normal School in 
the City of Mexico. The recent field report rendered by Misses 
Bartlett and De Baun gives the number of students in attendance the 
last year as 45 boarders and 29 day pupils, with an average attend- 
ance of 63. The health, both of the teachers and of the scholars, 
has been good. The report says : " There have been only two deaths 
in ten years, and that in a city whose death-rate is 325 per week. In 
the last five years no death has occurred, and there has been no seri- 
ous illness The guiding hand of Providence must have di- 
rected in the selection of this property. The house is in the most 
healthful and beautiful part of the city. It stands on a corner, and 
has a broad, open courtyard, so that every room can have plenty of 
air and sunshine. The doors on the courtyard stand open all day 
during the entire year, for the climate is always like spring." The 
property has increased in value considerably above the entire cost, in- 
cluding alterations and improvements. There is no reason to suppose 
that this may not for many years be a source of blessing to the women 
of Mexico. Twelve graduates of this school either are, or have been, 
in the actual work of teaching. The institution has enabled the Board 
to stand almost entirely upon the principle that day-schools are to be 
taught by native teachers. This is an economical policy where it can 
be successfully carried out, and should I e ma'ntained, if possible, in a 
country where all forms of work are exceptionally expensive. The 
instruction given in this school is upon the lines of scientific educa- 



MEXICO, SOUTH. I 85 

tion, as taught in the normal schools of our own country, both of the 
teachers having had their education in institutions of this kind. By 
this means a thorough work is done, and the best methods are illus- 
trated in the day-school system adopted by the mission. The young 
lady who refused an offer from the Government of double the 
amount of her present salary, was educated at this school. Another 
girl, still in her course of study, has received a like offer to take 
charge of a Government school, but she, also, has declined, as she 
is resolved to complete her education. The report contains an 
interesting appeal made by a girl who has just graduated and who 
desires to enter upon the work of teaching ; but either from want 
of funds or other cause, the mission has not as yet offered her a 
place. Her appeal is full of a genuine Christian spirit, and a desire 
to make the work of teaching a means of advancing the cause of her 
Master. There ought to be not only an enlarged number of earnest 
Christian young women trained at this school, and at the twin institu- 
tion at Saltillo, Northern Mexico, but the means ought to be liberally 
furnished for employing the graduates when they shall have been fitted 
for earnest Christian work. There is in these opportunities thus 
afforded, an attractive challenge to the missionary zeal of Christian 
women in our more favored Republic. The course of study indicated 
in the report forwarded by Miss Bartlett is high, and there is every 
evidence that the work has been conscientiously and thoroughly per- 
formed in all branches. The examination at the close of the year was 
most successful. The utmost harmony has prevailed in the school 
and altogether the year has been one of great prosperity. The spirit 
of Christian activity inculcated in the school is well illustrated in the 
formation of a Christian Endeavor Society with 28 active members. 
This has been its first year. The prayer-meeting conducted by the 
young girls has been held on every Sunday afternoon, and besides the 
members, nearly all the other pupils attended regularly and showed 
much interest. Twenty-eight of the girls are members of the church • 
this number includes all in the first, second, third, and fourth grades, 
and all but two in the fifth. This certainly is a remarkable exhibit, 
and there is occasion for gratitude on the part of all those who are 
pra)ing for the spiritual interest of the school. Three girls were dis- 
missed during the year. One was not studious, another lacked intelli- 
gence, and a third was morally unworthy. A large proportion of the 
pupils are from the State of Guerrero, and these, as a rule, are very 
satisfactory, intellectually and otherwise. In almost all cases they 
lead their classes, and are the most earnest and active in Christian 
work. This is a matter of interest in view of the fact that in Guer- 
rero the most bitter and bloody persecutions of Protestants have been 
endured from the first establishment of our work in that State nearly 
twenty years ago. It is significant that only three of the boarders are 
from Mexico City. This is a fact that denotes a healthy condition ( f 
the school, inasmuch as it shows that local residents are not taking 
advantage of the boarding department in order to secure the suppoit 
of their daughters. Four young ladies graduated ; a fifth would have 
done so, but that she was called away on account of ill health. Two 



1 86 MEXICO — SALTILLO. 

of the four have commenced teaching. " The other two," says the 
report, "though as capable as the first, are unemployed, not because 
there is no place for them, but because the mission is so short of funds 
that their salaries cannot be paid." 

Statistics of Southern Mexico. 

Ordained missionaries 3 

Married female missionaries 3 

Unmarried female missionaries * . . . 2 

Ordained natives 20 

Native licentiates 5 

Native teachers and helpers 37 

Churches (organized, 56 ; preaching places, 20) 76 

Communicants 2,962 

Added during the year 143 

Students for the ministry 21 

Girls in boarding-school (including 28 day pupils) 73 

Day-schools (24), attendance 884 

Total number of pupils 985 

Sabbath-schools (38), attendance 911 

Contributions $1,394.38 

The Saltillo Field. 

Northfern Mexico has suffered during the last year in an unusual 
degree rom famine and consequent poverty of the people. The 
laboring classes, always embarrassed by the difficulty of obtaining the 
means of subsistence, have found it necessary to remove from place 
to place wherever they could obtain work and their daily bread. The 
effect of this upon the outslation churches is always disastrous. The 
membership may be reduced in a particular place without a correspond- 
in^ increase by their union with churches somewhere else. So long 
as the people are floating about, they appear to have no ecclesiastical 
relations anywhere, and unless names are kept upon the roll almost 
indefinitely, there is likely to appear a decrease rather than a gain. It 
is a matter of gratitude that just after the close of the year, as reported, 
copious rains have fallen in Northern Mexico, so that an improved 
condition of the country and all its interests may be looked for. 

The report from the church in Saltillo, under the care of Rev. Mr. 
Boyce, indicates, nevertheless, a good degree of prosperity. The con- 
gregations have been large, and a good deal of interest has been 
manifested in the truth. During the year 15 persons were received 
into the communion of the church, 6 of them by baptism. The pre- 
vailing influenza, which seems to visit all lands, has greatly affected 
the attendance of the people upon the means of grace, and more or 
less retarded the advancement of all religious interest. 

The church in Allende seems to be in good condition, and has 
received 9 new members during the year. Thorough protection is 
granted by the authorities, and the congregation is prosperous. 

Cotorra has been greatly affected by an almost total failure of the 
crops. The building of a chapel which the people had contemplated 
has been arrested by the hard times. 



MEXICO — SALTILLO. 1 87 

Three members were added to the church at Durazno. The 
licentiate in charge has maintained a school during the year in con- 
nection with the care of the church. 

Monterey has enjoyed great temporal prosperity through migration 
from the United States, and a consequent quickening of all secular 
enterprises, but all this has not improved the tone of piety in the 
church. Nevertheless, a good degree of interest has been manifested 
in securing a lot for the church, which is entirely paid for, and upon 
which it is hoped soon to erect a chapel. 

The pastor in Monclova and all his family were stricken down with 
typhoid fever in the month of June. This affliction seemed to be 
overruled in drawing about him the sympathies of the people, and has 
rather improved the spiritual life of the congregation, as well as its 
numbers. Eight additions have been made to the church. 

The little church at Patos has suffered from financial reverses of its 
leading member, on whom many of the congregation depended for 
employment. They have been obliged to scatter to other places to 
secure the means of a livelihood, and the church has greatly suffered. 
However, 8 members were received during the year. An excellent 
school is carried on in connection with this little Hock. 

Parras has suffered from the encroachments and the proselyting of 
the Southern Baptist Mission. One member only has been added to 
the church. Several families are attending the services. 

In general, while there has been no rapid growth in any direction, a 
healthy tone has pervaded the churches, and the necessity of witness- 
ing a good confession has been recognized in the fact that the mem- 
bers of the church, and especially their officers, are becoming more 
conservative in admitting new members. The standard is raised, 
though the reported accessions may be less, and the general indication 
of growth may suffer. 

Educational Work. 

In the educational department of the work, the Girls' Normal 
School at Saltillo has held a leading place. There were during the 
year 28 boarders in the school and 20 day pupils. The boarders were 
gathered from the entire field of the Zacatecas Presbytery. The rules 
of the school restrict the number of boarders to those who reside out 
of Saltillo ; local residents are received as day scholars. The boarders, 
with rare exception, are daughters of church members, and are care- 
fully selected with an eye to their future usefulness as teachers in the 
mission day-schools. The work done in the institution seems to have 
been eminently satisfactory, although interrupted by the ill health of 
Miss Mabel Elliott, who was obliged to resign. In the absence of 
Miss Elliott, Miss M. L. Hammond has been employed for one year 
to assist Miss Wheeler in the conduct of the school. The spiritual 
tone has been most gratifying. Ten of the boarders made profession 
of faith in Christ during the year, and in that number was the one girl 
whose parents are not members of the church. During the vacation, 
or since the close of the school year, two more of the boarders were 
received into full membership. 



1 88 MEXICO — ZACATECAS. 

Intimately connected with the Normal School is the educational 
work in the outstations. Girls who have taken a partial course in the 
institution are doing effective work in a number of towns in different 
parts of the field. These schools are beginning to act as feeders to 
the training-school, and this influence promises to be felt more and 
more each year. Places in the institution are now eagerly sought for 
by the most intelligent of our Christian people. "The difficulty," 
says the report, " is to put off those we cannot take ; not to find girls 
to fill up our number. The day-schools enable us, first, to select with 
greater care candidates for admission to the Normal School ; second, 
to extend its benefits to a larger number of girls ; and third, to do so at a 
relatively smaller cost, as the girls come into the Normal School fitted 
to enter a higher grade than where they come without previous train- 
ing." The report adds, " Would that we were similarly situated with 
reference to the training of male teachers and candidates for the 
ministry. In this particular we are terribly handicapped. We have 
no capable Christian male teachers, or next to none." There seems 
to be a need of primary boys' schools under competent and faithful 
teachers, which shall accomplish the same for the male sex that the 
graduates of the girls' training-school are doing for the girls. Doubt- 
less a desire to enter into secular business turns aside those who 
might otherwise devote themselves to faithful Christian work as teach- 
ers. In the revival of enterprise in Mexico this problem bids fair 
to be invested with permanent difficulty. "The Government col- 
leges of the different States," says Mr. Boyce, in his report, "can be 
utilized to some extent in this direction, but it is a resort not by any 
means free from danger, and, at most, a makeshift. At present we 
are availing ourselves of the State College in this city. One boy will 
go from it to Tlalpam the present year ; while three more will con- 
tinue in it. One of them is of great promise. He leads his class by 
long odds. He enters on his second year, and will get the first prize 
for last year. 

" Educational work also tells upon our evangelistic work in a most 
marked degree. Our Seminary students, generally speaking, are our 
most active, energetic workers, and our best preachers. Our day- 
schools, also, open up new avenues of labor. The parents are most 
easily reached through their children, and the Christian teachers many 
times exert an influence not second to that of the native preachers. 
In fact, the points in which our work is in the most flourishing con- 
dition, are where we have good schools." 

The Zacatecas Field. 

From the Zacatecas field returns have not been received in time for 
this report. Zacatecas and the outstations connected with it, includ- 
ing Laguna, have been under the care of Rev. Messrs. T. F. and 
William Wallace, with the exception of San Miguel del Mezquitil and 
the region round about it, which have been in charge of Rev. D. J. 
Stewart, whose report is given below. 

During the year Rev. T. F. Wallace had a leave of absence for four 
months. 



MEXICO — ZACATECAS. 1 89 

The Messrs. Wallace, according to a letter received in June, visited, 
about the close of the previous year, various outstations, Fresnillo, 
Jerez, Colotlan, Hua-ju-car, Rancho de Dios, etc. They preached 
from place to place as they had opportunity, but during Holy Week 
(Easter) their labors were more or less disturbed by bull-fights, cock- 
fights, and a Passion Play, which is celebrated in various rural towns 
for the benefit of the Indians. The strong held which the Papacy 
has on the rude populations, and at the same time the degrading char- 
acter of its ceremonies, were abundantly illustrated during this tour, 
as, for example, at Tlaltenango, an old town of 3,500 people. Gro- 
tesque ceremonies seemed to occupy the priesthood and absorb the 
attention of the people. " We saw," says the letter, " large com- 
panies of from twenty-five to seventy-five people rushing from the 
main Romanist church to a neighboring chapel, and back again, re- 
citing prayers all the while. Each company was headed by a man who 
led them in the mumbled repetition of the ' Holy Rosary.' All, men, 
women, and children, hurried along bareheaded, muttering as fast as 
possible, and reminding one of a swarm of buzzing bees. Repeating 
the trip five times secured indulgence for the forty days of Lent. The 
church is open all day, and quite full of people confessing and attend- 
ing mass. It is clear that the Roman Catholic hierarchy has still a 
strong hold on large masses of the people, especially in the country 
districts, and that the work of evangelical missions is resolving itself 
into a long and hard fight." 

In a few places during this tour Rev. T. F. Wallace was called upon 
to baptize a few converts to the simple evangelical faith of the Gos- 
pel. Frequently the best and most satisfactory results of labor are 
found upon the ranches. For example : at the ranch of La Loma, 
where Don Pedro Herrera resides, an interesting work of grace has 
been carried on through his efforts. There are about fifty people on 
the ranch, of whom twenty-two are church members, besides five bap- 
tized children. " Don Pedro," says the report, " is a deeply pious 
man, and has been largely instrumental in the spread of the Gospel. 
We had two services each day of the two that we spent there. Out 
in these ranches one finds a sturdier character, a purer life and more 
common-sense intelligence than in the larger populations, and we 
consider them the most hopeful fields to work in." 
. In the Zacatecas field, as elsewhere in Mexico, there has been great 
suffering from drought and famine, and so far as accounts have been 
received, the year has not been one of prosperity. A famine which 
paralyzes business, at the same time that it raises the price of subsist- 
ence, throws the poor people into a condition of despair. There is 
no hope for them but to leave their homes, temporarily at least, for 
some other part of the country in which employment can be found, 
and the necessary supply of food can be obtained. The breaking up 
of little churches by such disasters is something which people in the 
United States can hardly appreciate. So far as numerical results of 
missionary labor are concerned, there may be instead of gain an act- 
ual and serious falling off. The one solace, however, is that these 
people, by being scattered abroad, as was the early church at Jeru- 



190 MEXICO— SAN LUIS POTOSI. 

salem, go into new communities where, if faithful to their vows, they 
may be supposed to scatter the good seed of the truth. In point oj 
fact, this is often done, and new centres have through such means be- 
come the scenes of a greater or less degree of religious interest. 
There is in any case but one thing to be done, namely, to labor on 
faithfully, holding the positions gained, realizing that the great Head 
of the Church is more deeply interested in His own cause than we can 
be, and so by prayer and trust, coupled with diligence, leave all in the 
hands of Him who alone giveth the increase. 

Meanwhile, notwithstanding the coldness and indifference, born of 
despair, which seem to rest largely on the hearts of the people, there 
are occasional instances of very deep interest. Rev. William Wallace, 
in speaking of a tour made in July, describes a young man who had 
traveled fifty miles for the purpose of witnessing a Protestant service. 
He had been brought up in a community where a missionary had 
never been seen, but, having lost faith in the Roman Catholic Church 
on account of the questionable practices which he had observed, he 
sought for some literature on the subject, and having found the " Let- 
ters of Kirwan " among other things, he was hopefully converted to 
Protestantism. A Bible he had never seen, and it was a great joy to 
him to receive and read one ; for he was an intelligent man. Being 
compelled to return immediately, he wished to make a public profes- 
sion of his faith in Christ. After a good deal of instruction and a 
very satisfactory examination, he was received into the church. He 
returned to his home with a goodly assortment of Christian books, ex- 
pecting, as he said, to meet bitter persecution, but wishing to bear 
testimony for Christ as often as he should have opportunity. It is to 
be hoped that through the leavening influence of such men whole com- 
munities may be led to rise up and ask for the truth in its purity. 

Rev. Mr. Stewart, of San Miguel del Mezquital, reports that the 
year has in many respects been a very trying one. Extreme poverty 
and scarcity of work have caused some of the members of the little 
church to change their residence. The price of corn has advanced 
from $2 to $5.25 and even 16 per bushel. It will be easy to see that 
such a condition of things in a country where corn is the staff of life, 
means almost total destruction of congregations gathered from the 
poor. Nevertheless, during the Week of Prayer, the attendance at 
church was good, the accommodations not being sufficient for the 
demand ; and, in spite of these discouragements, the people have 
begun to make adobes for their chapel in the outstation of Santa 
Clara. There is certainly in these bare statements, a telling appeal 
*to those in this land of prosperity and abundance, to help these peo- 
ple who are struggling with this indesrribable poverty. Mr. Stewart's 
report says, "While there is a grea'er spirit of tolerance manifested 
toward us than formerly, there is also noticeable a greater indiffer- 
ence and skepticism. Through social ostracism and a fear of taking 
up the cross, most of the people settle down into indifference and are 
neither Protestant nor Catholic." 

San Luis Potosi. 
To Mr. Beall, missionary at San Luis Potosi, the year has been one 
of trial, owing to the sickness of his wife and child. He has also 



MEXICO— STATISTICS. I9I 

suffered the diminution of his force of native helpers, which has 
brought much discouragement. Notwithstanding this, 15 have been 
received into the membership of the church during the year, making 
a gain of 5 over all losses as compared with last year. At every com- 
munion season during the year some members have been received 
and some children have been baptized. The native eldership seems 
to be growing in the sense of responsibility and willingness to work. 
It is to be hoped that during the coming year the San Luis Potosi 
station will be put in better condition for work by the erection of 
suitable property, upon a lot purchased more than a year ago for the 
purpose. The present buildings are such that the authorities have 
complained of them as unsafe. They are constantly open to munic- 
ipal interference, to say nothing of their inadequacy for the proper 
prosecution of the missionary work. Mention has already been made 
of the fact that eight of the outstations connected with this station 
are entirely without pastoral care. It is to be hoped that during the 
coming year the discouragements under which Mr. Beall labors will 
be to a great extent removed. The growing importance of San Luis 
Potosi — which with the opening of a harbor at Tampico, bids fair to 
be a great commercial centre — calls for an enlargement of its interests 
as a missionary station. 

Statistics of Northern Mexico. 

Ordained missionaries 5 

Married female missionaries 3 

Unmarried female missionaries 2 

Ordained natives 3 

Licentiates iq 

Native teachers and helpers 15 

Churches 40 

Communicants 1,972 

Added during the year 166 

Students for the ministry 13 

Girls in boarding-school 28 

Boys and girls in day-schools 343 

Total number of pupils 371 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 964 

Contributions $2,803.26 

Total Statistics of Mexican Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 8 

Married female missionaries 6 

Unmarried female missionaries 4 

Ordained natives 23 

Licentiates 24 

Native teachers and helpers 52 

Churches 96 

Communicants 4,934 

Added during the year 309 

Students for the ministry 34 

Boys in boarding-school 28 

Girls in boarding-schools (2) 73 

Boys and girls in day-schools 1.255 

Total number of pupils 1,356 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 1,875 

Contributions $4, 197.64 



MISSIONS IN PERSIA. 
Eastern Persia Mission. 

Teheran : capital of Persia, population 200,000 ; work begun in 1872 ; laborers — 
Rev. Messrs. J. L. Potter, S. Lawrence Ward, and Lewis F. Esselstyn, and their wives ; 
W. W. Torrence, M.D., and his wife ; Miss Anna Schenck, Miss Cora Bartlett, Miss A. 
G. Dale, Miss L. H. McCampbell and Mary J. Smith, M.D. ; Pastor Reuben ; 2 licen- 
tiates, 8 male helpers. 

Hamadan : 200 miles southwest of Teheran, population 40,000 ; occupied 18S0 ; labor- 
ers — Rev. Messrs. James W. Hawkes and W. G. Watson, and their wives ; E. W. Alex- 
ander, M.D., and his wife ; Miss Annie Montgomery, Miss Charlotte Montgomery, and 
Miss Adeline Hunter; Miss Sue S. Lienbach and Jessie C. Wilson, M.D.; Pastor Shi- 
mon ; 2 licentiates, 7 male and 5 female native teachers. 

In this country: Miss A. G. Dale, Miss Cora Bartlett, Miss Adeline Hunter, and Mis 
W. W. Torrence. 

Teheran Station. 

Several important changes took place in the missionary force at this 
station during the year. Miss Greene, by an arrangement with the 
West Persia Mission, and the consent of the Board, was transferred to 
Oroomiah ; Miss Dale and Miss Bartlett, the former in ill health, re- 
turned to the United States on furlough. Dr. Torrence resigned and 
withdrew from the medical work, while Miss Letitia H. McCampbell 
joined the station as a new missionary. 

The church at this station which was in danger of being rent asun- 
der a year ago has had a year of comparative quiet. One of the two 
things which threatened difficulty has been happily adjusted, and the 
other, it is hoped, may yield to judicious treatment. The church has 
taken a long step forward in securing for itself a commodious and 
beautiful building, being the old Kasvin chapel reconstructed, which 
was purchased from the mission at a low figure. The total cost to 
the church was about $1,400, of which $400 was a gift from the Shah. 
The foundations of the enlarged building were laid with religious ex- 
ercises on May r8, 1891. The entire project, including the financial 
responsibility, devolved entirely upon the church, and the success of 
their efforts promises well for the material side of the work in the 
future. On the spiritual side the report is less encouraging, though in 
some respects in advance of that of last year. A Moslem and a Jew 
were received on confession of faith, and one by letter, making the 
total membership forty-nine. Mr. Potter writes that in the chapel on 
the mission premises preaching and Sunday-school services in Persian 
were maintained, and also during part of the year services in English 
on Sunday afternoon for the benefit of the mission families and the 
English-speaking residents. The latter element is steadily increasing 
in Teheran, as business projects requiring foreign talent multiply, and 
the missionaries are not a little perplexed to know what course to 
pursue to meet the spiritual needs of these strangers from Christian 
lands without turning aside from the specific work to which they have 
given their lives. The offerings at the English services amounted to 
$204, and those of the Persian Sunday-school to $20. 




13 



194 EASTERN PERSIA — TEHERAN. 

Educational. — The past year will be memorable in the history of 
the Boys' School because of the graduation of its first class, consisting 
of four young men, two Jews and two Armenians. In the curriculum 
completed by these graduates the Bible study included the Pentateuch 
and the New Testament through the Pauline Epistles. Mr. Ward re- 
ports the religious atmosphere of the school as improved. A Chris- 
tian Endeavor Society, numbering twenty-five members, has been 
organized, and the meetings connected with it are well sustained. A 
number of distinguished foreigners, including some connected with 
several of the diplomatic corps, have manifested their interest in the 
school by gifts toward its support, and by their presence at the 
graduating exercises. The Shah's son, the Naib-i-Sultaneh, and the 
Principal of the Shah's college, were also present at the closing exer- 
cises. Ninety-four pupils were enrolled, of whom 52 are Armenians, 
17 Jews, 18 Moslems, 4 Eire- worshippers, 2 Americans, and 1 Nesto- 
rian. It is worthy of note that the number of Moslem pupils has 
doubled within the year, — a hopeful sign where Islam is the great foe 
to the progress of the Gospel. Of the ninety-four in attendance forty- 
one were boarders. The boys are all required to pay something for 
tuition and support, either in cash or labor, and in this way the cost 
of the school is reduced, an^ the people are taught a useful lesson as 
to their responsibility for their children's education. 

Iran Bethel.— -The year has been one of peculiar trials to this girls' 
school. The return home of Miss Bartlett and Miss Dale left the 
entire burden of responsibility upon Miss Schenck. Mrs. Potter, 
however, willingly stepped into the breach and rendered efficient 
service. The arrival of Miss McCampbell did something to relieve the 
strain, even though most of her time had to be occupied in the study 
of the language. Seventy-four pupils were in attendance, but the 
great reduction in the working force required the dismissing for a time 
of the smaller children. The two graduates, constituting the first 
class graduated from the school, and who had just received their diplo- 
mas, had already rendered some assistance in teaching, and were 
immediately employed for the regular work of the school, but, unfor- 
tunately, both of them were betrothed, and their friends not being 
willing to consent to a delay, the girls were required to relinquish their 
positions and prepare for marriage. This very greatly increased the 
difficulty in sustaining the various departments of the school. Miss 
Schenck refers to one of the great trials in conducting schools in 
Persia, namely, the diversity of languages, the children being required 
in many instances to wrestle with three alphabets and two sets or sys- 
tems of figures at a time. The school met with a narrow escape in 
the falling of the heavy ceiling of the school-room ; some of the pieces 
weighing twenty or thirty pounds. Happily no one was present when 
the fall took place. 

The usual religious exercises which have been conspicuous in this 
school from the beginning were sustained with interest, but nothing 
special is reported in this direction. 

The Primary School in the Jewish quarter has happily escaped per- 
secution, and had an attendance of from twenty-five to thirty, and the 



EASTERN PERSIA — TEHERAN. 195 

Jewish school for young men, held in the evening, was maintained 
without interference. During the part of the year while these schools 
were in session, a Sunday afternoon service was maintained in the 
school-room, attended by the pupils and others. 

Outstatiotis. — Mr. Esselstyn, who has charge of the outstations 
Rescht and Kasvin, reports nothing of special interest in the former. 
What is needed seems to be the presence of an American missionary, 
as but a l'ttle opposition has been manifested by Moslems, and during 
Mr. Esselstyn's visit of eleven days he was everywhere well received. 
Regular services have been maintained by Kasha Ruben, and a school 
numbering twenty pupils has been conducted with success by him and 
his wife. At Kasvin some little opposition was manifested because of 
three successive visits of the old Armenian Bishop, but it did not 
materially affect our work. Mr. Esselstyn says : " The Armenians 
seem more favorably inclined to us than ever before, and persistently 
petition us to open a school there." 

Concerning outside evangelistic work committed to Mr. Esselstyn 
by the mission, he writes : " During eleven and one-half months 1 
have travelled more than thirteen hundred miles with my horse, visit- 
ing the cities of Simnon, Damgon, and Shahrood, also twenty-six 
villages, in which I have preached to about a thousand people. In 
Teheran, I have made about thirty-five calls, usually accompanied by 
my wife, who visits the women of the family, when the Bible has been 
read, prayers offered, or religious conversation engaged in, and some- 
times all three. Most of the calls have been on Mussulmans. I have 
received calls from twenty-five or more Moslems, who came expressly 
for religious inquiry. During the summer I preached on Sunday at 
the summer place, sometimes having a Moslem attendance of fifty or 
sixty." 

Of the Work among the Women Mrs. Potter writes : " We have for 
our field the women of four distinct classes of people in this city, Ar- 
menians, Parsees, Jews, and Moslems, to each of which there are lines 
of approach peculiar to their situation and belief. The schools and all 
the religious services of the church are open to the first three, mak- 
ing them equal in point of privilege ; but as the religions of the Parsees 
and the Jews are so far removed from the Christian religion, and their 
knowledge of it so much less, we can hardly depend upon these 
means to supply their needs, while we do feel that the Armenians 
have abundant opportunities. Our effort has been to stimulate the 
zeal of those who are in the church, and reaching out to draw in 
more of the Armenian women." The decree of the Government, 
issued November, 1S90, forbidding all Moslem women to attend the 
mission services, concerning which some apprehension was felt, seems 
to have wrought no special harm, as more work has been done among 
that class than in former years. The meeting for Jewish women was 
held in the Jewish quarter on Sabbath afternoons. The ladies of the 
station are rejoicing in the recent opening of some Parsee homes. 
Mrs. Potter writes: "The entering wedge was a call for the profes- 
sional services of Dr. Smith. In our visit to her patient we met 
other women of that faith, and afterward it was comparatively easy to 



196 EASTERN PERSIA— HAMAD AN. 

call at their homes, Bible in hand, and invite their attention for a short 
time." 

Medical Work. — The resignation of Dr. Torrence and the tem- 
porary transfer of Dr. Smith to Hamadan interfered seriously with 
this department of the work. This is all the more to be regretted, as 
there was reason to hope that the hospital just completed would give 
a new impetus to the medical work, and open a much wider field for 
missionary effort than hitherto. Before and after her visit to Hamadan, 
however, Dr. Smith spent two days each week in the dispensary for 
women, and also received patients in her own apartments, and visited 
many in their own homes. Of the spiritual side of the work Dr. 
Smith writes : " Both in the work at the dispensary and in the homes 
we have endeavored, in ministering to the bodily needs, not to forget 
the need the soul has of healing from its sin sickness. Last winter 
Mrs. Potter kindly accompanied me to the dispensary, where she read 
and talked to the women who came, and also went with me to their 
homes when necessary, thus aiding me greatly when from lack of 
knowledge of the language I could not talk to them myself. Patients 
have come to us from all classes and conditions of life. Armenians, 
Mussulmans, and Jews have all been included in our list, and by all 
we have been received kindly when we have gone to their homes." 
The Board is earnestly endeavoring to secure a medical gentleman, pro- 
fessionally qualified for such an important place, and in thorough sym- 
pathy with mission work, for this station. After the withdrawal of 
Dr. Torrence, Dr. Odling had kindly rendered such service as was re- 
quired by our mission, especially during the absence of Dr. Smith. 

The only literary work reported as completed within the year is a 
Hymn-Book in Persian, comprising one hundred and fourteen hymns, 
eighty-two of them new. Of the new hymns six are original versions 
of the Psalms, and the others translations of English hymns. 

Hamadan Station. 

Several shadows have fallen upon this station during the year. 
Among these may be mentioned the illness, and consequent return 
home, of Miss Adeline Hunter, after a service of two years ; the nec- 
essary absence of Dr. Alexander on mission business for several 
months, and his subsequent resignation, leaving the station without a 
physician. The temporary transfer of Dr. Mary J. Smith from Te- 
heran, however, and the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Hawkes, accompa- 
nied by Jessie C. Wilson, M.D., and Miss Sue S. Lienbach, did much 
to dispel these shadows. Notwithstanding the depleted force, the 
various departments of work were well sustained. The church, under 
the supervision of Mr. Watson, has had a year of peace and steady 
growth in Christian character. Three were added to the roll on con- 
fession of faith, making eighty-five communicants, while one hundred 
and forty scholars were enrolled in the Sabbath-school. It is a hope- 
ful sign that the ruling elders kept a watchful care over the flock. As 
has been their custom for some time past, they visited all the members 
in their homes each quarter during the year, and were able to report 
a manifest increase in the spirit of prayer and love for the truth. 



EASTERN PERSIA — HAMADAN. 197 

The High-School for Boys had a total enrollment of eighty-four, 
with an average attendance of seventy-five. A marked increase in the 
earnestness and application of the pupils is reported. A classification 
of studies, rendered necessary by the development of the school, was 
made. Much attention is given to religious instruction. The first 
half hour of each day is devoted to Bible study. Of other religious 
exercises Mrs. Watson writes : " Toward the end of the spring term 
the boys started and sustained a short noon prayer-meeting, especially 
for the Jewish people. The Saturday evening prayer-meeting has 
been well sustained during the year. It is a great pleasure to note the 
interest the boys feel in these meetings. Moslem boys drop in, and 
we know a friendly invitation has been extended to them by our boys ; 
or sometimes we see the boys bringing others with them to make sure 
they come. The consultation meeting in Mr. Watson's study Sunday 
afternoon has been a source of much help and strength to the boys, 
for they can speak freely of any difficulties or stumbling-blocks which 
will arise in the minds of these Oriental boys, as well as in the minds 
of their Occidental cousins." The three additions to the church 
noted above were from this school, one of the boys being a Jew and 
two Armenians. The closing exercises of the school for the year were 
attended, among others, by two Persian princes, sons of the Governor 
of Hamadan, and nephews of the Shah of Persia. When the exer- 
cises were concluded they came to the platform with other friends, 
and, shaking hands with the teachers, offered their congratulations on 
the success of the school. 

The Faith Hubbard School reports an attendance of one hundred 
and four scholars, fifty-four of them being boarders. Of the total num- 
ber five were Moslems, seven Jews, and the remainder Armenians. 
Though the health of the scholars was for the most part good, a few 
cases of illness gave occasion for alarm, especially one of small-pox. 
Happily prompt measures in removing the patient from the house and 
using modern appliances were effective in keeping the disease from 
spreading. Of this school Miss Charlotte G. Montgomery writes : 
" Through many interruptions the work in the school progressed ; the 
teachers were earnest and faithful in their work, and the scholars in 
general diligent. One of the plans for the year had been to give the 
girls an opportunity to learn more fancy-work, but nothing was accom- 
plished in that line till the last two or three months of the term. This 
they enjoy and undertake heartily, so that what they finished in that 
time, in addition to studies, examinations, and other work, made quite 
a creditable display on examination day." Here again the princes 
referred to above were present, and manifested their interest in the 
work of the school. Touching the daily life in the home the report 
says : "The girls appear to be making progress in the Christian life. 
They seem to be aiming higher, and striving day by day to live 
exemplary Christian lives, doing their work 'as unto the Lord and 
not unto men.' For a time we had some dissension among the differ- 
ent nationalities comprising our household. It was Armenian against 
Moslem, and Moslem and Armenian against Jew. Any one not ac- 
quainted with this country can scarcely understand how very difficult 



I98 EASTERN PERSIA— STATISTICS. 

it is to blend those incongruous atoms harmoniously. It is an inherited 
tendency in them to be 'hateful and hating one another,' but even 
this grace can overcome, so when the girls came to realize how un- 
worthy such feeling is, especially to those who bear the name of Christ, 
and that all His disciples should be one in Him, they laid aside their 
differences and again peace reigned in our home." The King's 
Daughters have continued their Sabbath evening prayer-meeting, 
which is followed by a sort of experience meeting, the members 
talking with each other of the lights and shadows of their Christian 
life. Their Christmas offering amounted to $4.20, while the gifts of 
the Mission Band aggregated $21.27. 

A quiet work among the women in prayer-meeting and Sabbath- 
school and within their own homes has been continued with some 
encouragement. In one of the houses as many as fifteen gathered on 
one occasion to hear the Word of Life. In reporting this work Miss 
Annie Montgomery refers to the " deadly nightshade, polygamy," which 
has poisoned the life of the Moslem women : " In childhood untrained, 
untaught, uncontrolled, with no happy home or school life. She may 
not associate with her brothers, for she must be married while yet a 
mere child, not even able to read, and her mind filled with the vile- 
ness of the harem she is leaving." 

Of the work in Sheverine, a village near Hamadan, the report says : 
" Our work in Sheverine, interrupted in the winter, was resumed in 
the early spring, and has been very encouraging, for the women have 
learned to listen, and seem to understand the truth. The Sabbath- 
school classes are doing better work, and the piimary class gave for 
missions last year $3.17. Before the Sabbath service and the Thurs- 
day meeting I can visit the sick and tell them of the Good Physician, 
but now that Dr. Wilson has come we hope to reach many more of 
the village women. The Hamadan Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society contributed last year $20.15, and they continue the good 
work." 

Owing to the protracted absence of Dr. Alexander and his sub- 
sequent resignation, referred to above, the medical work necessarily 
suffered. A large amount of dispensary work, however, was done by 
the native assistants, and Dr. Smith, of Teheran, accomplished much 
both in the dispensary and in the homes during her brief sojourn in 
Hamadan. It is with pleasure we add that Dr. George W. Holmes, 
so long our medical missionary at Tabriz, has been appointed to 
Hamadan, the way having opened for his return to Persia. 

Statistics for Eastern Persia. 

Ordained missionaries 5 

Medical missionaries (two ladies) 4 

Single lady missionaries 8 

Married lady missionaries 7 

Ordained native I 

Licentiates 4 

Native teachers, male 15 

Native teachers, female 5 

Churches 3 

Communicants 139 



WESTERN PERSIA. 199 

Added during the year 6 

Hoys in boarding-school '. t 60 

(iirls in boarding-school 119 

Boys in day-school 228 

Girls in day-school 78 

T< >tal number of pupils 485 

Number of schools 7 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 210 

Contributions $45^ 

Western Persia Mission. 

Oroomiah (600 miles north of west from Teheran, the capital) : station begun under 
the American Board, 1835; transferrer! to this Board in 1871 ; laborers — Rev. J. H. 
Shedd, D.D., J. P. Cochran, M.D., Rev. F. G. Coan, Rev. E. \V. St. Pierre, and their 
wives; Mr. E. T. Allen; Mrs. I). P. Cochran; Misses >.'. J. Dean, M. K. Van Duzee, 
M. \V. Greene, E. T. Miller, M.D., H. L. Medbery, and G. G. Russell; 29 ordained 
and 30 licentiate pastors, 98 native helpers, and 3 Bible-women. 

Mountain Station — MOSUL: opened in 1889; laborers — Rev. Messrs. E. W. Mc- 
Dowell and J. A. Ainslie and their wives ; J. G. Wi^hard, M.D.; Miss Anna Melton ; 4 
ordained and 4 licentiate native pastors, and x6 native helpers. 

Tabriz (nearly 500 miles north of west from Teheran) : station begun, 1873 ; labor- 
ers — Rev. Messrs. S. G. Wilson and Turner G. Brashear and their wives ; Wm. S. 
Vanneman, M.D., and Mrs. Vanneman ; Mrs. L. C. Van Hook, Miss G. Y. Holliday, 
and Miss M. E. Bradford, M.D.; 3 ordained native ministers, 5 licentiate pastors, 25 
native helpers and 1 Bible-woman. 

SALMAS : Haft Deman village ; station begun in 1884 ; laborers— Rev. and Mrs. J. C. 
Mechlin, Miss C. O. Van Duzee ; 1 ordained and 5 licentiate native ministers, 7 native 
helpers, and 1 Bible-woman. 

In this country: Rev. B. Labaree, D.D., and his wife, Rev. J. N. Wright, Miss 
Mary Jewett. 

The wide area of territory covered by this mission, from the shores 
of the Caspian to the valley of the Tigris, the diverse populations em- 
braced in the field, and the confusion of tongues spoken, present here 
more than the ordinary number of difficult problems in the prosecu- 
tion of missionary work. They differ in different portions of the field. 
In Tabriz it is to build up a living church and to reach the masses of 
a great city, bigoted and intolerant, and to carry the Gospel over a 
wide territory to Armenians and Persians, with increasing responsibil- 
ities to the peoples of the Caucasus, the contiguous province of Rus- 
sia. In Salmas the problem is to evangelize a large rural population 
of Armenians strongly enchained to their ancient superstitions and 
formal rites and ceremonies, and to reach out to Chaldeans and Mos- 
lems. In Oroomiah the special work is among the more plastic 
Syrian or Nestorian people, to develop the power of the native 
church, gathered there after nearly 60 years of missionary effort, and 
make it a forceful evangelizing agency to their Moslem, Armenian, 
and Jewish neighbors. In the mountain districts of Kurdistan the 
knotty problem is how to secure the entrance and growth of the Gos- 
pel among almost barbarous conditions, checked by Turks, Kurdish 
chiefs, and independent lawless tribes of nominal Christians. Farther 
westward, in the valley of the Tigris, with the new station of Mosul as 
the centre, the task is to reach up into Kurdistan to the Nestorians, 
as attempted by Dr. Grant 50 years ago, to check the disastrous in- 
fluence of the Church of Rome among the Chaldeans and Nestorians 



20O WESTERN PERSIA — OROOMIAH. 

of the plains, and to rescue the Yezidees from the degradation of their 
senseless Satan worship. 

In respect to languages, too, there are embarrassing complications. 
The well-equipped missionary, man or woman, feels the need of at least 
two at his or her command. In Tabriz and Salmas it is the Armenian 
and Turkish ; in Oroomiah the Syriac and Turkish ; in Mosul the 
Syriac and Arabic. Besides these ever-present problems, taxing mis- 
sionary patience, resolution, and wisdom, each year is likely to develop 
some new conditions or complications which add to the difficulties of 
the situation. During the past year some such new disturbances have 
operated unfavorably, particularly the agitation over the tobacco mo- 
nopoly. The conflict between the civil and ecclesiastical powers on 
this subject has been very acute, threatening at one time a revo- 
lution. The result has been rather to increase the prestige of the 
Mullahs and the fanaticism of the people against the Christians. 
Though the missionary work has not suffered seriously thereby thus 
far, the situation has added anxieties to the other burdens of the mis- 
sionary workers. 

But, notwithstanding all the impediments and disappointments, the 
past year has been one of gratifying progress in many particulars. In 
confident tones are the workers able to declare the Lord is on our side. 

Much gratification was experienced in the autumn by the visit of Mr. 
L. D. Wishard, Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
in his tour around the world, accompanied by Mrs. Wishard and Mr. 
W. H. Grant. His labors in connection with the college at Oroomiah, 
and the Boys' School in Tabriz, were felt to be of lasting value to the 
young men there assembled, and the same was true of his intercourse 
with the native workers. The presence, too, of these sympathetic 
friends at the annual meeting of the mission at Oroomiah, with their 
wise, practical views and suggestions, made this visit a memorable one 
in the annals of the mission. 

Oroomiah. 

The Churches. — The most significant fact in the year's history of 
church growth at this station, is the continued manifestation of the 
Holy Spirit in the midst of the churches. As in the previous year, 
many of these churches have enjoyed quickening revivals, and an un- 
usually large number of souls have been added to their membership ; 
of such, we trust, as shall be saved. The early part of the year was 
marked by the holding of special religious services throughout the 
field. Messrs. Coan and St. Pierre were very active in aiding the 
pastors during the "Spiritual Week," so commonly observed now 
through the winter and early spring. Their labors were richly blessed 
of the Lord. The congregations were everywhere large. It is be- 
lieved that in no previous year was the Gospel preached to so large a 
number of Nestorians as during this season. The harvest of souls has 
been a precious one. Many heads of families, persons prominent in 
their communities, some of them Armenians and some Roman Cath- 
olics, were among the gathered in. The faith and fidelity of some of 
the native pastors was an important factor in the significant result. 



WESTERN PERSIA— OROOMIAH. 201 

Nor should we fail to recognize the useful activity of numbers of lay 
workers, especially among the young men, who by organized visitation 
from house to house, and by personal work for individual souls, have 
followed up and deepened greatly the impression made by the spoken 
truth. The Easter Sunday following these awakenings was a mem- 
orable one. The Lord's Supper was celebrated in over 20 places, 
and new members were received in nearly every one of them. The 
largest addition was in Gulpashan. where over 40 members were re- 
ceived. The total of additions to the churches during the year was 
255, a number never exceeded but once in the annals of this station ; 
the net increase, 228, is larger than in any year before. It is of fur- 
ther interest to note that the additions occurred in 38 different con- 
gregations. These facts are indicative of a substantial growth for 
which we cannot be too grateful to the Divine Power by whom it has 
come. 

The General Synod. — The territory covered by the Synod of the 
Evangelical Syrian (Nestorian) Church is broader than the geo- 
graphical limits of the Oroomiah station. Portions of Salinas and 
Western Kurdistan are under its general supervision. It has now a 
recorded membership of 2,344. This is a gain of 25 per cent, in 
the last five years, and compared with twenty years ago it shows a 
growth of 200 per cent., or an average yearly increase of 10 per 
cent. Meanwhile, however, the churches have been stirred to a 
pretty thorough sifting of their membership and to closer scrutiny 
in the admission of applicants. There are connected with the 
Synod 43 presbyters, 32 preaching deacons, 19 licentiates, 9 stu- 
dents for the ministry, 109 elders, and 106 deaconesses. This is a 
large and hopeful body, from which we may expect an ever widen- 
ing leavening power to permeate the populations of Persia with the 
rectifying and sanctifying influence of the Gospel. 

The missionaries have felt that possibly it was time to devolve 
more of responsibility upon the Synod for the evangelization of the 
nominal Christians, that they might expend more of their own time 
and resources upon the non-Christian populations. Such a measure 
has been proposed to the Evangelistic Board of the Synod, but has 
not met with the response hoped for. They feel scarcely prepared 
for so important a step. The additional financial burdens it would 
involve is doubtless the most serious objection in their minds. 
While among individuals a cheering growth of the true missionary 
spirit is apparent, and we have some inspiring instances of self- 
sacrifice and devotion in Gospel work, as a whole the church does 
not advance as we could wish. The contributions of the churches 
towards self-support do increase from year to year; in 1889 they 
amounted to about $1,385 ; in 1890, to $1,920 ; in 1891, to $2,235 ; 
but this increase is in small proportion to the enlarged outlay de- 
manded for advance in pastors' salaries and for church and manse 
building. There are seven churches out of nineteen that give all or 
more than half of their pastors' support; several others are near 
the half-way mark. This whole subject has come up for renewed 
discussion recently in connection with the plea of the native help- 



202 WESTERN PERSIA — ORO0MIAH. 

ers for larger salaries, to meet the higher cost of living. The de- 
mand has elements of reason in it. But the effort to make the 
increase depend on the enlarged contribution of the churches has 
not been wholly successful. This condition, however, is presented 
and emphasized in the rules lately adopted by the Native Board 
regulating the proposed increase of salaries. 

The Hindrances. — The reports from the field dilate upon some of 
the social conditions and habits of the people which seriously antago- 
nize the development of a strong and progressive Christian charac- 
ter. One of these is their litigious spirit. Unseemly quarrels are 
not uncommon in the churches. " Brother goeth to law with 
brother, and that before unbelievers." Not a little time of mission- 
aries and native pastors is consumed in efforts to adjust conten- 
tions, if not always among the brethren, then among the sisters. 
Thus too often the best results of revival blessings are spoiled, the 
spiritual tone of the whole church is lowered, and its savor among 
its neighbors is sadly marred. Another discouraging condition is 
the ready yielding of church members to worldly seductions at the 
expense of Christian principle. Their special temptation in this 
line is from the wine weddings so prevalent among the people at 
large. The Presbyteries and Synod are constantly bringing pressure 
to bear towards effecting a reformation in these festivals, too often 
scenes of disorderly or unseemly conduct, and they frown upon 
the attendance at them of the church members, even though they 
may not indulge themselves in the use of wine. But the desire to 
be neighborly and to enjoy a good time works against church rule, 
and is stronger than the fear of suspension by the session. Again, 
the pernicious habit of travelling in Russia as mendicants, in which 
the Nestorians are amazingly successful, is in certain districts fast- 
ening its roots deeper and deeper into the social life, debasing good 
morals and deadening whole communities to spiritual influences. 
And further, there is noticeable a general growth in worldliness, 
akin to what is lamented in the Church of Christ almost univers- 
ally at this time. Wealth is increasing, to be sure on a small scale 
comparatively, but, more or less, the usual results of extravagance 
in dress and living are fostered by it. With this also, and with ad- 
vancement in intelligence, comes ambition for social elevation and 
worldly position, dampening the ardor of simple, self-denying piety. 
One fruit of all this, noticed in previous annual reports, but still a 
disheartening condition, is the unrest among our students, a crav- 
ing to better their worldly estate by going abroad. It is becoming 
very difficult to supply the churches with suitable pastors. All 
these circumstances severely tax the patience and discretion of the 
missionaries. 

There are other conditions, however, which are harbingers of 
triumph over obstacles and so hearten the soldiers of the Cross 
against all temporary discouragements. Dr. Shedd mentions these 
grounds of encouragement : "(i) The activity of laymen who are 
imbued with the need of more earnest work, and prayer, and a 
purer example. (2) The openness of the people to the Gospel when 



WESTERN PERSIA— OROOMI AH. 203 

it is faithfully presented, and the general friendliness, notwithstand- 
ing the efforts of bishops and ritualists to set up barriers. (3) In- 
creased volume of spiritual power, and greater faith, and the fact that 
where there are labor and prayer and godly example God gives the 
increase. And with this there is more of the missionary spirit to 
carry the Gospel- to all the people" As a development of this 
missionary spirit, much interest belongs to the operations of the 
little organization lately formed of volunteer spirits, known by the 
name of the Persia Inner Mission. It is composed of missionaries 
and native brethren. A humble movement at the beginning, it is 
hoped to have in it the seeds of expansion and more rapid evangeli- 
zation for the other nationalities of the country. 

Work for Moslems. — The rifts in the darkness which overhangs 
the Moslems of Persia are widening. Never has there been such a 
degree of encouragement for direct Christian labor among these 
people as during the year under review. Persian Islam seems in 
process of disintegration. The heterodox sects are increasing rap- 
idly in numbers. There is a secret breaking away from the re- 
straints and unsatisfying teachings of Mohammedanism. Christian 
preachers are listened to with an attention that surprises. Dr. 
Cochran, whose profession affords him unusual opportunities of in- 
tercourse with the higher classes, states that he has never known 
among them so many inquirers on religious matters. In the light of 
these facts the little Inner Mission for the Moslems, referred to 
above, has before it an opening of great significance, and one that 
promises very important results. Dr. Shedd, deeply impressed with 
the consequences attaching to this new enterprise, makes this expo- 
sition of facts in regard to it : " This," he says, "is the real mission- 
ary work of Persia. We have made a beginning, and have raised 
enough funds to keep one native missionary and one theological 
student at work this winter. Besides these, we have set in 
motion a good deal of volunteer agency. One good native physi- 
cian is at work in the city of , pays his own way, and has done 

most valuable service. Another physician hopes soon to go to an- 
other important city, at his own charges, and do similar work there. 
One young man who, in addition to his college training, has taken a 
brief course of instruction in simple medicine, during the winter 
past has visited a hundred or more villages of Moslems and was 
courteously received in all. A Nestorian Bible-woman has visited 
Mime sixty Moslem villages and has found a kindly welcome every- 
where, and eager listeners and inquirers in some of them. Some of 
the converts from Islam have engaged in tours, and are active in 
spreading the knowledge of Christ among their people. It is the 
privilege of this station to report the baptism of several hopeful 
converts from Islam during the year, — three men and two girls, the 
parents of the latter giving their consent and being present at the 
ceremony. 

"The school for Moslem girls, with an attendance of from ro to 
15, was in session several months ; in the fall it was united with the 
Fiske Seminary. 



204 WESTERN PERSIA — OROOMIAH. 

" The outlook for evangelistic work among the Mohammedans is 
certainly hopeful. And yet it must not be forgotten that at any mo- 
ment fanaticism may arrest the present activity and close up all these 
interesting opportunities, yea, seal them up in blood. The situation 
is a critical one, and urgently calls for the prayers of the Church at 
large, and its generous support. While the Lord permits these favor- 
able opportunities to continue, a grand faith and bold wise efforts 
may achieve results beyond price." 

Oroomiah College. — This institution continues under the care of 
Dr. Shedd and Mr. St. Pierre ; Dr. Shedd having to do principally 
with the theological class and the industrial department. Dr. Coch- 
ran has charge of the medical department. The native teachers are 
three in the regular college course, one each in the medical and the 
preparatory departments. An aggregate attendance of 122 is re- 
ported. Of these, nine are regular, and three irregular, students of 
theology ; six are studying medicine ; fifty are in the regular academ- 
ical classes ; and fifty-four in the preparatory school. There is on 
the same premises a grammar-school of 40 boys; making a total of 
162 youth in attendance at the daily chapel exercises. There were 10 
graduates from the college in July, and 18 received certificates of 
completing two years' study in the preparatory school, of whom 14 
were received into the college course. 

Of the closing exercises of the college last July Mr. St. Pierre 
writes : " Commencement week showed a great deal of solid work, 
and surprised even those most intimately connected with the institu- 
tion. It is gradually pushing its way forward and assuming a more 
and more important place among institutions of learning, notwith- 
standing its drawbacks in the way of lack of endowments, and its de- 
pendence on a meagre estimate from year to year. Our teachers are 
paid really too small salaries to allow them the opportunities they re- 
quire in the way of self-improvement, for which books and leisure are 
absolute necessiti* s. Yet so long as we are dependent on Board ap- 
propriations we cannot give these. The teachers are hard-working, 
faithful, and cultivated men, and deserve all we can do for them, and 
much more besides." " The examinations," he continues, " are both 
oral and written. To the oral we invite examiners from our educated 
men. The pleasure these manifested in all to which they listened was 
very gratifying indeed. The oratorical contest was a splendid success. 
It is gaining ground year by year. Its aim is to stimulate the young 
men of the college to the cultivation of grace and power in public 
speaking, and all for Christ and His church. The Alumni meeting 
was an unusually harmonious one." 

The religious standing of the present attendance at the college is 
as follows : Of the students of theology, medicine, and of the gradu- 
ating class, all (28) are church members. Out of 56 in the regular 
college classes, 39 are in the church, and in the lower departments 
16 out of 75. During the year 15 of the students united with their 
churches at home. 

Late in the year Mr. E. T. Allen, a young artisan of London, 
Canada, possessed of an ardent desire to serve in the foreign field, 



WESTERN PERSIA — OROOMIAH. 205 

was sent out by the Board to develop the industrial branch of 
the college work. It is greatly hoped that he will assist materially 
in the solution of problems in this line which particularly press 
upon the attention of the brethren in this field. 

The Fiske Seminary. — Miss Dean has continued in charge of this 
school, though in quite indifferent health. She was assisted by Miss 
Van Duzee a part of the year, and also by Miss Melton previous to 
her transfer to the Mosul station, on account of her health. The 
arrival of Miss Medbery and Miss Russell has lifted a heavy burden 
of care from Miss Dean's hands, and infused new life into all the 
many plans for the increased efficiency of the institution. There 
is some growth of interest in the education of their daughters 
among the people, even where it involves the payment of money to 
meet expenses. The culture received at this Seminary, moral and 
religious, as well as intellectual and industrial, grows upon the 
minds of the more thoughtful parents. One mother, by way of 
illustration, said, as she paid the small sum charged for her daugh- 
ter's tuition, that the money was of no account at all as she saw the 
wonderful improvement of her daughter even in a single term. 
During the year a kindergarten for day pupils from the city was 
added to the other departments of the school, and has proved 
astonishingly popular, with the mothers as well as the children. It 
was last winter under Miss Melton's care. Not a few mothers came 
to her for assistance in the home discipline of their small children, 
seeing Miss M.'s thorough control over them in school hours. 

The number of boarders in the school was 77, and 100 were 
enrolled in the different branches of the day-school. 

A tender religious feeling prevailed among the members of the 
school last winter and spring, and a number seemed to come out on 
the Lord's side. Several united with the churches of their respect- 
ive villages. The quietness of this work of grace was especially 
gratifying. 

Work for Women. — Meetings for women at intervals of three or 
four months, in different sections of the field, have been kept up, 
for which Mrs. Shedd has rendered important service, preparing 
programmes and Bible-readings, and others have assisted by attend- 
ing. We can readily believe, as Dr. Shedd remarks, " that these 
conferences are a power for good." 

Miss Greene, though battling with ill-health, has made frequent 
tours into the villages, and her interest in the dull, toiling life of these 
Persian sisters, her efforts to impart some higher ideals of order, 
reading, and Christian living, have been warmly appreciated. 

Miss Van Duzee has continued her invaluable labors for Moslem 
women. Her Friday and Sunday meetings for the converts and 
inquirers are well attended. Eight of the women take part in 
prayer. Of their own accord they have introduced singing into 
the meetings, ami though the singing is poor they find the hymns 
very precious and helpful. Miss Van Duzee also has weekly meet- 
ings with Jewish women. Under her direction a Bible-woman does 
excellent work in the Jewish quarter of the city. She is cordially 



206 WESTERN PERSIA — OROOMIAH. 

received for the most part into whatever houses she goes. On one 
such visit a young Jewish merchant heard the Gospel from her lips, 
and he has since openly confessed his faith in Christ, exposing 
himself to severe persecution in consequence. This continual 
preaching of Christ to this community of Israelites is evidently 
breaking down prejudices, and the hearts of not a few are ap- 
parently softening towards Jesus of Nazareth. 

The Medical Work. — We have from Dr. Cochran a very sug- 
gestive report on the work of the Westminster Hospital for the year 
past. The institution accommodates 30 patients. Many of these 
have to remain a long time. Limited financial resources operate 
still further to restrict the number who can be entered for treat- 
ment. The sum total received in the year 1891 was 337. These 
represented four or five different nationalities. There were 114 
operations, some of them grave ones, as amputation of limbs, 
removal of cataracts, etc. Except in a surprisingly small fraction 
of cases, these have resulted in complete recovery or great improve- 
ment. The Howard Annex for women adds greatly to the resources 
of the hospital in the care of women patients, of whom there were 
121 last year. The coming of Dr. Emma T. Miller is an addition 
to the working force of the hospital that is warmly appreciated by 
Dr. Cochran, and by all interested in its highest usefulness. The 
hospital patients represent a very small part of the medical work 
done. By far the larger portion of the sick receive treatment at 
the dispensary. Furthermore, Dr. Cochran and his assistants are 
in constant demand for outside practice, either in the city, among 
the rich and poor, or in the country at more or less remote distances. 

The Village Schools. — The number of schools in operation in the 
winter of 1890-91 was 94, of which 79 were in Persian territory and 
15 in Turkey. The number of pupils in attendance was 2,169. 
This is a small increase, showing a steady annual gain, and this in 
spite of the free schools opened in nearly fifty villages by the 
Anglican missionaries. While this rivalry retards the healthy 
growth in self-support which was apparent a few years ago, it 
probably brings a larger number of children under instruction — a 
good of no small consequence to the nation — and it has stimulated 
our schools to better work. While the small number of girls in the 
schools betrays the lack of interest in female education referred to 
in connection with the Fiske Seminary, still it is a cheering fact 
that the figures are larger by 50 per cent, than they were five years 
ago. The expense upon missionary funds was about $14 a school 
for those in Persia, or 48 cents a pupil. The schools within 
Turkish territory cost about 2,5 per cent. more. 

Church Building. — The brethren of this station have been urging 
for the past four or five years the very great necessity of enlarged 
appropriations in the line of church erection, to meet the crying 
need of some congregations. The Board has appreciated the 
demand, and has been able to put at the disposal of the station a 
somewhat larger fund. On this matter Mr. Coan writes: "The 
full estimates allowed us for church building this year have enabled 



WESTERN PERSIA— MOUNTAIN STATION. 207 

us to put up in Cowsee, a village very badly off for a place of wor- 
ship and pastor's residence, as complete a set of buildings as we 
have on the plain ; they arc, a church that will scat 300, a manse, 
and a school-room. They cost in all a little over $500, the church 
contributing over $120, though it numbers but 20 members, none 
of whom are well off. Besides these, a manse was erected in 
Alwatch, and houses were bought in two other places, which, with 
slight additions, will do well for the pastors. A balance remains 
for a manse in Tergawar, and a church in Nazee, it having been too 
late to erect these this year." Mr. Coan adds a statement of most 
gratifying results accomplished on this line during the past six 
years. Six churches have been put up, in every way creditable to 
the Lord's cause ; ten manses and eight school-houses. Leaving 
out one of these churches, which was built with funds outside of 
mission appropriations, these very important additions to the 
effectiveness of church work in this field cost the total sum of 
$2,511. The native congregations furnished something more than 
a fourth of this sum. It is difficult to imagine any use of the 
Church's benevolent fund more economically and advantageously 
placed than these few hundred dollars invested in this score and 
more of important buildings. 

The Press. — The issues of the small printing establishment con- 
nected with this station amounted the past year to more than a 
million of pages. The press cannot keep step with its usual annual 
appropriations and the present missionary force to work it, with the 
fresh demands for Christian literature created by the advance in 
education and intelligence. It should have a larger supply of 
means. The most important issue of the year is a new edition of 
an early work on Scripture Geography and History, carefully 
revised, and with large additions up to the most recent investiga- 
tions, by Dr. Shedd. Mrs. Shedd aids in editing the Rays of Light. 
This monthly paper has this year started off with nearly one 
hundred new subscribers, or 700 in all. The Revised Syriac Bible, 
long in process of preparation, is now printing in this country under 
the superintendence of Dr. Labaree. It is done at the expense of 
the American Bible Society, at their house in New York. It is said 
to be the most laborious and difficult job which the Society has 
ever undertaken. But no expense is spared to make it as perfect a 
work as possible. The book is eagerly awaited by Syriac reader 
in Persia, Turkey, and Russia. 

The Mountain Station — Mosul. 

The first two years in the history of this station were spent 
mainly in exploration of the field and settling on a place of loca- 
tion. The past year has been one pre-eminently of organization. 
The question of location has been decided in favor of Mosul, 
where the earlier generation of missionaries, forty years ago, made 
so heroic but unsuccessful an attempt to establish the Gospel in its 
purity. It is believed now that the more thorough knowledge of 



20S WESTERN PERSIA — MOUNTAIN STATION. 

the conditions of the field, and precautions suggested by the many 
years' residence of American missionaries in the East, will enable 
our missionaries to withstand the evil effects of the climate. An 
absolutely indispensable condition to the maintenance of health is a 
retreat for the summer from the heat and malaria of the city. 
Hassan, where for many years there has been the largest Protestant 
church on the western side of the mountains, was the place tried 
last summer. There the missionaries tented for three months. 
While they escaped from malaria, the tents proved a very in- 
sufficient protection against the heat of the sun, where the ther- 
mometer ranged all summer from 92 to 104 in the shade. A 
well-built house in Hassan, or some other place on the slopes of the 
Kurdish mountains, will be a necessary adjunct to the main station 
at Mosul. 

While thus encamped Miss Melton gathered together a school of 
twenty-five children, and Mr. McDowell made a tour into Tiary, 
visiting the mountain outstations. This shows a practical idea of a 
summer station in bringing the missionaries into direct contact with 
the Syriac-speaking part of the field in the Kurdish mountains and 
on the western slopes. 

The event of greatest importance during the year was the transfer 
by the American Board of their work in the Mosul field to this 
Board. This was almost an absolute necessity from the unwisdom 
of having two distinct missions working independently in the same 
field, or in fields that virtually overlapped one another. This 
transfer enlarges the sphere of the new station, so that it is no 
longer a mountain station merely. It now includes the rugged 
mountain valleys of Thoma and Tiary, the broad plains of the 
Tigris, and the districts lying between the river and the mountains. 
The whole of the eastern division of the Syrian race from Oroomiah 
to Mosul are now within the field of the West Persia Mission. 
May this divided and oppressed people become at last reunited in 
a true and living faith in Jesus Christ, and may our Church be 
honored by God as the instrument in accomplishing this result. 

The Rev. J. A. Ainslie and wife, who for several years have been 
laboring in Mosul under the A. B. C F. M., are added to the num- 
ber of our missionaries. Mr. Ainslie has been most earnest in his 
advocacy of the permanent occupation of Mosul as a centre for 
missionary work, and most self-sacrificing in his efforts to effect it, 
and will be a welcome and valuable addition to the force. 

The evangelistic and church work gives many reasons for en- 
couragement. The Mosul church has been more thoroughly united 
in the purpose to co-operate with the missionaries in aggressive 
Christian work. The church in Dihi, though without a pastor, has 
shown a spirit of true self-reliance in maintaining the regular 
services of worship, and in doing missionary work in the neighbor- 
ing villages. Twelve new members have been brought into the 
church. In the other outstations thirty-eight are reported as 
applicants for membership. The field for aggressive work is almost 
unlimited. The large papal villages near Mosul, it is believed, will 



WESTERN PERSIA— TABRIZ. 209 

be open for any well-sustained effort to preach the Gospel. 
Spasmodic efforts cannot succeed, for secession from the Church of 
Rome means persecution in every possible way. The Nestorians, 
yet clinging to the old faith of the Church, are everywhere acces- 
sible. Even the Kurds can be reached, as was apparent last 
summer from the public disputation on religion between Dr. 
Wishard and a prominent Mohammedan Mullah. 

The medical work, in spite of great inconveniences, has been the 
right hand of defence, disarming suspicion and making friends 
everywhere. A notable example was Dr. Wishard's visit to the 
Kurdish chief, near Hassan, who had seemed unfriendly, but whose 
friendship, once gained, proved helpful. 

Miss Melton's accession to this station gave new impetus to the 
work among the women. The station asks for another lady mis- 
sionary to work among the Arabic-speaking women in Mosul. 

Tabriz. 

The year 1891 will always be a memorable one in the history of 
this station, from the completion and occupation of the new church 
edifice and the Boys' School building. They are conspicuous re- 
sults of much toil and patient effort, and are most suitably adapted 
to their respective ends. They meet two very urgent wants of the 
station, and their erection has already given new impulse to the 
work. The church was built by the generous gift of Mr. J. I. Cov- 
ington, of Brooklyn, as a memorial of his beloved daughter, Ruth 
Covington. Mr. Wilson reports that it is one of the finest build- 
ings in the city of Tabriz. The whole cost of the erection was less 
than $3,000. It was dedicated December 21, 1891, with appropri- 
ate services, attended by a congregation of 250 persons, the largest 
ever assembled for Protestant worship in that city, composed of 
Armenians, Mohammedans, and Europeans, including the acting 
English Consul. It is very gratifying that the audiences have kept 
up since that day at a larger number than ever known befoie. This 
is partly owing undoubtedly to the very impressive preaching of the 
Rev. Gregor Guergian, an earnest and efficient evangelist, who 
formerly labored successfully with our brethren in this city, and has 
come again to their assistance for a time. 

The general work of the station has continued much the same as 
in former years. While the new missionaries have been acquiring 
the language, the brunt of all kinds of work has come heavily upon 
Mr. Wilson. The large amount of building going on has made it 
exceptionally hard for him. 

The antagonisms to the Gospel cause from the Armenians con- 
tinues strong as ever. Their repulsion from the purer spiritual 
teachings of God's Word is cause for sadness. From this flow 
wanton misrepresentations of the missionaries and great bitterness 
towards any of their people who are suspected of leaning towards 
the Protestants. The strong national spirit of the Armenians finds 
a responsive chord in the hearts of patriotic men of every nation. 
14 



2IO WESTERN PERSIA — TABRIZ. 

But when acceptance of any interpretation of the Word of God 
outside the tenets of their own church is branded as unpatriotic and 
disloyal, and men who seek purer spiritual instruction than that which 
their church affords are persecuted therefor, liberty-loving Ameri- 
cans can only regard it as religious intolerance and tyranny. Not- 
withstanding the intense opposition, the power of the truth cannot 
be wholly resisted. There are direct results apparent in the spiritual 
awakening of individuals, and a widening interest in the preaching 
of an evangelical Gospel. The indirect fruits of missionary labor 
and example are also conspicuously on the increase. Among other 
things may be mentioned a special preaching service started by the 
Old Armenians ; a Sunday-school, with lessons partly secular, partly 
religious ; a night-school where grown men may learn to read, and a 
woman's society to raise funds to aid the poorer children with books 
and clothing. All these are traceable to efforts of our missionaries 
along the same lines, and look in the right direction. Who can tell 
how far this influence in favor of higher ideals of Christian life and 
church practice may lead? 

Towards the latter part of the year the workers in the field, for- 
eign and native, seemed to receive a fresh outpouring of the spirit 
of prayer and supplication, the fruitage of which has been gratefully 
recognized in the succeeding months. Possibly the severe bereave- 
ment of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson in the death of their only child, 
named for his sainted missionary grandfather, Samuel Rhea, which 
bowed a large community in sympathetic sorrow, may have prepared 
the way for the deeper work of the Divine Spirit. Certainly the 
opportunities to speak of Him who is " the Resurrection and the 
Life" to the more than two hundred who made visits of condolence 
illustrates how the personal trials and sorrows of our missionaries 
become instrumentalities in their Heavenly Father's hands for 
heightening the effect of the truth of His Son. 

The church in the city of Tabriz now numbers sixty members. 
Four were received last year and five are on probation. The con- 
tributions of the church to its own work amounted to $150, and to 
foreign missions $20. Sunday preaching services are held in Turk- 
ish, Armenian, and English. The Sunday-school has classes in four 
languages. 

Educational Work.— The. new buildings for the Boys' School are 
admirably adapted to the needs of the institution, and great happi- 
ness is felt in the transfer from the old quarters to these spacious 
apartments, for which the whole church is indebted to the munifi- 
cence of Mrs. W. Thaw. The site of the new buildings and one of 
the structures, now turned into a dormitory, were intended for a 
distillery, but the iniquitous plan was prohibited by the government, 
shall we not say also by the Lord of Hosts, that this house of the 
righteous might stand thereon. The lot contains ample ground for 
the schools, the future hospital and missionary residences. 

The attendance on the school was 75, of whom 25 were boarders. 
A small charge is now made for such boarders as are able to pay. 
Having an eye to the relations of missionary training in Tabriz to 



WESTERN PERSIA — TABRIZ. 211 

the evangelical cause across the borders in Russia, our brethren 
have secured a teacher of Russian, the son of an Armenian evan- 
gelical brother in Russia. The religious spirit of the institution, 
Mr. Wilson reports, has been encouraging. Four of the students 
and one of the teachers give evidence of being born again. The 
Theological class has done well in study, and the young men have 
proven themselves valuable helpers in the work as evangelists during 
their vacations. Great hopes are entertained for their future use- 
fulness when they go out to permanent work, as they will now do 
soon. The larger part of the instruction has been given by Mr. 
Wilson. He has had the assistance of Mrs. Wilson in some studies, 
and of Mr. Guleserian in Armenian church history and some other 
departments. Altogether the outlook of the school is hopeful. It 
never had a better standing in the community nor ever accom- 
plished better work than to-day. Jn December it was visited by 
the Persian Agent of Foreign Affairs, who expressed himself well 
pleased with the arrangements and studies, and afterwards sent a 
present to the school indicative of his appreciation of it. 

Aside from this larger institution, this station has had under its 
charge eight common schools, with 180 scholars in attendance, one- 
third of them girls. 

The School for Girls. — This has continued under the efficient 
superintendence of Mrs. Van Hook. No separate report of its do- 
ings for the year past has been received, but it seems to have enjoyed 
its usual prosperity. Twenty-seven pupils are recorded as members 
of the institution. 

Work for Women. — The absence of Miss Jewett a part of the 
year, on a visit to America, has added not a little to the responsi- 
bilities of the other ladies. Miss Holliday has, in addition to her 
supervision of the kindergarten for girls in the Lalawa quarter, 
given much time to calling on Moslem and Armenian families for 
the purpose of Christian reading and conversation. She has found 
special access to some Mohammedan families by reason of the in- 
struction in English which she has been able to give a number of 
young men, some of them connected with the Persian army. One 
of these, a Major, on going with his regiment to another part of the 
kingdom, took with him a Persian and English Bible to study during 
his absence. Another declared his desire to come to the Sabbath 
service, " to worship God and the Son of God," but feared the dis- 
pleasure of his government, and urged the missionaries to obtain for 
him permission to come. 

Dr. Bradford has continued her very valuable medical labors 
among women of all classes, both in the city of Tabriz and without. 
During the summer she and Miss Holliday made a tour of some 
days in a region east of the city, seldom visited before by Christian 
teachers. Large crowds of wild, fanatical women gathered around 
their tent in every village at which they stopped. Their rude, un- 
taught condition appealed most pathetically to these messengers of 
Gospel light. In one village they met friends of a former house- 



212 WESTERN PERSIA — SALMAS. 

patient in Tabriz, which put them at once on a friendly footing with 
the whole community. 

During the year Dr. Bradford has made 565 professional calls ; 
has dispensed medicine at the dispensary to a few less than 3,000 
persons. 

General Medical Work. — Dr. Vanneman has been engaged chiefly 
through the year in the study of the language, but he has improved 
opportunities for some general practice, making over 1,000 prescrip- 
tions, and receiving for medicines some $125. He has a class of 
four or five Persians reading medicine with him. 

Outstations. — In Maragha Pastor Moshee retains his excellent 
reputation for fidelity and good sense, and is slowly winning his 
way in the face of stern opposition. Two were received into the 
church during the year. In Mianduab and Daralik services have 
been kept up by the school teachers. The work in Soujbulak has 
been much interrupted by the Kurdish disturbances in connection 
with the abduction of a Christian girl, an English subject, by the 
Kurds. It at one time threatened to become an international ques- 
tion. Under the excitement it was deemed prudent for our helper 
to withdraw for a while. 

Important evangelistic tours have been made during the year, in 
Kurdistan, and in parts of the Caucasus by experienced helpers. 
Their visit to the evangelical brethren in the Caucasus, from which 
earnest appeals for assistance are constantly coming, gave great joy 
and encouragement to those numerous and growing centres of evan- 
gelical light. 

Salmas. 

The year opened under a great deal of depression and anxiety. 
The punishment of the murderer of Mrs. Wright, by imprisonment 
for life, had created among the Armenians an alienation towards the 
missionaries. That an Armenian should be punished thus, for kill- 
ing a woman, and by a Mohammedan government, was felt to be a 
disgrace to their nation. Shortly after came another murder in a 
near village of a Catholic Armenian priest, by unknown persons, 
giving rise to new agitation and creating a painful sense of the in- 
security of life ; all to be greatly aggravated in a few weeks later by 
still a third murder, near to Mr. Mechlin's residence, now of an 
Armenian priest by one of his own nation. While the heightened 
sense of insecurity grew to be oppressive, our friends were kept 
under the shadow of Jehovah's wings in confidence and peace. 
The outcome, we are glad to say, has been rather favorable to their 
standing in the community than otherwise. The tide of hostility is 
ebbing away. The returning sense of safety is a blessing for which 
they feel grateful. 

Mr. Wright left in the early part of the year to bring home his 
motherless children. Up to the time of his coming away he was 
principally engaged, at the solicitation of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, in revising the New Testament in Azerbaijan Turkish, 
for which Mr. Wright has special qualifications. During his so- 



WESTERN PERSIA — SALMAS. 213 

journ he is correcting the proof-sheets of this work as they come 
from Germany. He is expecting to return in the fall. The burden 
of care and anxiety connected with the station has fallen chiefly 
upon Mr. Mechlin. He has itinerated as far as practicable among 
the villages, and has preached quite regularly on the Sabbath. The 
congregations are not large. He also has stated exercises with the 
helpers at the outstations who assemble at frequent intervals for 
Biblical study and pastoral conference. 

The work at the village of Oola, under Mr. Wright's charge until 
he left, is well cared for by the excellent pastor, a Nestorian from 
Oroomiah. Fie is greatly esteemed by all classes in the community, 
and is zealous in visiting other villages than his own to preach the 
Word of Life. At Kohna Shaher the preacher for the Armenians is 
active and useful. Those who attend his preaching are a good deal 
enlightened, but none have come out for the truth as yet. The helper 
there among the Jews, started a school for the Jewish children 
which was for a time very encouraging, but its success was its mis- 
fortune. The leading spirits of the community became alarmed at 
the possible consequences to the children, and forbade their further 
attendance. The homes of the people are open, however, to the 
preacher, and he has abundant opportunities to preach to these chil- 
dren of Israel of the true Messiah. 

In the city of Khoi the Nestorian preacher continues to meet with 
encouragement, although opposition is rife. Some of the Armenian 
brethren here show great firmness in their adhesion to the truth. 
And outside of the church the cause of truth and righteousness as 
taught from the evangelical pulpit and schools has warm defenders. 
One principal man in the Armenian community sends his daughter 
to Miss Cyrene Van Duzee's school in Salmas. The priest at a 
meeting called to discuss communal matters, tried to intimidate this 
father from sending his girl to the Protestant school. It only led to 
a defiant address from the father and a stormy discussion, which 
the priest hastened to allay by saying, it did not really matter about 
the girls, it was the boys who should not be allowed to attend the 
schools of the Protestants. Among the Mohammedans of this town 
the light of the Gospel is spreading. Many are reading the Chris- 
tian Scriptures, some with a true desire, apparently, to know the 
truth of Christ. There is one who seems not far from the kingdom. 
Woman s Work. — Miss Cyrene Van Duzee gives an interesting re- 
port of her school. The number of scholars enrolled is less than 
last year, but the average attendance has been higher. She has had 
good help from the Armenian assistants in her service. Just before 
the close of her last term of school five of her boarding pupils 
brought joy to her heart by telling her of their wish to be "God's 
girls." Two of the thirteen boarders were already hopeful Christians. 
Six of the scholars were married during the year. One of them, a 
sweet Christian girl, became the wife of the Nestorian preacher in 
Kohna Shaher, and has already begun to let her light shine there, 
gathering a little school of girls, and holding meetings for the 
women. This is an unusual step for a newly married bride in that 



214 WESTERN TERSIA — STATISTICS. 

land. Khoorma, the Bible-woman, continues her labors, and has 
some special encouragement among Mohammedan women. 

Village Schools. — There have been seven schools under the charge 
of the station, with 248 pupils, boys and girls. They have borne an 
unusually excellent character. Their influence for good is apparent 
also in the improved schools conducted by the Armenians. When 
Mr. Wright came first to this field there was not a school in any 
Amernian town that used the modern text-books ; now nearly all 
have them. 

Statistics of Western Persia Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 10 

Medical missionaries 3 

Female missionary physicians 2 

Lay missionary 1 

Single lady missionaries 13 

Married " " 11 

Ordained natives 37 

Native licentiates 44 

Bible-women 5 

Native teachers and helpers 146 

Organized churches 34 

Other congregations with communicants 42 

Number of communicants 2,343 

*Added during the year 259 

Number of schools 125 

Boys in boarding-schools 111 

Girls in " " 109 

Boys in day-schools 1.945 

Girls " 799 

Total number of pupils 2,964 

Students for the ministry 13 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 4,670 

Contributions $>2,76r.20 

* Statistics not complete. 



SIAM AND LAOS MISSIONS. 
Siam Mission. 

Bangkok : on the River Meinam, 25 miles from its mouth ; occupied as a mission 
station, 1840 to 1844, and from 1847 to the present time ; missionary laborers — Rev. 
Messrs. J. A. Eakin, J. B. Dunlap, and F. L. Snyder, and their wives ; Rev. A. W. 
Cooper; Miss Edna S. Cole, Miss S. E. Parker, Miss Elsie J. Bates, and Miss L.J. 
Cooper ; one native licentiate preacher ; seven native Christian teachers. 

Petchaburee : on the western side of the Gulf of Siam, eighty-five miles southwest 
of Bangkok ; occupied as a mission station in 1861 ; missionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. 
V. G. McClure ; Rev. Chas. E. Eckels, Walter B. Toy, M.D., and Mrs. Toy; Misses 
Margaret and Annabel Gait ; one licentiate ; twelve native teachers. Out stations : Bang- 
kaboon.Paktalay, Tharua Banphai, Ban Laam, and other places. 

Ratburee : occupied as a mission station in 1889 ; missionary laborers — James B. 
Thompson, M.D., and Mrs. Thompson ; one licentiate ; two native teachers. 

In this country : Rev. and Mrs. E. P. Dunlap, Rev. and Mrs. E. Wachter, Miss Edna 
S. Cole. 

The stated work of the mission during the past year has been the 
maintenance of preaching services at seven churches, the care of six- 
teen schools with an enrollment of four hundred and thirty-one pupils, 
the oversight of two dispensaries, and the issue from the press of three 
and a half millions of pages, chiefly Holy Scriptures. The brethren 
report but few additions to church membership, and yet write that 
there are many cheering signs of progress. 

The mission force has been increased by the arrival of Dr. and 
Mrs. Walter B. Toy, the Misses Margaret and Annabel Gait, and Miss 
Elsie J. Bates. Dr. and Mrs. Toy and the Misses Gait have been 
appointed to Petchaburee — Dr. Toy to fill the vacancy made by the 
resignation of Dr. Lee last spring, and the Misses Gait to take 
charge of the work formerly under the supervision of Miss Cort and 
Miss Small. Miss Bates is to be stationed at Bangkok, in the Wang 
Lang Seminary. Mr. and Miss Cooper have been transferred from 
Ratburee to the Bangkok station, Mr. Cooper to assist Mr. Eakin in 
the boys' school, and Miss Cooper to aid in the girls' school. Dr. 
Hays, having served the Board faithfully since his entrance on the 
work in Bangkok in 1886, has resigned his connection with the Board 
in order to devote his time entirely to what we hope will be a most 
useful work in connection with the Government. 

Miss Small's death at Petchaburee in the early summer left a va- 
cancy which the mission have felt it would be difficult to fill. She 
had completed her fifth year of service in connection with the Petcha- 
buree Station, and was at the time of her death the senior missionary. 
" She was a consecrated Christian, a devoted missionary, and success- 
ful teacher." Her loss will be deeply felt by all who were associated 
with her. 



2l6 SIAM — EVANGELISTIC WORK. 



Evangelistic Work. 

Bangkok. — Mr. Snyder, in giving his time more directly to touring 
and to evangelistic efforts, has been enabled to sell during the year 
more than eleven hundred portions of the Holy Scriptures. During 
a trip to Ayuthia, a former station of our mission, several portions of 
Scripture were sold. Mr. Snyder reports that at this place the people 
were eager listeners to the truth, and earnestly besought the return of 
missionaries to their city. Kroo See, a colporteur of the mission, 
made seven tours out of Bangkok, beside a very large number in the 
city itself; during the year he disposed of about eight thousand tracts, 
donating only the smallest and leaflet-tracts which are for that pur- 
pose. 

The First Church has added to its roll but one member on profes- 
sion of faith, yet the report of the station reads : " That internally 
there is a manifest quickening of spiritual life and a large number are 
on the eve of a decision for Christ. Three delinquent members, after 
remaining away for years, have been brought back ; four family altars 
have been set up where family prayers were before unknown ; the 
weekly prayer-meeting has been well attended ; and volunteer exer- 
cises have increased in frequency and profitableness. A woman's 
prayer-meeting has been started with an attendance of twenty, eleven 
of whom lead in prayer. The contributions of .the church have in- 
creased twenty-five per cent. The Sabbath-school reports a member- 
ship of 153 scholars, a gain over last year of 25. A new departure 
was made during the year by taking up Sabbath-school collections." 

The Second Church has added to its membership during the year 
on profession of faith two girls from the Wang Lang Girls' School, 
and restored to full communion a former member. Three children 
have been baptized. The Sabbath-school attendance has decreased 
somewhat, due in part to a falling off in the number of scholars in 
the Wang Lang Seminary. The contributions of the scholars, how- 
ever, have slightly increased. 

Two other Sabbath-schools are reported in connection with the 
Bangkok Station, one on the Baptist Compound, and the other con- 
nected with the new day-school at Ban Mai. 

Petchaburee. — The regular preaching services have been maintained 
at four of the churches through the year, namely : Petchaburee, Bang- 
kaboon, Paktalay, and Ban Laam. At the Tharua Banphai church 
regular monthly services were conducted during more than half the 
year. The work of preaching and supplying the pulpits of these 
churches has devolved upon the two clerical missionaries, Messrs. 
McClure and Eckels, as there are no native preachers connected with 
the station. 

The First Church. — Two preaching services have been conducted 
regularly each Sabbath, together with the Sabbath-school, the weekly 
prayer-meeting, and the morning chapel service. In addition to the 
regular services special meetings have been held on different occa- 
sions with gratifying results. Four persons have been added to the 
church on profession of their faith. Earnest efforts have been made 



SI AM — EDUCATIONAL WORK. 217 

on the part of the missionaries to secure better Sabbath observance 
more faithful church attendance, and a more consistent Christian liv- 
ing among the members of the church. 

Considerable evangelistic effort has been made in other directions. 
A tour was made up the Petchaburee River by Mr. Eckels and Mr. 
McClure. They were limited as to time, but the trip was of much 
importance from the fact that it lay in a region seldom visited by the 
missionaries or native helpers, and a knowledge of the country was 
gained that will be valuable in planning for future labors. Trips were 
also made to various outlying villages, and wayside work in and around 
Petchaburee was vigorously prosecuted. 

Ratburee. — A regular preaching service has been held on the Com- 
pound each Sabbath morning, immediately after the Sabbath-school ; 
also an afternoon service on alternate Sabbaths at the homes of two 
of the native helpers. The missionaries of the station write that 
" the attendance at these outside appointments has been small and 
yet the work is encouraging. The Gospel has been preached to 
several hundreds of persons and the work will not be without results." 

Mr. Cooper closes the report for the Ratburee Station with the 
following paragraph : " No church has yet been organized at this new 
station, and, so far as known, there have been no conversions during 
the year. Yet there are not lacking cheering signs of progress. Much 
preliminary work has been done. A firm hold has been gained upon 
the confidence and good-will of the community. By precept and by 
example many have been taught to appreciate something of the con- 
trast between the religion of Buddha and that of Jesus Christ." 

Educational Work. 

Bangkok. — The Bangkok Christian High School has had a total 
enrollment of 119, a gam over last year of 17. In spite of heat and 
drought the school was kept in session during the entire year. The 
following quotation is from Mr. Eakin's report : " The students have 
been diligent in their studies, and have made good progress in all 
branches. The course of study has been advanced, so that the Fourth 
Grade is almost as far along now as the Fifth Grade was at this time 
last year. And something has been done toward improving the 
methods of our native teachers. The school is now fairly graded, and 
we shall soon be able to require all students to come up fully to the 
standard laid down in the course." Mr. Eakin, in alluding to the 
Christian influences which surround the school, adds : " The students 
have attended the morning prayers every week-day morning. Every 
night they have prayers conducted by themselves. All the boarders 
and nearly all the day-scholars are members of the Sabbath-school. 
They have seemed to engage in the religious studies of the school 
with entire good-will and readiness ; yet with all this there has not 
been one student during the past year who has professed faith in 
Christ. We are very sorry for this, but not discouraged. If the seed 
is sown faithfully the harvest must come, though it be long delayed, 
for God's Word is sure. We know that several of the older students 



2] 8 SI AM — EDUCATIONAL WORK. 

are seriously considering the subject of religion, and we wait for the 
Divine blessing." 

The Wang Lang Female Seminary has numbered 44 pupils through 
the year. In the early summer Miss Cole, who had been in charge 
of the school for several years, was forced to return to the United 
States for a much-needed rest, and Miss Parker, who had been on the 
field but a few months, was compelled to take the principalship. Some 
assistance was rendered Miss Parker, however, by Miss Cooper, of 
Ratburee. Miss Parker reports that the pupils have made good prog- 
ress in their studies, and that the patrons have expressed themselves 
as well satisfied with the work done. Forty-four girls were enrolled, 
two of whom united with the church on profession of faith. 

A New Day-School at Ban Mai was opened last May with four 
pupils, but in a short time it was found necessary to enlarge the room 
where the pupils had been gathering. The school has had an aggre- 
gate attendance of about fifty scholars, and is entirely self-supporting. 
The teacher is one of the graduates of the Sum Ray School. 

Bctchaouree.^-Ten schools have been in operation during the year, 
and one other was open for about three months. Two of these are 
boarding-schools located on the Compound, five are day-schools in 
various parts of the city, and four are in neighboring villages. 

The Boys Boarding-School has been under the care of Mr. Eckels. 
Thirty boys were enrolled, of whom 17 were boarders. Mr. Eckels, 
in reporting the year's work, writes : " The school has done good, 
steady work along the line of the course of study recently adopted. 
The instruction has been given chiefly by the native teacher, Koo 
Daang. Evening prayers have been held with the boarders ; all of 
the pupils have attended morning chapel and Sabbath services. On 
Sundays they are organized into a Sabbath-school, which has been 
taught by Mrs. McClure." 

The Hoivard Industrial Boarding-School for girls was under the 
care of Miss Small until the time of her death in June. The girls in 
attendance up to that date numbered 26, of whom 9 were boarders. 
After Miss Small's death the boarding scholars were all sent home, 
except a few orphan children. Each teacher, however, was retained, 
and the school was continued as a day-school under the supervision 
of Mrs. McClure, with an attendance of 23. Mrs. McClure writes 
that " the religious interest among the girls has not been marked. 
One girl, however, united with the church on profession of faith, and 
some interest is manifest among others of the school." 

The Outside Day- Schools.— On the departure of Miss Cort for 
America the oversight of these schools devolved upon Miss Small, 
and they were under her direction until the time of her death. Since 
that time Mr. McClure has been caring for them. Nine schools have 
been open during the year with an average attendance of 150. Mr. 
McClure reports that the work done in some of these schools has been 
successful, while in others it has not been satisfactory, owing in part 
to a lack of the systematic care which they have been accustomed to 
receive. Mr. McClure advises reducing the number of outside day- 
schools to three, as the mission force during the next year will not be 



100 Long East fr. Grc*n**irK 




15 



11 "J I J./W. KbA^- 



178 L~t r~* 



i.C.BRIDOMAN tiMnmr, »t«>os.< MAP PUBLISHER. 



220 SIAM— MEDICAL WORK, MISSION PRESS. 

sufficient to allow any one to give as much time to them as they 
require. 

Ratburee. — The Boys' Day-School has completed the second year 
of its history. Last summer the missionaries of the station succeeded 
in securing for the purposes of a school building a stable formerly 
owned and used by a Siamese nobleman. After a thorough renova- 
tion and many changes it was found to be admirably adapted to the 
purpose of the Boys' School, and in June it was occupied as such. 
Since that date the number of pupils has grown from seven to twenty- 
one. Mr. Cooper writes regarding the school: "The average as 
regards regularity of attendance and diligence in study has been ex- 
ceptionally high. The school is now in a prosperous condition, and 
the outlook for the future is full of promise. Daily morning prayers 
have been held during the year. With the exception of two children 
of our native licentiates, all the boys come from heathen homes, and 
our only opportunity for any sort of religious influence is through their 
connection with the school. This is only the seed-time of our work ; 
but we labor in faith and hope and confident expectation of a harvest- 
time to come." 

Medical Work. 

Petchaburee. — During the earlier part of the year the Hospital and 
Dispensary work was under the care of Dr. Lee. After Dr. Lee's 
resignation, however, it was under the direction of the clerical mission- 
aries of the station, Messrs. McClure and Eckels, aided by the faithful 
and efficient services of a native assistant, Nai Toy. Seven hundred 
and ten cases were treated, 90 visits were made, and 26 in-patients 
were treated. There were 64 surgical cases. Mr. Eckels, in writing 
with reference to this department, says : " While we are glad to have 
been able to accomplish as much as we have in this department of 
work, yet it is with a sense of extreme relief that we commit it for the 
coming year to the professional hands waiting to receive it." 

Ratburee. — Dr. Thompson, in reporting the medical labors of this 
station, says : " Our work has been slightly heavier this year than last. 
Eight hundred cases have been treated, against 488 in the previous 
year. The total number of attendances is 1,786, and the number of 
prescriptions 1,057. Religious instruction has been given throughout 
the year as far as time and strength permitted. Portions of Scripture, 
tracts, and leaflets have been given, and many have heard the formal 
preaching of the Gospel in addition to the more direct word." 

Mission .Press. 

Under the efficient management of Rev. J. B. Dunlap, who is de- 
voting his time wholly to the Press, it has become an indispensable 
part of our labors in Siam. The Press, however, is an important factor 
in all mission work in Siam, as it is the only fountain from which a 
religious literature pours forth to the Siamese. The American Bible 
Society, through its agent, the Rev. John Carrington, formerly a 
missionary of this Board, makes large demands upon it. The mission- 
aries write that Mr. Carrington has manifested much energy and wis- 



LAOS MISSION. 22 1 

dom in the management of the Society's work, and that his labors have 
been crowned with rich spiritual blessing. Copies of seven different 
books of the Bible were issued during the year. A total of three and 
a half millions of pages of Scripture and tracts were printed, or double 
the number issued last year. Eleven thousand portions of Scriptures 
were distributed by our missionaries during the year, of which less 
than 1,000 copies were given away, and more than 10,000 sold. Mr. 
Dunlap writes that the increase in the amount of work done has been 
accomplished by a larger number of helpers, and by the addition of a 
new printing-press and a new proof-press. 

Just as the report is going to press, it is learned that the mission has 
secured enlarged accommodations for the Press on the Baptist Com- 
pound. 

Statistics of Sid//! Mission. 

< >rdained missionaries 8 

Medical missionaries 2 

Single lady missionaries b 

Married lady missionaries 8 

Native licentiate preachers 3 

Native teachers and helpers 21 

Number of churches 7 

Communicants . 296 

Added during the year 7 

Boys in boarding-schools 90 

Girls in boarding-schools 51 

! I< ijrs in day-schools 135 

Girls in day-schools. 155 

Total number of pupils 431 

Number of schools . . 16 

Pupils in Sabbath-schools 301 

Laos Mission. 

Cheung-Mai : on the Maah-Ping River, 500 miles north of Bangkok ; occupied as a 
mission station, 1876 ; missionary laborers — Rev. Messrs. Daniel McGilvary, D.D., D. G. 
Collins, Evandcr B. McGilvary, and their wives ; Dr. and Mrs. James W. McKean, Rev. 
Stanley K. Phraner; Misses Isabella Griffin, Eliza P. Weslervelt. Nellie H. McGilvary, 
and Margaret A. McGilvary ; Rev. Xan-Tali ; 27 helpers; 23 outstations. 

I.ak.wvn : on the Maah-Wung River, southeast from Cheung-Mai 75 miles; occupied 
as a mission station, 1885; missionary laborers — Rev. S. C. Peoples, M.D., and Mrs. 
Peoples ; Rev. Jonathan Wilson, Rev. and Mrs. Hugh Taylor, Rev. Robert Irwin, Dr. 
W. A. Briggs ; Miss Kate W. Fleeson ; 3 native helpers ; 1 outstation. 

I.ACOON : occupied as a mission station in 1S91 ; missionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. 
W. C. Dodd ; 1 native helper. 

It is with pleasure we give the cheering report from this far-off mis- 
sion field. The different lines of work have been carried forward with 
a remarkable degree of spiritual growth and prosperity. There has 
been an increased attendance in all of the schools, and far better 
work has been accomplished in each than in previous years. There 
has been manifest, also, a growing evangelistic spirit among the elders 
of the churches. The missionaries give thanks to God for the fidelity 
of the native church members, and for the ever-widening doors which 
they are constantly invited to enter. There have been adult acces- 
sions to the church membership at each monthly communion for the 
last forty-six consecutive months, and since October, 1884, there have 



222 LAOS — EVANGELISTIC WORK. 

been but six months when there were no additions to the church. 
I -arge annual accessions have been made for the last nine years, and 
the number has steadily grown larger each year. 

During the year the mission received a strong and valuable addi- 
tion to its working force in the appointment and arrival on the field of 
Rev. and Mrs. Evander B. McGilvary, and Miss Margaret A. McGil- 
vary. 

At the beginning of the year the Lakawn Station suffered a serious 
loss in the death of Mrs. Dr. Briggs, after a brief illness. It was 
feared during the first months of the year that Mr. Phraner, owing to ill- 
health, would be forced to return to the United States. We are happy 
to say that his physician now reports him well. Dr. Briggs was com- 
pelled to seek rest and change in a river trip of some two months to 
Bangkok. With the above-named exceptions the health of the mission- 
aries has been good. 

It is with peculiar gratification we report the opening of a station 
at Lapoon. The mission had long been desirous of occupying this 
important centre, and had made several attempts during the past 
years to secure suitable property there, but without success. 

The total number of communicants reported by the mission is 1,115, 
of which number 241 were added to the church during the year. The 
total number of churches is 6. In the 8 schools of the mission 278 
pupils were enrolled. One ordained native evangelist and 30 native 
helpers and teachers are reported. 

Evangelistic Work. 

Cheung-Mai. — The past year has been one of considerable extension 
in evangelistic efforts. Labors were begun for the first time in 
Lapoon with gratifying results. The year opened with Dr. McGilvary' s 
long tour to the north, covering a period of four months, and extending 
to a more northerly point than that of any previous journey. The 
following is quoted from Dr. McGilvary' s report : 

"It was interesting to notice that in the uttermost limit of this vi>it 
there was the same desire among the various branches of the Laos 
family to know the Gospel that we have seen in Cheung-Mai. After 
returning to Cheung Saan we crossed to Cheung Kong, where we 
were cordially received by the Governor, who is liberal in his views, 
and a perfect gentleman. Here our tent was crowded daily by visit- 
ors and officers anxious to learn to read. Books left the year before 
had borne some fruit and were constantly read. The people and 
rulers of the various provinces are all favorable to us. It is needless 
to say that both the old and the new places visited deepened and 
strengthened convictions long since formed of the whiteness of the 
whole field, and of the need of a station there. During the whole 
tour Loong Noi Sa Li, and Ai Sow, and Nan Sa Wau, our good elders, 
did excellent and very satisfactory service." 

During the last month of the year Dr. McGilvary made a two 
weeks' tour by boat to the south, visiting all Christian villages along 
the river, eleven or twelve in all, as far south as Wang Pau. So that 



LAOS— EVANGELISTIC WORK. 223 

from north to south Dr. McGilvary's tours covered a distance of 
about 275 miles. 

Short tours have been made by the other missionaries, as their 
regular work would allow, the fruits of which are already beginning to 
appear. 

At the last meeting of the North Laos Presbytery Rev. Nan Tah 
was appointed to do touring and evangelistic woik. The mission 
write that " it is a great pleasure to report that he has been faithful in 
obeying the commands of Presbytery, and that during tours of greater 
or less duration he has been permitted to baptize many adults and 
children. The value of his services is beyond computation." 

A very important part of the evangelistic work of this station has 
been done by the theological students under Mr. Dodd's supervision 
and instruction. Mr. Dodd writes : 

" During a large portion of the school year all the members, both 
teachers and pupils, were engaged in evangelistic work somewhere 
every Sabbath. The pupils were sent out two by two, so that for 
many Sabbaths during the year, in from six to ten different places or 
villages, the Gospel was preached by native evangelists. To their 
work no doubt we may in part ascribe revived interest in many places 
and increased additions to the churches." 

The brethren write that the results of the year's touring have doubly 
proved what has long been a well-established fact, that there is no 
surer, more direct, and more rapid method of advancing God's king- 
dom among the Laos people than by carrying the Gospel to them in 
their villages and dwellings. 

Lakawn. — All the members of this station have been permitted to 
take some part in this useful work of touring. Mr. Taylor writes : 
" Besides what has been done in this line, while pursuing some other 
branch of the work, five special tours have been made among the 
villages of the province. These have been to the west, south, and 
north, and occupied from one to four weeks each. The work accom- 
plished on the river banks also deserves special mention, as it reaches 
not only our own people to the south of us, but extends down into 
Siam. In fact, on every hand we find the open doors. Our regret is 
that this year we have nowhere been able to follow up the work in 
such a way as to reap the harvest which seemed to us ripe." 

Lapoon, — Mr. and Mrs. Dodd were permitted to enter Lapoon 
under the most favorable auspices in October. Already Mr. Dodd 
reports the organization of a church, with an adult membership of 121, 
and 94 baptized children. Five elders and two deacons have also 
been installed. It is cause for deep gratitude to God that this station 
has been so successfully opened and that the undertaking has been 
abundantly prospered from the beginning. The encouraging features 
attending the organization of this effort, and the renewed interest 
evinced by the native Christians resident there, give hope for a much 
enlarged work in this station of our Laos Mission. 



224 LAOS— EDUCATIONAL WORK. 

Churches. 

Cheung-Mai. — Church work has been faithfully and successfully 
maintained throughout the year. The completion of a new church 
building has added considerably to the material equipment of the 
station. 

The First Church, with Dr. McGilvary as pastor, assisted at times 
by Mr. Collins and Rev. Nan Tah, has maintained regular services, 
consisting of Sabbath morning and evening worship and Sabbath- 
school, with two prayer-meetings for women and one for men on Sab- 
bath afternoons, and on week days a teachers' meeting on Wednesday 
and a prayer- meeting on Friday. The additions to the membership 
have been larger than in any previous year. The number of adults 
received on profession of faith was 188; those received by letter, 4 ; 
the number of infant baptisms, 140 ; one elder and one deacon were 
installed. 

The Maa Dawk Dang and Bethlehem Churches report a very en- 
couraging growth. Our brethren write in the highest commendation 
of the zeal and faithfulness shown by the elders and helpers in these 
churches in proclaiming the Gospel and in creating a wider interest 
among the people. 

Lakaivn. — The First Church has conducted its regular services on 
the Sabbath, as well as a meeting every night in the week in the 
chapel. The Sunday-school has been well attended, with a slight in- 
crease in numbers over last year. Considerable house-to-house 
visitation by Miss Fleeson is reported. 

Educational Work. 

Cheung-Mai. — The four schools of this station have been success- 
fully conducted throughout the year. The increased attendance and 
the better work done in each of these important schools give much 
hope for the future. 

The Cheung-Mai Hoys' Boarding-School records a successful year, 
with a considerable advance over previous years. In some respects 
the year has been the best in the history of the school. Mr. Collins 
has been aided during the year by Mrs. Collins and Miss McGilvary, 
who, with their knowledge of the language, have proved valuable 
assistants. The following quotation is from Mr. Collins' report of the 
year: "The total attendance for the year has been 94, a gain of 23 
over the previous year. Of those who were in attendance, 38 were 
members of our churches, and of the remainder, 25 were children of 
the covenant. Twenty-four of the pupils were received into the church 
during the year." Mr. Collins adds that the greatest drawback in the 
work has been the lack of proper accommodations for the pupils. 
The mission again renews the request for an appropriation of $1,000 
for enlarging the quarters of the Boys' School. 

Mr. Collins closes his report with a review of the work of the past 
four years: "We feel confident that much good has been accom- 
plished during the four years' history of the school. At least 150 
boys have received some training in the new religion, to say nothing 



LAOS— EDUCATIONAL WORK. 22 5 

of what they have learned in reading, writing, arithmetic, and geog- 
raphy. From the day that the school first opened the Shorter Cate- 
chism in Siamese has been taught, and many of the boys have mem- 
orized the whole of it. Some of our boys have become teachers for 
the new missionaries ; some have been employed as scribes ; one 
spends his vacations with Dr. McKean in the dispensary ; another 
will become our Laos assistant in the school at the beginning of next 
term; three of them will soon enter the printing-office ; one or two 
will soon be ready to enter the theological class. A few who came 
from non-Christian homes have gone out we know not where. The 
influence of many of the older students is being felt in many villages, 
where they often lead the religious meetings. Over 35 of the Chris- 
tian boys lead in public prayer." 

The Cheung-Mai Girls' Boarding and Day School, as hitherto, has 
been under the care of Miss Griffen and Miss Westervelt, assisted for 
several weeks at the beginning of the year by Miss McGilvary. The 
total number of pupils enrolled was 79, of whom 57 were boarders 
and 22 day pupils. Of this number 30 were communing members of 
the church, while of the remainder 25 were baptized children of Chris- 
tian parents. Dr. McKean, in writing of the successful work accom- 
plished by this school, says : " The value of the instruction these girls 
receive is often seen on tours, when it is found that they have be- 
come teachers in their own families and among their neighbors." 

The Cheung-Mai Theological or Boys' Training- School has an en- 
rollment of 35, of whom 20 were candidates for the Gospel ministry. 
" The interest in study and practical work has risen higher than ever 
before, and the prospects of the school are the brightest since its com- 
mencement." As above stated, a large part of the evangelistic work of 
the station and in the surrounding villages was done by this class. 

The Cheung-Mai Hospital Night-School has been in session almost 
continuously during the year. Dr. McKean in his report states that 
" it is impossible to give any statistics in regard to the attendance of 
this school, as it fluctuates constantly with the number of patients in 
the hospital. A number of patients from distant provinces have 
learned to read, and have been taught the fundamental truths of the 
Gospel. The teaching is wholly religious. While such a school can 
never be large, it reaches those who might not come under the influ- 
ence of the Gospel in any other way." 

The Lakawn Boys' School. — The total enrollment has been 25. 
The work has not been entirely satisfactory, but some advancement 
has been made, and it is believed that in another year the school will 
be more than double its present number. 

The Lakawn Industrial or Farm School has prospered beyond the 
most sanguine expectations of its organizer. The farm which Dr. 
Peoples had striven to secure for some time was finally granted to the 
mission by the Governor of Lakawn, and the Doctor has taken pos- 
session of the same, and writes that the success of this project is already 
assured by the fact that they have a good crop of rice where all 
around is absolute failure. " The pump is at work with the horse-tread 
power, and is giving splendid satisfaction. It is the object of a great 

'5 



226 LAOS — MEDICAL WORK. 

deal of curiosity and interest on the part of the natives. Everything 
around the farm reminds one of business." 

The Lakawn Girls School. — This school has been most success- 
fully conducted by Miss Fleeson for two years past, although no pro- 
vision has been made from the mission treasury for its maintenance. 
The station is now asking of the Board permission to formally organize 
this school for girls in Lakawn. Miss Fleeson, in writing with regard 
to the work, says: "Something should be done for the girls of La- 
kawn. For years they have been pleading to be taught. The reg- 
ularity of the attendance during the year, and the earnestness with 
which they took to study, justifies our asking that a school be estab- 
lished for them where they may pursue a regular course and be under 
constant Christian training. A woman's prayer-meeting has been suc- 
cessfully maintained among them during the latter part of the year." 

Medical Work. 

Cheung-Mai. — A considerably larger number of patients were 
treated than in any previous years. The whole number of attendances 
was 5,101, or an average of 425 per month. Dr. McKean writes: 
"This number of patients includes those who received the simplest 
treatment, and those who required many hours of attention ; those 
who came to us, and those whom it was necessary to go many miles 
to visit ; it includes the King of Siam and the high Siamese officials ; 
also the very poor and the outcast." Besides the number treated by 
Dr. McKean, several hundred received treatment on Dr. McGilvary's 
long tour to the North, and on river trips to Bangkok. The work 
has for some time been entirely self-supporting, and a balance in the 
treasury is now reported of over $100. A service has been held in the 
hospital each evening for the patients and attendants. A night-school 
has been reported above in connection with the educational work. 
This school is maintained at the expense of the dispensary, and has 
been in session almost continuously throughout the year. 

Lakawn. — Dr. Briggs, the physician in charge at this station, who 
has spent but one year on the field, writes : " The work the past year 
has been marked by the removal of difficulties rather than by actual 
progress and success, and yet not altogether without both of the latter. 
The drawbacks have been not a few — a poor supply of medicines, 
and a half dozen miserable huts to serve as a hospital, were a serious 
hindrance. But these difficulties will be obviated another year." Not- 
withstanding the discouragements the Doctor writes that he has met 
with a great deal of encouragement in his labors. He endeavors to 
have every person who comes for treatment spoken to personally and 
the Gospel presented to him. He is assisted in this personal effort 
by his medical assistant and language teacher, who are splendid evan- 
gelists and Christian helpers. The Doctor, in closing his report, adds : 
" The indirect results cannot be estimated ; but, if nothing else has 
been accomplished, there has been a large amount of ' opening-up' 
work done. A number of interesting cases might be singled out, both 
from the common people and the ruling classes, as illustrative of the 
influence of our medical work in Lakawn. But, like most of our mis- 



LAOS— STATISTICS. 227 

sion work here at present, it is preparatory. We are unable to point 
to much specific fruit, and yet a number have shown a marked interest 
in spiritual things." 

Literary Work. 

The most important item in the literary work of the year is the 
complete revision by Mrs. McGilvary of her translation of the Gospel 
of Matthew. It has been printed in the Siamese character by the 
American Bible Society. Mr. Dodd has also completed his transla- 
tion of the Synopsis of Robinson's Harmony of the Gospels. This 
work has proved a valuable aid to the students of the Theological 
Class, and there is a considerable demand for it among the Christian 
families of Laos. Mr. Collins has finished an English- Laos Diction- 
ary, which will prove of much service to all who undertake the study 
of the Laos language, and especially to all new missionaries. 

New Work. 

The mission is pleading for reinforcements. Three single women 
are asked for Lakawn, a physician to assist Dr. McKean in his 
labors at Cheung- Mai, and one single woman for school work in 
Cheung-Mai. 

In a carefully prepared appeal from the mission, a request is made 
for another clerical missionary to open work at Raheng and in the 
villages on the Maa Ping River. "It is almost a question of now or 
never. Raheng is destined to become the principal city in all the 
North Country. It will be the centre of all kinds of traffic, whether 
railroad, river, or any other ; it is the government centre. Foreign 
influence has already done immense mischief, and if something is not 
done immediately it will before long be as difficult to work as a port 
town. Oh, that our cry in behalf of this people who are so willing tc 
give attention to the Gospel now might be answered speedily ! " 

Statistics of Laos Mission. 

Ordained missionaries 9 

Medical missionaries 2 

Single lady missionaries 5 

Married lady missionaries 7 

< >rdained native evangelist. . 1 

Native teachers and helpers 31 

Number of churches 6 

Communicants 1,115 

Added during the year 241 

Total number of baptisms during the y?ar. . . 450 

Number of schools. . 8 

Boys in boarding-schools. . . _. 118 

( iirls in boarding-schools 95 

Boys in day-schools 43 

Girls in day-schools 22 

Total number of pupils .... 278 



MISSIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA. 
Mission in Brazil. 

Bahia : 735 miles north-northeast of Rio de Janeiro ; missionary laborer — Rev. 
Woodward E. Finley ; i ordained native assistant and 2 colporteurs. 3 out stations : 

1 colporteur and Bible-reader ; native helpers and teachers, 4. 

Larangeiras : north of Bahia in the State of Sergipe ; Rev. and Mrs. J. B. Kolb ; 

2 outstations : 1 teacher. 

Rio de Janeiro : capital of the empire ; population, 400,000 ; occupied as a mission 
station in i860 ; missionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. James B. Rodgers, and Rev. A. B. 
Trajano ; 2 native licentiates, 2 colporteurs, and 2 teachers. 

East Rio Station, Novo Friburgo : 60 miles east of the city of Rio ; occupied as a 
mission station in f8gi ; missionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. J. M. Kyle ; 1 colporteur. 

Sao Paulo : 300 miles west-southwest of Rio de Janeiro ; chief town in the State of 
same name ; population, 70,000 ; occupied as a mission station in 1863 ; missionary 
laborers — Rev. and Mrs. Geo. W. Chamberlain; H. M. Lane, M.D. ; Rev. and Mrs. 
Thos. J. Porter ; Rev. and Mrs. W. A. Waddell ; Rev. F. J. Perkins ; Miss Elizabeth R. 
Williamson ; Miss M. K. Scott ; Rev. M. A. Menezes ; Rev. E. C. Pereira ; 1 outstatio?i : 
18 teachers and 1 colporteur. 

Outstations — Sorocaba : 60 miles west of Sao Paulo — Rev. F. Zacharias de Miranda. 
Caldas : 170 miles north of Sao Paulo — Rev. M. G. Torres, Rev. Caetano de .'Vogtteira, 

1 native helper, and 1 teacher. Campanha : Rev. B. F. De Campos ; 2 native teachers. 
yahu : 179 miles northwest of Sao Paulo ; 4 native teachers. 

Rio Claro : over 120 miles northwest of Sao Paulo ; occupied as a mission station in 
1S73 ; missionary laborers — Rev. W. A. Carrington ; Miss Eva Dagama ; Herculano de 
Gouvea, and Bento Farraz de Arruda ; 17 preaching places ; 10 teachers ; 3 licentiates 
and 1 colporteur. 

Botucatu : 160 miles west by north of Sao Paulo ; missionary laborers — Miss Clara 

E. Hough ; Rev. J. R. C. Braga ; 2 native teachers. 

Curityba : about 500 miles southwest of Rio de Janeiro ; chief town of the State of 
Parana; missionary laborers — Rev. and Mrs. G. A. Landes ; Miss Ella Kuhl and Miss 
Mary P. Dascomb ; Rev. M. P. B. de Carvalhosa ; Guilherme da Costa ; 3 outstations : 

2 colporteurs and 3 native teachers. 

The force of the Brazil Mission during the past year was in- 
creased by the arrival of Rev. and Mrs. E. M. Pinkerton, Rev. 

F. J. Perkins, and Miss Margaret K. Scott. Already the sad 
tidings have reached us of Mr. Pinkerton's death at Bahia, on 
February 23d. He had received the very highest recommenda- 
tions from his instructors in Lane Seminary, and had won the 
confidence of his missionary associates in a high degree. It is 
to be hoped that the early removal from his work will so touch 
the hearts of others that this vacancy at Bahia may soon be 
filled. Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlain and Mr. and Mrs. Kyle re- 
joined the mission after an absence in this country on furlough. 
Dr. Lane, whose failure of health compelled his return to this 
country during the year, has again returned and taken up his 
varied duties. 

The mission has also suffered another loss in the death of 
Mrs. Carrington, at Rio Claro, on December 26, 1891. Mrs. 
Carrington had been on the field little more than a year, but 
her life gave promise of much usefulness. 
I "The year 1891 has been one of civil agitation a