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Methods and Aims in the Study of Speech 



Assistant Professor of Speech 
Loyola University 



Professor of Speech 
Marquette University 

Copyright 1948-1949 


Pearl M. Heffron 

William R. Duffey 

Revised Edition 1949 

>* ED 




a. jl 


The material of this textbook, collected from various sources in some twenty - 
five years of teaching, aims tc meet the demands of teachers who wish to correlate 
their information regarding the general principles and methods of teaching in sec- 
ondary education with the specific principles and methods of speech training. Al- 
though the historical background of speech training and the principles and methods 
of secondary training have a place in this "book, their -emphasis has been subordin- 
ated to the discussion of the present problems of the' classroom. 

The chief difficulties in speech training, both curricular and extracurricu- 
lar, have been treated. This textbook does not explain the content or skill of 
any speech art, but it meets the distinct need of- a large number of prospective 
teachers who enter the speech' field annually and require an adequate work dealing 
with the solutions of the teaching problems of the class and extracurricular 
activities. This bock is of interest also to English teachers- in small' high 
school's who realize their lack of information concerning- principles and methods 
of speech training. • '■'' ■..,-. 

Part I treats of (a) the historical objectives and the'scope of the subject 
matter as well as (b) the human relationships without and 1 within the classroom. 
Prospective teachers should, know the historical contributions to their field of 
study before they can well understand the principles upon which the present di- 
versified methods of speech training are based, 

Part IT considers the problems in class and extra-class procedures and con- 
duct . Without' the 'background of Part I and Part II, a student cannot hope to 
understand the relationship between courses, the objectives ! bf speech training, 
and the general problems' involved' in teaching. 

Part III deals "with the fundamental course in Chapter VII from the' viewpoint 
of (a) the speaker; (b) the listener; (c)'the subject. Chapters VIIl through 
XIII discuss the teacher's problems in the advanced public speaking courses; the 
courses in discussion- -the types of debates and public discussion; the 'bourses in 
i nterpretat ion- -plat form art ; dramatic art and choral reading; radio speech; and 
speech correction. Part Til considers also extracurricular activities of each 
particular phase of the 'Subject. 

Miss Heffron wishes to give grateful acknowledgment to her parents for their 
inspiration and encouragement, and to Mr. Edgar G. Doudna, Secretary of the Wis- 
consin Board of Regents of Teachers* Colleges, for the valuable early teaching 
experience which she received under his guidance. 

Both authors sincerely appreciate also the many helpful suggestions so gra- 
ciously given and the kindly interest shown by Mrs. S. Woodward But sen, Instructor 
in Speech, Miss Ruth Klein, Dramatic Director, Miss Maude Frances, Instructor of 
Interpretation, and Dean Mabel McElligott of Marquette University; ana Miss 
Marguerite Ragan, and Assistant Superintendent William Lamers, of the Schools in 
Milwaukee. The authors also wish to thank the students in the Speech Methods 
Courses who have used the previous edition of this textbook and have contributed 

Acknowledgments to publishers and individuals for copyrighted material will 
be found where such content is cited or quoted. 



In response to the suggestions of certain teachers Of speech, 
the authors have revised the second edition of Teaching Speech , 
principally by a change in the styling of the manuscript, the addi- - 
tion of material dealing with semantics, and extensive alterations 
in the chapters on radio and speech correction. . New material has 
been presented in the class exercises and additional references have 
been given in each chapter. In view of the modern emphasis on vis- 
ual education, and the use of mechanical devices in speech training, 
the authors have presented in each chapter reference material suit- 
able for a better .understanding of the place and use of visual aids 
and mechanical helps in the class room. 

The authors wish to acknowledge their appreciation for the 
number of excellent suggestions which have come to them from many 
teachers in the speech field. Although what should constitute the 
content of a book on speech methods is subject to much opinion, 
the authors have attempted to strike a balance in conforming to 
the wishes of those who seek to have more of general methods pre- 
sented in this text and those who would require the authors to 
present in more detail the means of teaching individual speech 
skills. Likewise, the authors have added to the explanation of 
the content of the speech art only such exposition as may better 
explain the method of teaching. 









I. Aims and Nature of the Speech Course 3 

II. Contribution from Belated, Field of Language to 

Courses In Speech 16 

III. Other Important Sources of the Speech Arts 39 

IY. Adjustments to Human Situations 60 


CIASS AND extea-ciass mahagmemt 

Y. Preparation for Class Instruction 81 

VI. Procedures for Class and Extra-Class Direction 109 




VII. The Fundamental Speech Course 3-33 

VIII. Advanced Courses in Public Speaking 15^ 

IX. Discussion and Parliamentary Law 167 

X. Interpretation 190 

XI. Dramatic Art 213 

XII. Eadio Speech 228 

XIII. Speech Correction 255 





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Speech is a picture of the mind -- ENGLISH PROVERB 


The prospective teacher of speech should know the general 
aims in secondary training and the specific aims in speech edu- 
cation. Certain difficulties arise in determining these pur- 
poses, hut a working classification may he established. In 
this textbook these aims have been listed as the mental, emo- 
tional, physical, and social development of the speech student, 
In order to understand better these objectives, the nature of 
the speech courses must be appreciated. Inasmuch as this cur- 
riculum has received its content from many arts and sciences, 
a brief exposition regarding this acquisition will give the 
prospective teacher some comprehension of the scope of the 
subject matter. A further help to him in reaching his aims is 
to learn the human relationships involved in speech training. 
These associations that center around the teacher will be dis- 
cussed under the following heads: (1) the teacher himself; 
(2) the teacher-- student relationship; (3) the teacher-school 
relationship; and (h) the teacher -community relationship. 



As the life is; so is the speech.-- GREEK PROVERB 



Cardinal Aim s of Th e National E ducational Association 
Understanding of General Met hods , 


Difficulties of Classification 

Integrating Forces , : 

Establishing Objectives 

Determining the Amount of Theory 

Determining the Amount and Type of Practice 

Determining the Proper Emphasis on the Phases of the Subject . .•• • ■,■-■ 
A Working Classificati on o f Aims .--.. . : - ; ■ 

a. Mental Development ■■ ,-■ 

1. Training in observation . ;••; .•-? 

2. Acquiring ideas ,.-;■ 
3- Utilizing ideas 

k. Training in thinking 

p. Developing judgment and right choice 

6. Stimulating the imagination 

7- Developing the memory 

8. Training in co ordinations 

9. Acquiring attitudes and ideals ...' . ■■■■ .<' 
10. Relating speaking to other phases of learning 

b. Emotional Development "'" : ; ■• ';.,• .,:. 

1. Emotional stability 

2. Relation to expression 

3- Relation to motivation .,..,, .- . " : 

c. Physical Development 

1. Physical aspect of voice 

2. Control of bodily actions ..-.; 

d. Social Development ; ' : 

1. Speech a social tool ,-, • j 

2. Cultivating social traits ',;'... .-<■ ■ ._ .: 

3. Encouraging the' democratic way of life .'".'.'.. .'■■; "< .-. ■ 
Summary of Aims in Speech 'Training ' 




In recent years much discussion has been given to the objectives of secondary 
education as well as to the- purposes of speech training. The prospective teacher 
of speech should devote attention to the literature of. this subject mattery es- 
pecially to the directives- furnished by state departments of education and city 
school systems . 


Diversity of views by authorities in -secondary education is found as to its 
general purpose, its scope, and its organization; also in regard to the methods and 
curriculum resulting from the formulation of these aims, difference of opinion will 
be observed. These viewpoints have been both practical and theoretical as well as 
general and specific; they have been based on the physical, mental, moral, and emo- 
tional aspects of life; work and leisure; subjective and objective standards; the 
personal development of the individual for himself, or his complete social advance- 
ment in relation to others. 

Cardinal Aims Of The National Educational Association. 

This organization realized the necessity of establishing a number of cardinal 
aims which would form the foundation for all secondary training. Under its guidance, 
the seven cardinal principles of secondary education were classified in 1917 as fol- 
lows: (l) health; (2) worthy home membership; (5) command of .fundamental processes; 
(h) vocation; (5) worthy use of leisure; (6) civic education; and (7) ethical char- 

With these general aims to be achieved in high school training, the teacher 
of speech should keep in mind the student's ultimate needs for active adult parti- 
cipation in society as well as his immediate needs in school. Inasmuch as some 
inexperienced speech teachers lose sight of these ultimate objectives, and consider 
only that phase of the speech subject which they know or like, final objectives are 
ignored, and the best results in speech training cannot be achieved. 

Understanding Of Gen er al Methods . 

The teacher of speech, like teachers of other high school subjects, must under- 
stand the general methods in secondary training. Education in speech does not re- 
sult in a single consequence; for, in acquiring facility in speaking, a student 
gains further skills in reading, .thinking, memorizing, and bodily coordinating, as 
well as information, habits, attitudes, and ideals. To obtain these results, a 
teacher should add to his repertoire of methods. He may know well the authorita- 
tive methods of telling, the use of a textbook or. visual aids; yet he could greatly 
improve his techniques if he had a better understanding of the developmental ways of 

To secure the general objectives of secondary training as well as' the specific 
purposes of the speech field, a teacher must understand the methods of imparting and 
retaining information and the ways of acquiring skills and attitudes based upon 
sound laws of learning. Moreover, procedures and techniques'- -questioning, moral 
training, criticizing, planning instruction, teaching and directing study, evalu- 
ating a student's worth, socializing class procedure, and adjusting instruction to 
the individual - all must be well known and practiced before objectives, either 
specific or general, can be obtained. , ; . 

DIVISION OF SPEECH AIMS . . .. ; .. ;•■ - ■ ■ 

^The general aims in speech training may be separated in four divisions: mental, 
emotional, physical, and social. 'This classification has advantages over that es- 
tablished^ from such viewpoints as historical, literary, artistic, or utilitarian. 
Because distinct and varied opinions concerning the nature of speech exist, there 
are many methods of speech training, some, inadequate and incomplete, others, too 

.......... •'•' '-■ ;.'■ ■"« . : - 

Difficulties of Classification . - v ■'■-'-' w';; ■•. 

Among the principal difficulties which arise in establishing a rigid classifi- 
cation of speech aims are those which flow (a) from the very nature of the- subject;, 
(b) from the confusion regarding objectives; (c) from the failure to determine the 
proper relation between theory and practice; and (d) from the lack of agreement in 
evaluating the worth of each phase of the subject. ■■ ,■.■-, • .-,;■',.,;;.,•.■■; 

Speech training is hard to classify because the nature of the subject requires 
an Integrating process that combines four Interrelated forces: mental, emotional, 
physical, and social. The prospective teacher of speech must realize that his 
work deals with the unification of all the powers of man as well as each of his 
capacities ., 

The nature of speech as both a science and an art presents problems in classi- 
fying objectives. Speech training requires both objective and subjective norms. A 
student may know the content of a' speech textbook; yet he may not be able to stand 
before an audience and talk with ease.; The speech course must, therefore, consist-- 
of a .-combination of both theory i and practice . ,/' -'■'•■ ; :.. .- -..-■,; 

How much .theory is to be required in a speech course creates different opinions 
as to objectives. Educators" agree that theory should be administered in small' 
measure so that students assimilate it while learning new habits of speaking. • The- 
ory undigested often results in artificiality and formalism. Theory divorced from 
life situations should be avoided. 

Correct habits of speaking and thinking can be gained only from continuous 
supervised practice without as well as within the classroom; yet the amount of 
practice and its type are a matter of opinion. To stimulate students to express 
themselves is not such a task, .but to guide them to use acceptable speech until a 
habit is formed is a serious undertaking. When dissatisfaction ;with incorrect 
habits of speaking results, reeducation establishes correct forms. 

Because different emphasis is placed" upon separate divisions, : such as reading, 
speaking, debate, dramatics, oratory, and : interpretation, each-.with its specific 
aims and techniques,- different objectives are' established. Even, if confusion ex- 
ists as to what courses; .should be offered in the high school, a choice of subjects 
must be made. .. .•,...,....'.- 

A Worki ng Classification Of Aims . 

Training in speaking is ... primarily -self -development through self -activity . The 
ultimate end of speech .training is- ...the. total development of the entire person so 
that he may reveal himself .-to hi s fellow men' for his own' benefit as well as that of 
society. Self -expression and. .social', adjustment are the general aims of training in 
speech no matter what procedure may : be used to reach them. Isolated objectives, 
such as teaching gesture, language, . and. voice, are not' to be considered ends in. 
themselves. For the sake of aworking classification, aims may be divided, as fol- 
lows, (a) mental, (b) emotional,, (.c) physical, and (d) social. 

a. Mental Development . ■'.•••■■;■. ,>-;■;, ;.„-..< \ ■; 

The student in mental life must be stimulated:'- ; = . ,,' : 

1. Training in observation. 

One important aim in speech training must be the development of the student's 
powers of observation. He who does not possess vivid imagery cannot give an 

audience something that he does not have himself. The student has for many years 
been aware of sensation as a product. He knows that he can focus his attention 
on some object and interpret the stimuli that he is receiving; consequently he 
appreciates the fact that he can acquire images of himself and the world about 
him. He experiences objects according to their sensible qualities. But- percep- 
tions may become dull, and when little demand is placed upon his faculties they 
lose their sensitiveness towards impression. ■ ■ 

The extent to which the senses are used differs with the individual; yet a 
speaker cannot be successful without a wide range of emotional appeal which de- 
pends greatly upon his susceptibility to sensation. Moreover observation depends 
greatly upon interest, and interest in objects stimulates the power of selection 
and a personal attitude toward an object. Interest creates viewpoints which give' 
significance to expression. Thus training in observation and in the development 
of a personal reaction toward material is of prime importance in training the 
speaker. ' ■ : '•■'> ■ ■ 

Before a student can correct his speech faults, he must learn to observe 
speech difficulties in himself and in others. Most students have had eye train- 
ing stressed from the kindergarten to the high school, but they may lack proper 
ear training in speech. Even the prospective teacher may be surprised that he 
thinks of words in terms of letters rather than of' sounds. If he is to' train high 
school pupils in better speech, he must appreciate the fact that a person pro- 
duces sounds greatly governed by aural standards. He will find that some speech 
difficulties are closely related to defects in hearing, and that training the 
pupil to hear what he is saying is a most important procedure in speech educa- 
tion. ; 

2. Acquiring Ideas. 

A person does more than experience objects according to their sensible 
qualities, for he gains knowledge of their nature by means of intellectual inter- 
pretation. He may gain even this understanding of objects that have no sensible 
qualities. In other words, he may gain ideas a .more or less complete or clear, of 
what a thing is. Although generally images are .associated with ideas, they are 
not identical. Speech training, then, must go beyond the process of giving stu- 
dents opportunity for gaining sensations of sound, sight, and feeling patterns, 
for it must present means that help them know what a thing is, and what recogniz- 
able form an idea takes. The habit of acquiring ideas comes from a proper parti- 
cipation in life, an interest in an interpretation of the views of men, and per- 
sonal reactions to problems. Through association, ideas give rise to other ideas; 
therefore situations that afford opportunity for the acquisition of ideas must be 
found if the speech, teacher expects to stimulate mental exercise. 

3. Utilizing Ideas.. - ,- .-.'-■■■ \- 

The ability to utilize ideas - to learn where, when, and why, as well as how 
to use them - is another significant aim of mental training. The student must de- 
velop the ability to apply his previously' collected ideas to the subject at hand. 
Much depends upon his habits of reflection for his success in using the ideas he 
has received from his observation of nature and his impression of personalities. 
Although facility in observation is a worthy gift and productive of much informa- 
tion, and although reading for the acquisition of facts is -important, ideas and 
points of view must be gained for a purpose. Ideas may be forgotten unless there 
is occasion for their expression. The habit of expressing ideas in public speak- 
ing and conversation is valuable, for it is likely to encourage other worthy 
means that incite interest in life and in people. : ' 


k. Training in thinking. 

■ Training in speaking is. primarily training in thinking. Teachers of other 
subjects who declare that they teach the student what to say and the 'speech in- 
structor teaches him how to. say it (delivery) are ignorant of the nature of 
speech training... 

When a student is taught to arrange, and evaluate material as well as to im- 
prove his expression of it, he is receiving the finest kind of training in logi- 
cal thinking, for thinking and the expression of it are inseparable . When he 
acquires correct habits of clear thinking through constant practice in a speech 
class and where an outline is required, he learns to work for orderly arrange- 
ment as well as to evaluate in his daily thinking."' When he organizes his know- 
ledge and through analysis understands the co-ordination and subordination of 
ideas, he avoids unrelated detail and learns the value of a unified composition. 
Through the repetition of these rhetorical processes, he' becomes a solid thinker 
and an efficient speaker. 

5. Developing judgment and right choice. 

In speech training there must be constantly a re -establishment of values. 
The intellect must know that certain things are good; for example, that there- 
is a value in a person being heard or that it is necessary to change pitch in 
good speaking. When the good is determined, the will' is inclined to action. A 
judgment, then, is any affirmation or negation of the objective identity between 
two ideas. The value a person places upon this judgment determines his action. 
The incentive to good speech is the desire to speak. Often this craving brings. 
into action all the necessary modes of the physiological processes. The act of 
willing enters into the speech process generally in the acceptance of the various 
speech co-ordinations. But in the establishment of any value, an intellectual 
assent is necessary. 

Supervised direction in speech gives training in judgment, in the determin- 
ation of the relative value of things, in the cultivation of good taste, and in 
the power of discrimination - some of the most important assets for a successful 
life. The' daily recitations in' a speech class afford constant opportunities for 
the correction of hasty judgments. The student learns also that silence may be 
a virtue. He is taught that he must have a sense of values as to the time and 
place. he should' express himself. There is no better means in education than the 
speech platform to aid the student to learn how to discriminate and to evaluate 
as Well as to express his. ideas. 

6. Stimulating the imagination. 

One of the most significant aims in speech training is the stimulation of 
the imagination, the value of which is frequently underestimated. A person de- 
pends upon imagination for his appreciation and creation of the many art forms. 
The very terms, sympath y and sugges tio n, frequently heard in connection with the 
study of literature, connote imaginative activity. To. understand different 
points of view, a student must have a fertile imagination. It gives him insight 
into characters and situations. .Through the power of his imagination, a student 
can better understand men's motives, difficulties, activities, and aspirations. 
He gains a capacity to penetrate the very heart of nature. . Imagination lies at 
the basis of altruistic- movements. It creates ideals, glimpses of which stimu- 
late. desires for perfection,^ It is the. faculty that enables man to anticipate 
the future. 

The term imagination has been used in many senses, but basically it can be 
applied to three processes: namely, reproduction of images, their association, 


and selection. Since selection and combination require intellectual activity, 
the last process is a rational one. Imagination in a normal individual may "be 
"brought under the control of the will, or, when necessary, given free play, even 
to the extent of inciting physiological mechanisms. General speaking, imagina- 
tion arouses emotionally toned experiences, and, if uncontrolled, may run wild 
in disorder as it does in certain psychic states. So far as speech training is 
concerned, imagination plays a part in three activities: (a) the selection and 
use of subject matter; (b) vocal expression; and (c) bodily expression. 

One of the chief problems in any speech course is to get the pupil to use 
his imagination. The teacher can help him evaluate his speech material from the 
viewpoint of audience reaction.. He is then stimulating the pupil's imagination 
when he aids him to visualize conditions as they will be at the time of speaking. 
He can analyze for the pupil the speech situation itself; he can supply informa- 
tion regarding the background, mood, situation, and character of a poem, or play, 
and show the pupil their importance in gaining naturalness in expression; and 
finally he can arouse in the pupil a realization that the relations and associa- 
tions expressed in poetry or prose incite bodily reaction, and vocal modulations. 

Since speech textbooks contain specific exercises for the improvement of the 
imagination, they should be faithfully used in the classes. A farsighted teacher 
will also collect drills and exercises in order to have material suitable for 
certain purposes,: and for specific conditions. Sometimes in' commenting upon a 
speech, he may indicate the values of imagination as a source of inspiration; how 
work without it is a drudgery; and how it may overcome monotony in anything - 
voice building, bodily activity, subject matter, or skills. 

7. Developing the memory ; 

So important is memory to the pupil in a speech class that it cannot be 
omitted from the classification of teaching aims. At the outset, it must be 
recognized that students have different capacities to retain, recall, and use 
images of the past. Pupils do not possess the same type of reception, and like- 
wise they differ in the number and kind of images. they recall. Some pupils have 
a strong memory for words,, while others have proclivity for remembering motor 
activities; some will get different images from the same situation. A pupil. rea- 
lizes that he has many images seeking to invade his consciousness, and that he 
must have, if they are to be maintained, a certain interest in those in the focus 
of his attention. Moreover he senses that memory, although a storehouse, is also 
a factory of great activity. He is 'aware that a recall of one- image is likely to 
set in motion a train of images. How to control this dynamic condition, how to 
store and use images, how to strengthen relationships, and to guide attention- - 
all are his problems, and he will look to the teacher for direction in solving 
them. ■ ■- ' ■'■ :". . . .- 

Many modern educators seek a return to memory training. They realize that 
it. might be again over emphasized as it was In -'the early Renaissance when the 
learning of language and literature dominated the aim of education, or when the 
mastery of Latin and Greek was associated with memory drills. Yet they feel that 
memory work in a class can be made practical. They declare, for example, it is 
of educational value to have a pupil know his speech well and to have an inter- 
preter be letter perfect. The speech teacher who values these views can easily 
discover the strength of memory in a student by listening to a prepared speech or 
reading, and then he can determine, after judging the performance of the pupil, 
the amount of memory training necessary for him. 


8. Training in co-ordinations. 

If the co-ordinations between mental and motor activity were not stressed, 
mental training would not "be complete. The teacher must impress upon the speech 
student that by supervised practice he may gain them. In the "beginning, like the 
swimmer who is learning his art, a pupil may center his attention on one movement 
and may forget another related action. After practice he talks, gestures, and 
thinks simultaneously while looking directly into the eyes of an audience. 

The act of producing speech and accompanying bodily movements is a complex 
activity. In fact, finely adjusted co-ordinated actions, which involve nerve and 
brain action as well as muscular responses, have never been completely enumerated, 
or, for that matter,, adequately studied. As a matter of convenience, the mechan- 
isms of human speech have been classified under four headings: namely, breathing, 
vocal production, resonance, and articulation. In speech, mechanisms connected 
with its functioning must work as a co-ordinated whole and in a relationship to 
the ■ intellectual, volitional, and affective states of the person. 

To gain a better appreciation of speech functions, the prospective teacher 
should study physiology and psychology. In these sciences he will find, basic 
facts concerning the activity of the person, for example, the nature of the 
secretory and' motor reflexes, the function of the synaptic nervous system, the 
autonomous system, the physiological mechanisms, and psychological functions, in- 
herited or acquired, involving reception, transmission, and brain activity. The 
speech teacher will discover that speech is a resultant of function and developed 
only because of functioning, and that it is a cultural process; yet many of its 
instinctive responses do not come under the control of formal training; they re- 
main neurological and never attain a conscious level. He will realize, conse- 
quently, ' that speech training, while employing academic methods, must not neglect 
the use of situations that stimulate self -activity and develop skill and control 
of functions. ' 

9. Acquiring attitudes and ideals. 

As the acquisition of attitudes and ideals is a part of speech education, 
the teacher must stimulate in the student their development and realization. A 
fragmentary and objective study of speech that neglects the whole man simply be- 
comes a science of. speech behavior and eliminates the art aspects of education. 
The aim of speech training is the development of a satisfactory personality, a 
product with a full complement of ideals, values, and motives properly integrated. 
Although a man may at, times mask his attitudes by some studied behavior, eventu- 
ally his expression is a mirror of ideals, convictions, and motives. His expres- 
sion is frequently a reflection of his temperament with modifications of nature 
produced by the implantations of ideals and objective norms of behavior. What 
blossoms forth in sensible recognizable expression is the form nurtured within 
the man. The controlling, incentive- to speak well must be the desire to realize 

10. Relating speaking to the ether phases of learning. 

The other subjects of the high school curriculum would be of little value 
if the pupil did not have the ability to communicate their content. He must be 
taught that his speech is the single activity which integrates thoughts gathered 
from all available sources in a unified, connected, understandable discourse for 
a listener. He must relate his work in speech to both the getting and the giving 
of information. The speech course itself is one of the chief means of unifying 
the results of the entire high school curriculum. 


b. Emotional Development. 

There are many objectives that relate to the emotional development of the pupil 
and must be attained in speech training. . . 

1. Emotional stability. ■ : -. 

Self-control, for example, is one of the most valuable traits that a pupil 
may develop in a speech class. He can acquire dignity, poise, and mature reserve 
from repeated speaking before a group. If a pupil gains a sense of respectful 
sportsmanship, learns to accept advice or a final decision, he is building a real 
character which often spells success for him in later life. The emotional Stabil- 
ity which results from student criticism, difficult as it is to accept at times, 
gives a pupil courage to encounter greater difficulties in later life. 

2. The relation to expression. 

The emotional aspect of self-control and social behavior is only a phase 
of speech training. The student must know the part emotions play in voice pro- 
duction and in Vocal interpretation. The aim of the teacher must be the stimula- 
tion of the student's life so that he can quickly and adequately respond to a 
speech situation with a rich manifestation of his affective nature. This aspect 
of training pays rich dividends to the student who discovers the social and per- 
sonal values in well-guided emotional behavior. 

3« The relation to' motivation. 

The prospective teacher of speech has learned much in his own course of 
study about urges, impulses, emotions, and desires. He must use this knowledge, 
not only to help improve his own conduct, but also to guide the behavior of the 
high school pupil. Yet another objective must be considered in regard to emo- 
tions; namely, audience motivation. Pupils must know the elements that motivate 
conduct. Furthermore they must understand how to incite behavior and to control 
the emotions that they have stimulated. - ' • 

Because some speech teachers fail to stress this phase of speech training in 
their classes, they leave students confused regarding motivation and allow them 
to hold false ideas regarding emotions. Pupils often look upon the affective 
states as something of a weakness in the nature of man, something to be repressed, 
or at least to be feared. To explain properly the true nature of emotional life - 
its function as a condition for tone color and bodily reactions, its place in per- 
sonal and audience motivation, and its significance in the interpretation of life 
and literature - is an important aim in speech training. 

c. Physical Development. 

The aims dealing with mental and emotional development would be of small con- 
cern if they were not integrated with the physical objective of speech training. 

1. The physical aspects of voice. 

To make efficient use of the voice in order to express in language the or- 
ganized ideas which a speaker possesses, is another general aim in speech train- 
ing. A clear, pleasant, adequate voice with a variety of modulations is an asset 
to any pupil. Controlled breath, the basis of good vocalization, should be taught 
in the fundamental speech class. 

Standards of correct speaking can only be established when the pupils gain a 
knowledge of the physical mechanism; then they can criticize and evaluate their 


own as well as the speech habits of others. Bad speech cannot be eliminated un- 
less students (1) discover their own bad habits; (2) try to eliminate them; and 
(3) endeavor to acquire desirable' ways of speaking. 

2. Control of bodily actions. .• 

The physical objectives in speaking, however, are not confined only to 
voice but also to the control of the total bodily communication. A student must 
gain poise, good posture, gesture, appearance, animation, and vitality. A sound 
body is important to good speech, for speech representing the person, the total 
self, is strongly affected by health. Well-being stimulates the normal means of 
self-expression which tend to balance a person emotionally as well as mentally. . 
The realization of self-control that results from the hard work of speech train- 
ing and continued practice is of value in moral development. 

d. Social Development. ,•- ; 

The training of a pupil as a social being is the last of the general objectives 
to be discussed. In both classroom and extracurricular activities, students must 
find opportunities for actual practice in social relationships. Attitudes, ideals, 
and worthy habits of social conduct can be acquired from participation in programs 
of speech education. The teacher should feel obligated to encourage pupils to re- 
fine their social tastes, to broaden their interests, to develop co-operation, re- 
sponsibility, and initiative, to conform their speech to the correct English and 
correct speaking, and to cultivate social ease and grace. 

1. Speech a social. tool. ..,.. 

Speech enables a pupil to communicate with and to understand other human 
beings, both emotionally and intellectually, in every kind of situation, voca- 
tionally as well as a vocationally, to appreciate and enjoy the beautiful, and to 
draw conclusions from shared experiences. Whether his interest in speech train- 
ing is primarily utilitarian, scientific, or aesthetic, the same general purpose, 
cooperation in reaching the truth in one form or another, is his ultimate social 

2. The cultivation of social traits. ■■ 

Independence and initiative can be secured in a well-conducted speech class 
where a student must leave the group and face an audience. In a carefully 
planned course, he soon shares responsibility, volunteers suggestions, helps to 
plan, criticize, and later to assume the responsibility of leadership. A thought- 
ful instructor encourages social initiative in his class. He should give actual 
guidance but in a quiet way. He will develop tact, courtesy, and honesty in pu- 
pils. He must see that in a speech situation his students learn that respect for 
other people is necessary for both speaker and listener. To inspire pupils to 
deal with one another in a straight -forward honest manner without giving offense 
to another is valuable, life training which is realized perhaps sooner in the 
speech class than in any other situation. 

3. Encouraging the democratic way of life. 

The right kind of leadership cannot be secured if one stresses self-develop- 
ment without regard to the rights and privileges of others. If pupils are taught 
their social responsibilities in the speech class, a foundation is being laid for 
a better way of life. Leadership will come to the student who participates in 
speech work, particularly in some extracurricular activity. He will gain these 
three chief characteristics generally noticed in a leader: (a) knowledge; (b) 
skill; and (c) direction. 


In a speech course a pupil will come into contact with subject matter which 
develops his mental and emotional capacities. He will acquire the power of ex- 
pressing, a function closely related to thinking, imagining, and judging. He 
will understand and can explain how to do something. To use language and ex- 
pression accurately, concisely, clearly, distinctly, and when necessary, beauti- 
fully and emphatically, is a skill generally found in a leader. 

Although many people have knowledge and skill, they are not leaders princi- 
pally "because they have no followers to direct. They do not exercise abilities 
with the set purpose of building a following and attracting it by exhibiting the 
virtues of leadership. In a speech class a pupil one day is among the followers, 
the next day he is the leader; yet in both situations he learns the meaning of 
leadership. When he understands why he should talk before a group, he is ready 
to build a following for his leadership. When he can compare his own ability in 
the same field of endeavor with that of another pupil, he will discover what 
abilities and skills are attractive to others. This is necessary knowledge for 
a leader. 

A well-conducted speech class can develop self-reliance and courage in a 
high school pupil with the means which arise from the speaking situation itself. 
Followers require a leader to divide responsibility, plan programs, initiate re- 
forms, criticize projects, respect honest judgments, and co-operate with others. 
In a speech class a pupil can be given as much responsibility, in participating in 
and completing a speech project as he is capable of handling. He becomes a 
leader when he chooses subject matter of a speech or is responsible for effective 
casting and staging of a play. He develops his capacities for leadership when he 
acquires tact, courtesy, and honesty, respect for others, creative effort, and 
emotional control. In brief, his speech activities can arouse talents for leader- 
ship principally because they train the three characteristics required of a 
leader- -knowledge) skill in doing, and the ability to build, direct, and control 
a following. •:,.■•...■.-■... 

Summ ary Of Aims In Speech Training . 

A speech teacher not only directs but incites mental, emotional, physical and 
social activities in the pupil. He awakens in him new interests and relationships 
which result in a sense of values; he not only widens but also deepens his appre- 
ciation of things worthwhile in life; he enriches his imagination and his life; 
and he stimulates in him moral values and better ideals for his own good and that 
of society. • 


1. What are the major objectives in speech training? 

2. Discuss the difficulties encountered in classifying speech objectives. 

3. What is your definition of speech? 

h. State five ways of training in observation. 

5. Discuss the part played by memory in speech training. 

6. Name ways to help a student train his imagination.. 

7- Discuss the most common emotional' difficulty in speech work. 

8. What are the general aims| in secondary education? 

9. How are these general aims related to speech education? 

10. Why should attitudes and ideals be considered in relation to 'speech education? 

11. Compare the speech aims reported in the following bulletin with those of the 

high schools of your state: School Publications an d Speech, Bull. JB, 19^1, 
Office of the State Sup't., Mo. ' 


12. Bead and report on the Los Angeles City Schools Bull. No. 3^+0, and Speech in 

Education, Bull. No. 9, Dep't. of Education, Sacramento, Calif., 1937- 

13. Do you agree with the aims expressed in the Drummond Report on curriculum, 

Q.J.S. V. 11:107 April, 1925? 
lk. Discuss one of these topics: 

Secondary Education is the process of intellectual and personal discipline. 
Secondary Education is a process of adapting a student to the changing world 
in which he finds himself. 
: Secondary Education -is -.primarily a moral process. 
l r ). Prepare an oral report on one of the references from Rese arch in the Histor y 
of Speech Education, Gray, G-., Q.J.S. April, 19^9. 

16. Class discussion on The Role of Speech in Education, Kramer, M., Q.J.S. p. 12'3 

April, I9U8. 

17. Outline "briefly the content of the following publications: Guides to Speech 

Training in the Elementary School, Report Ass'n. of Teachers of Speech, 
Boston, Expression Co., 194-3 . Speech in Teache r Education, Com. Teach. Ed., 
Q.J.S. p. 80 Feb., I9I+6. 

18. Contrast two histories of speech training such as Dia r y of a Probl em Child, 

Robinson. M.P., Q.J.S. p. 357 Oct., I9I+6 with Stud y Hints for High Sc hool 
Students , Wrenn, C.G., Stanford Univer. Press, 19^-7. 

19. Criticize the following course of study: Cou rse of S tudy in Speech, Bull. 

State. Dept. of ^Education, No. k6 r J , Louisiana, Sept., 19^2. 

20. Give an oral report on the booklet New Horizons in Teachi ng, Broadhurst, K.D., 

Il60 Prince Ave. > Athens, Ga., 19^-7 • 

21. What advantages do you -find in a Communication Center? Cf. Q.J.S. p. 368 

Oct., 19i+7. 

22. List specific obligations you. feel that a speech teacher has towards a 

democracy . < 

23. Criticize the following article: Speech in the Secon d ary S chool, Mitchell, 

R.S., Bull. Nat. Ass'n. of Second. School Principals, V. 2k, p. 25 Dec, 
2k. Write a brief analysis of Three Centuries of Sp eech Teach ing Experience, Ed., 
Dressel, .H., The Mich. .Ass ' n. of Teachers of Sp., River Rouge, li+11 Coolidge 
Highway, Mich. 

25. What books which. you have read in your. speech training are found in the follow- 

ing bibliography? Discuss their value. Bibliography of S p eech E du cation , 
Thonssen, L., and Fat heron, E., New York, Wilson, 1939. 

26. What changes in speech methods have taken place since the publication of the 

following bulletin?. Oral English fo r S econdary Sch ools, Penn. Dept. of 
Public Instruction Bull. 283, Harrisburg, Penn., 1939 '. 

27. To supplement your reading on social aims in speech read Spe ech - Social 

P roblem . Prentiss, H., Engli sh Journal, V. 22, p. 189 March, 1933. 

28. Report on one of these references:. The Role. of Speech i n Secondary Schools, 

Bull., Nat, Ass'n. of Secondary Principals, V. 29 No.~l33 Nov., 194.3, and 
Ev olution of Ob jectives in Teaching Speech, Muskingum College, New Concord, 
Ohio. ~~"" . 



Adams, H. M., Speech Workbook (Stanford Univer., California: Stanford University 

Press, 19^5 )• 
Backus, 0. L., Speech in Education (New York: Longmans, Green, 1945). 
Baird, A. C, The Educational Philosophy of the Teacher of Speech (Q.J.S. V. 24: 

545-53 Dec, 1938). 
Barber, S. M., Speech Education (Boston: Little, Brown, 1939). 
Barnes, H. G., S peech Teaching: - A Vital Problem in Public Education (Austin, 

Texas: Univer. of. Texas, 1937). 
Barr, A. S., and Burton, W., The Nature and Direction of Learning 

(New York: Appleton, 1929). 
Billett, P. 0., Fundamentals of Secondary School Teachin g 

(Boston: Houghton, 194o). 
Bolenius, E. M., Teaching of Oral Speech, Rev. Ed. (New York: Lippincott, 1930). 
Borchers, G., Outli ne of a Beginning High School Course (Q.J.S. , V. 16: 208-11 

April, 1930). 
Briggs, T. H., Improving Instructio n (New York: Macmillan, 1938). • 
Brink, W. G., Directing Study Activities in Secondary S ch ools (New York: 

Doubleday Doran, 1937). 
Brubacher, J. S., Modern Philosophies of Education (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939)- 
Bruce, W. F., and Freeman, F. S., Development and Learning (Boston: Houghton, 

Bryant, D. C, Speec h for Teachers (Q.J.S., V, 24:244 April 1938). 
Burton, W. H., The Guidance o f Lear ning Ac t ivities (New York: Appleton, 1944). 
Butler, F. A. ; Improvement of Teaching in Secondary Schools (Chicago: Univer. 

of Chicago Press, 1939). 
Cable, W. A. , A Pro gram of Speech Education in a Democracy (Boston: Expression 

Co., 1932). 
Cable,. W. A., Speech, A Basic Training in the Educational System (Q.J.S., V. 21 

Nov. 1935). 
Camburn, B. M., A Hi g h School Course in Public Speaking (English Journal, V. 2: 

133-70 March, 1913) . 
Carrot hers, G. E., The Work of the Standards Study Committee and the High School 

Curriculum (Q.J.S. V. 23:86-91+ Feb. 1937). 
Caswell, H, L., and Campbell, D. S., Curriculum Development (New York: American 

Book, 1935). 
Cox, P. W., and Long, F. E., Principles of Secondary Education (New York: Heath, 

Crocker, L. } and Holm, J. N., Notebook and Syllabus For Teaching Speech (Ann 

Arbor, Michigan: Brumfield, 194?). 

Davis, S. E., The Technique of Teachi ng (New York: Macmillan, 1925). 

Douglas, We Must Teach Pupils to Think (Nations Schools 30:29-30 Nov., 1942). 

Douglass, H.. P., and Mills, H. H., Teaching in High School (New York: Ronald, 
1948 ) . ' 

Drennan, L. T., Values and Needs of a Course in Public Speaking (Ohio Educational 

Monthly, 74:156-9 May," 1925). 
Farrell, A. P., The Jesuit Code o f Liberal Education (Milwaukee: Bruce, I938). 
Fessenden, S. A., Speech and the Teacher (New York: Longmans, Green, 1945). 
Fitzpatrick, E., and Treacy, J., Readings in the Philosophy of Education 

(New York: Appleton, 1936). 
Fogerty, E., Speech Training: a Sympos ium (British Journal of Educational 

Psychology, V. 5:10-21 Feb., 1935). ' 
Gabler, E. R., and Borgeson, F. C, Guide to Methods of Teaching in the Secondary 

School, Rev. Ed. (New York: Inor Pub. Co.,' 207 4th Ave,, 1947). 
Gilkinson, H., and Knower, F., Psychological Studies of Individual Differences 

Among Students of Speech (Minneapolis: Dept . of Speech, U. of Minn., 1939). 


Grieder, C, Speech Training for Prospective Teachers (Educational Administration 

and Supervision, p. 469 Sept., 19 38). 
Grizzel, E. D., American Secondary Education (New York: Nelson, 19^1) . 
Hett 3 nger , E . L . , Conducting a. Public Speaking Course in High School ( Ore . 

Education Journal V. 5:11 Oct. 1930)". 
Huggett and Bradley > Growth -and Learning in the Ele me ntary School (New York: 

Heath, 1949). 
Kirby, K., Te aching to Think (Journal of Education 116: 363-369 Sept., 1933) • 
Kopp, G. A., B asic Principles of Speech Educati on (Teachers College Record., 

p. 397-4o4~Feb., 1940). , ■! 

Layton, C. R., Evolution of Objectives in Tea ching Spee ch (New Concord, Ohio: 

Muskingum College, 1937) • 
Lee, J. M., and Lee, D., The Child and His C urriculum (New York: Appleton, 1940). 
Lee, I. J., Language Habits in Human Af fairs (New York: Harper, 194l) . 
McConnell, R. E., Speech Education f or the Teacher in Training ( Elementary 

English Review, Dec . , 1935 ) • 
Meader, E. G., The Spe ech of th e Teacher (Modern Education V., 3:13-16 Oct., 1930). 
Norvelle, L., F und a mental Obj ectives of a Tea cher of S peech in 1935 (Q.J.S. 

V. 21:73 Feb., 1935). 
Olson, W. C, Child Dev elopment (New York: Heath, 1949). 
O'Neill, J. M., Aims~and Standards in Sp eech E duc ation (Q.J.S. V. 4:345-65 

Oct., 1913). ' 
Parrish, W. M., The Teacher's Speech (New York: Harper, 1939). 
Pray, S. A., and others, Gr aded Objectives fo r. Teach ing Goo d American Speech 

(New York: Dutton, 1934). 
Rahskopf, H., An Integrated Course of Study in Speech (Curriculum Committee of 

Wash. State Speech Ass'n. Olympia, Washington, 1937). 
Rasmus sen, C, et . al., Guides to Speech Training i n the Elementary Sc hools, a 

symposium (Boston: Expression, 1943). 
Raubicheck, L., Te aching Speech in Secondary Sch ools (New York: Prentice-Hall, 

Raubicheck, L., How to Teach Goo d Speech in the Elementary Schools (New York: 

Noble, 1939)." 

Redden, J. D., and Ryan, F. A., A Cath olic P hilos ophy of Education (Milwaukee: 

Bruce, 19*1-2). 
Reinoehl, CM., and Ayer, F. C, Cl assroo m Administration a nd Pupil Adjustment 

(New York: Applet on- Century Co.,' 194o).. 
Risk, T. M., Principles and Practice s of Teaching in Second a ry Scho ols, Rev. Ed. 

(New York: " "American Book, Tffif) . ~ 

Rivlin, H. A., Teaching Adolescents in Secondary', Schools (New York: Appleton, 
191+8), " " " ~ ' ~ 

Smith, H., Speech Gui des for Every Teacher' (Peabody Journal of Education, V. 17 
p. 42 July, 1939 J , " ■ ' ~ 

Sorrenson, F. S., The Three -fold Nature of Speech Ed ucation in Se c ondary Sch ools 
(Speech Bulletin Supp. Q.J.S. V. 3:^8-64 May, 1932). 

Tuttle, H. S., A Social Ba sis of Educ ation. (New York: Crowe 11, 193*0 . 

Weniger, C. E., Bette r Speech Pattern s and the English Course (Elementary Engl ish 
Review, V. 15 p. 1 Jan., 1938). ~~ 

Werner, L. S., Speech in the El ementary School (Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson, 

Williams, R. E., A Survey of Speech Tra ining in Hi gh School of U . S. with Reco m- 
mendations for its Improvements (Q.J.S. V. 8:224-55 June, 1922)7 

Languag e in General Education Sec. School Curr. Rep. 

"(New York: Appleton-Century, 194o). 
What_the_Engl ish Teac he r Should Know About Sp eech (English 
Journal H. S. ed. V. 26:648-50 Oct."; 1957). ~ 


Thraw the wand while it is green.-- SCOTTISH PROVERB 



Allied Fields Concerned with Language ; - - 

a. Language 

1. Province of linguistics , ; 

2. The theories of the origin of language 

3. Training in language a part of the speech course 
k. Training in language a cultural process 

5. An understanding of the linguistic laws 

6. Methods in teaching languages -.- ' 

b. Phonetics 

1. Symbols required for the representation of sound 

2. A phonetic alphabet necessary for the transcription of speech 

3. Application of the science of phonetics to speech 

c . Grammar 

1. The meaning of grammar 

2. The method of teaching. grammar in the speech class 

d. Rhetoric . . '■■: 

1. Beginnings in rhetoric . 

2. The Greek rhetorical tradition 

Corax and Tisias 





The Greek orators 

3. The Roman contribution to rhetoric 

Reasons for this study 


Quint ilian 
h. The development of rhetoric under Christianity : 

Establishing the Christian notion of rhetoric 

Developing the national literature 

Rhetoric in the Middle Ages 
5- The influence of the national spirit upon rhetoric 



Spain and Portugal 


Russia ■ • 

Sweden, Denmark,, and Norway 

England and. United Spates 
• World literature 


REFERENCES • '* : ' : ' : '." ; . '. , . 

.■ ->16 -• 


As now organized in high schools, speech courses have acquired their content 
and method from the traditional fields of the liberal college and in recent years 
from the applied sciences. The linguistic contribution will be discussed in this 

a. Language. 

Various .theories of the origin of language have influenced methods. Histori- 
cal grammar' has furnished facts for the study of diction. Research into the forma- 
tion of words , the types of construction, and the standards of usage, much of 
which the subject of logic would be powerless to explain, has been continually 
supplying content to speech not only to the teachers' training courses, but also 
to its regular skill courses. 

1. Province of linguistics. 

The science of linguistics is important to the study of modern trends in 
speech training. The student will find, for example, that dialects may not be 
alterations of the same language but are growing languages particular to places. 
He comes to know that a literary language is only a dialect which has acquired, 
because of a cultural or political circumstance, a pre-eminence over other dia- 
lects, and has been cherished and preserved by the efforts of a cultured group. 
... These facts and. many others are part of the body of the speech content taken over 
from the field of linguistics^ etymology, and like sciences' belonging to the 
general study . of languages . 

2. The theories of' the origin of language affect method. 

Jfo one knows how language came to man, but five, theories concerning its 
..origin from time, to time have been proposed.. Whatever theory is accepted by 
. the teacher of speech will color his views regarding; the functions of the vocal 
mechanism, .the nature of speech, and the psychology of expression.. 

The notion that language came into being by an arbitrary agreement among 
men, was propounded by many of the early Greek philosophers, but even in their 
time this opinion x^as controverted particularly by Epicurus and Lucretius. It 
still finds acceptance among some modern scholars and a few writers of speech 

Many Christians who came .under the influence of Platonic philosophy have 
held that language .was divinely inspired and was given to Adam and Eve directly 
by God. Some philosophers surmised that if God gave man his thought, it is 
reasonable to suppose that He gave him the representation of that thought. 
This view was not accepted by some of the great Christian writers of the past. 

Scholars like Penan, Peed, and Miiller have held that language is the out- 
growth of a natural instinct. Some- philosophers have gone farther to claim that 
man possesses two special faculties, one for the production of language, and the 
other for, its interpretation. Some authorities, although agreeing in part with 
the doctrine of natural revelation, maintain that the will and intellect of man 
are sufficient in themselves to use and interpret language without the need of 
additional powers. 

Darwin and Spencer related language to representation employed by primitive 
man to express: his reaction to an environment. They claim it is an' outgrowth 
of instinctive and emotional response, and a consequence of habit. Related in 


one way or another to the notions of Darwin, are certain modern theories. These 
are (a) that involuntary exclamations and interjections were the means of devel- 
oping language; (b) that man imitated simple sounds; (c) that primitive sounds 
were a reaction to sense impressions; (d) that poetry and song were the outbursts 
of persons engaged in various types of manual labor, who by releasing tension in- 
stigated speech; (e) that gestures preceded speech; and (f) that sounds became 
significant when they became an aid to gesticulation. 

A modern opinion denies that language came from God, or was created only by 
contract or agreement . It opposes the views of the evolutionists who presumed 
the faculties of abstraction and generalization on the part of animals, and who 
likewise assumed that conceptual and reflective language resulted from sensation 
and animal needs. The modern theory of progressive development in language main- 
tains that it came in five stages: namely, (l) instinctive signs or artificial 
symbols for the signification of interior states; (2) an appreciation of the re- 
lation of the sign to the thing signified; (3) utilization of the natural signs - 
particularly the interjection - as a spontaneous way of manifesting emotions; 
(4) growth of language by means of analogy; and (5) in some instances, creation 
of language by arbitrary agreement . 

3. Training in language is a necessary part of a speech course. 

The speech teacher will learn from the content of linguistics certain gen- 
eral rules which are needed to guide the study of language. He will, for ex- 
ample, develop a proper understanding of the phenomena involved in eye and ear 
recognition of the sign and stimulate the ability of the pupil to utter or write 
it. He will gain information regarding techniques that perfect skills en the part 
of the pupil in the arrangement of words so that the pupil may give meaning to 
utterance. He will acquire a proper evaluation of word usage. To gain an ade- 
quate appreciation of the rules of linguistics, the prospective teacher must also 
acquaint himself with the findings of psychology and the techniques that have 
been devised by educators for the establishment of skills in reading, writing, 
and speaking. Furthermore he must relate the subject matter of linguistics to 
the content of grammar and rhetoric, and he must realize that rules can only be 
applied and interpreted if the social significance of language is understood. 

k. Training in language is a cultural process. 

A child generally blunders into good usage when he comes to a realization 
that by the use of certain vocal symbols he gets what he wants, and when he ap- 
preciates the fact that the means he employs for, this action is acceptable to 
another. The child, early in his life, establishes opinions about his abilities 
to obtain desired objectives. They come from various acceptances, the parental 
direction, and the reactions, to books and people; but often. they arise from the 
results of testing his capacities and from various. yearnings. A child soon 
learns to value what is of use to him. His interest stimulates him to interpret 
and select bodily and vocal patterns of action. He learns that he can share 
these patterns with others, and that they become an'outward sign signifying a 
clear relationship with some inner action. 

Although many of the child's inherited and acquired co-ordinations are 
beyond the focus of his consciousness, the constant repetition of. specific ac- 
tions is creating specific functionings of the brain, and these effects of stim- 
uli are in turn arousing a behavior. The child in the process of his education 
from visual and auditory sensations, assisted by the feeling of involved muscula- 
ture, establishes speech functions. He then proceeds to use signs that manifest 
mental and emotional activity and that give a shared meaning between himself and 
an auditor. Thus training in language is a cultural process. 


5. An understanding of the linguistic laws of standards is necessary to the 

The growbh of a language is governed by certain laws that must be recognized 
by a teacher of speech if he is to be successful in solving the problems of diction 
which arise in his classes. The study of linguistic laws will acquaint him with 
the fact that the good use of language promotes unity in community action. Al- 
though geographical and cultural barriers establish a kind of linguistic isolation 
which favors the perpetuation of the language, maintains its purity, fixes its 
limits, and determines its effectiveness, other factors are at work undermining 
such isolation. The teacher must know what elements are operating to unify the 
cultural life of a community and what forces are disturbing such a unity before he 
can understand the problems related to the establishment of standards of diction. 
Before he can determine, for example, the norm of pronunciation in his speech 
classes, he must know how a language can be fluid and progressive yet, at the same 
time, restricted by custom and class control. This problem and similar ones re- 
lating to the right use of a dictionary, the building of a vocabulary, and the 
choice of words, can be satisfactorily solved by the teacher who has a background 
gained from the study of the linguistical sciences. 

6. Methods in teaching languages must be known.. 

Although a distinction is justified between speech training and language 
training, in practice both are so interwoven that improvement in one generally, 
creates situations that aid the other. Method in speech deals with ways of using 
effectively an arbitrary code composed of audible and visible symbols combined 
with various vocal and bodily modulations. Method in language applies to means 
of employing a visual code for certain specific purposes. Both speech and lang- 
uage must be guided by the laws of rhetoric regarding unity, coherence •> emphasis, 
and beauty. Both must be taught by methods that improve a person's ability to 
collect and use subject matter, to outline and develop this material for, a pur- 
pose, and to express it in a manner consistent with the canons of style. 

.Since the learning of languages, native or foreign, has been a' part , of the 
field of education from ancient times, no course of study has been subjected to 
such extensive research as to methods of learning,, to such discussion of object- 
ives, and to such judgments concerning the practicality and suitability of differ- 
ent types of content. For example, the critical studies regarding language far 
outnumber those of most fields. The speech courses have benefited from such re- 
search, and the teacher who wishes to be competent in his work mast keep abreast 
of the progress in linguistics- and in the specific fields of ancient and modern 

b. Phonetics. 

This study relates to the symbolization of speech sounds. 
1. Symbols required for the representation of sound. 

Mainly because of a geographical accident, a person speaks one language 
rather than another. He is born with the instruments of speech, and the capac- 
ities for speaking and understanding languages, but he will acquire his own 
tongue and for that matter, any foreign one if he has the opportunities to hear 
it,, speak it, and use it. He is capable of producing a relatively large number of 
sounds, but employs only vocal units that have been accepted by arbitrary agree- 
ment as speech symbols of a given language. Few of these' audible signs can be used 
alone and still carry meaning; yet in non- linguistic expression certain nuances of 


the voice and a few unit sounds convey emotional reactions. Since speech sounds. 
can he recognized as such either alone or in combinations that compose the spoken 
language, some symbol must be devised to represent each unit sound. To meet this 
problem, symbols have been invented, "based mainly upon the written alphabet that 
is itself composed of visual ones representing in various combinations/ ideas, oh-" 
jects, and relationships. Diacritical signs are used to give a finer distinction 
than would he possihle with the urrphonetic written alphahet . -> , ■ 

2. A phonetic alphabet required for transcribing and standardizing speech. 

From time to time different methods have been formulated for the purpose of 
transcribing speech, but such systems eventually beget a dualism when the visual ' 
symbols no longer accurately represent the speech sound. Obviously, writing does 
not change as rapidly as speech; consequently a disparity between the visual and 
auditory symbols may exist. Many languages may today be written correctly, but 
the visual symbols may be of little help in understanding the spoken one. Many 
endings of words, for example, are written but are not pronounced, and many let- ' 
ters have no meaning as to sound. In fact, the written symbol was not always in- 
tended to represent sound. Picture writing was an early attempt to transfer ideas, 
thoughts and judgments. On the other hand, the old Persian Cuneiform had symbols 
standing for sounds. In early times in Western Europe runic writing was in common 
use before the introduction of the Latin alphabet, the forerunner of the English 
one. How accurately this alphabet ever represented sound might well be questioned, 
but, at least, it is an historical fact that with each succeeding age the disparity 
between the visual and the auditory symbol grew increasingly greater. 

At the present time students and teachers have recourse to dictionary sys- 
tems in order to learn pronunciation or to correct or justify their pronunciation. 
They also have the symbols used by the International Phonetic Association, now 
considered by many educators as eminently more satisfactory than the marks em- 
ployed by some publishers of dictionaries. Although no set of symbols has been . 
devised that has met the requirements of all phoneticians, this phonetic alphabet 
has wide use. It employs a symbol to represent sounds belonging to a certain dis- 
tinctive speech pattern. For example, there are certain ways to form the sound 
represented by the symbol C i] , but they all establish approximately the same kind 
of sound with determined frequencies. As variations within the limits of the 
sound represented by [ i] will generally be recognized by the ear, other frequen- 
cies outside the pattern will be called by some other term and manifested by some 
other symbol. 

3. Application of the science of phonetics to speech. 

The study of phonetics, even as a pure science, is important to the speech 
teacher, but in the applied fields of linguistics, speech correction, and general' 
speech courses it is of particular value. Because phonetics draws its own con- 
tent from so many fields, for example, the mechanical and physiological aspects 
of voice production, the applications of certain physical laws, and the data of 
psychology,, much information comes to speech courses in understandable and applied 
forms. It is source material necessary for the solving of problems involved in 
the sensation and perception' of sound, the various functions of the neurological 

and anatomical mechanisms- related to speech, and the environmental influences upon 

c. Grammar. 

This subject associates words to two main classes, .of verbs and nouns with acces- 
sory divisions of adjectives, adverbs, and certain classes of relating and connecting 
words . 


1. The meaning of grammar. 

This science investigates the correctness of words, and is interested in the 
facts of language. Its province is limited to word usage and sentence structure. 
Since a teacher' must give criticism in his speech class that is concerned with the 
correctness' 'of utterance, he himself must know the science of grammar and impress 
upon his students the need of correcting expression at variance with the laws of 
grammatical usage and construction. Although pupils in high school receive gram- 
matical training in English classes and have studied the science in their element- 
ary training, they still make mistakes in oral utterance. In -fact, some of these 
errors are peculiarly associated with speech, and must be corrected when they are 
made in the speech classroom. Moreover sound criticism concerning grammatical 
usage paves the way for a "better appreciation of rhetoric on the part of the pupil, 
• since this subject depends upon the science of grammar for that part of its con- 
tent dealing with the facts of language. 

2: A successful method of teaching grammar in the speech class. 

The speech instructor does not . teach grammar in his classes with the methods 
employed by Some teachers in their analysis of classical authors. He recognizes 
the fact that some rules of grammar, formerly devised to assist the pupil with an 
understanding of the classical authors, now merely burden the memory with informa- 
■. tlon and often require more rules to explain rules. He. also concedes that mere 
reference to errors without any attempt to generalize information into rules is 
not good. teaching. He remembers that the high school pupil is not learning a 
language as a child of preschool age, but as an individual who has some power of 
. analysis and generalization. 

A pupil should approach the study of grammar from the. known to the unknown 
and, in particular, : with the attitude that he uses correct grammar for his own 
good. The. teacher can'' guide him in his study, and impress, upon him the advantages 
that are to be- gained from reading good literature and hearing good conversation. 
In other words, the speech teacher can Influence the student to correct his bad 
grammar, and he can suggest" ways and means of his acquiring habits of speaking 
English according to' good usage . He can teach the pupil that the well-educated 
man uses language accurately ; in the words of Ruskin, "Whatever language he knows, 
he knows precisely." 

d. Rhetoric '../'...■ 

In order that the prospective teacher of speech ■may appreciate the sources of 
rhetorical principles commonly applied in the speech courses, this section will treat 
the following points: (l) beginnings in rhetoric; (2) the Greek rhetorical tradi- 
tion; (3) the Roman contribution to rhetoric; (k)' the development of rhetoric under 
Christianity; and (5) the consequences of the national spirit in literature upon 
critical and constructive rhetoric. 

1., Beginnings in -rhetoric '■■' , 

The teacher >need not isolate the present content of the speech courses from 
the rhetorical tradition of ancient peoples, particularly the Jews, the' Greeks, 
and the Romans. He will be able to instruct better if he has a good background In 
the growth of rhetoric. He will find interest in knowing that the oldest frag- 
ments of written language show organization and composition and thinking of a high 
order. Although rhetoric as a course of study did not appear until the Greeks were 
.. able to systematize' 'knowledge, many" rhetorical principles were established very 
early,.; The records' of ■ the ancient Chaldeans, probably twenty-four' centuries before 


Christ, give evidence that the nature of the early clanship encouraged the growth 
of language and rhetorical principles. 

Among the oldest writings of the Semitic peoples will "be found examples of 
excellent rhetorical usage. If the golden age of 'Hebrew' poetry, some ten centur- 
ies before Christ, and certain later periods are studied, the student will find 
sound application of the laws of grammar and rhetoric. 'He will observe ample il- 
lustration of classification, enumeration, and .evidence of persuasion in the Old 
Testament. Skill in description and argumentation is apparent. The Hebrew writ- 
ers have contributed many rhetorical principles relating to the use of rhythm and 
parallelism. In the art of observation they teach a lesson to modern writers. As 
man and nature were of primary interest to them, their invention was rich and co- 
pious, their thinking exact, and their rich emotional life vitally expressed. 

Unity of thought among the earliest peoples naturally suggests that mental 
operations had greater resemblance than diversity. Likeness in invention, organ- 
ization, and development of rhetorical tools is a fact also obvious. The types of 
composition, the structure, and the grammatical processes found in the Vedas and 
the early drama are in many instances as modern as those observed in contemporary 
literature. .. .'. '. ■■. 

Early literature abounds in excellent examples of- versification. Writers in 
India and Egypt gave elaborate amplification to their thoughts. Strict definition 
came later in the culture of peoples. The metaphor, as well as its expanded form, 
the myth, is common to the literatures of Egypt and Asia-. Figures of speech' were 
used. to humanize the abstract and make truth more attractive. Narration and -expo- 
sition belong to the literary traditions of early peoples. 

In Chinese literature, exposition was used to explain the details of conduct. 
Emphasis was placed upon the precept. The epigram was widely employed in instruc- 
tion. The ability to learn the sayings of the sacred literature of China and 
write about them fluently and correctly became the social .aim of Oriental educa- 
tion. But such an. aim does not give constructive rhetoric a very high place in 
education, for. imitation becomes the chief concern of the student, and style, or 
expression, the chief ideal. 

If the student will read the writings of the Hebrew leaders, the Vedas, the 
Zend-Avesta books of central part of Asia, and the works of Confucius (551-478 
B.C.), he will have a better appreciation of early rhetorical tradition. 

2. The Greek rhetorical tradition. 

The birth of technical rhetoric has been placed on the island of Sicily where 
two natives, CORAX and TISIAS organized, in 467 B.C., a system of speaking which 
could be imparted, by a set of rules. Corax,. who also wrote numerous handbooks on 
the subject, was given credit for the definition of rhetoric. But let it not be 
assumed that men like Thales of Milet (639-546 B.C.) and others of the Ionian 
School of philosophy, Democritus (420 B.C.) and other interpreters of the Atomistic 
school, Phythagoras (534-504 B.C. ), Xenophanes (575-490 B.C . ), Zeno (490 B.C.), 
Empedocles (450 B.C.) who were profound thinkers, lacked rhetorical. tools for 
their expression. Early rhetoricians systematized the topics of .composition for 
the orator, but as they carried analysis and distinction too far, they arrived at 
a philosophy of negation in both morals and truth. 

SOPHISTS. who next furthered the development of rhetoric created the foundation 
of an artificial prose- style which ultimately led. to the highly finished diction in 
later Greek orators. Protagoras of Greece, (480-411 B.C.) one of the first "to 


write on the accuracy of style, distinguished, the gender of nouns, tenses, moods 
of verbs, and various forms of address. Gorgias of Leontihi (487 B.C.) who held 
that rhetoric was only a means of persuasion, created a style characterized "by 
flowery ornamentation, poetic phraseology, rhetorical figures, and symmetrical 
sentence structure. His numerous followers, interested in extemporaneous speaking 
rather than the written form, later studied the problem of delivery. The Sophists 
by their stress on contradictions indirectly gave aid to the development of logic, 
and by their emphasis on form and choice of expression stimulated the growth of 
the Greek language, making it a valuable instrument for men like Plato, Aristotle, 
and Socrates. 

SOCRATES (469-399 B.C. ) was not interested in rhetoric as an art but only as 
a means of pleasing a hearer, for, according to him, art had only two concerns, 
political and medical-. 

PLATO (428-344 B.C.), on the other hand, considered rhetoric as an art and 
valued it chiefly for its moral effect upon the city state. He believed that true 
rhetoric should consist of (a) knowledge of truth, (b) knowledge of the soul of 
the person to be addressed, (c) careful arrangement in the exposition of ideas. 
The object of art according to Plato was the fascination of an audience or "con- 
juring of the soul." • Plato's ideas concerning the control of state over the life 
of man appear inconsistent with cur notions of education in a democracy; yet 
Plato's thought concerning' moral goodness could give a stability to speech' educa- 
tion, even in our industrial age. 

ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.)., the great systematizer of human knowledge, wrote a 
most complete work called ART 'OF- RHETORIC. He was objective in his treatment al- 
though all his works were colored' by his notion of the need of preparing for the 
good life and for actual service to the state. He attacked, the speech problem 
from the point of view of philosopher and psychologist as well as a rhetorician. 
His distinction between intellectual and volitional faculties brought the notion 
of persuasion into oratorical composition. He divided rhetoric according to 
three kinds of hearers. Because of his attention upon the hearer, he became in- 
terested particularly in style and delivery. 

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle not only contributed to the study ; of rhetoric 
but they influenced teaching methods. Socrates with his interest in induction 
and definition, Plato with his method of proof and analysis of the passions, and 
Aristotle with his precise method of demonstration have brought into general meth- 
ods, as well as the specific method of teaching speech, important contributions. 
Aristotle in particular, gave content and form to logic and developed terminology 
in use to this day. But the study of the works of these men as well as the 
Sophists is not sufficient for one intending to teach speech. He should become 
acquainted with the GREEK ORATORS themselves-. Many of their works are extant, and 
no oratory surpasses their eloquence.- * ■ 

3. The Roman contribution to rhetoric. 

Without an understanding of Roman thought, the student can hardly evaluate 
the literary criticism of the Middle Ages,, or scarcely appraise the rhetorical 
traditions common the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

To widen hi. s knowledge of the available tools of conviction and persuasion, 
to gain an ability in analysis and synthesis, to become sensitive to the beauties 
of style, and to value the useful - here are the reasons for the student's interest 
in the Roman views of rhetoric . 


The theories of the Roman rhetoricians must be studied in the light of their 
age, hut applied in view of modern conditions. In the United States, for example, 
most speeches are given before the so-called middle class of people.' But Rome did 
not have a middle class, for her people were generally either rich or poor.- Since 
Roman orators had such a poor opinion of the people and often exploited 'their weak- 
nesses, they developed an audience psychology far from acceptable in our times. 
The common people of this country will hardly react to the same persuasion 'as did 
the people of whom Cicero remarks, "They demand nothing and desire nothing" ( Pro 
Sext . h-9) . Yet Roman rhetoric was practical; therefore it was particularly ac- 
ceptable to English people. In fact, the eighteenth century civilization regarded 
Latin culture as its own inheritance. The Graeco Roman rhetoric even if today 
somewhat outmoded, still bears a vital influence on all speech education. 

Many of our speech problems received ample treatment by the Romans. They ac- 
cepted the doctrine that speech is purposive and must be related to life and so- 
cial well-being. They, as men of action, although under the influence of Greek 
thought, adapted rhetorical principles to their own civilization. They were ac- 
quainted with the Socratic philosophy, impressed with the doctrines of Aristotle 
and Plato, and argued about the post -Aristotelian philosophies of the Sceptic, the 
Epicurean, and the Stoic thought. Many of their rhetoricians held with the Stoics 
the importance of instruction; thus they emphasized the didactic impulse in ora- 
tory. Others found value in Epicurean thought with its stress upon pleasure; 
thereby they brought the concept of delight into oratory. Some sought the Aris- 
totelian viewpoint in maintaining a balance between the useful and the delightful. 

In the first period of Latin literature will be found PLAUTUS (227-I83 B.C.) 
and TERENCE (192-159 B.C.). An idea of Latin drama and verse may be gained from a 
study of these authors. Perhaps CATO THE ELDER (2^5-148 B.C.) is the single writer 
to be studied for his style inasmuch as his contemporaries and later Romans con- 
sidered him one of their great orators. In the second period from 146-39 B.C. 
are found the two great classic poets LUCRETIUS and CATULLUS with the famous prose 

Although the works of great Latin writers and orators should be known by the 
speech teacher to give him background in his own subject-matter, his chief inter- 
est may well be in the views of such rhetoricians as Cicero and Quintilian: 

CICERO (106-43 B.C.) 1 , who stands alone among the early rhetoricians as one 
combining the gift of personal eloquence with that of teaching the art, aimed to 
harmonize the different systems of philosophy and rhetoric. He based his rhetori- 
cal principles upon the fact that man had freedom of choice; thereby he opposed 
the doctrines of blind destiny proposed by the Stoics, and at the same time 
avoided the extremes of Epicurean morality. He maintained the view that oratory 
was the basis of a young man's education, even for its theoretical values, but he 
held that it was more than self-expression; it was a social necessity for the 
educated man, and as such must be judged by its usefulness. He did not make the 
error of certain Roman educators of the fourth and fifth centuries in holding that 
rhetorical training could be made a substitute for thinking. He-considered rhetor- 
ic ^ to be an aid in making man intelligent but not a medium in developing an inclin- 
ation for either obscure or ornate expression. Those who are contemptuous of 
rhetoric and extol so-called plain speaking should reflect upon Cicero's view that 
the neglect of rhetorical means leads to an over-simplification of the speech forms 
and inclines a speaker to a barren' style . Although Cicero valued directness of 

The authors suggest that book reports be required for Cicero's works, De Or at ore , 
and The Orator. 


speech, he did not over-stress this quality as do certain modern teachers who in 
over-emphasizing the conversational manner of speaking neglect the value of the 
striking and the unusual thought and the power of expression. 

Cicero felt that the speaker to be successful must have natural talent culti- 
vated "by arduous study. .But neither talent nor study assures success since the 
influence of time and place must be considered. This notion, now so common with 
the environmentalists was also well expressed by Tacitus (55-120 A.D.) in his 
Dialogue-*-, for he, like Cicero, was well aware of the connection between social 
forces and oratory. Cicero did not carry to extremes the view that a speech should 
manifest a speaker's personality; in fact, he held that the speaker should not be- 
come so subjective as to express his own intuitions without regard to audience re- 
action. He felt that the subject matter should be- designed for the needs of the 
audience inasmuch as it must make an immediate appeal to a group that has little 
time to evaluate thought during a presentation of a speech. The social aspect of 
speech was well understood by this great Roman orator and teacher. 

Cicero maintained that oratory generally expresses more passion than ordinary 
conversation,- and although oratory may be composed of ordinary words, these sym- 
bols must often express a highly emotional content. In fact, demonstrative ora- 
tory in its use of diction is closely akin to poetry. Cicero discusses the simi- 
larity of the style found in the poet and in the orator, indicating the great 
freedom the orator enjoys in establishing speech rhythm and rhetorical ornaments. 
Delight and usefulness are not incompatible in oratory. Pathos or the power of 
moving to pity or anger Cicero analyzed in detail.' Perhaps he, as well as other 
rhetoricians and grammarians in establishing a system of figures of speech, over- 
classified the subject,' but he did emphasize the fact that oratorical prose must 
show variety in diction as well as in structure. 

Cicero realized that the orator is not a poet in his use of emotion, but he 
declared that the orator must employ emotion in order to move an audience to ac- 
tion. If he stressed the emotional appeal in making the common too eloquent, we 
must recognize our tendency is to make eloquent matter too barren. Cicero, superb 
in eulogy and invective, less strong in political oratory, was a master of the 
demonstrative type. He has been considered by many as the most perfect orator of 
forensic speech. The student will gain much by studying his treatise on rhetoric, 
and • he will appreciate his oratorical power if he reads the orations Against 
Verges, The_j4anilian Law, and Ag ains t Catal ine. 

QUINTILTAN, a thorough Aristotelian, who preached a return to the classical 
tradition of the Augustan Age, left a valuable contribution for us in the Instit - 
utes of Oratory. He considered the whole nature of man in the development of the 
orator. To him the first essential for an orator was being a good man, possessing 
exceptional gifts of speech, and in particular, all the excellencies of character. 
To ^ him,, ; also, oratory meant a way of life to make a man's knowledge effective. 
Although valuing the temperament of the orator, he stressed the use of rules re- 
garding words and favored the study of models ( Insti t utes of Oratory , P. 25). 
Whereas some modern rhetoricians over -emphasize the personality behind the word, 
he pointed out that correct speech, beginning in infancy, should be developed grad- 
ually, for he said that if a' child attempts more than his powers allow, the inevi- 
table result will be hesitation, interruption, repetition, and a loss of confid- 
ence in his own ability. He disapproved the method, common at that time, of 
children memorizing the names and order of the letters, believing that such a 
practice made them slow to recognize the symbols. Instead he advocated learning 
their appearance and names as the children did in recognizing people. He advised 

^•See Be Qratpribus fo*r theories of Tacitus. 


teachers to give children ivory letters to handle and name so that the learning of 
them could he a pleasurable experience. ,..' 

Quintilian anticipated the modern tendency in education to make the subject 
matter more attractive to the pupil. He favored the idea of having, the pupil read 
extensively in literary and historical works as excellent training in Composition 
and delivery. He further observed that different natures need different, methods 
of training. He recommended the construction of words and sentences, asi soon as 
the syllables were learned, believing that other methods resulted in poor spelling. 
He favored the use in speech training of a moral lesson rather than lists of words. 
To improve pronunciation he suggested that the pupils "rattle off a selection of 
names and lines of studied difficulty" consisting of harsh syllables that "go ill" 
together. To omit this exercise he felt would "result in numerous faults of pro- 
nunciation, which, unless removed in early years, will become a perverse and in- 
curable habit and persist throughout life."l 

Quintilian' s educational scheme: (a) method should vary according to the 
individual; (b) educational problems of particular ages call for different- meth- 
ods; (c) correct speaking and clear thinking are interrelated and interdependent; 
(d) reading good literature to be the very foundation of oratory; poetry, in par- 
ticular, is the groundwork in training the orator; (e) speech as an art must con- 
ceal the techniques of the art; (f ) the future orator should become accustomed 
from childhood to move in society without fear; and (g) the orator from infancy 
needs good models. This educational program as well as Quintilian' s treatise of 
oratory, in reality a manual of teacher-training and an outline of method, greatly 
influenced the educators of the Middle Ages and even those of the Renaissance. 

k. The development of rhetoric under Christianity. 

Under this topic three sub-divisions will be discussed as follows: the es- 
tablishment of the Christian notion of rhetoric; the development of the national 
literature; and rhetoric in the universities of the Middle Ages. 

The early Fathers did not found a school of rhetoric or philosophy but did 
influence both. Such Christian writers and Latin Fathers as Tertullian (l60 2^5 
A.D.) Lactantius (250- 325 A.D.) St. Jerome (331-teO) St. Ambrose (3^0-397) and . 
finally the great St. Augustine (35lj.-l1.30) utilized rhetoric for the purpose of 
preaching the Christian doctrine and gave it a new impulse toward the didactic 
spirit. Earlier, Plato had given his authority to the moral significance of art, 
and if rhetoric as an art could aid morality, the Fathers accepted rhetorical 
principles as a means towards an end; namely, persuading Christians to their 
duties and pagans to belief. Although the Christian civilization was too busy 
with its religious interests to evolve any art theories, it did set moral stan- 
dards far • speeches. 

A Christian orator, for instance, could not look upon preaching as an ex- 
pression of a cause separated from personal opinion. He could not agree with 
Cicero who, when accused of contradiction in his opinions, remarked, "You are 
mistaken if you think that you find the expression of our personal opinions in 
our speeches;' they are the language of the cause and the case, and not that of 
the man and orator." (Pro Cluent 5Q) The Christian orator could not look upon 
rhetorical practices as something to be used indifferently as means to defend the 
guilty or to bring disgrace upon an honest man. To the pagan orator truth and ■ 
justice might be the end of a speech, but often with the provision that this end 
served the. useful purpose of the speaker. 

^he Institutes of Oratory , p. kj. 


But the simplicity and directness of instruction and the moral approach to a 
subject matter were not the only contributions of the Fathers, for they met con- 
troversy in the early centuries. Here again the approach to argumentation is not 
that of pagan Rome and Greece. The aim of Christian speakers, even in controversy, 
was to gain a submission of wills, although at times some Christian orators fell 
into the bad practices of their age. Some of the late Greek and Latin Fathers and 
controversialists, however, were well schooled in the art of rhetoric and devel- 
oped a persuasive Christian eloquence that is an example even to modern times. 1 

To extend the boundaries of the Christian faith, the Church found it neces- 
sary to explain her doctrines not only to simple folk but to the learned as well. 
In her effort to accomplish this purpose she encouraged educated men, well grounded 
in the Christian truths and the philosophy of the day, to make use of the rhetoric 
of the time as an effective means of converting men to Christianity. That these 
men consciously or unconsciously used sound methods of rhetoric is evident since 
history testifies to their success as teachers. 

In the fourth century, one of these scholars, a rhetorician, philosopher and 
theologian, was St . Augustine (35^-^30). A man of profound intellect, and strong 
emotional life, well versed in the Greek philosophy, particularly Plato, he com- 
bined with his natural gift of persuasion the logical factors of rhetoric. His 
teaching, and preaching are to this day excellent models in persuasion. Wot con- 
tent with his own efforts in instruction, he became a prolific writer not only in 
philosophy and theology but in teaching methods. His work, De Doctrina Christ iani , 
skilfully discusses the ways and means of instruction and persuasion, and gives a 
Christian approach to the rhetorical art. 

In the fifth century, rhetoric was a leading study in the Roman schools be- 
longing to the provinces, particularly Gaul, Africa, and what is now Spain. From 
the sixth century to the later Middle Ages many types of Latin schools were de- 
veloped in which grammar and rhetoric of the Roman tradition were basic studies. 
But this emphasis on Latin hindered the development of the common language of the 
people which was out of favor with the learned. In fact, many clergymen felt that 
the vulgar tongues, later to become the Romance languages, were merely of transi- 
ent value. Consequently they wrote their sermons in Latin as late as the end of 
the Middle Ages. (Philosophy was written in Latin until the time of Descartes-- 
17th century and it is still written in that language for the use of seminarians.) 
Missionaries who went into the conquered territories of the Roman armies contrib- 
uted to Latin culture and maintained the traditions of Roman rhetoric. 

Latin, being the official language of the Church and State held its prowess 
for years as the language of culture, but the Church, recognizing the growing 
tongues in the conquered Roman territories, as early as the Council of Tours 
(812) sought by official decree to have preaching established in the vernacular. 
Gradually the principles of rhetoric and grammar, once only studied in relation to 
Latin and Greek, were applied to the growing European languages --German, French, 
Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. 

Consult the works of the following men for examples of rhetorical composition and 
oratory of their periods: St. Basil (32O-379); St. Gregory Nazianzus (328-389); 
St. Gregory of Nyssi (330-396); St. John Chrysostom (3V7-U07); Cyril of Alexan- 
dria (khk); Tertullian (155); St. Cyprian (200); Lactantius (250-325); St. Am- 
brose (3 :1 +0-397); St. Jerome (3^6-420); and in a later century, St. John Damascenus 
(700). Works available in English translation. 


With rhetoric established in the strict curriculum, of the medieval univer- 
sity, its content was rigidly determined so as not to comprehend the proper ob- 
ject of another science. Rhetoric was concerned with the invention, the arrange- 
ment, and expression of thought. "'""'., 

But such a content derived much 'guidance from the noological sciences, es- 
pecially general and particular 1 grammar, comparative grammar and the psychologi- 
cal sciences. The latter were, singularly directive in tracing the rules which 
permit the faculties to obtain'their' own' particular ends. Logic, for example, 
gave direction to the intellect '• in' arriving at truth. When rhetoric was con- 
cerned with matter dealing with' the" formulation of an idea,. or the relationship 
among ideas, or the- 'drawing' 'of- 'one judgment from' another judgment, or with the 
relationship of thought with verbal expression, " it had its guide. in general logic. 
Esthetics in giving a mode of actiofi'to the creative imagination for the realiza- 
tion of the beautiful, and ethics in establishing prescriptions for the will in 
the practice of good were also guides for rhetoric. They kept, it to its own 
proper sphere and led it into the domains of invent ion, ^arrangement, and expres- 
sion of thought. .:' ''["'/I'.,. '•:■'''.'.; ,-.„. 

Although rhetoric : in the -universities of the Middle Ages was held to, its 
proper province, 'its content- was subject to much discussion and even dispute.., - 
Within the domain of the general 'philosophical 'trend, termed scholasticism were. 
many different schools-" df thought, and many principles taught, in "rhetoric, were. 
dependent for their' acceptance 'upon theories approved 'by a school, of logic or by 
a group proposing some other philosophical View. When these philosophical prin- 
ciples were subject to opinions among the schools of thought within the same 
university, the 1 principles of -rhetoric were likewise,, brought into the field, of 
argument:. ■■'* ; f - ;; - • "' "''. '[ '',''. , '".;,■ ..... ... ..->,■ 

• Ehet or ic,- although sharpened and controlled, gained. much in content from the 
schoolmen, for rhetoric dealing 1 with expression of the" vernacular as well as 
Latin. had interest in structure and 'style. As a study, it reflected scholastic - 
i sm ■ which was brought to ' its ' peak -during the : t ime of St . - Thomas Aquinas . ( 1227- 

1274). ■- • '-^ ." ■ \'Y..J:fC* ■ -.•;;."■■'■"/' "'•'.- ■■<■.■ - - : - ■■■'■-■ ■■' 

.':-'"-:A course in rhetoric, based generally upon Aristotelian principles, had a 
definite place in the universities /either in relation to the liberal arts curri- 
cula or to the professional courses such as ' law' and theology . Because the prin- 
ciples of rhetoric were generally applied to Latin, the official language of the 
Church, and because schoolmen -disregarded the' native tongues ,. critical principles 
of rhetoric were : lacking' to guide the growing language of 1 the people . .-Thus -the 
real influence of the university on the Cultural development '-.of "the people's ■.; 
language" was negligible .-■ But ' as the' 'new languages called for expression. of 
higher, and more complicated : 'thinking,' -rhetorical principles; once applied to. Latin 
were available'- for the' guidance- Of the new tongues. The .impulse, toward a stand- 
ard in a language brought rhetoric out of the universities into the activity of 
the market place. 

The formal element of rhetoric as known in, the universities underwent a 
change in its application' to- popular utterance. Ehet oric- had been greatly re- 
stricted in its natural development by the methods, of disputation used by. the. 
Schoolmen.. Questions and- 'responses,- although a valuable, method to form a. doc.-., 
trine of thinking, tended' to -overemphasize'; exposition and, argumentation at, the! 
expense of narration and description. : The respect for Aristotelian authority 
did much to set boundaries to the content of grammar and rhetoric. The greatest 
handicap to rhetorical advancement came when the abstract found its way into 
oratory. This innovation not only was a disadvantage to public speaking- -which 


must always be concerned with concrete embodiment --but to the teaching method of 
rhetoric. The stress on logical analysis in philosophy naturally brought the 
subject of analysis into the teaching of rhetoric, but principles that might be 
applied to creative activity were much neglected. 

The emphasis placed upon logical arrangement, the use of the proposition 
and right division of subject matter were common to Hebrew, Greek, and Reman 
education. Scholasticism truly made logical perfection an ideal, even a primary 
aim of expression. To this day the French orators are influenced by scholastic 
notions of division of a speech content, but such stress on logical structure may 
cause form to be emphasized while content is degenerating. The tests and norms 
of reality are necessary, but reality itself cannot be forgotten. Morphology is 
important, but an outline may . be -barren if development does not furnish the life 
and virility to the complete structure and external form. 

After the Middle Ages, rhetoric was in a confused state because of the views 
held concerning the principles of composition and literary standards. Often' 
rhetoric became a science of dispute rather than an art of composition. Teachers 
were in disagreement as to the province, purpose, and principles of rhetoric. 
Some identified it with philosophy while others placed it with the applied sci- 
ences. It is not strange, then, in view of such confusion that,: by the four- 
teenth century, grammar, rhetoric, and logic often were studied as ends of learn- 
ing in themselves, divorced .from the classics as well as the growing European 

Training in rhetoric suffered further from diametrically opposed educational 
theories which sprang up after the thirteenth century. Yet these influences did 
not have the magnitude of those brought about by the invention of movable type by 
Johann Gutenberg in lM+8. Printing changed the entire study of rhetoric. The 
structural Side of language became important as attention shifted to the printed 
page. Rhetoric no longer was related only to the spoken word but to written com- 
position as., well.' ' This fact can be observed in many of the- early works on rhet- 
oric in the sixteenth century. 

Since Europe had a number of languages taking the place of the Latin and the 
Greek of the early centuries, these tongues required rhetorical principles to be 
applied to writing and speaking. So that the prospective teacher may appreciate 
the sway of rhetorical traditions upon these new languages, and observe the ef- 
fects of the literary progress of these new tongues, the next section will out- 
line important periods of literary events. 

'}. The influence' of the national spirit upon rhetorical tradition. ■ 

The study of the historical evolution of. the languages in Europe and their 
literatures gives ample illustration of the important principles of constructive 
and critical rhetoric. The particular periods .in each ■ literature are of especial 
value to the speech student . Although the briefest survey of the literature of 
each European country is beyond the scope of this textbook, certain illustrations 
may be given that indicate the influence of the national spirit upon rhetorical 
tradition. Since the prospective teacher of speech will be asked to supply names 
and works of authors for class material, interpretation contests, and dramatic 
readings., he will take interest in the writers, of different ages. It is to his 
advantage to be 'guided into reading the best works of the world writers. 

The birth of the lyric, the ballad,' the songs of love experiences, and the 
rise of romance came to France in the twelfth century. The thirteenth century 
was a -brilliant, period of lyric poetry and satirical stories, with beginnings of 


the drama. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a "bridge "between the Middle 
Ages and the Renaissance, were not rich in literary invention, "but mystery and 
miracle plays introduced everyday characters to the theater. The fifteenth cen- 
tury gave the French theater hew life and introduced the novel and the' short 
story. The sermons of Jean Gerson are examples of the oratory of the time. But 
it is to the sixteenth century the speech student must go to observe rhetoric as 
applied to literary composition and criticism, for this century dates the Renais- 
sance and the beginnings of a national language. 

France awakened to the spirit of the Renaissance which first engendered in 
Italy spread rapidly in the sixteenth century throughout Europe. But much con- 
fusion followed the rebellion against traditions. Oratory, for example, was in 
a state of confusion on the continent . Speeches contained a strange assembly of 
historical events, fiction, philosophical notions, and scientific facts. They 
often were a strange mixture of erudition and childish reasoning. Prose and 
poetry were reflections of the vanity of dogmatism. Yet in this age the marvel- 
ous literatures of Rome and Athens were re -discovered. Plato's Dialogues, Quint - 
ilian's Inst itu tes of Or atory, and Horace's Ars Po e tic a were the guides to good 
expression and to the cultivation of beauty. 

The notions of rhetoric formulated by the Greeks, modified by the Romans, 
and generalized into rules by the Schoolmen, were greatly influenced by scholars 
of the Renaissance, particularly in the literary applications of the principles. 
Erasmus, for example, stressed. the advantages of creative writing and literary 
criticism. The tendency to apply rhetorical techniques to the manner of expres- 
sion brought an emphasis at the expense of logical structure and moral values. 
Perhaps of more consequence, dogmatic views were accepted by the student regard- 
ing authoritative norms ; for example, Cicero's theories of the aims and- practices 
of oratory became the ideals of educators by the middle of the sixteenth century . 
Dogmatism of the Renaissance supplanted the dogmatism of the Schoolmen. 

In France in the famed century of 'Louis XIV many influences- made It what the 
Elizabethan period was for the English literature. Port. Royal and Jansenism had 
a great directive force on the morality of the times as well as on educational 
and literary methods. The utilitarian philosophy dominated the views of certain 
authors while a naturalism contaminated others. In some instances, the court of 
France and classicism controlled the objectives of writers who had not come under 
the power of romanticism. The classical rules were flaunted by this school and 
the salons gloried in extravagances. -*• 

The period brought to French literature the age of Louis XV and XVI, a cent- 
ury of license, financial and political disaster, a "whipped cream" age with 
fetes and amateur theatricals being the rage; yet a period, of particular value to 
the speech teacher in that some of the present day speech content and method were 
in the making. The literature of the salons consisted of numerous discourses, 
letters, and intimate reflections. The English influence on the writers of this 
century was strong. Elegance, scepticism, and huxnanitarianism were closely 

^-The following list of authors are suggested as writers of interest to the student 
who should study this period for rhetorical theory and for the literary effort of 
the men themselves. The influence which these writers 'have had on literary con- 
tent and on phases of the .speech, .arts now constituting the speech curriculum will 
be apparent when each man, his age, and work are well known: Fontaine (1621- 
1695); La. Bruyere (1645-1695 ); .Fenelon (1651-1715); Bossuet (1627-170*0; Boileau 
16 30-I7II); Bourdaloue (16 32-1704"); Massillon (1663-17^2); Cardinal Ret z (l6l4- 
16J9); Descartes (1596-1650); Moliere (1622-1673); Pascal (I623-I662); Racine 
(1639-1699); Cornel lie: (I606 -1634). . 


The literature of France in the nineteenth century had qualities which made 
it an embodiment of French national life. It reflected the French mind rather 
than recorded French acitlvty. French literature was analytic and social, glory- 
ing in human problems. . 

The Latin influence and the contagion of the troubadors of Southern France 
prevented the growth of a national language in Italy in the twelfth century, "but 
the next age "brought with it the true Italian poetry- -the lyrics of the Sicilians. 
The fourteenth century, a great literary one, was the period of the Florentine 
civilization, with such authors as Dante (1263-I32I), Petrarch (1304-137*0, and 
Boccaccio (1313-1375), which was followed by the fifteenth century of erudition 
and humanism. Savonarola, whose sermons and orations should "be known by the 
speech teacher, thundered his defiance against the morality of this age. How 
much modern literary composition is dependent upon Italian influence may be found 
by examination of the sixteenth century developments in Italy, for this country 
has another great literary age with Tasso (I5*l4~1595) an(i Ariosto (1^7^-1533) • 
Even in Italy where the Renaissance had flourished vigorously, the seventeenth 
century found its literary efforts directed toward scientific works and criticism. 
Literature in the eighteenth century came under the influence of the ancients, al- 
though some writers imitated certain French and English authors. In the nine- 
teenth century, Italy became historically minded and encouraged nationalistic 

The romance lands, Spain and Portugal, in the twelfth century, were under 
the spirit of the troubadors as exemplified by the poems of Cid and the popular 
works of the Portuguese people. The thirteenth century was characterized by a 
didactic and philosophical spirit, and the French manner was observed among the 
aristocratic peoples. The fourteenth century brought more poetry, but especially 
the novels of chivalry. Italian domination was found in Spain in the fifteenth 
century. The allegoric and the moral and theological aspects of literature were 
emphasized. Portugal in the fifteenth century founded its theater. The works of 
the great Spanish and Portuguese writers came in the sixteenth century, the 
golden age of literary activities for both countries. This great epoch had such 
writers as Lope de "Vega (I567-I63I), Cervantes (15*1-7-1616) and the great mystics- 
John of Avila, Louis de Grenada and Louis de Leon. 

Students interested in lyric poetry should read the authors of the golden 
age of Portuguese literary effort. They will also find profit in the works of 
Luiz de Camo'ens and of St. Francis Xavier, the eloquent preacher of the period. 
The seventeenth century had the outstanding writer in Calderon (1600-1681), but 
for the most part decadence had set in and the imitation of various styles was 
in vogue. The lyric and dramatic spirit dominated the literature of Spain in the 
eighteenth century, while Portugal felt the influence. of French classicism. 
Spain, and Portugal, like Italy, encouraged nationalistic literature in the nine- 
teenth century. 

The ninth century brought epic poems of pagan gods and goddesses to Germany. 
The twelfth and thirteenth centuries came under the feudal influences. Niebelun- 
gen, the tales derived from Scandinavian sources, belong to this later century. 
The German language was in its beginnings and some unity appears in national 
ideals.. By the middle of the twelfth century, the clerical monopoly of letters 
came to an end, and lyric and narrative poetry were developing. The minne- 
singers were popular until the end of the thirteenth century. An example of 
preaching of the times, generally by Franciscan and Dominican friars, may be 
found in extant sermons of Bert hold von Regensburg. The, fourteenth century 
brought numerous translations and an abundance of popular songs. 


The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were years of rebellion and reforma- 
tions (Luther, 1483-15^-6). It was an age of popular spectacles, carnivals, and 
Easter plays. The three classes of narratives in these centuries were (a) anec- 
dotes; (b) prose paraphrases of metrical romances; and (c) translations of French, 
Latin, and Italian romances. The seventeenth century found Germany dominated by 
ideas imported from other countries, particularly from France. In Germany, the 
reign of Frederic the Second was a great epoch in German culture. The French and 
English writers had influence upon the classic period in Germany with its famous 
writers in Goethe (1749-I832), Schiller (1759-1809), and Heine (1799-1856) . The 
various forms of poetry and prose were in evidence at the end of the eighteenth 
century in Germany. The nineteenth century had interest in scientific study, 
criticism, philosophy, philology, and drama. Realism was a balance for German 
romanticism, and nationalism became expansive even with the aim of great domina- 
tion of European culture. 

The tenth century 'brought Christianity to the Russians from the Slavs of 
Bulgaria. The importance- of St. Cyril and St. Methodus to this period has not 
been over -emphasized. The twelfth century found the Russians under .the literary 
persuasion of chronicles and the lives of saints. Although the thirteenth century 
brought the invasion of the Tartars, literary tradition fortunately was preserved 
in the monasteries of that time. In the fourteenth century the people escaped 
the Mongol crisis. The fifteenth century was under the influence of the Greek 
renaissance only to be dominated in zhe sixteenth century by the ever-growing 
Orthodox religion. Although the seventeenth century brought a certain amalgama- 
tion of the widely diversified elements in Russia, it is the eighteenth century, 
under Peter the Great, that will be of main interest to the student of rhetoric, 
poetry, and drama. This century marks the founding of academies, and the vast 
importation of European culture Was soon to mix in a ferment with the older Slav 
civilization. In contrast to the maturity of German literary effort, the Rus- 
sians were laying the foundation for their culture. The nineteenth century found 
many of its prominent writers under the influence of romanticism. Although the . 
world trend was apparent in Russian literature, romanticism was awakening a spirit 
of nationalism. Russian writers of importance are Tolstoi (1828-1910) and Tur- 
genev (18I8-I883). ; ■■-■' ; 

The Scandinavian countries have a common literary heritage. The Eddas and 
the Sagas of the twelfth to the fourteenth century are stories of adventures and 
ancient beliefs. Sweden in the fourteenth century had many epics of a religious 
nature, but it was the sixteenth century before the national spirit was developed 
in literature, and a literary renaissance appeared. Denmark possessed in the 
fifteenth century many rimed chronicles and in the sixteenth century many relig- 
ious writings. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had a wealth of writers-- 
poets, dramatists, and critics. Norway in the nineteenth century had a separate 
literature from Denmark, which came under the influence of romanticism, but real- 
ism was not neglected. Ibsen brought the Norwegian drama to international notice. 

•Before the Norman conquest and since the eighth century, England had a grow- 
ing literature, for example, ■ Beowulf (eighth century), and a translation of the 
Bible by Alfred (tenth century). After the Norman Conquest various influences 
prevented the growth of a national tongue, but with the fourteenth century came 
the beginnings of English. Its rhetorical evolution can be studied from the 
time of Chaucer. 

The Age of Elizabeth. England had its dreams, adventures, and enthusiasms 
and brought the great awakening in literature, particularly in the drama. .Poetry 
was also in a high stage of development as the student realizes when he reads the 
poems of Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) whose qualities of imagination and sensitive- 


ness to beauty gave his poetry a rich melody and exquisite expression that are 
models for modern poets. ' But since dramatic art is a part of the speech curricu- 
lum and of such prime importance to the speech student, he cannot "be ignorant of 
the development of the drama from its religious origin in Europe as in Greece. 
From the earliest miracle play in England (1110 ) to Shakespeare (1564-1616) is a 
period of prime interest to the speech student. 

The seventeenth century: This age found the Puritan movement sweeping over 
England with its objectives, personal righteousness, and civil and religious 
liberty. The upheaval that destroyed previous standards brought a certain som- 
berness to the period and new forms to literary achievements. Milton (1608-1674) 
gave noble expression to his thoughts in living poetry. Bunyan (1628-I688) was 
a commanding prose writer. Of interest to the prospective teacher of the speech 
arts are the critical and intellectual attitudes of the age and the strong reac- 
tions to the new concepts, of religion, business, and politics. The writers of 
the time were often mere reporters of what they read in their libraries, conse- 
quently many allusions- in the writings are from the classics. The Restoration 
Period brought Dryden- (163I-I70O) as the chief literary figure who developed the 
art of literary criticism. 

The Colonial period in American literature (1607-I765). Writers were few, 
and English censorship discouraged printing in the colonies. Most of the books 
read came from England. The Revolutionary Period (I765-I8OO) brought about much 
political literature. Among the writers from I607-I8OO may be listed: Franklin, 
Bradstreet, Godfrey, Freneau (first American poet), Crevecoeur, Dunlap, Tyler. 
The principal interest of study is the oration and the orators: Williams, Mather, 
Edwards, Henry, Washington, Otis and Lee, Jefferson, on, Madison, Dickin- 
son and Paine were noted patriotic writers. Charles Brockden Brown was the chief 
novelist of the period. 

The Augustan Age in English literature belongs to the eighteenth century. 
Literature reflected the rapid social development in England and the bewildering 
turn of political events of the latter part of the century. Fiction -in this cent- 
ury was noteworthy. At the end of the period, the spirit of romanticism dominat- 
ing English literature was marked by a reaction against literary traditions and a 
return to nature and humanity; yet eventually romanticism lost itself in dreams 
and fancy. It sought to be sympathetic with life, particularly, with that of the 
oppressed; it sought no guidance; but nevertheless its great writers found in- 
spiration in the past masters of literature. The discovery of the modern novel, 
however, is England's original contribution to world literature. Richardson's 
Pamel a (17^-0) appears as one of the first novels in any literature. 

English literature was still under the influence of romanticism at the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century: The great novelists, dramatists, and poets 
of the Victorian Age were of the latter half of the period. Literary criticism 
became firmly established in England. Such critical magazines as Edinburgh Re- 
view (1802), The Quarterly Review (I808), Blackwood's Magazine (1817), the West- 
minister Review (1824), the Spectator (1828), the Athenaeum (1828), and Eraser's 
Magazine (1830) have influenced standards of English prose and verse. 

v ; The Victorian Period 'was chiefly an age of prose with style changing greatly 
;from that of the eighteenth century. The novel took over the place of the drama 
of the Elizabethan Period. The nineteenth century tragedy was mostly melodramatic 
or .a weak imitation of the French classic drama. Inchbald's Modern B r itish The- 
ater, (London, 1811) will give an idea of the drama around l800. Lord Lytton and 
Knowles were fairly successful in the dramatic field. Lytton' s Richeleiu is a 
good example of the romantic plays of the time. This period under the influence 


of science "became realistic and supplanted the former romanticism. Most writers 
show a deep understanding of the problems of daily life, and practically all had 
a moral influence upon this somewhat idealistic period. The chief writers may "be 
found in any history of English literature. 

In America, the nineteenth century saw literature advanced from its begin- 
nings in the Colonial Period to a rich maturity in the latter half of the century. 
During this time of industrial expansion, an age of bloody civil strife, litera- 
ture reflects social problems as well as the awakening of the young giant of the 
West, now seeking to gain world business. Among the American orators and writers 
of this century will be found those whose material is especially suited for dram- 
atic interpretation and platform art. The prospective teacher would do well in 
his training period to collect excerpts of interest to his prospective pupils. 

The speech teacher who will give criticism regarding the techniques and con- 
tent of each of the speech arts should be particularly interested in the linguis- 
tic sciences- -comparative philology and phonetics. These studies, brought to the 
forefront in the nineteenth century, made criticism more scientific, but some- 
times in taking away its art spirit, they fostered a kind of literary cant. 

The trend in the study of language was toward explanation rather than de- 
scription. William Von Humboldt emphasized the position that language was active 
rather than static: "---a language must be looked upon as a totality of the speech 
acts." (Jesperson, Language p. jG) The notion that language as an organic whole 
expresses the individuality of the people speaking it revived new interest in the 
rhetoric of the spoken word and finally in the study of style in general. 

To arrive at sound judgment regarding principles of style, the speech tea- 
cher should give attention to critical traditions of France, Italy, and Germany 
in comparison with those of England. For example, the works of a person like 
Madame de Stael (I766-I8I7) who changed the direction of critical studies from 
the formal textbooks in rhetoric to the analysis of literature itself are of con- 
cern to the teacher who gives value to criticism in his classes.- He will find 
also the English literary critics of the nineteenth century of particular inter- 
est. Hazlett (1778-1830); & really great literary critic, should be read for his 
study of authors and their times. Such works - The Characters of Shake speare, 
The Elizabethan Dramatists, The English Poets, and Th e English Comi c Writer s - 
indicate that Hazlett with all his prejudices had remarkable critical ability. 
De Quincey, likewise a critic, makes literature attractive to students, and 
Spencer related the reader or the auditor to the preparation of the writer or the 
speaker. Inasmuch as a hearer must recognize and interpret symbols, combine and 
arrange images, and realize the import of the thought, he should be considered 
when the problem of style is discussed. Spencer logically concludes that useful 
diction, sound arrangement, and illustrative gesture not only save effort on the 
part of the hearer, but they help make the transfer of an idea with the emotional 
consequence more probable. 

The works of Symonds ( 18^0-1893), Minto (1846-1893), and Huxley (1825-I895) 
offer suggestions as to the standards in style. Lewes stressed the need of an 
appreciation of beauty on the part of the writer before he attempts to compose 
clearly, effectively, and beautifully. Pater (I839-I894), an effective critic in- 
terested in the personality behind the style, found the secret of good literary 
art, not ^ in the facts expressed, but in the manner of expression from the inner 
self. Since beauty is truth, and truth must be in accord with the inner expres- 
sion, the writer or speaker must be an artist in expressing fact. Newman believed 
thought and speech inseparable, and felt literature was a thinking out of thoughts 


into language. Since the ultimate aim of speaking being to express what is 
within, it follows that reasoning and expression must be studied together in 
order to understand the personal nature of language. 

Both Ruskin and Arnold felt the character of the speaker or writer must be 
considered in relation to style. Ruskin, who assembled a coherent body of rules 
in reference to art, was one of the first English critics to place aesthetics as 
a guide to art. Although perhaps burdened with a too ornate style, this writer 
can give the prospective teacher much information- concerning standards of judging 
literary expression. Arnold, who was greatly influenced by Sainte-Beuve, gave 
English criticism a sound basis and a scholarly approach to literary analysis. 
His works, if well studied, can not fail to give far-reaching results to speech 

A significant study of oral style in America was made by Dr. S. S. Curry late 
in the century.- His Province of Expression gave his own as well as the histori- 
cal views regarding principles underlying art. His notion, although not original, 
that expression is throughout the body, but related to a causal factor within the 
body, emphasizes a delivery related to the entire personality of a man, a notion 
antagonistic to the mechanical elocution of Rush, Murdoch, and their followers. 
The Province of Expression must be read to appreciate the inroads that elocution 
had made on the vocal arts of the nineteenth century and to learn. the condition 
of the speech arts at the turn of the present century. 

The twentieth century literature can be understood only in relation to polit- 
ical and social events, industrial upheavals and class struggles and, in particu- 
lar, to the philosophical impetus behind the event. Realism predominates in lit- 
erature and cynicism is observed to be a world trend. ' The novel and familiar 
essay are popular in America with various forces working towards a revival of 
poetry, The Romance literature - Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese - re- 
flects the world trends in style, mediums, and content. Aesthetics, an unscient- 
ific guide in this century, simply is a mirror of, the philosophical vagaries of 
the moment. Many literatures like the Russian and German are highly nationalis- 
tic. Until judgment can be established for the literary works of this century, 
one can hardly evaluate their permanent worth. 



Rhetoric and grammar which first- can be studied in their application to 
early languages-, then to Greek and Latin, might finally be viewed in the light of 
the development of the European languages. Each literature has its beginning, 
its struggles for existence, its golden era, its period of 'decadence, and even of 
complete decline. Such literatures are the proper objects of study by the speech 
student, for the rules of rhetoric do not come first; they are found only after a 
study of the finished literary product. 

- Literary criticism has its place in helping the prospective teacher of 
speech formulate standards of judgment for his proper evaluation of the pupil's 
speech, but it cannot take the place of literature for the creation of norms. 
Particularly in a field like speech, in which the teacher must choose and inter-' 
pret poetry, direct the acting of plays, control the discussions of literary and 
social problems, and express judgment regarding literary ideas, attention must be 
given to all phases of literary efforts, for the contents of the speech arts can- 
not be separated from their forms. • Consequently the more knowledge a teacher has 
of literature and standards of judging literature, the greater his chances will 
be of finding suitable techniques to improve literacy interpretation, dramatic 
art, and oratory. ; '•'. ■ ■ ;.-. 



1. What has the study of linguistic sciences contributed to speech training? 

2. What does the art of rhetoric add to speech training? 

3. What is the advantage of a phonetic alphabet? 

h. What stress should be placed on the teaching of grammar in the speech class? 

5. State briefly the Greek rhetorical tradition. 

6. What were the chief factors in the Eoman contribution to rhetoric? 

7. What has modern rhetoric gained from the development of rhetoric under 


8. Describe briefly the influence of rhetoric in the universities of the Middle Ages. 

9. G-ive a brief history of rhetorical tradition in each of the European languages. 

10. What contribution did Cicero make toward modern speech training? 

11. Demonstrate your ability to write a selection in the phonetic script and also to 

mark it diacritically . 

12. Give the concept of rhetoric held by the following mens Protagoras, Socrates, 

Aristotle, Quint ilian, and Newman. 

13. What were the great contributions to speech prior to I85O? 

Ik. Compare the theories of style expressed by two modern writers. 

15. What historical event caused increased interest in speech? 

16. How does your theory of style differ from that held by any of the following: 

William B. Cairns, J. Berg Esenwein, J. F. X. O'Connor, John Bascom, or John 

17. Contrast Pater's theory with a modern viewpoint. 

18. Give a report on one article from A Bibliography of Rhetori c and Public Address 

for the year 19^8, Haberman, F. W., Ed. Q. J. S. April, 19^9. 

19. Discuss the relation of speech to an allied field of study. 

20. Compare the theories of art found in the following references and show relation 

to speech training: Necessi ty of Art , Brock, Dearmer, and others, London: 
Student Christian Movement, p. 3, 1924; Art in Th eory , Raymond and Miller,, 
New York: Putnams, 1930; Poet ics, Aristotle, p. 13, New York: Putnams, 1927; 
Art, Eric Gill, Bristol, 1935; Ar t and the Scholastic, Maritain, New York: 
Scribner, I93O. 

21. List the contributions made by the Renaissance to modern speech training. ' 

22. Prepare a class report on Speech Rese arch Project, No. IkkS, Dept . of Education, 

Sacramento, Calif., I938. 

23. What theory of the origin of language do you hold? What is the justification 

for your views? 
2k. Is Speech an old discipline? Cf. On The Te aching of Spe ech, Q. J. S. p. 1+21, 
Dec, 19^3- (Report on the Egyptian papyrus of Kagemni, 3000 B.C.). 

25. Explain the influence of The Academy on the rhetorical works of Cicero. Cf. 

Sattler, M., Some Pl atonic In fluence s on the Rhetorical Wor ks of Cicero, Q.J.S., 
April, 19^9. 

26. It is frequently said that the Sophists affected rhetoric adversely. Do you hold 

this view? 

27. Comment on the Aristotelian influence on modern oral composition. 

28. To what extent does your idea/of the scope of speech training affect your method 

of teaching? 

29. Under what conditions would you accept the standard of the common speech of 



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Arnold, M., Collecte d Works, Essay on Criticism (New York: Macmillan, 1904). 


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Demetrius of Phaleron, O n Styl e, trans, by W. Rhys Roberts (New York: Putnam, 1902). 
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McLean, M, P., Good American Speech,, Rev, Ed, (New York; Dutton, 1941). 
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Platz, M., The Histor y of Publ ic Speaking (New York: Noble, 1935 ). 


Pray, S., Directions for Production of English Consonants (New York: Stechert, 

Quintilian, Institutes of Or atory, Loeb Edition (New York: Putnam, 1923) • 
Ripman, W., Good Speech, An Introduction to Phonetics (New York: Dutton, 19^9) • 
Richards, T. A., The Philosophy of Rhetoric (Oxford, England: Oxford University 

Press, 1936). 
Roberts, W. R., G reek Rhetoric and Literary Critici sm (London: Longmans,, 1928). 
Rollin, C, Belles Lettr es, 11th Ed. (London: Otridge, 1810). . . ;- 
Saintsbury, G., Loci Critici, A History of Criticism and Literary Taste in Eur ope 

(New York : r Blackwood, '190*0 . 
Seth, G., and Guthrie, D., Speech in Childhoo d (London: Oxford University Press, 

Shorey, P., Wh at Teachers of Speech May L earn From the Theory and Practice of the 

Greeks (Q.J.S. VY 8:105-'3l April, 1922). 
Star key, M. T., and others, S peech Trainin g Developed Through International 

Phonet ics (New York: Nelson, 1935). ' \- " 

Sturtevant, E. H., An Introduction to Linguistic Science, (New Haven: Yale Univer, 

Press, 19^7). 
Tacitus, Dialogue de Qratoribus, trans, "by Peterson (London: Oxford, l893)« 
Taylor, ¥., Rhetoric in a Democra cy (English Journal V. 27:851-8 Dec, 1938) . 
Thomas,' C. K., A n Introduction to the Phonetics of Ameri can English (New York: 

Ronald Press," 19^7). 
Ward, I. C, The Phonet ic s of English (Cambridge, England: W. Heffer and Son, 

:: 1939). 

Whateley, R., Elements of Rhetoric (New York: Morton, 1890). 
Wise, C. M., and Morgan, L., A Pro gressive Phonetic Workbook (New York: Swift 

Co., 19^8). _ • 

Xanthes,' Speech , trans, by M. Berthelat de Boiliorue (Cincinnati: Benziger, 


Consult histories of the literatures of the European countries. 

. \-'i 


For knowledge, too, is itself a power.-- BACON 


a . Trends 

1. Imitation 

2. Appeal to authority 

3. Discipline 

k. Psychological influence 

5. Social trend 

6. Scientific spirit 

7 . Summary 

"b. Methods, Techniques and Procedures 

Physic al Educat ion 

a. Contributions of the Ancient World 

"b. Modern Developments 

Th e Natural Science s 

a. Physics 

b. Chemistry 

c. Biology 

d. Physiology 

Tj 1 ©. S ocial Sciences 

a. Sociology 

b. History 
Psycho logy 

Mathemati c al Sciences 
Profession al F i elds 

a . Law 

b. Medicine 

c . Economics 

d. Political and Social Sciences 

e. Engineering 

f . Other field 
The Fine Arts 

a . Drama 

b. Music 

c. Painting 

d. Sculpture 



Education . 

This course of study as taught today relates to a body of fact dealing with the 
educational theories and practices of the past and the present. Its purpose is the 
guidance of the teacher in sound educational methods and processes. Many of the 
principles and methods of speech training have been secured from the study of educa- 


kO .; , ■ 

tion, and. have been tested in the educational procedures of the past. The prospect- 
ive teacher appreciates the fact that the content and methods of speech cannot "be 
studied apart from the subject matter of the general fields of education. 

a. Trends. 

Certain trends discovered in the history of education are today reflected in 
speech training. Among the important ones may be listed: (l) imitation; (2) appeal 
to authority; (3) discipline; (k) psychological influence; (5) social trend; and (6) 
scientific approach. 

1. Imitation. 

Simple unconscious imitation was a significant factor in all primitive educa- 
tion. Even in cultured nations imitation has been a valuable educational tool. 
Eoman education, for example, wa3 mainly imitation, but hardly that of Oriental 
servility to customs, for the Eomans were able to deduce principles and then 
broadly interpret them in the light of situations. Today, as in the past, imita- 
tion begins early in childhood. A child learns that speech is a practical neces- 
sity of his life; consequently he aims to discover how the other person gets prac- 
tical results from certain patterns of action. He consciously or unconsciously 
imitates whatever he sees to be an advantage to another. The psychological basis 
of imitation seems to be wh at others can d o, I can do . This notion that expres- 
sion is a copying process has brought about the so-called model theory in speech 

Imitation as an educational tool is an adjustment to certain definite pro- 
cedures and forms. Its social value lies in the fact that all are trying to do 
something that belongs to the traditions or customs of the group. There is edu- 
cational value in the struggle to meet the conditions approved by a class. But 
imitating the forms of behavior may be harmful to the individual or society, par- 
ticularly if such imitation perpetuates a series of traditions wholly foreign to 
practical usages. Perhaps, it is in this sense that the often quoted remark of 
Emerson, "Imitation is suicide," may be applied. Yet learning any technique re- 
quires some examples, some imitation. 

With imitation the method of teaching, originality is stifled, and the stu- 
dent often becomes the demonstrator of a certain procedure. He does not question 
or evaluate the standard of action or consider the modes of action or the ideas 
behind the action. Often a process of instruction based upon imitation retains 
prescribed form, but it destroys the ability to adapt teaching to situations, 
circumstances, and functions of practical use. Although imitation may add stabil- 
ity and method to a system, it weakens the power of adjustment to changing condi- 
tions of an age. This capacity of adaptation is of more consequence to the pupil 
than the power to demonstrate the tenets of some school. From the study of the 
past history of the method of imitation, particularly in speech or language train- 
ing, the prospective teacher of speech may learn its advantages and limitations. 

2. Appeal to authority. ■•. , 

The explanation of the content and manner of imitation establishes a body of 
theorical knowledge. As a consequence, some authority must explain its facts and 
procedures. As the subject matter becomes more complex, and the skill of demon- 
strating more exacting, more demands are placed upon the instructor in regard to 
his own knowledge of the field and his ability to illustrate and demonstrate. He 


is expected to know more and do more than the average person. He must become an 
authority who can interpret skills, explain.. subject matter , systematize his know- 
ledge, and give it scientific form.. ■..•:•.:>■ . ■ 

A "body of theorical knowledge, may be put of harmony with or even antagon- 
istic to practical functions. New educational theories must be evaluated in 
light of the situation, principle, or process in education which has been rejected; 
the transitional forces at work at particular times must be appreciated, and the 
demands of the period must be understood. Theorists may. bring about a period of 
great intellectual activity without much practical consequence, or they may pave 
the way for greater research and excellent results, or they may actually succeed 
in destroying the old while their products, the new, fail to meet' the situation. 
The teacher who has freely accepted certain theories and proceeds to establish 
them authoritatively may be defending views or be even hostile to further inquiry. 

Adherents of the system of any master tend to ;accept his authority rather 
than to analyze the reasons for his principles. In the' first half of the six- 
teenth century humanistic education was dominated by Cicero who replaced Aristotle 
as the "master." The aim of education was. ; to become well versed in the style and 
vocabulary of Cicero and any appeal to Aristotle was offensive to the ruling 
Ciceronians. Many times in the long history of education an hypothesis has been 
mistaken for a truth. Modification of some master's view has been refused because 
it opposes custom when it should have been accepted' because it conformed to some 
practical norm' and to' practical tests of utility. 

Whoever the authority may be, his contribution has not always been analyzed 
objectively. In the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries first one 
and then another of the classical writers of Greece and Rome were accepted either 
as a model of content or style, or. even for a philosophy of life. 

The Socratian method of using induction found its way into speech training 
often on reputation without' regard to application. When Socrates established 
introspection in opposition to the plastic norms accepted by the Athenians and 
when he replaced the aim of the Sophists - that of information - with the' object- 
ive of the power of reasoning, he brought: practical values into education. Yet 
the Socratian method can only be applied where the individual has had experience; 
it does not of itself give experience. , Consequently the acceptance of the Socra- 
tian method merely as a tribute. to a ''master" fails to consider the conceptions 
of education it may engender. 

Plato, of late, has been quoted freely by. certain speech educators; yet 
Plato with his notions" of aristocratic, form of government should be read in light 
of the Socratian tendencies to democracy and our own notions of the. place in so- 
ciety of the : masses in relation to the learned. The idea of Plato that man and 
woman may. have the same' pursuits, and that education should relate to difference 
in character rather than to .differences in sex may have present day educational 
value, but the speech teacher will difficult to banish dramatic poetry 
from the classroom on the authority of Plato. When any "master" is analyzed for 
his ideas as to content and method,, his principles may well be questioned in the 
light of reason,. even granting the validity of the doctrine of authority. 

3. The discipline factor in education., ■ 

.If speech education is a natural process established by the conditions and 
interests of the student, can it have at the same time a disciplinary value? Is 
the effort on the part of the student a consequence of student interest, or does 
effort develop abilities, and from this development does interest follow? Cer- 


tain philosophers of Greece, many educators of the Middle Ages, and some of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries considered study as a discipline and a 
means of character development. If the aim in education as determined by Locke 
relates to physical, moral, and intellectual development with consequent rigor- 
ous discipline of body, desires, and thinking, will the effort involved in this 
training become an end in itself, or will it lead to responsibility in social 
life? Shall emphasis be placed upon the process of learning or the content 
learned? If a study is not air end in itself, how much value has it as a means? 
Is speech, for example, more valuable in developing right thinking than other 
subjects? If any particular study is a means, what is the nature of its object- 
ive? These questions have received various answers by educators. 

Many instructors of speech believe that if speech is taught correctly, it 
may be the means of forming the mind and exercising the faculties by promoting 
good habits of thinking, normal emotional responses, and effective speech behav- 
ior. But they also believe that ; in order to insure intellectual progress, a 
scientific growth, and a spirit of ' objective inquiry, some profit motive should 
be established in education. , Study must be more than . a mere gratification of a 
person's desire to know something and to benefit himself by such knowledge. Fur- 
thermore, study of speech to have disciplinary value must be more than a means of 
gathering information. On the other hand, tonarrow the educational horizon to 
a few subjects or to a few topics within a subject simply for the sake of dis- 
cipline sets up a condition unfavorable to any application of material. So far 
as the teacher of speech is concerned, he must not overemphasize either the 
disciplinary values in speech training or its professional and utilitarian ob- 
jectives. ■..;■■■■ .. .... . .,., : 

h. The psychological influence in speech training. . 

Early in its history educational psychology avoided the notion that training 
was a discipline and an introduction into, the school of life; it accepted a con- 
ception that education required a full participation in every day activities and 
interest. Education was felt to be a natural process pr growth somewhat closely 
related to organic development as well as to mental, and moral evolution. Em- 
phasis must then be placed upon .method, because a method of training can only 
help or hinder growth, and method; is particularly important in relation to right 
beginnings. A wrong start may .obstruct the right mental, emotional, and physical 
development of the pupil. , 

At the end of the nineteenth century psychological methods were the vogue in 
the speech field. Curry, Chamberlain, and Clark were advocating the notion that 

.effective impression is followed automatically by adequate expression. S. Sv 
Curry, stressing the nature of thought, felt- the artificial elements brought into 
speech in the nineteenth century came,, from confusing th& processes of expression 
with their appearance. He stressed the close relationship between the mind and 

; voice and the need of training to stimulate nature's processes. By 1913, definite 
psycho- physical viewpoint had won its place In speech training. How to get 
right co-ordination between mind and body was the problem of interest to the 
teacher. Eules were disregarded .and attention was turned "to psychological and 
physical principles underlying functions.., Curry's Mind and Voice and Clark's 
Int er pr etatl on_of _jbhe P ri nt ed Page might be analyzed to note the stress placed 
upon such notions as "getting the thought" or . "paraphrasing the thought" or "im- 
pression before expression." 

To gain a more comprehensive view of the psychological trend some brief com- 
ment can be made regarding naturalism in the general field of education, the 
faulty notions concerning inhibitions, the play spirit, and the emotional aspect 
of training. 

To understand naturalism, one distinguishes the temperament of man from 
those factors he acquires from his environment. The impulsive school of " speech, 
for example, placed great emphasis upon the natural inclination of man to express 
his thoughts and to respond instinctively to excitations. Good speaking is the 
result of a natural impulse, and delivery owes nothing to any art. "Put a child 
in a speech situation and he will speak well." This is the "creative attitude" 
doctrine of the naturalist in speech education. Rousseau, for example, felt that 
nature acts in the right way. "Everything is good," he remarks, "as it comes 
from the hand of the author of nature; but everything degenerates in the hands of 
man." If one copies nature and harmonizes training with it, he gives his temper- 
ament its chance and frees himself from formality. 

As far as speech education is concerned, the natural school of training 
failed to make proper distinction between linguistic and non- linguistic expres- 
sion. Expression, it is true, is natural to man; man will express himself in 
response to a situation, but language is an acquired factor, rather than a prod- 
uct of nature. It is composed of external signs that represent the inner thought 
and feeling; therefore training for language can not be based upon an instinctive 
response of mechanisms. In building a vocabulary, the naturalist would stress the 
notion that the chief concern of the student is to get the ideas, not the tools 
of training; yet the principles of grammar have been collected only after an an- 
alysis of literary products; to acquire them, some formal element of grammar is 

The emphasis upon the emancipation of man from conventions, rules and regu- 
lations, and the stress upon his individuality and his capacities to respond to 
various situations, brought naturalism into the speech education and opened the 
way for the modern stress on instinctive behavior. Rousseau, himself, was the 
forerunner of the modern speech theorists who stress the naturalistic tendencies 
of man and who decry any formal speech training. Naturalism, however, has en- 
couraged sound views that nature should be studied in its functions. S. S. 
Curry, for example, recommended that animals be studied so that a better notion 
would be had of physical action and bodily posture. This practice encourages ob- 
servation, and by analogy the student begins to understand his own body better. 

The theories of Naturalism not only changed objectives in teaching, but in- 
fluenced method. The notion that the body should be the first to be trained is 
founded upon the assumption that instinctive responses should be speedily util- 
ized in speech training. The impulsive school of speech education with its "get 
going somehow" idea opposes the study of a technique or an analysis of a proced- 
ure. It holds that experience itself produces the right means of development. 

Educators have held that the volition of a person must curb self-assertion 
or be subjected to the restraint of some other agent. If no objective rule for 
behavior be necessary, then the presumption is accepted that rational nature is 
so good or so efficient of itself that the individual can by reason alone deter- 
mine objectives good and useful to himself; consequently, worthy for society. If 
some authoritative control is recognized as needed, then a concept of responsibil- 
.ity^becomes associated with. one of individual expression. In Greek education a 
notion of individuality, nurtured in an atmosphere of political freedom, was ac- 
cepted to be fully in harmony with the idea of restraints created by social wel- 
fare. Even with the Greeks, responsibility for personal expression and behavior 
was part of the social code. 

Man often must accept ideals and practices which under some conditions irk 
him^or "seem detrimental to his own advancement. Some repression within the in- 
dividual is needed if ideals of a better, or more useful self, are to be attained. 


The urges in man are often in conflict with themselves,- or with the inclinations 
of other persons. Integrating the expression of these urges within the confines 
of social customs, even social barriers, without creating a slavish subservience 
to institutions and social controls remains a problem in speech education to this 

The doctrines brought into speech training that advocate emancipation from 
all inhibitions, and that accept the infallibility of rational nature to set a 
sanction for all expression or behavior, are based on a wrong understanding of 
human nature and its development either for itself or for society. Even the 
Froebelian concept of self -activity as a method of education, of a training that 
starts with the needs of the person and relates education directly to life, need 
not be out of harmony with a sense of personal regulation. The nature of the 
controlling incentive should then be understood. Christian education places 
ideals of purity, humility, patience, prudence, and like virtues as incentives 
to conduct. Like notions "of powerful ideals were common to the Hebrews, Per- 
sians, and other Eastern peoples. The purification of self, the restraint of 
certain urges placed a person in a position to acquire an easy mind, a psycholog- 
ical necessity for illumination as well as contemplation of nature. 

The .psychological approach to educational principles and method brought into 
modern education an old notion of the value cf dramas, plays, and games in train- 
ing. The Egyptians looked upon them as valuable educational tools. Plato under- 
stood their worth and they were net unknown to the Greek and Roman educators. 
Da Feltre (I'^Q-lkhG) introduced the play spirit into the education of his time, 
recognizing, what modern educators understand, that the concrete and pleasant 
associated with the values of doing are important in any educational scheme. But 
the play spirit in education, while developing order and organization, may not be 
a tool for individual development, for it may overemphasize social regimentation 
under authoritative leadership, a condition noted in Nazi Germany. 

Froebel, who saw great value in the spontaneous activities associated with 
plays and games, greatly influenced speech training. Educational dramatics, for 
instance, not only trains pupils in speech and deportment, but gives apprecia- 
tions of social values. Yet if the play spirit, for example in educational drama, 
contests, and exhibition, is over stressed, the view that education is only a re- 
sponse to the play spirit may prevail. The truth is that the play motive has its 
value in education as a means and not as an end in itself. 

Christianity gave proper worth to the place of emotion in education because 
it did not mistake emotion for brute instinct, but recognized its intellectual 
aspects. It made emotion serve as a guide to conduct under rational direction. 
It did not mistake the resonance of the body for the emotion itself. Aristotle 
who was highly regarded by the Christian teachers also found interest in the study 
of the affective states. His discussion of emotions in The Art of Rhe toric should 
be read by the prospective teacher. Many of the earlier studies associated the 
emotions with internal organs ; locating them in the heart or abdomen. To the 
Stoics, all emotions were elements to be destroyed. 

^Many attempts were made from the time of the Greek philosophers to catalog 
emotions. These are generally listed in works on psychology, or in histories of 
philosophy, and should be of value to the teacher, particularly as a classifica- 
tion often indicates the philosopher's definition of each emotion. The Scholast- 
ics, for example, distinguished a sensation from an emotion, but to Descartes, 
emotions were perceptions like sensations and appetites. Spinoza made no distinc- 
tion between knowledge, feeling or emotion, or willing, for the basis of all was 
self-preservation. Duchenne of Boulogne thought of emotions in regard to physiol- 

ogical changes. The Behaviorists relate emotion to the outward manifestation of 
feeling. Many modern philosophers contend that the bodily resonance of emotion 
is caused by the emotion, not the stimulus. The emotion itself is a reaction to 
intellectual discernment. 

In speech training, emotions should be considered in relation to instruction 
and good habits. They furnish conditions for vocal quality and bodily expression. 
They must be known in order to teach audience motivation; they must be appreci- 
ated before literature can be successfully interpreted. They are studied in the 
classroom in connection with the speaker's personality, his control of environ- 
ment, and his norm of conduct. In special education, where there is always more 
or less re -establishment of purpose and values and the creation of new habits, 
emotional reactions may be analyzed by the teacher if he is to help a student 
with perversions of speech functions. 

5. The social trend. -•■, 

Many educators of the past have felt that one of the ends of education is 
the development of the social instincts. Subdivisions of this purpose are con- 
cerned with a practical knowledge of the world, a preparation for vocational and 
professional life, an adjustment to environment, and a training for citizenship. 

When political and social forces are uprooting existing systems, educational 
theory and practice, likewise, are being disturbed. The attitude of the Greek 
toward formal education was a reflection of his social thinking. The Roman's 
pride in practical achievement was a consequence of his social and racial charac- 
teristics. The social theories of Christianity brought about changes in the man- 
ner, customs, and skills of the peoples who accepted them. 

Even attitudes of one class toward another within the same country have edu- 
cational significance. In America, for example, many ideas of. the older educa- 
tion were discarded because in this new country they came into conflict with the 
social philosophy concerned with class distinction. The new concepts of social 
reform throughout the Europe of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries gave 
objectives and procedures to education. 

The social philosophy of different periods has been directed by a variety of 
principles. In any movement the student would do well to know, not only who or 
what is behind it, but how many people are associated with it, how many understand 
its aims, how many different classes participate in it, and how it will affect 
the traditions of the country. The norms, then, for social progress are impor- 
tant inasmuch as the same standards may be applied to speech theories and prac- 
tices. •;-..:: 

Although some standards of social conduct may be only of academic interest, 
they become of practical import when they influence the conduct of the people as 
a whole. A standard may be forced upon a people, or it may be accepted, because 
its values are recognized. Usually both factors are operating' among the people. 
The new forms of expression and new interests in life found in the vernacular lit- 
erature of the Middle Ages were in part an expression of the rebellion against the 
dominance of authority and in part an acceptance of the new social theories. In 
the Renaissance the norms of Italian culture greatly determined the social stand- 
ard of European peoples. The: rationalists in France preached the doctrines that 
established the French Revolution and that later influenced every phase of educa- 
tion and social activity. 


Dissemination of knowledge is needed "before a standard will be evaluated. 
America, for example, had greater interest in world movements after the First 
World War "because people understood trends in world affairs which formerly were 
only of academic concern. The Industrial Revolution was of world concern, not 
only changing industry, but religion, customs, and manners. The great impetus 
that German philosophers and educators gave to systems favoring state -controlled 
education had far reaching consequences. As a rule, social tendencies seen in 
education, although often incited by social needs and by a desire for social bet- 
terment, are a part of a general philosophical trend which needs evaluation inas- 
much as it gives rise to formulations that often are the basis of educational 

Many educators have maintained the view that education is primarily concerned 
with adjusting a developing personality to his social environment. Herbart, for 
example, held that conduct and character depended greatly upon what is constantly 
presented to a person. The manner and kind of presentation shape behavior; and 
character, in a measure at least, is a reaction to an environment. Education, 
then, becomes for the pupil a revision of his experiences. He adapts himself to 
his environment, and by such a procedure develops his own capacities. 

Environment played its part in Greek education. The Greeks believed that 
people would assimilate culture from the public display of drama, art, and music. 
The Romans in making the family environment an educational tool stressed the in- 
fluence upon the child of his private surroundings as being more helpful than the 
public environment so much emphasized in Greek education. The notion that the 
family could have educational significance is a common one as evidenced by Orient- 
al education, the Hebrew tradition of home life, and the Christian concept of the 
sanctity of family relations. Educators today have broadened the scope of the 
educational environment to the home, the school, the neighborhood, recreational 
and industrial centers- -in a word, all places that incite or intensify mental, 
emotional, and moral reactions. 

How much of the outside environment that is educational can be brought into 
the classroom? How can the influences of a bad surrounding be counteracted? In 
brief, how can an environment become an instrument of education and a means of 
developing social habits? What constitutes these social habits? How can bad 
environments be modified, or when possible, removed? How can good environments 
be developed? All these questions are important to the speech teacher who is 
alive to the fact that the environment is an instrument for the acquisition of 
speech, either good or bad. The speech teacher utilizes the educational values 
of any proper environment outside the school within the classroom. He will find 
also that educational tools, like the motion picture, the radio, or the theater 
can exemplify the advantages to the person of successful adjustments to environ- 
ment or the disadvantages of wrong ones, even demonstrate what constitutes a bad 
environment . 

Educators of the past have had different notions of what constitutes the 
useful. To the Greeks, practicality could cover social objectives guided by ex- 
pediency or by the ideals of an individual. To them, a custom must be reasonable, 
judged in the light of environmental needs and desires; ideals must be attainable 
to be .practical; virtues become an expression of the ideals. Such a general no- 
tion of utility could enclose ideals as narrow as the Spartan concept of physical 
perfection, or as broad as the Athenian idea of the beautiful, or the materialist- 
ic idea of obligation, later to be stressed by the Romans. The Roman notion of 
utility was applied to both the objective in education as well as its means. For 
example, the practical aim in training in oratory was manliness, and the environ- 
mental means was that of the family, cultural surroundings, and practically -minded 
tutors. ' ■ 

Among the modern educators of speech who emphasized utilitarian values in 
both objectives and methods was Phillips (1908).- He declared authoritatively 
that as effective speaking is based on laws, a practical system of speech train- 
ing was necessary, and that isolated suggestions to a student were of little real 
value. He, like most utilitarians in speech education, stressed the value of 
drills. His notion of utility applied to method made models more important than 

The emphasis upon the useful tends to glorify the operation itself. Doing 
precedes, and the explanation of the why and how a thing is done follows. But 
utility as an objective may cause a teacher to eliminate cultural values and sub- 
stitute for them subjective norms regarding achievement. He may only emphasize 
the development of a speech vocabulary, certain skills in bodily expression, 
cleverness in composition, or even display. The main problem for any teacher, 
therefore, is a proper evaluation of the notion of utility before it is applied 
to speech education. 

One purpose more or less related to utilitarian aims in education is that of 
vocational training. Educators have gone so far as to choose certain subjects as 
more suitable than others in training for this or that vocation. Parliamentary 
Law, for example, should be taken by the law student, not only for mental train- 
ing, but also for information and power in itself. The speech curriculum for 
lawyers, consequently, would differ from the courses for engineers. 

Montaigne held the realistic attitude that education trains for a successful 
career, and studies are a preparation for some practical purpose. Pope Pius the 
Second in his treatise On Liber al Education (lJj-75) pointed out that efficiency in 
speech produced its own reward because it gives power to the person in some busi- 
ness or professional activity. This purpose of acquiring power goes beyond the ■ 
educational aim of learning a subject for its cultural and training values. 
Neither Roman rhetoricians nor those of the Renaissance knew vocational education 
as it exists today. 

The vocational notion when applied to speech training may be carried too far 
with the consequent sacrifice of culture and mental development . Dewey opposed 
the skimpy training given in certain Business English and Business Speech courses 
as inconsistent with the ideals he established for leadership in democracy. 

One aspect of vocational training in the speech curriculum is definitely 
sound. Courses in dramatics and general speech contests afford opportunity for 
work, even for manual work as in play production. Where interest in a speech 
project is aroused, the instructor can make work an educational tool. The notion 
of labor as of educational worth was known to the' early Fathers of the Church, 
and it was emphasized by St. Basil. St. Benedict introduced work into his order 
of clerics as an aspect of vocational training. 

Vocational education is quick to reflect economic and political theories as 
they are applied to life. A speech course is, therefore, subject to changes in 
content and method in a vocational curriculum. The prospective speech teacher 
should study the history of vocational training, noting its trends, and paying 
particular attention to the problem of fitting speech into its system. He must, 
in particular, consider the statements of industrialists and labor leaders as well 
as educators regarding objectives' and methods in vocational education. 

All social education in this country has some relationship to democracy, and 
speech training is- no exception. Dr. Edwin Dubois Shurter of the University of 
Texas, in 1915, under the influence of the growing school of vocational training, 


proposed that each speech course should as far as possible guide a student toward 
his vocation, and it should, at the same time, direct him for service in a repub- 
lican form of government. Any proposal related to education in a democracy must 
be carefully analyzed for its objectives and the consequences upon the citizenry. 

Before the teacher can relate speech training to citizenship, he might answer 
certain questions: In what way can speech training bring classes, cultures, and 
religions into some social unity? What element of present-day culture should be 
modified? What is the aim of speech training when one group of citizens feels a 
need to make another group adjust itself to its plans? What are the motives of 
any particular group in influencing its own membership and persuading other 
groups to accept certain aims? 

The impetus towards placing speech education on a level satisfactory to the 
lower classes can establish a standard in training which accepts poverty of 
thinking and barrenness of style. The neglect of teaching rhetorical principles 
and the over stressing of a conversational basis of speech by some speech educat- 
ors are truly significant of the social change brought about by the Industrial 
Revolution. Although these teachers rebel against the arrogance of the drawing 
room and its pedantic expression with much justice, they lower the level in 
speech education when they use only simple techniques in speech training. Rhet- 
oric has wealth for those pupils interested in perfecting expression and construc- 
tion. Speech education, while bringing the masses to higher levels, cannot neg- 
lect the more capable students who need an education required by leaders. By 
its very nature, speech training tends to unite class with class. In maintaining 
high educational levels, it gives greater service in a democracy than in catering 
to low tastes and mediocre ideals. 

6. The scientific spirit in education. 

Aristotle was the first important scientist to unite scientific theory with 
its practice. Although he, like many educators, would establish a scientific 
basis of education independent of authority, he was actually influenced by phil- 
osophical hypotheses. To understand the scientific trend in education at any 
given period, one must analyze the philosophical notion of the times; for ex- 
ample, the Herbartian notions of scientific education are unexplainable unless 
one knows Herbart's opposition to faculty psychology. 

Although some principles and methods of science begin with the early cent- 
uries, a real educational psychology could scarcely be formulated until the 
eighteenth century when the deductions of. men like Spencer, Huxley, Bacon, and 
Darwin, gave impetus and form to scientific training. Yet even in this century, 
some principles of so-called science were accepted in applied fields without their 
validity being scientifically demonstrated-. . In the speech training, for instance, 
upon the basis of a supposedly sound physiology, at least one hundred positions 
in posture, presumably the bodily counterparts of separate emotions, were estab- 
lished. Certain French and Italian teachers of dramatic art built their methods 
upon the presumption that the division of bodily activity as proposed by Swenden- 
borg was scientifically correct . • As a matter of fact, some premises thought to 
be scientific and accepted in applied fields had no basis in real science. 

Some teachers, like Rush, Fulton, Trueblood, and Murdoch, following the lead 
of Delsarte, were exponents of scientific speech training. They centered their 
attention on the speech mechanism and the external technique of bodily action. 
Their students became conscious of mechanism, what must function, how it would 
function, and the end results which should be obtained. The scientific textbook, 
The Philosophy of t hejhmanj^oice , written by Dr. Rush, was divided into two 

k 9 

"branches, anatomy and physiology. It investigated the relation between modula- 
tions and states of mind, and analyzed the formation of sounds. Much terminology 
in the modern speech texts can be traced directly to this work. Men like Murdoch, 
Fulton, O'Neill, Shurter, and Emerson were strongly affected by Rush's view and 
furthered the scientific approach to the speech arts. 

The modern tendency to restore the sense -realist of the seventeenth century 
is now greatly intensified because of the number and kind of scientific instru- 
ments and of the facility of demonstration. Some advocates of scientific speech 
education would require a content based entirely upon experimentation and have 
the classroom with its scientific equipment resemble a laboratory. During the 
two World Wars, speech education in army camps was greatly improved by scientific 
means of demonstration. Telling methods were placed at the minimum and demonstra- 
tion became the order of the day. 

The stress on speech training as mental culture is opposed by the advocates 
of scientific education. They would emphasize not only a scientific content but 
a scientific method. They wish the student to know how his body functions, how 
his mind works, how he controls nature and nature rules him, how he affects the 
other man, and how the other influences him. 

A brief survey of the modern textbook in speech will indicate to the pros- 
pective teacher the extent of the scientific spirit in speech education. Whereas 
the older works stressed art principles, and language and grammar, the modern 
speech textbook has illustrations of the speech mechanisms, diagrams of phonetic 
symbols, and paragraphs devoted to the origin of language, evolution, and the 
overt theories of organic functions. Much experimental data will be found in re- 
lation to persuasion, group motivation, and audience psychology. 


Among the examples of trends in education are the following: (l) imitation- - 
a significant factor in primitive education, and today an educational tool in 
acquiring procedures, approved by a group; (2) authority- -an element in education 
which facilitates the reception of content for a pupil under the direction of a 
textbook, teacher, or like authority; (3) disclpline--a notion relating to the 
. cultural values found in subject matter; (h) the psychological mode --an influence 
based upon experimental knowledge, of the workings of the mind and the emotional 
.- life of man; (5) the social trend--a movement directed to the fulfilment of the 
urges and desires of man living in the society of his fellowman; and (6) the 
scientific influence in education founded upon research into the fields of the 
natural sciences. 

b. Methods', Techniques, and Procedures. 

Once the aim of education is determined, the task of establishing a curriculum, 
formulating a procedure for classroom organization and management, and selecting a 
method of teaching is presented to the teacher. The problems involved in undertaking 
these steps will be discussed in Part III of this textbook. 

Physical Education . 

The modern speech curriculum has received from the science and art of physical 
education many facts concerning bodily function, and methods of teaching action. 


a. Contribution Of The Ancient World. 

Physical culture was well known to the people of India,, the Greeks, the Egyp- 
tians, and Romans. Physical culture in Athens was associated with plays and games, 
dances, festivals, as well as with physical drills designed to promote good health 
and the body beautiful. The Spartans and the Romans related body building to mili- 
tary activity and to a philosophy of mental, emotional, and physical controls. Af- 
ter years of neglect following the disintegration of the Roman Empire and the rise 
of scholasticism, physical education was returned to the school curriculum in the 
Renaissance. It is primarily to this period and the following centuries that speech 
education gains its content and method regarding physical culture. 

The province of physical education, being the development of the body, either 
for some useful purpose (health, laborious work) or for seme cultural aim (the body 
beautiful) is broad enough to contain remedial exercises and recuperative drills. 
The former are used in correcting defects and disorders of bodily functions. The 
latter have value in maintaining organs, muscles, and nerves at maximum efficiency. 
This phase of physical education was not its chief function in former times, but is 
today of great importance in many types of therapy, including speech correction. 

Within the domain of physical education is also the study of the body as a med- 
ium of expression. The Greeks overstressed this phase of education with the theater 
a social institution, festivals as civic celebrations, and dancing a national art; 
yet they made no special attempt to formulate a science of physical culture. Quint - 
ilian, an authority on gesture, discusses the significant role bodily expressions 
played in Greek education (institu tes of Or atory). 

The means used by the Greeks and the Romans to attain rhythmical expression 
were gymnastics and dancing. "Gymnasium for the body and music for the soul" became 
a slogan for training in physical expression; yet bodily training in the ancient 
world was not divorced from general education and the social life of the people. 
Some of the philosophical notions associated with physical drills, certain valuable 
ideas concerning method, and some of the clean-cut objectives stressed in the ancient 
world have had an effect upon the speech curriculum. 

b . Modern Development s .. ■ 

Gilbert Austin in 1806 brought physical training before educators by his ex- 
haustive treatment of the subject (T he Chir onomia). In l6kk; Chironomia and 
Ch irolo gla, a scientific study of gesture, was written by John Bulwer. About the 
middle of the nineteenth century, Francois Delsarte, a French teacher of dramatics 
and music, created much interest with his gesture theory and his philosophy of 
oratorical art (Delsarte, System of Or atory, Werner, N.Y., 188?). He searched into 
the laws of art to formulate a science of aesthetics. His doctrines awakened edu- 
cators to the significance of bodily activity, and many textbooks oh gesture, writ- 
ten particularly from the viewpoint of physiology, followed the initial effort of 
the French educator. Alexander Melville Bell, for instance, continued the Delsarte 
approach to the problem of establishing a science of bodily training. 

In the early twentieth century certain speech teachers advocated the total-body 
theory - the view that the entire body participates in a process where thinking and. 
speaking are essentially one. The influence of the psychological notions of Behav- 
iorism on this trend in a speech education is obvious (Woolbert's Fundamentals of 
Speech) . From time to time the great Swedish' systems concerned with physical cult- 
ure, massage, and bodily relaxation are revived. But perhaps the greatest impetus 
to physical education came in this country with the development of athletics, and 
the creation of separate divisions of physical education in colleges. Their curric- 


ula are of particular interest to the speech teacher. He will find help in their 
plays and games, and community' recreations, and he will gain value from them in 
supplementing the procedures, techniques, and methods for his own speech courses. 

Natural S ciences . 

The method of these sciences has "been studied in relation to education. Their 
contribution to the : speech courses will now "be "briefly enumerated: 

a. Physics. 

Human sounds have been of interest to scientists for centuries. Although the 
Greeks did occasionally refer to phonetics, the old Indian grammarians were perhaps 
the first to make '-an expert analysis of -speech sounds. The theories of sound were 
scarcely mentioned by Aristotle, although he had a correct view of the character of 
air motion.' The scientific aspect of the speaking process held little interest for 
the Remans whose ingenuity was better adapted to war, government, and law rather 
than to science. Not until the Renaissance, with its inductive method of scientific 
inquiry, was much advancement made in physics. 

In most speech courses the teacher usually refers to modern physics which has 
systematized" previous scientific laws and theories and has explained new facts and 
new applications to the older principles. Much is now known about' the production of 
sound, the nature of vibratory motion, the distinction between noise and musical 
sound, the propagation of sound, its properties -pitch, intensity, and quality - 
the combination of waves, and the nature of longitudinal motion. But modern physics 
cannot escape its obligation to the earlier physicists, and in particular to men 
like Galileo, Mersenne, Newton, Boyle, Helmholtz, Rayleigh, Tyndall, Mariohelle, and 

Huyghens, a physicist, established in 1678 principles from which laws of re- ■ 
flection and refraction have been established. For the most part, sound was anal- 
yzed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by musicians and mathematicians. 
The proposal in 1779 by the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg to make the study of 
the nature and character of vowel sounds a subject for its annual award stimulated 
interest in this problem. '■ Important research in acoustics was done by John Sauver. 
The absolute rate of the vibrations of bodies was determined Dy Ernst Florens Fried- 
rich, sometimes called the Father of Acoustics. In 180G, Thomas Young explained the 
principle of the interference of waves, a far reaching discovery. Fourier, in' 1822, 
brought forth a theorem on the composition of -harmonic motion, and Grimm explained 
the sound shift in the consonants of different languages. 

In I839, Josef Skoda while experimenting with the sounds in the human chest ■ 
paved the way for important findings in not only medicine but voice training. Hooke 
explained the nature of stress and strain. Previously Newton and Laplace worked out 
formulae for the velocity of sound. Other scientists have contributed information 
regarding the problems of oscillation, forced' vibrations, the sharpness of resonance, 
frictional damping, and ■ the speed of propagation in different media. The facts se- ' 
cured from these physicists are daily used by the speech teacher in his discussion 
of the physical basis of voice. 

The modern epoch in the history of sound began with Helmholtz, a German physic- 
ist and physiologist, who published Sensations of To ne, in 1863, a work still con- 
sidered for the most part authoritative, particularly in acoustics.' Helmholtz dis- 
covered many principles relating to wave motion and tone quality, particularly the 
length, amplitude, and form of vibration. ■ He contributed the well-known resonance 


theory to explain hearing. In establishing the fact that a vowel has relation to a 
fixed region of resonance rather than to a fixed pitch, he revolutionized much musi- 
cal theory. 

Modern science with its vast array of technical instruments is subjecting for- 
mer physical and physiological theory to scientific demonstration with the conse- 
quence that certain hypotheses are now only of academic interest. Much, for example, 
that has been written by the advocates of the so-called Dodart theory regarding the 
vocal folds as being controlled by a succession of air puffs, or by the proponents 
of the Ferrein notion that the vocal folds vibrate as membranes with free edges has 
been greatly revised. The teacher will find it to his advantage to study the works 
of the physicists of the nineteenth century who wrote on the nature of vowels. Al- 
though some of their conclusions have been discarded, many of their opinions have 
been demonstrated as valid by the use of modern technical equipment. 

Modern research dealing with the types of vibrating systems and with laws con- 
cerned with the eliciting of sound from the human larynx is important to the speech 
student. The exact nature of the prime tone and the overtones is still subject to 
much study; yet modern science is doing much to eliminate from the speech field mere 

Since 1900 the approach to voice and speech problems has been psychological 
rather than physical. But this emphasis should not prevent a true evaluation of the 
physical principles underlying the study of vowels, consonants, and the nature of 
resonance. Exposition must be based upon known laws and not upon conjecture. Today 
with the technical apparatus available, much of the physical phenomena is subject to 
demonstration. Of particular interest to the speech student is the recording machine 
and the audiometer. Laboratory techniques now found in the speech curriculum give a 
scientific approach to the study of voice and speech. 

b. Chemistry. 

This science deals with the intimate structure of bodies and their combina- 
tions. ■> • . ■ "■■ 

Techniques developed in this study have influenced procedures in speech train- 
ing; for example, in the field of speech correction, application is made of the 
findings and methods of biochemistry. Content secured from this science relates to 
the chemical aspect of the breathing process, and certain other functions. An im- 
portant contribution is the studies made of the biochemical basis for certain per- 
sonality traits. 

c. Biology. i ■;. 

Some of the basic notions regarding the human 'body that have found their way 
into speech texts have been secured from this science. The special fields of physi- 
ology, anatomy, and pathology supply information regarding bodily functions and 
structure. The study of pantomime, posture, voice production, and resonance is made 
clearer when the structural and functional conditions of the body are known. So far 
as the content of speech correction is concerned, much of its subject matter comes 
from the biological sciences. Speech pathology, for instance, dealing with defects 
and disorders of speech and voice, has interest in bodily structure, nourishment, 
growth, and ^reproduction as well as the diseases and impairments that undermine ade- 
quate functioning. The physiological tendencies of a body, important particularly 
in light of environmental influences,, are factors treated in relation to speech 
psychology. Before, they can be well understood, experience is required with biolog- 
ical content and techniques. : ' 


d. Physiology. 

The mechanism producing speech was the "basis of much physiological research. 
Studies concerning it were of interest to educators who wished to, know more about 
(a) breathing; (b) the production of sound in general; and (c) human sounds. 

Four centuries before Christ , investigators were interested in breathing. 
Erasistratus, the Alexandrian anatomist, felt that the heart acted as a pump and 
was able to devise the first crude respiration calorimeter. Generally speaking, 
physiological facts were considered in relation to philosophy by the early Greeks. 
They. thought the soul, or pneuma, a subtle, hypothetical- something existed in the 
atmosphere; it was carried by means of the breath into the body and was responsible 
for its vital activities. Aristotle's treatise on respiration gives us an idea of 
the early notions which existed concerning the relation between physiology -and psy- 
chology. In the fifteenth century extensive studies in breathing were conducted bj 
Cardinal Cusanus. .•■ *: 

The discovery of the. numerous gases in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide by Black, 
hydrogen by Cavendish,, nitrogen by Rutherford, and oxygen by Priestly and Scheele, 
brought new information and approaches to the study of breathing. 'The circulation 
of blood was discovered by Harvey whose notion of the function of breathing was that 
it cooled the heated blood. Lavoisier brought to light the nature of the inter- 
change of gases in the lungs giving a basis to the modern theory of breathing. 
Rene Laennec of Brittany, in giving the world the stethescope, opened the way for 
numerous studies by Haller, Hamberger, and others of the action of the intercostal 
muscles in respiration. The entire study of breathing was changed after the discov- 
ery of two botanists, Schleiden and Schwann, (1839) that the vital activity of the 
parts within 'the whole organism was particularly significant. 

In the nineteenth century research was conducted on the physiology of the 
speech organs. A study of nerve fibres was made by Charles Bell, English- anatomist 
and neurologist, who became well known for his lectures entitled Anatomy of Expres - 
sion . Important work in human and comparative physiology was undertaken by Johannes 
MlXller, who in analyzing the spoken word from the structural standpoint definitely 
introduced into physiology certain psychological principles. His important contrib- 
ution showing the close relation of the operations of the mind affected modern the- 
ories in speech correction. ■ ;.s 

During the past century physiologists have presented the world with much infor- 
mation regarding bodily function. Of particular interest to the speech teacher is 
the data gained regarding reflex action, sensation, and nerve transmission. New 
approaches have been made to the study of the relation of nerve action to muscular 
function. Some of the new facts relate to breathing and breath control'. Yet with 
modern information available, there still remains* much discussion as to proper 
breathing methods. Some teachers maintain that the student's attention should be 
centered upon the breathing process; while he is: being taught- breath control; others 
like Stinchfield would teach the function "indirectly through -counting, phrasing, 
and sentence building" ( Path ology, p. 96). 

Not only does the physiologist give content to the speech curriculum regarding 
the problems of breathing and general bodily functions, but he has contributed the- 
ories to the special field of voice. Since the exact function of the vocal folds is 
not known, speculations arise as to their activity. The Three Register Theory, for. 
example, assumed that a person by a sense of feeling might direct tone to certain 
parts of the head or chest. Some teachers tried to locate tone in the larynx itself; 
some, above the larynx; some, below; some felt that in voice production the larynx held in a rigid, position; others, that it should be pressed upward on every 

high note; others held the opposite view. Until teachers gain a true knowledge of 
glottal action, various training methods will result. 

Various manipulations of the soft palate have "been suggested on the assumption 
that it might control tone . The advocates of the so-called Pharynx School, who had 
followers in Germany, France, and Sweden sought to establish theories regarding the 
function of the soft palate. Then the pendulum swung to nasal resonance, and later 
to the action of the lips and tongue. About 1915, a reaction set in against the 
prevailing localization notions of resonance in the form of a Non-interference The- 
ory that held a passivity of the throat was desirable and that a pupil should direct 
attention to the end result in singing and speaking rather than the means of produc- 

In this century numerous hygiene and physiology textbooks have chapters devoted 
to the value of singing and speaking. They stress essential relationships of health 
and voice training. The approach to the subject matter of voice is less technical. 
Physiological and physical concepts are giving way before the psychological trends 
of the time. With modern scientific methods and technical devices the teacher has 
more accurate knowledge of the working of the vocal mechanisms and particularly the 
functions of bodily activity. But more investigation is still necessary regarding 
the nature of tone color, and the functions of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles 
of the larynx. The teacher of speech has an obligation to acquaint himself with 
modern developments so that he may present to his classes facts rather than mere 

The Soci al S ciences . 

The social sciences contain facts related to man in organized society; they 
give a better understanding of his nature, his way of life, and his control of an 
environment. Inasmuch as some of these facts have become a definite part of the 
speech curriculum, they have historical, importance to the teacher and value in the 
interpretation of the present day content and method of speech. 

a. Sociology. 

Such a broad science that embraces many facts from psychology relating to the 
nature of man, and his reactions to life, that concerns itself with laws of group 
actions, and that studies the consequences of environment upon man has much the 
same matter as is found in the content of certain speech courses, particularly those 
of the speech correction curriculum. - But of more importance, the sociologists have 
greatly systemized the facts of the science of sociology. By so doing they have 
greatly improved (l) the method of acquiring, and organizing data, and verifying its 
truth; (2) the method of teaching the science; and (3) the method of presenting to 
the public the benefits which may be derived from the finding of the science. 

Specifically then what is the interest of the prospective teacher of speech or 
particularly of speech correction in social case work^ social psychology, the nature 
of plays and games, normal and abnormal .social behavior, and the consequences of the 
social environment? The content of such courses will give him background for speech 
pathology, speech psychology, general speech correction, and particular methods in 
speech training. The speech correction! st should know how to gather material for a 
case history, how to interview patients, how to evaluate the consequences of an en- 
vironment of a speech pupil. He and the general speech teacher must know the behav- 
ior of crowds, the consequences of the social urges, the problems connected with 
child welfare, the theories of sociology as now being applied in community life and, 
in particular, the theories of social philosophers and educators as now observed in 
tne aims and standards of education in a democracy. He will find use for devices 


employed by the sociologist in making surveys, the statistical systems, for example, 
and other procedures and techniques associated with the sociological method. Lastly, 
the science of sociology furnishes much information concerning community organiza- 
tions. Inasmuch as the speech teacher is interested, even for his own. success in 
teaching, in community groups, their problems and. their needs, he will find sociolog- 
ical content of practical value to him. 

b. History. 

As history is a record, we can look to it for information concerning man's 
ability to learn and to preserve this learning, to organize and to advance his or- 
ganizations, and to change nature and to adjust himself to its demands. The speech 
teacher in charge of dramatics, or the one directing debate uses content requiring 
historical background. If a play is to be produced calling for scenes and, situa- 
tions of the Elizabethan Age, the teacher with background in English history has an 
advantage in coaching a group. If a debate is to be staged that deals with the ec-:. ; 
onomic life of the German people, the instructor who knows European history has in- 
formation of immediate value. 

The speech teacher must have a cultural background as well as knowledge of 
expression. He is more than a scientific elocutionist interested in a mechanical' ■>,, 
art of placing a tone or maintaining a bodily attitude. The oratorical art, the 
political theories, and the ideals of the plastic art-forms - centuries before 
Christ ■• must be known before the trends in modern art and modern literary criticism 
can be appreciated. To history, then, the speech teacher must go to understand the 
modern world, to appreciate the notions of comforts, liberty, political organization, 
and religious tolerance, and to evaluate the 'spirit behind the diffusion of learning 
and progress of the times. 

Psychology . ■•;. 

This science of the mind, of conscious phenomena, has two divisions: (a) ex- 
perimental psychology concerned with the phenomena of the states of consciousness in 
man, and (b) rational psychology dealing with the science of the nature of mind. 
The first division has as its method the science of observation; the second employs 
the deductive method or a science of reasoning. The content of each consists of 
sensible facts, intellectual facts, and volition facts. 

As the speech teacher is interested in man's agreeable or disagreeable reaction 
to some object and his inclinations to be drawn toward an object or to withdraw from 
it,. he must understand the sensible' facts of psychology. He. likewise must know the 
meaning of perceptions, images, memories, abstract and general ideas, judgments and 
reasoning ~ all the intellectual facts; and lastly he must appreciate the functions 
and consequences of acts of volition. If he has a background in psychology, he will 
be able to understand the theories of speech training that reflect certain psycholog- 
ical trends, for example, Gestalt psychology, Behaviorism, or the Herbartian expres- 
sion^ of Kantian philosophy. Lastly, if he has had interest in abnormal psycho-logy, 
he will better understand the various behavior such as found in depression, anxiety, 
defense complexes, sublimation, and compensation - all of Importance to the speech 
teacher and particularly the speech correct ionist. In a word, psychology being a 
study of the conscious life of man has facts of interest to the speech teacher. 

Philosophy . 

The facts employed in the content of speech training are not integrated by 
science but by philosophy. Like all other subjects, speech has a philosophy which 
co-ordinates principles related to three basic problems: (a) What is nature, par- 

ticularly the nature of a rational being? . (b) What is the nature of the relation- 
ship existing between this rational being and the world of objects about it? (c) 
What is the nature of truth and good? These three problems have been with mankind 
since the beginning of philosophical research. Although many solutions have been 
suggested for them, all may be grouped under three heads: Kantian absolutism, prag- 
matism, and realism. All principal schools of philosophical thought today follow 
more or less rigidly the doctrines contained within these systems. 

The philosophical spirit is one of critical research for basic principles and 
universal application of these principles; consequently, it renders real service to 
a science which is interested in the particular and the specific. Speech has a 
philosophy behind it. The person teaching speech and the pupil receiving it accept 
some philosophical view of fundamental principles. In other words, to evaluate the 
content and method of speech training, both teacher and pupil must find the philos- 
ophical notions which subsist in the background but influence the principles and 
procedures of this training. 

The Ma th ematical Scie nces . 

The method of mathematical demonstration is of interest to the speech teacher 
because of its practical value to him in his own teaching, and because he can apply 
it to courses in debate and argumentation. Mathematical definition is suggested to 
the mind by experience but organized by reason and expressed as a law. Consequently 
deduction gives exactness and universality to mathematics and supplies it and other 
sciences with mathematical demonstration. 

The speech teacher like the mathematician works with axioms, postulates, and 
definitions. Axioms are accepted as necessary propositions; postulates are likewise 
admitted without proof; whereas definitions conforming to some concept express some 
law. The speech teacher using mathematical demonstration should realize that it 
differs, according to Aristotle, from a syllogism. The latter has only three prop- 
ositions while a demonstration has generally a chain of reasonings and requires 
truth of form and matter. A logical deduction may be materially false, but not so 
demonstration. The use of this method insures habits of precision, clearness, ajid 
vigorous reasoning, but employed without regard to practical value may be made an 
end in itself. 

Today with the tendency to reduce speech training to a mathematical base and 
to over-simplify its problem by assuming the validity of some formulae, the speech 
teacher must resist the impulse to make demonstration take the place of training 
which awakens the art spirit within the pupil himself . The contribution of . the math- 
ematical sciences cannot be over-valued but the philosophical and literary spirit 
so necessary to speech education can be under-valued. 

The Professional Fields . 

Research in the various professional fields has contributed much to speech 
content and method. 

a . Law . 

If the prospective teacher of speech should consult the curriculum of any law 
school, he would find subject matter like briefing - with its emphasis on logical 
construction, rules of evidence and testimony, procedures in parliamentary gather- 
ings, formulae for determining authority, correct use of documents, differences be- 
tween fact and inferences - content found in speech, courses particularly in argument- 
ation. He would find also that speech method has been influenced by procedures 


outlined for the law student, for example, successful ways of jury pleading and 
necessary procedures for deliberate assemblies. As a potential teacher the speech 
student must realize that speeches in his public speaking classes will require some 
knowledge of legal principles and practices/ for instance, an argument based upon 
justice or a forensic oration-. If he makes a brief survey of graduate theses in 
the speech field he will observe that many subjects demand research into the field 
of law. ••• ' 

b. Medicine. 

Advances in medicine - in physiology regarding the breathing process, in bio- . 
chemistry concerning the chemical aspect of personality, in anatomy regarding cer- 
tain muscles or organs - are quickly applied to problems of voice or speech. The 
speech pathologist especially must understand the progress made in medicine. Re- 
search, for example, concerning the activity of the endocrine glands has brought 
new concept regarding behavior to the speech field. An instructor must teach in . 
the applied field of speech a content in harmony with the latest development 1 . in 
medicine. ;.'••'; 

c. Economics. . .. 

The speech teacher should study the attempts of the economist to measure, ; ap- 
praise, and delineate his findings of economic laws. He will value his illustra- 
tions in graphs, charts, and statistical evidence. He will find in this remarkable 
development of the means of illustration and description belonging to the science 
of economics, techniques of service to the speech arts. He will observe that many 
questions of debate deal with basic laws of economics. 

d. Political and social sciences. 

Today with the tendencies of historians and economists to direct their minds 
to social facts of the every day life, the social sciences dealing with the prob- 
lems of social needs, industrial programs and social planning require an equal 
share of attention with political theory 'and historical politics. Confronting the 
prospective teacher of speech is the problem of preparing himself to teach argument- 
ation and debafce as well as the field of speech criticism. To be able to help his 
pupils discuss the social and political problems of his day, he must assign some of 
his time to an understanding of the laws and forces behind the political and social 
movements of his age. 

e. Engineering. 

This professional field, particularly its branch of electrical engineering, has 
created many mechanical instruments of value to the speech teacher. ' He should be- 
come acquainted with recording machines and devices for measuring sound. He should 
feel obligated to keep abreast of the present day research in the field of acoustics, 
His particular concern is with developments in the radio industry, for research in 
this field the last few years has contributed much knowledge to the subjects of 
voice production and resonance. Finally, engineers in collaboration with medical 
experts have devised equipment for physiological and psychological research. Find- 
ings in the applied field of engineering in such subjects as are related to speech 
training are the concern of the prospective teacher. 

f. Other professional fields. 

Other branches of applied sciences and professions have from time to time con- 
tributed to the advancement of the speech and vocal arts. Dentistry, with its rapid 
progress in the correction of dental defects and disorders, supplies content to the 


speech correction! st . As he must often refer patients to the dentist, he should he 
ayare of the dental services available to him. The physical therapist and the 
masseur with their knowledge of the bodily action, the occupational therapist with 
his skill in the physical and mental readjustments of patients, the dietician with 
his understanding of nutrition - these and other professional men and women are 
working with content which in one way or another is often allied with the speech 
training, particularly with speech correction. 

The Fine Arts . 

Since speech training is concerned with the manifestation of aesthetic qualit- 
ies and with the realization of the ideal, it must be influenced by the norms es- 
tablished by the science of aesthetics governing the fine arts. Some standards of 
style stress the aesthetic ideals while neglecting the sensual forms of the art 
medium; some are concerned with the imitation of reality, either intellectually or 
sensually; and some presume art is a medium to reflect the realm of the spiritual. 
All three notions will be found expressed in the laws of critical rhetoric and aes- 
thetics in relation to style - subjects of importance to the speaker. 

a. Dramatic Art. 

Not only does dramatic art constitute a separate course in most speech curric- 
ula but its techniques and contents are a part of platform art, and even its rules 
of interpretation are involved in debate and oratory. 

1. Acting. 

The speech teacher needs knowledge of the law and techniques of the drama, 
stage deportment, vocal expression, pantomime, and the art of interpretation. 
More than the understanding of form and content, he needs standards of judging 
the literary value of drama. If he is to direct plays, he must have a knowledge 
of the theater. He will gain much information and critical values if he plans a 
reading course embracing the best in dramatic literature of Greece and Rome. 
Finally, he needs a thorough understanding of textbooks devoted to acting tech- 
niques and literary interpretation. _ . .. , 

2. Stage crafts. '. ■' 

A broad science dealing with such subjects as architecture, acoustics, or 
optics, requires a specialist to employ it most effectively; nevertheless the 
principles of stage craft most essential to play production may be acquired by 
the speech teacher if he seeks a proper background. He should be familiar with 
the stage of the Greek play, the scenic effects of the late Roman drama, the 
setting of the miracle and mystery plays, the platform of the Elizabethan drama- 
tists, the massive sets of the nineteenth century, and the mechanical sets of the 
■ twentieth century. The more he masters the mechanical arts involved in stage 
production, the more he will enhance the values of the acting and the interpretat' 
ive elements of his production with a well staged and well dressed production. 
iMoreover the speech student studying the grand laws of art - imitation of nature, 
selection of matter, simplification of details, perfection of order, concentra- 
tion of energies with a balance of emphasis and proportion - could understand 
better the laws underlying good speech composition, place proper values on the 
precepts of expression, and develop taste - a complex faculty, a mixture of feel- 
ing and reason that is the product of a cultivated spirit. 

b. Music, c. Painting, and d. Sculpture. 

S. S. Curry, of the School of Expression, in Boston, stressed the need of a 
creative imagination in speech work. He placed value upon ideals, secured from ex- 
perience and elaborated by reason. He believed in the speech student studying 
music, painting, and sculpture inasmuch as these fine arts provided examples of 
beauty and incited desires for cultural attainments. 

class discussion '' ■'-/;; ■;; . ; '.; "■■'/ /; ; /;,. 

1. What is the contribution of dramatic art to speech? .'',./ ,,'/t.,... = 

2. Discuss one contribution which education has given to speech' training. 

3. What has physical education offered to the speech' program? .. 
k. What have the natural and social sciences added to the field? 

5. What are the philosophical and psychological contributions to speech? ' 

6. Take one common interpretation of method. Discuss its advantages and disad- 


7. Discuss imitation as an educational tool. ',.. 

8. Explain the play spirit in speech education. 

9. Give examples of the scientific spirit in speech education. 

10. Discuss the environmental influences on speech training. 

11. How did vocational education contribute to speech training? 

12. Is the Socratian method used generally in speech training? 

13. Do you hold that speech training is primarily a discipline? 
1^-. What contribution did the Ciceronians -make to speech training? 


Austin, G., Chironomia (Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davis, I806). 
Brett, G. S,, Psycho logy, Ancient and Modern (New York: Longmans, 1928). 
Bruce, W. E., and Ereeman, E. S., Develo pment and Learning (Boston: Houghton, 

19^2). " "~~ 

Burnham, W. H., The Normal Mind (New York: Applet on, 192^ ). 
Cable, W. A., Spee ch Education (Boston:. .Expression, 1930) . 
Cajori, F., A Histor y of P hysi cs (New York:' Macmiilan, 1929). 
Cassidy, R., and Baxter, B., Group Exp erien ce, The Democratic Way (New York: 

Harper, 19^-3) . .,-,.'.....;. 

Dels arte, F., System of Oratory (New York: Edgar S.. Werner, I887). 
Dewey, J., Experience and Edu cation (New York: Macmiilan,. 1938). 
Duffey, W. R., Problems in Speech Trainin g (Minneapolis: ... Burgess, 19^0). 

(for extensive bibliography). 
Ellis, R. S., The Psy chology o f Individua l, Differ ences. (New York: Appleton, 1928). 
Garrett, H. E., Great Experiments of Psychology (New' York: Century, 1930) . 
Garrison, F. H., An Introduct ion to t he History of' Medicine (Philadelphia: W. B. 

Saunders, 1929). 
Grenier, A., The Roman Spirit in Re ligion, 'Thought,' and Art (New York: Knopf, 1926). 
Guilford, J. P., Fields of Psyc hology (New York:', D. Van ' Nostrand, I9I+0) . z, H. L., Sensation of Tone (London: Longmans,- Green, 1883). 
Locy, W. A., Growth of -Biology (New York: Henry Holt, I925) . 
McCarthy, R. C, Safeguarding Mental Health (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1937). 
McGeoch, J. A., The Psychology of Human "Learning (New York: . Longmans, 19^2). 
Push, J., Philosophy of the Human Voice (Philadelphia: Library Co., 1893) . 


Language most shows a man; speak that I may see thee . --JONSON 


The Speech Teacher Himself 

a. Set Forth On Rating Blanks 

b. Mental Equipment 

1. Academic training required 

2. Intellectual curiosity 

3. Keen observation and hearing 
h. Initiative 

c. Emotional Characteristics. 

1. Self-control 

2. Enthusiasm for work 

3. Reasonable attitude toward work 
h. A sense of humor 

d. Physical Characteristics 

1. Health 

2. Personal appearance 

e. Social Characteristics 

1. Good speech 

2. Some general considerations 

The Teacher -Studen t Relationship In The Speec h Class 

a. A Need For Mutual Understanding With the Pupil 

b. Difficulties In Gaining It 

1. Over-formality 

2. Informality .. . 

3. Familiarity 

c. Ways of Acquiring It 

1. Understanding the subject 

2. Socializing the class . ;- 

3. Interesting the student in the work 

k. Knowing the psychology of behavior ■ '< 

5. Knowing the high school student 

Outside influences > / .. 

Mental characteristics' 
Emotional characteristics 
Physical characteristics 
Social characteristics 
The Teache r-Stud ent Rel atio ns hip In The Conference 
a. Principles of Counseling of Value, to the Speech Teacher .' 

1. Knowledge of counseling in education 

2. The techniques involved in diagnosis 
3- Solutions of common problems 

k. Understanding of the types of personality .problems 

5. Realization of problems of adjustment 

6. Appreciation of educational and vocational problems 

7. Summary 

The Teacher-Sc hoo l Relationshi p 
a. Securing a Position 

1. Personal interview 

2. Letter of application 

3. Filed questionnaire 



b. Holding a Position 

1. Co-operation with his colleagues 

2. Knowledge of the relation 'of speech to other subjects 
The Tea cher-Com mun ity Relationship 

a. The Responsibility of the. Teacher 

b. Participation in Local Affairs 

c. Adjustment of Teacher to Community 

d. Responsibility to Democracy 


Th e Speech Teacher H imself 

The characteristics of the teacher of speech differ from those necessary to 
other teachers in degree rather than in kind. They will be discussed from four 
points of view: mental, emotional, physical, and social. 

a. Characteristics set forth on rating blanks. 

Sample blanks for rating can be secured at the placement bureaus of colleges 
and universities. Although they differ in detail, they contain essentially the 
qualities that could be listed under the preceding four points. 

b. Mental equipment. 

Only few administrators today believe that any teacher who has a free period 
can teach speech. The speech teacher must be trained in his subject and endowed 
with certain natural abilities. 

J i 

1. Academic training required. ( 

When speech became a separate subject in the curriculum and was. divorced 
from the class in Oral English in 1916, specific and thorough training for teach- 
ing the subject became necessary. The teacher of speech requires the broad gen- 
eral background discussed in Chapters II and III. Even though he may specialize 
in a particular phase of the work, such as correction, dramatics^ or debate, he 
still needs a foundation before specialization. 

2. Intellectual curiosity. 

This characteristic is required of a successful speech teacher. Knowledge 
gained in college is not adequate for him. After finishing the required academic 
training, a conscientious teacher will continue to be an interested student with 
ambition to study as long as he remains in the profession. The teacher who dis- 
continues serious study the day he enters the classroom regardless of the number 
of degrees he may have attached to his name is not likely to succeed in teaching. 
Knowledge of his subject in its numerous relations and changing aspects requires 
constant study. 


3. Keen observation and hearing. . , . . .... 

No subject in the curriculum requires senses more acute than speech with 
its subtle changes, situations, moods, attitudes, activities, and voice prob- 
lems. The teacher must be mentally alert if he is to be able to evaluate not 
only what is said in the class but what is sometimes more important, implied. 
Prompt recognition of the symptoms of behavior often leads to success diagnosing 
and inferring causes of difficulties which may arise in the average speech class. 

h. Initiative. 

A teacher of speech dealing with the innermost thoughts, desires, and fears 
of adolescents has tremendous power at his disposal to mold character. His pri- 
mary job is not to fill the minds of his students with facts, but rather to try 
to help them develop themselves. To do this, he must be a leader not a follower. 
He should be more than one of those who follows directions explicitly if the work 
is planned for him; he should be one who has ability to sense a new situation and 
meet it with enthusiasm. 

c. Emotional characteristics. 

Certain emotional attributes are advantageous to the speech teacher: 

1. Self-control. 

Emotional stability and sympathetic understanding of human nature are nec- 
essary when dealing with adolescents. A teacher who is vacillating, who becomes 
either easily vexed or overly exuberant, invites similar responses from the 
class. If he has a controlled attitude towards his work, he will develop a sense 
of values, good judgment, and power of decision in his dealings with the student. 

2. Enthusiasm for work. 

This trait so essential in speech is a result of industry, alertness, and 
interest in work. The task of the teacher is to vitalize his. class. Unless he 
has enthusiasm, he cannot give what he does not possess. He may be overly en- 
thusiastic about a project, but he needs more than temporary zeal, for he must 
have perseverance to see that a' task is satisfactorily completed. 

3. Reasonable attitude toward work. r 

Excessive enthusiasm may, at times, actually become a fault, for with an 
overly conscientious type of individual too often his work becomes his life. 
Lacking a sense of perspective in his own case, he unconsciously narrows his . 
views and curtails his interests and outside recreations until failing health 
results. He should maintain a common sense attitude towards what he can reason- 
ably : accomplish. Genuine interest in some, other field of activity keeps a normal 
balance in his life.' 

h. A sense of humor. 

This quality is the most effective emotional weapon a teacher dealing with 
high school pupils can possess. It is the balance wheel to offset the worries, 
distractions, and annoyances that arise daily in speech work. The successful 
teacher keeps young in spirit with the class; thereby he encourages a wholesome 
class attitude. 


d. Physical characteristics. 

Adolescent youth is extremely sensitive to personal influence and a dominating 
personality. The physical attributes, then, are involved in that intangible char- 
acteristic commonly known as a pleasing personality . 

1. Health. ■'-■ ■' ■ 

This factor, the basis of personal attractiveness, should head the-. list 'of 
physical characteristics. Vitality is necessary for any teaching position' but 
particularly. 'where adolescents are involved. Physical health and emotional sta- 
bility are two important 'yet least appreciated assets necessary for success In 

2. Personal appearance. 

This notation, heading many recommendation blanks, relates to general physi- 
cal characteristics of a person, likewise to his dress and manner. As education 
is a conservative profession, extremes in dress are looked upon with disfavor. • 
Correct attire for teaching as in business should not call attention to itself, 
yet it should suit one's personality. Personal appearance includes a dignified 
carriage and poise. Posture must' be good at all times if the confidence and re- 
spect of adults as well as students are to be kept. It is particularly important 
in high school, for the adolescent copies what he sees, 'and he, perhaps uncon- 
sciously, likes a teacher who is personally attractive and poised. 

e. Social characteristics. • ■'■ 

The social attributes of the speech teacher play a significant part in the 
classroom as well as in the community. His own speech is his first social asset; 
other attributes influence discipline and class management. 

1. Good speech. ■"' '■■'>'■ ' : 

The speech teacher should have good speech, for there is little use to en- 
courage pleasing voices 'and manners of expression in the classroom without/ the ' 
teacher first practicing what he teaches. Paradoxical as it may seem, some tea- 
chers of speech are likely 'to "become so' interested in the improvement of their' 
students that they forget that their own speaking habits are being judged or per- 
haps imitated. 

2. Some general considerations. 

As the teacher's problem- is to meet with tact and consideration the class- 
room situation, the instructor will respect the changeable adolescent and guide 
him. He must know that love' of subject matter is caught not tau ght; therefore^ 
his attitude toward the adolescent is of far •reaching consequence to his teaching 
success. If a teacher endeavors to be sincere, dependable, and honest, his stud- 
ents will generally try to act as he does. ' He may not' be a being of perfection 
as many adolescents with the strong loves and hates of that age consider him, but 
he can be a normal human being who has -chosen as his' profession the guidance arid ■ 
development of high school pupils. 


The Teacher -Student Relationship In The Speech Class. 

The student himself is the most significant factor in the speech situation. 
Development of the pupil in relation to his fellow beings is the primary task in 
speech where an instructor's subject is boys and girls. , \ 

a. A need for mutual understanding between teacher and student. 

Teacher and student are inseparable; in order to have one there must be the 
other. The former has to adapt himself to the student, while the latter has to 
learn to adjust himself to the teacher and other students. If an harmonious speech 
is to result, much depends upon a sympathetic understanding between all involved. 

b. Difficulties in gaining understanding. 

The two extremes of formality are the source of trouble in the teaching situa- 

1. Over -formality, -j , 

If the speech situation is stilted and formal, students may memorize the 
content of a textbook or maintain perfect order in the classroom; yet they may 
lack enthusiasm for the subject. There are two types of instructors who tend to 
over -formality. The first is the inexperienced speech teacher who follows the 
text in detail; the second, the overly conscientious individual, who finds it 
difficult, even though he has chosen a subject such as speech, to break away 
from a routine class procedure. Either teacher is inclined to consider work 
well done when a number of facts listed on a certain page are given in their 
correct order. 

2. Informality. 

If the teacher is not on his guard, the freedom which he may have encour- 
aged at the beginning of the semester when students were in awe of him may 
cause the class to get out of control as, the semester progresses. Excessive 
informality develops so rapidly with adolescents that frequently the inexperi- 
enced teacher does not realize the. lack of control which actually exists in the 
classroom until his .attention is drawn to it by the principal, inspector, or 
other administrator. 

3. Familiarity. 

The adolescent who knows the teacher too well outside of class may try to 
take advantage of this situation. Although a mutual understanding is necessary, 
familiarity with a few selected students can. disrupt the morale of a class in 
speech. The close relationship of a faculty moderator with students may be a 
source of trouble to him in extracurricular activities. But if he is friendly 
with all and not familiar with a few, he will have the respect of the group and 
jealousy or antagonism will not result. 

c. Ways of acquiring a mutual understanding. 

These may be listed as follows: 
1. Understanding of the subject. 

Each member of the speech class will have to realize that learning is an 
active process and that he learns by what he does himself rather than by what is 


done to him. The student educates himself to become self-reliant and self- 

cont rolled. 

2. Socializing class procedure. 

There is an advantage of class over private instruction where only indiv- 
idual faults are discovered and analyzed. Each student learns from all of the 
others while all learn by doing. . ■ • 

3. Interesting the student in the work. 

A pupil gains from a speech course what he puts into it. For some students, 
the theory is easy; for others, the practice; yet success results from a combin- 
ation of the two. The average student realizes that speaking like playing base- 
ball can be improved under guidance from an authority. 

k. Knowing the psychology of behavior. 

If a tactful instructor applies the principles of psychology which he has 
learned in college to his class instruction, he will discover situations which 
otherwise might prove unpleasant. Seen from different viewpoints, they assume 
different aspects and occasionally an entirely different value. An otherwise 
hasty judgment may be altered when the other side of a situation is analyzed ob- 
jectively. A teacher can interpret what a speaker is feeling and anticipate 
reactions if he is sufficiently observant in his classes. 

5- Knowing the high school pupil. 

Ways to understand 'his pupils present themselves to the teacher: 

The more information a teacher gathers about the different phases of life 
which are intimately related to the needs of the adolescent, the more adequately 
he can meet the classroom situations. A particular kind of personality found in 
class does not come by chance. What influences have' affected it? An adolescent 
is not habitually sullen or bombastic, excessively timid, or negative without a 
cause. His relationships at home as well as school often reveal 'the answer to 
his problems. What is known in the office records about his background, fail- 
ures, outside interests, and aspirations? Occasionally, information of this 
kind will reveal the cause of a difficulty upon the platform. 

The mental characteristics of an individual in a speech class Can be deter- 
mined greatly by the amount of ' work performed, the kind of work done, and the 
speed with which it is accomplished. Students naturally fall into types when 
these three points are considered; consequently, as far as academic rating is 
concerned, the types may be listed as average , a bove avera ge, and below average . • 
A discussion of these types will be given in detail in Chapter V. 

. There are those who are mentally honest with themselves as well as with 
others, face difficulties frankly, and accept advice without resentment. On the 
other hand, there is a small group. of adolescents who have the opposite charact- 
eristics. Some high school students are. not as practical as others; . some may be 
too practical or too technically minded to value cultural training. Cultural 
courses will broaden them intellectually and develop them emotionally. The ab- 
sent-minded dreamers are the opposite extreme of the practical ones. If their 
vivid imagination can be utilized, the entire group will benefit; if not, they 
may become a disturbing factor. A teacher can often tactfully make them face 
reality by explaining the practical values of speech training. 


In a speech class there are three definite types of individuals so far as 
their attitude toward the ''subject is concerned. The first is the timid, retic- 
ent adolescent who talks little; he is afraid of something or other before he 
enters the room, and. dislikes the subject before he knows anything about it, 
except perhaps on a sophomore's hearsay. He believes that the subject is much 
harder than he later discovers it to be. The egotistical student, perhaps a 
winner in debate or oratory, who knows all about the subject before he enters and 
who expects to get passing grades doing little or no work is the opposite type. 
The third adolescent is indifferent, considering the subject as a supplement to 
more important courses. 

The degree of emotional stability differs decidedly in pupils in their 
teens. They may be classified as (l) habitually uncontrolled; (2) excessively 
controlled; (3) varied but stable. 

The aggressive individual, enraptured with his own plans, may become a so- 
cial nuisance. He may have gained as a ringleader a reputation and believes 
that he has to hold it. The instructor should make the acquaintance of this 
type early in the year, preferably by an Indirect suggestion to have him visit 
his office. Time is well spent in knowing him, for often he becomes an ally 
instead of an annoyance. A teacher may appeal to his sense of honor and utilize 
other devices to win his interest. 

Another familiar type is the immature member who tries to annoy boldly and 
who endeavors to amuse the class at an inopportune time. It is often advisable 
to request this kind of disturber to display his ability for the entire class in 
a definite assignment. Generally, however, one lesson of this nature will change 
his attitude. If he becomes too independent, he may be dismissed from the class 
until he realizes how discourteous he has been and asks to be returned. 

A type that may annoy is the bright student, a superior type since kinder- 
garten, who considers a speech course too easy. His conduct is not malicious 
but thoughtless. He may. be helped in a private interview where he is given to 
understand the. inconvenience he is causing others by his thoughtless behavior. 
As a rule, he will see the teacher's viewpoint and sense the situation instantly. 
He may be given a compliment, a few days later. He will be tractable if his 
interests are studied and, above all, if , he is kept busy. He needs to have his 
desire for self-expression satisfied. If he is a bother to another while speak- 
ing, he can be called upon to talk impromptu. Generally this practice curbs his 
desire to annoy. 

Other students may at times be included in the uncontrolled group: There 
is the one who lovesto impress everyone with his learning; the one who so fears 
himself that he attempts an appearance of being nonchalant; the. one who displays 
his virtues or vices; the .girl who is supersensitive and shy; the vacillating 
youngster who is never certain of his mood; the girl or boy attempting a 
cynic; the habitual arguer who always carries the proverbial chip on his shoulder; 
the listless, indifferent one, present in class in body but not in spirit; the one 
who continually tries .to test the teacher; and the pupil who dashes to class at 
the last moment bumping anyone who obstructs his passage. 

The second type, less frequently found in classes' today, includes students 
who might be termed excessively controlled. These, pupils are disciplined until 
they are afraid to be themselves or to express either ideas or emotional reac- 
tions. They address the group rigid in posture and.manner. Their stiffness and 
sternness cause them to be frequently misjudged by the adolescents, even by in- 
structors who should not be misled by -appearances. They should know that a 

; , ; ,, : . 67 

speaker who is fearful and upset, may appear calm, composed, or even bored. The 
symptoms of this class should be discovered and remedies suggested for its mem- 
bers. - •.,■; -,v- 

The last type is represented by the well balanced adolescent with a mature 
sense of values who has. been reared and" trained, by adults with similar traits. 
He generally has that common sense so much appreciated by every speech teacher. 
He is either quiet or gay as the occasion warrants, a good clear-cut, logical 
thinker, and as a rule attentive and gentlemanly. He may not impress one at the 
first meeting, but the observant teacher will appreciate his worth. When he con- 
tributes ideas and reactions to a discussion, they are worthwhile. Petty dis- 
tractions which occur during the class period do no affect him particularly, and 
he is generally a good listener to both teacher and students. He is intellect- 
ually curious and, as a rule, does extra work voluntarily. If he asks a question, 
he asks it for information. 

In stature, students are above average, average, or below averag e. This 
factor is not so significant when an adolescent is average sized, but if he is 
decidedly above or below average size, he is likely to become sensitive about 
his appearance. This remark applies also to the adolescent girl. 

Members of the speech class may be classified as to dress. The average 
appearance does not draw particular attention from the class. A speaker care- 
less or especially well groomed usually claims comment. 

Physical attractiveness may prove a disturbing factor to certain members of 
a high school speech class. Those most visibly affected are boys who are more 
interested in gaining recognition by their Bhowy socks, ties, and latest hair 
comb than by the subject matter of their speeches. There are also the girls, the 
coquettish type, for example, who prepare an excellent speech in order to impress 
boys with their speaking ability as well as appearance. The opposite type is 
represented by girls whose only apparent interest in boys is to copy their ap- 
pearance. Another kind is the careless, carefree youth who admits frankly that 
girls hold no interest for him. 

Physical activity is the basis of four other classes of individuals found in 
a typical high school group. They are the mentally and physically active, the 
mentally and physically inactive, the mentally alert but physically inactive, and 
the mentally sluggish yet physically animated. Those who are physically active 
are likely, on the whole, to prefer practice in the speech class while the ment- 
ally alert like its theory. 

The same social characteristics studied in connection with the teachers are 
applicable to the students. Some pupils are leaders and some, followers; , there 
are pupils who have, learned to adapt themselves to situations and those who have 
not; those who are prompt and those who are habitually late; those who are court- 
eous, and those inconsiderate of others; those who will criticize others but will 
not accept criticism themselves; those who are popular with other people and those 
who are not; those who are planning to attend college and those whose formal edu- 
cation ceases the night they receive their high school diplomas. 

^ Social variations found in a speech class are influenced by different fact- 
ors in the community including ■ living standards, cultural advantages, and ideals. 
A class where the younger members of the community are allowed to express them- 
selves freely is a veritable mirror reflecting environmental influences and con- 


The Teacher-Student Relationship In The Co nference . 

To interview a student individually, diagnose his problems, and advise a program 
that satisfies his needs may be termed counseling. Speech students are often con- 
ceived as a group belonging to a certain speech class. Their faults and virtues are 
considered in relation to this speech class, but when a student comes to a teacher 
after class, then he becomes an individual with a problem similar to that of many 
other pupils. He is no longer a creature of habits, a machine for speech responses, 
but a social person who needs a psychological analysis and social guidance in order 
that he can with dignity and poise take his place among his fellow students. 

The speech teacher must know the principles of counseling, which should be ap- 
plied to a pupil's problem, and to what extent counseling is necessary. A major in- 
terest of a speech teacher is a critical evaluation of a student, and conferences 
with pupils are important means of establishing it. As long as pupils are beset 
with a multiplicity and variety of personal problems, mostly interrelated with speech 
problems in one form or another, the speech teacher must use conferences to help the 
pupils with their difficulties. 

a. Principles of counseling of value to the speech teacher. 

Counseling is an old and accepted custom of speech and voice teachers. Diagnos- 
tic techniques may be new, but help by means of conferences to make better speakers 
and singers is very old. The prospective teacher of speech, realizing that he must 
help students with problems associated with speech difficulties, and solve problem's 
that are reflected in some speech symptoms, certain bodily mannerism, or specific 
vocal disorder, prepares himself for the future by gaining (a) knowledge of counsel- 
ing in education; (b) the techniques involved in diagnosis; (c) an understanding of 
the types of personality problems he may encounter; (d) a realization of other prob- 
lems of adjustments; and (e) an appreciation of educational and vocational problems. 

1. Knowledge of counseling in education. 

To know cause and effects of attitudes, interests, emotions, and instincts 
of a person is within the province of the speech teacher, for a speech behavior 
cannot be disassociated from a psychology of being, a psychology of learning, or 
a psychology of behavior. Advice. to the student in the conference is not the main 
concern of the high school teacher of speech who should be primarily concerned 
with diagnosis before he attempts to dispense advice as 'to procedures. Obviously 
then, the speech teacher needs training in counseling. He must know such technic- 
alities of guidance as will give value to the implications of the diagnosis in 
relationship to the field of speech, to his classroom problems, and to other 
difficulties of the pupils. He is not a psychiatrist, or a psychologist, or even 
a specialized diagnostician in speech. He is expected, however, to know that every 
high school pupil does not think clearly,, act sanely, or state his future plans on 
the basis of sound conclusions. 

The speech teacher, knowing the adolescent mind, can provide data and conclu- 
sion regarding facts that will be helpful in providing orientation to the pupil. 
He can stress mental hygiene, not simply control of some emotional upset. He can 
avoid some of the common fallacies of judging human behavior; for example, the 
rash assumptions based upon relation of physical traits with personality character- 
istics; the bendency to let judgment follow a hunch; a general impression, or some 
bias regarding some characteristic, physical or mental, faVored by the teacher him- 
self. He will know speech and personality disorders so that, when necessary, he 
may refer difficult cases to competent authorities in the field of speech correc- 
tion or psychology.' 


The speech teacher should know whether the pupil seeking his counsel is con- 
sidering his speech subjects as pre-professional and' a basis for his college' 
speech courses, or whether he is gearing his educational practices to some type 
of vocational or economic objectives. In either case, he should sense that the 
student is' not in the speech class merely to absorb professional knowledge but to 
acquire "ski -lis/ habits, ideals, attitudes, and tastes; consequently any' problem 
presented by the pupil must be analyzed in the light of his capacities and needs. ■ 
In a speech 'Class,' the individual may be forgotten; in a personal conference, the 
individual is supreme . '■ Hi s case is diagnosed, his potentialities are 'discovered, 
his weaknesses are laid bare, and the consequences of the diagnosis are related'.'-' 
to the individual needs of the student. The conference Is also the 'means -of 'pre ^ 
venting a pupil's problems. Maladjustments which may have serious consequences 
are caught in their incipient stages and their development prevented. 

The problems presented in a conference are not always concerned with the pre- 
scribed curriculum, but may relate to such matters as causes of non-attendance at 
class; study habits; health problems; physical defects and disorders generally as- 
sociated one way or another with speech or voice functions; aptitudes^ emotional 
disturbances, and distractions; orientation; and employment, particularly after 
school. The latter is of some consequence to the speech teacher in view of extra- 
curricular speech activity. 

Because of the intimate contact with the student in the conference, the speech 
teacher can better interpret his own teaching problems and needs. He can adjust 
classroom methods to solve these instructional problems that he realizes are' pres- 
ent in his classes. Often by helping a student achieve some sought -for goal, the 
teacher can not only help the individual pupil become more receptive to education- 
al values of his environment but prevent, in a practical way, disturbances in his 
classes. •■ 

A conference to be successful must be built upon a foundation of facts and 
deductions. The .speech teacher can from time to time collect data which gives 
insight into a student's habits of thinking and behavior. He may gain information 
about a student, in addition to that secured from interviews; from educational, 
psychological, and aptitude tests; reports on attitudes,, emotions, and ambitions; 
conferences with parents, students, or teachers in other fields of study; school 
records; reports from specialized officers -. health, employment, and church. 

He may use summary sheets regarding distributipn of a student's time. These 
often help give understanding of his habits. He may have a pupil write out his 
chief experiences. He may keep records of types of behavior exhibited by a pupil 
within the classroom. If he uses tests he must know. their purpose, for example, 
that intelligence tests do not measure a student's volition but his learning abil- 
ity. Achievement tests are yard ; sticks for comparing a pupil's work with certain 
norms of achievement, and they have value in prediction. If he depends upon the 
judgment of teachers, parents, or students, their' decisions should be used wisely 
as indicators of conditions. He must be able. to organize matter of a Conference 
into a case history. 

He will find that a case history contains all of the data from the present as 
well as the past which is relevant to the present condition of the pupil being 
analyzed. It is a collection of facts, a revealing picture. ..of the pupil's activ- 
ities as well as his reaction to them. . 'The family history, school history, health 
record, vocational and occupational activities, and social-recreational interests 
of the pupil give significance to his behavior, and indicate the direction and 
character of changes which from time to time have been exhibited by the pupil. On 
the basis of a case history a speech teacher should be able to arrive at conclu- 


sions and predict probable outcomes of the conference as well as the tendencies 
towards any abnormal condition. Finally, he should follow his conference work 
with other meetings at which the pupil may be diagnosed for new problems or 
checked for difficulties arising out of old problems. 

The interview is an analytic tool of value, not only in securing information, 
but in studying attitudes, expressions, and speech forms, and possible psychic or 
physical conditions of the pupil. If, previous to the interview, standard infor- 
mational forms regarding backgrounds and types of difficulties are filled in by 
the pupil, less time will be spent for the collection of routine information. The 
interview itself should give insight into the thought processes of the pupil as 
well as his emotional reactions. 

2. Techniques involved in diagnosis. 

Diagnosis is a generalization secured from the collection of facts; it is a 
summary of problems, their causes, and circumstances as well as implications for 
adjustment. It is a discovery of a student's assets and liabilities. In speech 
training, diagnosis is also a process of determining the nature of some attack 
which has created a defect or disorder in speech. The speech teacher examines all 
of his data, formulates reasonable interpretations, and then evaluates these in- 
terpretations in order to arrive at a sound conclusion regardng the case at hand. 

In a diagnosis, a teacher is attempting to determine what problem is bother- 
ing the pupil. After some teaching experience he will expect certain difficulties 
to arise in his classes, will know their symptoms,, and will be able to identify 
them. Realizing that problems will appear in the classroom, the speech teacher 
will do well to collect general data regarding them in anticipation of what may 
frequently arise. After the identification of the problem, the teacher should seek 
the cause. In this connection the teacher must apply all of his knowledge of 
speech and behavior in order to avoid faulty inferences. Assuming that the teacher 
has been successful in determining a cause, he can then direct the student to avoid 
certain situations which have had unhappy consequences for him and seek goals 
which a sane prognosis presents as favorable to him. Every diagnosis should be 
tested for its validity. Generally the pupil in carrying out the recommendations 
of the teacher gives evaluation to the proposed solutions of any case; yet at 
times any diagnosis may require the authoritative evaluation of some specialist . 
particularly if the problem is concerned with a personality difficulty. 

3. Solutions of- common problems. 

To assist the student to obtain the best adjustment to a situation, to 
achieve success, and to gain maximum satisfaction, the speech teacher may (a) 
explain to a pupil his rights and his obligations as well as the penalties and . • 
rewards involved in a certain action and then encourage him to conform to the 
rules of the class; (b) attempt to change factors of his environment which are 
creating the pupil's difficulty or select factors in an environment more helpful 
to him; (c) suggest remedial procedures or even new skills; and. (d) change the 
pupil's attitude toward his difficulties. 

Once a diagnosis has been made the speech teacher should cultivate friendJy 
relations with the pupil by assuring him a highly personalized relationship, by a 
private conference, by a warm friendly attitude, by guiding topics into safe chan- 
nels, by varying the approach to the problem from indirect to direct according to 
circumstances, and by not appearing over-solicitious or completely shock proof 
when disclosures are being made. He should avoid tricking a pupil into disclosures, 


but he should invite a free and open conversation about problems, remembering that 
questions that require yes or no for an answer may lead merely to a defensive par- 
rying' with the interviewer. 

He' should induce the pupil to follow a course .of action, but he should help 
the student evaluate his own assets and liabilities from the viewpoint of the ef- 
fects of a remedial plan upon his subsequent behavior. He should avoid a debate 
on the merits of the proposed plan of action and, in particular, he should not 
justify the conclusions reached on the evidence submitted; but he should state a 
point of view definitely and firmly and explain the plan clearly. He should not 
offer chance advice on any matter the pupil presents simply because that student 
is now susceptible to suggestion, but he should present information, gained by 
careful study, which the student can employ in arriving at a decision. He should 
evaluate a counseling situation from the view of whether a pupil is seeking his 
frank opinion concerning a problem, or whether he should persuade a pupil to seek 
a right solution to the problem among alternatives, or whether he should discuss 
and explain a problem, leaving the decision to the pupil himself. 

h. Types of personality- problems. '. ••; " v 

The importance of sound courses for the speech teacher In educational 'psy- ■ 
chology, mental hygiene, and abnormal psychology is apparent when one considers 
the problems of personality development. Generally speaking, the speech teacher 
does not encounter psychoses and neuroses in pupils, but certain symptoms of these 
disorders might be known in order to recognize those which should be referred to a 
psychiatrist. All problems related to personality development are likewise not 
within the province of speech training; yet creating in a speech class a good per- 
sonality for a pupil, a speech teacher will encounter problems that hinder such 
development. Chief among these maladjustments are those springing from the fail- 
ure of the pupil to adjust himself to the social environment, particularly his 
failure to participate in the activities of the group. This neglect generally 
results in feelings of inadequacy. The speech teacher will generally find in his 
classes some socially maladjusted pupils. He will find the causes for this con- 
dition in physical handicaps, financial insecurity, family circumstances, insuf- 
ficient social experience, and the like. The teacher will observe the symptoms, 
collect data, arrange Interviews, establish a case history, arrange a program of 
activities for the pupil and help him gain confidence in himself. 

5. Other problems of adjustment. 

Among personality problems are those arising from speech difficulties, envir- 
onmental conflicts, and school management. 

These not only handicap the student in the speech class, but prevent him from 
attaining his social and educational goals. The serious cases should be referred 
to a speech correctionist ; the minor ones are within the province of the average 
speech teacher. Although a later chapter will deal with speech problems in detail 
the environmental aspect of the problems might be mentioned. 


One of the major responsibilities of the speech teacher is assisting high 
school pupils find solutions for speech difficulties and perhaps other interrelated 
problems arising out of his out -of -school situations. The pupil may need assist- 
ance in developing constructive, recreational and leisure time habits and activ- 
ities. His speech problems may be greatly alleviated if he is encouraged to use 
better judgment in his choice of music, radio programs, motion pictures, reading, 
and certain other recreational activities. His leisure time problems may have 
direct connection with his speech problems or at least with the continuation of 


certain behavior habits detrimental to good speaking. A survey of what socially- 
useful habits are lacking in a pupil may determine what speech helps should be . 
recommended by the teacher. Inasmuch as a high school student is judged more by ' 
his cut-of -school use of speech than by his cautious conformity to the classroom 
standard, the teacher must help the pupil to master his environmental problems : 
and to avoid any anti-social activities. Working upon a pupil's speech problems, 
the teacher is often cutting away the foundation of many emotional, social, arid 
personal problems . 

Problems arising from environment are numerous. Lack of harmony within a 
family may produce a behavior in a pupil of detriment to his own personality de- 
velopment. Mental attitudes of adults towards a high school pupil have, a definite 
effect upon his personality growth. The high school pupil desires- to appear the 
equal of his fellow student, and any parental restriction, custom, ideals, or' 
tradition which marks the student as not one of his crowd usually establishes con- 
flicts that are not always easily solved. Whether the causes arise from a home 
situation, a religious difficulty or some condition of a neighborhood, a school, 
or a playground, the teacher will help the pupil understand his own desires, the 
nature of his environment, and the part he can play in establishing normal rela- 
tions with it. If the problem presents major difficulties, the pupil should 
quickly be referred to a trained psychologist. 

Problems relating to order in a speech class are treated in Chapter VT. It 
is sufficient to state here that when a pupil achieves social and leadership ex- 
perience he is le3s satisfied with disruptive outbursts of emotional behavior. 
He accepts correction as a rehabilitation program rather than a program in con- 
flict with his ambition. 

6. Educational and vocational problems. 

Lack of interest in a speech course on the part of a high school pupil may 
be the major cause of failure. The teacher will determine the cause of this prob- 
lem, check pupils' academic records and health reports, arrange interviews, and 
then develop a program for the student. A poor past record in speech may not 
indicate its continuance, but consistent scholastic failures require an explana- 

Often a student is failing a course because of some specific difficulty even 
though he has a general aptitude for the work. More often, however, a pupil's 
problems in a speech class arise from a conflict of interests or wrong motivation. 
An important environmental cause is a bilingual or perhaps illiterate home sur- 
rounding. Physical defects such as sight and hearing should, not be overlooked. 
In a conference with the failing pupil the teacher should evaluate the student's 
specialized aptitudes and interests and be aware of their relation to his conduct 
in the^ speech class. Perhaps the solution to some pupil's problem is extra in- 
struction. If remedial work is required because the pupil lacks previous prepara- 
tion, the tutorial instruction may be sought by the pupil. There is little need 
of extra service if the training is considered by the pupil merely extra labor. 

No matter how hard a teacher may work to ferret out specific causes for fail- 
ure, he will find sometimes that some pupils lack a general scholastic aptitude. 
Generally, however, he will find that some high school students do not know how, 
to study; some find reasons for not studying at home; and some are too careless or 
too lazy to study. A conference may indicate that over-socialization factors, 
physical disabilities, environmental conditions, and situations in the speech 
class itself are hindering studies. Finally, some pupils in high schools have 
difficulty with speech work because of ineffective counseling by high school 
teachers regarding the learning of subject matter and motivational adjustments. 


In checking students for inefficient speech, the teacher may find the pupil 
has reading deficiency often caused by inferior learning capacity, poor memory, 
lack of attention., poor vocabulary, defective vision, inadequate training in 
phonetics, speech defects, functional eye disorders, poor organizing ability, and 
misunderstanding of reading methods in general. Heading skills are closely cor- 
related with speech skills. Some poor readers are below the normal intelligence; 
but some of superior intelligence are poor readers because they have not acquired 
the many reading skills necessary for all types of reading. The nature of the 
pupil's reading difficulty must be understood before remedial work can be recom- 
mended. There are a number of reading tests acceptable for secondary levels which 
may be used in the diagnosing of deficiencies, but as the work is largely technic- 
al, the speech teacher may well work with a professional diagnostician and give 
his critical ability to such phases of the remedial program as relate to speech 

Rome students in a high school speech class are forced to work below their 
own possible level because the class average is low, school work is no challenge 
to them, or class routine restricts those of superior intelligence. A speech 
teacher should recognize the genuinely superior pupil (not the one with a gift of 
facile speech!) and guide him that he might use his abilities wisely. He should 
be given work consistent with his talents, and goals should be suggested to him. 
The extracurricular activities of the speech courses should be presented to the 
superior pupil as excellent means of stimulating his interests, challenging his 
abilities, and furnishing him with social values. 

Frequently the speech problem presented by the pupil in a conference relates 
to his future work. He has been going along in high school taking courses with- 
out much thought of the future; then he becomes anxious or discouraged over his 
academic standing. Perhaps a teacher, a parent, or friend is putting some pres- 
sure upon him regarding his vocation. Knowing too little of himself, he desper- 
ately defends a premature choice of a profession or trade even if greatly below 
the level of his ability, or remains anxious. With this general feeling of in- 
adequacy and ignorance of his aptitudes, a high school student is an easy prey 
for practical minds who seek to influence his decisions. 

The speech teacher can help a pupil understand himself and can explain how 
occupational choices are generally made, but as vocational guidance calls for wise 
counseling, the problem of testing for preferences, and occupational interests may 
well be left to vocational specialists. Dissemination of occupational informa- 
tion may result only in greater confusion to the pupil. He might better be ad- 
vised to join a school activity that will give play to his abilities, for often 
later vocations utilize experience gained in a school activity. If the student 
fails to understand the importance of speech to his future career, he needs wise 
counsel in this matter. 

A problem often present in a speech class arises from the health status or 
the physical condition of the pupil and has great significance in his educational 
or social adjustment. Because of a handicap a pupil may seek to avoid -a respons- 
ibility; he may exhibit a disorder in order to arouse sympathy and to gain atten- 
tion; or he may -adjust his life to the requirements of his situation. Often the 
teacher must adapt a program to the health needs of a pupil, perhaps shortening 
some academic, program, or designating certain front seats for a hard of hearing 
pupil. ■• Help to be effective for the handicapped requires the active co-operation 
of tho. school ;doct or and the school nurse. The teacher of speech should: know 
diagnostic: significance of a doctor's report, and a doctor should know the class- 
room .problem -of the teacher. Exchange of information should help the student bet- 
ter to. ad just liimself to his problem, minimize the dangers of his handicap and pre- 
vent psychological disturbances which often accompany physical defects and dis- 
orders . 


7 • Summary . 

Counseling, we have seen, is more than a casual visit with a pupil or a 
seance of advising. The speech teacher should collect much information about 
a student; learn the art of diagnosis; recognize the importance of diagnostic 
techniques; understand the causes and effects of attitudes, interests., and emo- 
tions; realize the values in mental hygiene, and remedial procedures; and evaluate 
the types of personality problems, the numerous difficulties arising from an en- 
vironment, and the implications in speech training from educational and vocational 
problems . 

The Teach er-S choo l Relat ionship . 

The teacher's relationship with the school consists of two general problems: 
(a) securing a position; (b) holding it after it is acquired. Although the initial 
problem is important, a foresighted instructor should be sufficiently alert to hold 
successfully the position he has secured. 

a. Securing a position. 

The first contact which a teacher has with a school consists of one of three 
common methods of contacting applicants: (l) a personal interview: (2) a letter of 
application; or (3) a filed questionnaire. 

1. A personal interview. 

This is the most satisfactory and quickest method of contact, but, due to 
distance may not be possible. The prospective speech teacher, more than any 
other, should realize that the personal qualifications discussed previously are 
particularly applicable to an interview; that plans should be made carefully in 
advance for the meeting; and that more is expected of him, for it is assumed 
that he can apply the theories which he himself has learned in speech. 

In addition, the applicant for a position in speech should consider two com- 
mon impressions, an over or underestimating .of self, which may characterize the 
teacher as either a weakling or an egotist. The way to overcome both is to be 
honest and frank about information requested. He should know that linking as 
closely as possible what he has to offer with what he knows the superintendent 
needs is good salesmanship. 

The two written contacts which frequently replace or supplement a personal 
interview are significant ways for a school administrator to become acquainted 
with the candidate. The importance of a satisfactory letter of application may 
be underestimated by a speech teacher. Like the interview, the letter represents 
the candidate; it should be the best that can be sent, for it reveals a great deal 
about the applicant. The speech teacher should realize that courtesy, tact, and 
sincerity are as essential in the letter as in the personal interview; that he 
should write the kind of letter he would like to receive; that the written form 
often reflects more about the writer than may be realized; that common errors in 
writing are often not so much a lack of knowledge as carelessness; that the letter 
should arouse a desire for a personal interview later if one has not been made; 
that the ultimate reaction of the reader determines the result; that a reference 
should not be used without permission; that for a speech position a record of both 
extracurricular activities and work done outside of school be included; that the 
proportion of the letter devoted to curricular and extracurricular activities be 
considered; that favors should not be asked in a letter of application, for a 
graduate, if qualified to teach, should get as well as hold a position on his own 


merit; and that other problems which arise in composing an application should, he 
answered by a reputable book on business letter writing. 

3- The questionnaire . ■' 

Frequently, a candidate is requested to file a questionnaire as well as a 
letter of application which should not be written hurriedly for it may be kept on 
file for years. The first suggestion is to follow instructions; all requirements 
should, be answered for if the school did not desire the information, the item 
would not be included. 

b. Holding a position. > 

The speech teacher has a closer relationship with the school as a whole than an . 
instructor of any other- subject , for his work, both curricular and extra-curricular, 
brings him into contact with the personnel. 

1. The co-operation with his colleagues. 

If social graces are to be cultivated in a class in speech, they should be 
exemplified by the teacher himself. Co-operation of other members of the faculty, 
especially in extracurricular activities, is necessary so that the confidence,; 
loyalty, and respect of colleagues are of paramount importance if the best re- 
sults are to be attained. When the 'Oratorical coach has requested the English 
teacher to serve as a judge at his contest, .the coach, in turn, should be glad. to 
help proof-read the high school annual. 

2. A knowledge of the relation of speech to other subjects. 

If the teacher becomes familiar with the entire high school curriculum, he 
can better adapt his speech course to it. This matter of correlation with other 
subjects will be further developed, in connection with the treatment of the topic 
on assignments. . . 

If the teacher helps the student to acquire correct mental habits, he will 
express himself in effective English in all classes. Acquisition of material from 
a variety of fields of interest should be encouraged in speech in order that re- 
lationships 'can be realized.-. 

The Teacher -Community Be lation ship . 

The teacher of speech, because of extracurricular activities, is related to the 
community more closely than other members of the high school faculty. 

a. The responsibility of the teacher. 

The director 'of an excellent high school production can establish a favorable 
impression toward the entire school and its activities. The coach of debate or con- 
tests liolds-' an extended responsibility not only to establish an intimate bond, between 
the school' and community which supports it but to represent this same locality in 
county, state, 'and national competition. Personally, the speech instructor plays the 
double role of 'leader as well as public servant in a community.- He becomes -directly 
familiar with all pliases of community life; so society turns to him for service and 


b. Participation in local affairs. 

If the teacher's task is to train for future leadership, he ought to endeavor 
to use his own talent and experience for social "betterment. The conscientious young 
speech instructor will try to improve his own speaking ability so that he can become 
increasingly valuable locally. Any community has a right to expect that one who 
teaches the subject should be able to talk well in public and contribute to the 
betterment of the community in general. 

A teacher of speech engaged by a community thereby assumes obligations to serve 
that group. All communities are alike in demanding of their teachers the commonly 
accepted social standards. The teacher -community relationship is very much the same 
throughout the country. Teachers are allowed freedom within limits; much service is 
demanded of them both in and out of the school room; and they are expected to be 
identified socially as well as professionally with the community. 

The demands of some localities for an unduly large amount of a speech teacher's 
time are often unreasonable; in fact ; frequently impossible. He must tactfully 
avoid outside activities that interfere with his teaching schedule and his legit- 
imate community obligations. 

c. Adjusting himself to the community. 

The quickest and best way for a young college graduate to gain a permanent, 
respected place in the life of any community is to assume a proper attitude toward 
the situation he finds upon arrival. His first task is to analyze the mental as 
well as the physical surroundings and to adjust himself to them. An unfamiliar 
situation need not be judged rashly or too quickly. Frequently, incorrect first 
impressions resulting from hearing casual remarks are made. These impressions, 
once embedded, are difficult to counteract later. The average American community, 
although different from that to which the inexperienced teacher may be accustomed, 
holds a wealth of opportunity for personal development and enjoyment if the stranger 
is sufficiently alert to utilize it. The fact that a community is different should 
create interest and arouse curiosity rather than antagonism. 

If a sensible, stable attitude is taken tox^ard most. local situations, a young 
teacher will find that mutual satisfactory adjustments can generally be made during 
the first year. The fact that a contract to remain one year has been signed can 
not be overlooked. If at the end of that period harmonious adjustments do not re- 
sult, it is better to secure work elsewhere. However, if by his attitude, sincer- 
ity, strength, and genuine interest in local problems and accomplishments, the 
speech teacher gains the respect of a community, both it and he can benefit by the 

d. Responsibility to democracy. 

The activities and ensuing responsibilities of the speech teacher do not end 
with the immediate district; the responsibilities extend beyond the local community 
as far as democracy reaches. If he is doing a social type of work, which in reality 
speech is, then the teacher ought to appreciate the relation of his role to other 
forms of social endeavor and visualize its contribution to human improvement. For 
this reason,, if no other, the speech instructor should keep in touch with the so- 
cial, civic, political, and industrial problems which confront him indirectly as well 
as directly. 


1. Bring in five constructive suggestions for improving the relation of the teacher 

with the subject, student, school, and. community. 

2. Write a letter of application for a position to teach, speech in a small high 

school. . : . 

3. What are the most common personality problems a speech teacher faces? 

k. Imagine yourself requested to compile a rating scale .for the speech teachers 
in your school. Compile such a scale; '.. r ; 

5. Discuss difficulties in establishing a mutual understanding between teacher 

and student . 

6. Represent before the class a typical. superintendent - teacher interview as 

you imagine it. . . ■ . ,, . • i .-. ■; , v ,".'• 

7. What are the means suggested for dealing with problems. calling for adjustment? 

8. List some common vocational and educational problems that ."present difficulties 

in speech training. . ..."; ,.-;'■ 

9. What are the types and advantages of interviews? 

10. Suggest provisions for a continuance of . work in speech required;, after the high 

school speech course ends. 

11. What points. are covered in The Purdu e Rating Scale For. In structors by Branden- 

burg, G. C, and Remmers, H. H.,. .Lafayette Printing Co. , . Lafayette, Indiana, 

19^8? ; ■• : : ■' 

12. What vocations in particular* require speech training? ,-., ,, .,■•■. y -: - :-. r: -. .-, 

13. Wliat personal benefits have you received from speech •training?, .'; ; 

Ik. What improvement have you observed in the speech of your fellow students after 
braining? _ ,' ... '•■■ ... ,,,,;■ ."-,.■:.. ■/:•" 

15. Formulate your philosophy of speech education. ; ' , 

16. How can a teacher gain friendly relations with a class without losing , a ■■;;•. 

student's respect? ■-. • ,-, . . : r-: 

17. What could you as a speech teacher do for your community? : ■ >*) /,,' ... 
lQ., What characteristics in a teacher do you like best?. • {,' 

19. List characteristics you have come to dislike in a teacher. • ■■ v 

20. Report on The Student Te achers ' Sp eech, .Morris, D. W., Q..J..S. p. hSQ. } 

December, 19^3. .'.'".' '?'.'..'. 

21. Base a class discussion on S uperior T eachers, of Speech; Four View s,. Q.J.S. 

p. 216, April, ,1948. ',", ' ,.;,.■ .".," ."'""""".. 

22. How can a teacher maintain a business-like attitude .in the situations common. 

to the speech laboratory? .- ; . .■..:■ ■ 

23. Comment upon the speech you may have observed in teachers. 

2k. Analyze the 'needs of speech in the activities open to students. , ■• , ' 

25. Follow the same group of students into two classrooms..- Note the effect of 

each teacher's voice upon the students. 1 j\ ' , ■'.< ..; , ■ 

26. 'Try to account for the fact that yOu are particularly interested in speech' work. 

27. Compare suggestions given in this text with those found in the article. To The 

Beginning Teacher in_Speeoh. Rodigan, M. , Q.J.S." Feb., I9I+9. ...... 

28. Prepare a five minute talk on one of the following subjects;- Signs of Profes- 

sional Growth;. Means of Developing Sound Citizenship in Speech Students; 
Evidences of. Culture; Professional Attributes; Emotional Maturity,; Creative 
Ability. ■' /,, 

29. What workshops for teachers are in your locality? Are you acquainted with 

' their facilities? 

30. Class discussion of the advantages of such a publication as The Na tional 

Di rectory o f Teacher s_ of .Speech. Pub, Nat. Ass'n. of Teachers of Speech,. .. 



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Simon, C. T., On B eing a Teacher of Speech (Red-lands, California: U. of Calif., 

Debate Bureau, 1935 )• 
Symonds, P., Diagnosing Persona lity and Conduct (New York: Applet on, 193*0 . 
Stark, W. E., Every Teacher ' a Problems (New York: American Book, 1922). 
Strang-, R., Counseling Techniques in Colle ge an d Se co ndar y School (New York: 

Harper, 1937)"-* 
Thorpe, L. T., Psychological Foundations of Personality (New York: McGraw-Hill, 

1958) • 

Uhl, W. L., The Supervision of Seco ndary Subjects (New York: Applet on, 1929). 

Wallin, J* ET W. , Pe rsonality Maladjustments and Mental Hygiene (New York: 
McGraw-Hill, 1935)." 

We seen, M. H., How to Apply for a Position (Lincoln, Nebraska: Nebraska Book Co., 

Wexburg, E., Your Nervous Ch ild (New York: A. Boni, 1927) . 

White, W., The Psychology of Dealing with People (New York: Macmillan, I936). 

Williams, A. J., The S peech Teacher as a Consultant in the Human Relatio nships 
of Students (Emerson Quarterly V. 16:13-15, Jan., 1936). 

Williamson, E, G., and Halm, M. E., High School Counseling (New York: McGraw- 
Hill, 19*1-0). 

Wynne, J. P., The Teacher and the Curriculum (New York: Prentice -Hall, 1937). 

Zapoleon, M. W., The Counselor and Community Resources, Occupations , p. 632, 
April, 1938. 


First weigh, then attempt . - -MOLTKE 


AIMS.-- (A) To conduct a class successfully, a 
teacher should (l) plan a teaching schedule; (2) under- 
stand the use of the textbook in speech training; (3) 
understand the use of unit activities; (h) grade the 
student and his work; (5) know the art of questioning; 
(6) know how to evaluate; (7) ga:ln obedience tactfully; 
and (B) to manage extracurricular activities, a teacher 
should (l) know the kinds of activities and (2) solve 
the problems related to their direction. 



Of so much importance is training in our tender years, -r-. VIRGIL 


Planning for Instruct ion 

a. Guiding Principles for the Establishment of a Curriculum. 

b. Planning the Work of a Semester 

1. Glass record . ■,,.,■. 

2. Seating arrangement 

3. Classroom 

h. Weekly calendar 
5. The lesson plan 

c. Determining a method of instruction 

1. Application of method 

2. The principle of "balance 
5. The need of both methods 

The Use of a Tex tbook 

a. Necessity for a Textbook 

1. Respect for the course 

2. Effect of the textbook upon the student 

3. Aids in attaining objectives 

b. Selection of an Adequate Textbook 

1. Fitting the situation 

2. The content 

3. The form 

h. General considerations 

c. Use Visual Aids with Textbook 

d. Proper Use of the Textbook for the Class 

e. Assignments Based Upon the Textbook 

1 . Purpose 

2. Kinds 

Beyond the textbook and within it 



Oral and written 

3. Difficulties 
h. Time 

5. Correlation with other s-ubjects 

6. Emotional aspect 

Use of Activ ities ..... 

a. Advantages 

b. Disadvantages 

1. To the instructor 

2. To the student 

3. From the project 

c. Assembly Period Program 
' -1. Nature of assembly 

2. Means to increase its value 

d. Example of other Kinds of Activities 
1. According to participants 

2. . According to material used 

3. According to the time factor 
h. According to location 

5. According to purpose 


















e. Specific Values in Certain Activities 

use senses 
develop imagination 
do accurate detailed work 
secure "bodily activity 
develop social attitudes 
Estimating the S pee c h_ Work 
a. Review 

1. Association of problems 
Use of questions 

Value of the review 

1. Kinds 

2. Time to be given 

3 . Value 
1. Oral 


Correcting the examination 

1. Subjective and objective standards 

2. Relationships in grading 

3. Return of papers 
k. Classification for grading purposes 

Above average 


Below average 
A standard of grading 
Problem of written work in grading 
Daily and final grades 
Difficulties encountered in grading 





Planning For Instruction 

Before a teacher enters the classroom, he has three important matters to plan: 
(a) a sound speech curriculum; (b) the general work of a semester; and (c) a gen- 
eral policy regarding a method of teaching. 

a. Guiding principles for the establishment of a speech curriculum. 

This curriculum arranged on a scientific basis and designed to meet broad ob- 
jectives requires a greater variety of teaching techniques and classroom procedures 
They must be designed to help the student grow from within under the stimulation 
of a favorable environment. They must be related and applied to a curriculum that 
itself is established from an evaluation of the culture of the past in light of 
present needs. The courses of this curriculum must be arranged progressively to 
meet the changing needs of the student's development. They must be designed to 
further the technical and professional aspects of his objectives. They must fur- 
nish means for individual development; yet they must be socialized so that better 
citizenship may result. 


v Planning speech courses has a broader function than arranging the curriculum 
itself; namely that of correlation.- The plan must link speech to the rest of the 
school curriculum and each speech course to what immediately precedes and follows 
it. Every speech teacher should "become -f ami liar early in the year with the entire 
school curriculum; the length of the semester;, the, school calendar; the number of 
pupils to be assigned to a class; the plans for outside activities; the use of. the 
library and of all other facilities of the school; and the program for community 

If the most good is to be derived from planning for speech work,, relationships 
outside the classroom should be considered.- A number of questions involving these 
relationships must be answered: (l) How do courses relate to the objectives of 
secondary education? .(2) What interrelationship- exists among the courses in speech? 
(3) Is each course sufficiently concerned with- the life experience of the class? 
(h) Does each course, fit the average intelligence of the group? (5) Does each . 
course have too much or too little subject matter to be covered in one semester? 
(6) Does each course adequately fit the needs of this particular school and: commun- 
ity? (7) Does each course help a student for his life work? (8) Does the plan of 
the curriculum consider the less bright members of the school?- (9) Are the -'rela- 
tionships between departments of the school well planned? (10) Is the plan of the 
speech curriculum in harmony with the objectives of the Department of English? 
These points and others must be considered in building a curriculum. The more 
understanding the speech teacher has of related interests in a high school, the 
better he can- plan his courses for practical advantages. . 

. The organization of courses is a psychological as well as a logical process. 
It is advisable to arrange subject matters so that each class progresses from the 
simple .t.o the complex, from the known, to the unknown,, from the- concrete to the ab- 
stract, and- from, the whole to the parts. Even within a course', order must. be well 
evaluated. If details of diction are stressed too early in the .fundamental course 
instead of those dealing with total bodily activity, a pupil's enunciation- may be 
excellent, but he will remain as stiff as a ramrod even at the end of the semester. 

b. Planning the work of a semester. 

A broad general plan should be made before the semester opens. Too many cadet 
teachers believe that rigorous planning is necessary only during practice. teaching, 
and they look forward, to the day when such careful organization need not be done. 
'Hie reverse.) in fact, is true, for when a young teacher begins his own teaching 
without daily supervision, he needs to know definitely more than ever before where, 
why, and how he is going. .To reach the objectives in a speech course, a teacher 
should have a plan, of instruction- before the semester opens; thereby he will save 
the energy and time of both the class and himself. • 1 

Spending time, to systematize each speech course, unit' of work/ weekly • schedule, 
and class procedure gives excellent results. If work is systematized, it becomes 
more interesting and varied. For example, the oral and written Work of the class 
can- be distributed throughout the semester to the advantage of both teacher and 
pupil. . When- a course is unified, coherent, and balanced, it will need little re- 
vision if it is repeated another semester. If a substitute teacher takes over the 
class, he will have his work arranged for him, and he will not waste time not know- 
ing the progress of the pupils. Even the students themselves sense when a Course is 
well planned. They respect an instructor who is a competent organizer of his own as 
well, as their time. ,.' - 

The, needs;, of each class will determine the order of material in any given 
course. It may, at times, follow the arrangement of the content of a textbook; 


yet this order should always "be changed to fit the requirements of a specific group. 
No plan should be too detailed, for it may become burdensome and defeat its own 
purpose; it may be thought of as an end in itself rather than a means. A plan need 
not be so obvious that a class becomes constantly conscious of it. Neither should 
it be used so long that the teacher loses his spontaneity and enthusiasm for better 
work. Frequently, a young teacher lacks interest in progress by continually using 
identical procedure. 

Plans are not to be followed so rigidly that a sense of values is lost. A 
teacher of speech, in particular, should be able to adjust himself to any occasion 
or circumstance. Do not be surprised at anything in the speech class is a good 
motto for a beginning teacher to remember. The instructor will grasp every oppor- 
tunity, when it arises, that affords development in the student in spite of an or- 
ganized daily, weekly, or semester plan. If the unexpected or unpleasant should 
occur, a teacher must be able to handle the situation. If he keeps his ears and 
eyes open, he will generally be in control of his group, and will be successful in 
maintaining a satisfactory adherence to his plan of procedure. 

1. The class record. 

The use of the class record should be considered iri planning the work of a 
semester. Most schools use standard forms that differ only slightly in detail. 
Time is well spent during the first week of school in arranging information 
about the speech class. Since this record remains long after the course ends, 
it should contain all facts which may be needed at a future date--the exact 
title of the course, the textbook used, the day and the week and the hour when 
the class necessarily become habituated to any order of recitation, their names 
might be placed alphabetically in the class record. Most books are arranged 
for the listing of absences, and have ample space so that a teacher may use some 
sign to distinguish oral from written work. If he prefers, he may use a code 
letter instead of a numerical form to grade speeches or other work of pupils. 

2. Seating arrangement. 

Seat charts for the semester are a worthwhile convenience, yet a seating 
plan need not be used throughout the semester. An alphabetical arrangement of 
the roll makes it possible to check at a glance the empty seats. For the sake 
of variety begin the alphabetical arrangement at the back row. Then start next 
seating plan with the AJ_s in the front row. No gaps between seats should be left; 
hence any empty seat represents an absent member. Such an impersonal seating 
arrangement also breaks combinations of friends and cliques that do better work 
if separated. If seating arrangements are changed every few weeks, the speakers 
will appear to have a different audience. 

The teacher should learn the inconveniences x/hich his seating plan presents 
to the class. To illustrate, he may find that the entire group before him is 
directly facing the light; that one corner of the room which student's try to 
avoid is too hot; that the end seat at the opposite corner is located in a draft; 
or that students at one side have difficulty seeing the speaker when he is on 
the platform. 

3. The classroom. 

The room used for speech is a factor which is not to be overlooked in plan- 
ning. It is often difficult to use any room which happens to be vacant, for 
distractions--noise from the heating or cooling' system, or disturbance from a 
class in the next room or from the "street --make the speaking situation difficult. 


The room should be suited to the size of the group so that the speaker can stand 
some distance from the class; thereby he may gain a speaker-audience relationship. 
The fact that the speech class must have activity is often forgotten in the choice 
of a suitable room. When a class is herded into a small room,, problems of class 
control generally result . The small schoolroom usually prevents the proper ar- 
rangement of chairs which should be placed so as to make aisles that allow move- 
ment' to and from the platform. 

Students should be trained to take care of the general physical condition of 
the room and the distribution and collection of papers. Some students should be 
assigned to clear the blackboard after each speech class i This action is a matter 
of courtesy to the instructor of the following class, and is a precaution, since 
material left on the board Is often. wrongly interpreted by other teachers or other 
classes. ■-.•.• ■ '■ ■■■>/. ■ '••." . ; 

k. Weekly calendar. - . ■.-■ ••;; ,. ■{■■.-■' <:,, ... \v.- 

The weekly schedule is important in good planning, particularly where -.several 
sections of the same course are held during the semester. Notations on the calen- 
dar will help the instructor , budget his. time and assist him in keeping track of 
his appointments. This calendar is one of the most valuable ■ aids in the teacher's 
equipment, since no characteristic of a speech teacher gains more respect of 
students than when he remembers his appointments and is on time for 'them. • 

5« The lesson plan. 

A definite outline for instruction given during each class period. should be 
made so that logical procedure concerning assignments will result. Attention in 
each lesson should be directed to specific phases of the speech problem. ■ If this 
is done, and questions, criticisms, and discussions center upon it, gradual devel- 
opment will be observed in the pupils, and the class will be held to its objectives. 
A suggested plan which could be kept conveniently for each' course or class will be 
found in the appendix. ■ :.. 

c. Determining a method of instruction. : ■'. ■ 

A method, devised after a person has .a purpose and finds out what to 'do by doing 
or by accepting the direction of authority, is a determined and harmonious' way of 
getting a result. Regularity and orderliness are .qualities of method. As a broad 
generalization, one may indicate two kinds of methods— the authoritative;' and the 
developmental. The pupil being taught by the first method relies on a textbook or 
a teacher or both for information and direction; if the second 'method is employed, 
the pupil is placed in the situation of learning under the assumption that self- 
activity creates the desire for information, skills, -appreciation, and controls. 
The developmental method is based upon the presumption that a pupil has a natural 
curiosity for learning, and that he .suffers the consequences or gains the' rewards of 
his own acts. . ■ :■ ••.:•. m : .•..■ ..■ ■ ;.•.•' 

1. Application of method. , ., ;•• •■...-.■■ '.. ':■ 

The extensive machinery of teaching, varied as it is, must always be held in 
the background. Techniques, as expedients, serve temporary purposes, and are not 
hard and fast devices to be used under all circumstance's. Method, then, is today 
psychological in nature, a right selection of means at the proper time, and adapted 
to the growth of the student. No one best method will apply in all cases. 


The test of any method is in the results gained, "but to acquire these, a 
teacher should have knowledge of the different methods before he can apply the 
right one. How much work should "be done in class; how intensive or extensive it 
should be; how to plan work and class control; how to question; how to use educa- 
tional tools — like object lessons and visual education; how to use the facilities 
of the library and the auditorium- -all these problems are solved more from the 
aspect of student interest than from the point of view of the intrinsic worth of 
any particular procedure or technique. 

2. The principle of balance applied to method. 

Although Herbart and Froebel, two educators who greatly influenced modern 
methods, differ in means, they both believed in stimulating the child and arous- 
ing his interest. While Herbart stressed the importance of training methods for 
the teacher in the interest of the child, Froebel emphasized the natural curisity 
of the child as an educational tool. Christian educators favored this doctrine 
of child interest, but they believe that self-interest needs balance in Christ- 
ian charity, and a love of God. 

The urges of self -protection and self-assertion must be balanced l>j the 
student's other powerful urge to social life. Speech education must consider 
method from the point of view of developing individually without neglecting the 
social nature of the pupil. This principle of balance applied to method aids 
the versatile pupils. What appeals to one may not please another, and what in- 
fluences the pupil at one time may not at another time. Right method works upon 
the many facets of the pupil's nature and creates mental activity and its ex- 
pression. ■ . •■ 

3- Need of both methods. 

Although method is often formulated on the basis that educational rules 
are true or false according to circumstances, many educators maintain that 
principles relating to man's nature and his social conduct are objectively true; 
and as such they are not subject to the vagaries of personal interpretations. 
Many feel also that the authoritative method is best suited to. speech training, 
since it produces more disciplinary values. Most educators hold, however, that 
both authoritative and developmental methods have a place in speech training, 
that each method has been rigorously tested for its possibilities in stimulating 
thinking, judgment, and emotional reactions, and that each method has been 
rightly justified. Yet either method can be wrongly used, and then each fails 
to develop the spontaneous responses of the person, and to incite, in him an ap- 
preciation of cultural values. 

The Use Of A Textbook. 

In teaching any art, the question arises as to the use of a textbook. Three 
problems involving it present themselves to the speech teacher: (l) whether or not 
a textbook should be used, especially in an elementary course; (2) how should it 
be selected; (3) how should it be used. 

a. Necessity for a textbook in speech training. 

Educators hold that a- textbook should be used in every speech course for the 
following reasons: 


1. Respect for the course. 

Although this first reason may appear trivial, it is true that respect for 
any subject is increased "by the use of an adequate guide. Students have little 
regard for a speech course, even a beginning class, where the teacher lectures 
the group. The textbook seems to improve class morale. 

2. Unifying effect of textbook on students. 

Unity in a subject is secured \-rhere the same content is required of all 
pupils. A textbook furnishes this unity, not as an end in itself, but as an im- 
portant means. It should, be supplemented by other references during the term, 
but it charts the course which both teacher and students will travel for an en- 
tire semester, and it unifies the whole procedure. Although such a guide may not 
be followed explicitly, yet as an outline of the work to be covered, it gives 
both order and value to a speech class. 

$. Aids in attaining objectives. 

An adequate textbook assists a teacher to reach the objectives set in plan- 
ning the speech course. It assists the instructor, not only in teaching subject 
matter, but in evaluating it in order to determine whether or not the objectives 
of the course have been attained. It allows the students to learn much of the 
theory outside of class. The teacher, consequently, has more time to devote dur- 
ing the class period to speech practice. Finally, a textbook serves to summarize 
the principles given in class. 

b. Selection of an adequate speech textbook. 

The task of choosing a practical speech text involves the relationship of four 
distinct factors: (1) the situation in which the text is to be used; (2) the con- 
tent of the book; (3) its form; and {h) its appearance, price, and other like con- 
siderations . 

1. Fitting the situation. 

As no textbook will apply to all situations, a study of the significant 
factors to be considered in its selection may help a prospective teacher to choose 
one best suited for his needs, (l) Who is going to use the text? the teacher? 
a particular group? (2) When is it to be used? a semester? a year's course? 
(3) Where is the text to be used? will it be adapted to any special needs of 
the school? will it constantly refer to the use of equipment that is not avail- 
able? is its content correlated with other high school subjects? (k) How is it 
to be used? as a basic book of principles? as a reference book? as a work 
book? alone or supplemented? by what? is the supplementary material available 
in the school library? (5) Why is it to be used? does it satisfy needs of both 
types of students - those with and without the prospect of further speech train- 
ing? is it primarily for theory or practice or both? 

2. The content of the book. 

(1) What is the author's philosophy, of life expressed or implied? are the 
importance of speech, its purpose, and its definition included? (2) Is the cov- 
erage of the subject matter satisfactory? does the text deal with incidentals 
instead of fundamentals? are an adequate number of speech activities utilized 
for training in fundamentals of speech? (3) Is major stress in a beginning text 
on voice, action, language, and thinking? (k) Does it have a psychological as 


well as a logical approach? (5) Is the hook genuinely practical? does- it con- 
tain a sufficient number of suggested problems to encourage its use by the stu- 
dent? are great speeches included as examples? is an analysis made of them? 
are new simple diagrams included? indexes? charts? references? discussions? 
is a proper balance observed in the treatment of rhetorical principles? is the 
content closely related to life? (6) Does it contain an appreciation of the 
modern trends in speech training? (7) Does the content indicate that the author 
possessed a broad knowledge of the field as well as an adequate background in a 
specific phase of the work? 

The proportion of subject matter in a textbook should also be noted. Does 
the author overemphasize the educational trend of a given period? Did his per- 
sonal interest in a specific phase of the subject upset the proper distribution 
of material? If an instructor is not on guard, he may select a textbook which 
stresses the phase of the subject in which he has the most interest or knowledge 
rather than the one best suited to his pupils. Sometimes a book has a few chap- 
ters of excellent subject matter, but the information contained in the text as 
a whole is of inferior value. 

3. The form of the book. 

Form includes both organization and style, (l) Is material arranged so 
that it can be retained as well as grasped after being read? (2) Is the matter 
easy to follow? (3) Is the content under -organized? over-organized? (h) Is 
the style simple, adapted to the age, needs, and abilities of the high school 
class? (5) Is the matter expressed in understandable English? 

k. General considerations of the textbook. 

Other factors which must be considered in the choice of a high school text- 
book, particularly where adolescents are concerned, follow: (1) Is the book at- 
tractive to the pupil? (2) Has it a sturdy binding, capable of withstanding hard 
usage, yet not forfeiting the attractiveness of color and design? (3) Is the 
title of the text interesting? (k) Is the textbook worth the price paid for it? 
(5) When was it published? (The fact that a speech text has just been published 
does not necessarily assure its value over older texts often more inspiring and 
usable.) (6) Who wrote the text? are there one or more authors? if written by 
many authors, are the sections of equal or sufficient value to warrant the adop- 
tion of the text? (7) Is the publisher well recognized? (The name of the pub- 
lishers helps to give a book its distinguished character and value.) 

c. Use visual aids with textbook. 

Slavish following of a textbook on the part of the teacher may cause lack of 
interest in the subject. He should supplement the text with collateral readings, 
talks, charts, motion pictures, and other visual aids. When visual aids are used, 
the teacher should see to it that they are carefully prepared, in proper color, and 
on a large scale. They should be used so that they are easily seen by all present. 
Interesting incidents and details, explanations, and evaluations are the contribu- 
tions of the teacher to a group. 

d. Proper use of the textbook for the class. 

A textbook is most helpful when the speech teacher instructs the class how to 
get meaning out of the printed page, to evaluate the author's ideas, to summarize, 
correlate, and apply the information. If the instructor varies the procedure, he 
also creates interest . He should encourage a class to supplement the text material 



with wider readings; often just a reference or a suggestion stimulates pupils to re- 

e. Assignments based upon the speech textbook. 

These links in the teacher-student -subject relationship serve to bind a class 
period to another. An adequate assignment , not only introduces a new subject, but 
correlates the old matter to it. The progress of a speech class relates to the in- 
dividual assignments which are given in it. They should deal with content, its 
presentation, and class evaluation. 

1. Purpose of assignments. 

Assignments are used in secondary speech training for (l) intellectual 
values- -to inform, to explain, and to direct; and (2) emotional values- -to en- 
courage and to inspire.- Careful assignments give an evaluation of the subject. 
Students must secure this sense of values regarding content, or they will give 
equal weight to all phases of the speech subjects. Assignments are, likewise, 
made as a matter of discipline. Especially at the beginning of a semester, the 
teacher should follow the textbook closely; then students realizing that assign- 
ments are related to it will get the habit of attending class with this necessary 
equipment . 

2. Kinds of assignments. 

These may be classified as THOSE BEYOND THE TEXTBOOK and THOSE ON IT. The 
first type secures a breadth of view regarding speech if an experienced teacher 
can skillfully correlate practical thought -provoking questions with the- related 
content of the textbook. 

Assignments -based directly on the textbook are (a) DEFINITE and (b) FLEXIBLE. 
The DEFINITE kind has as its purpose a clear-cut explanation. There is no reason 
why the definite assignment cannot be made interesting as well as instructive. 
Where a choice is allowed, FLEXIBLE assignment is often a successful challenge to 
the pupils. It must be made in consideration of individual capacities and the 
interests of the entire group. It can be broad enough to meet the needs of 
students of the below-average group as well as those of excellent students who 
have become dissatisfied with the minimum requirements of the course. If extra 
amount of work is assigned, this fact should not be overlooked in grading stu- 
dents at the end of the semester. Sometimes students can be motivated to accept 
an assignment calling for more work, if right values are sufficiently stressed. 
If work in supplementary texts is assigned, a teacher should be sure they are " 
available to the students. r ;., 

Generally both types of assignments - definite and flexible - are made 
orally, yet they may be given WRITTEN form perhaps by blackboard explanation or 
mimeographed sheets. If oral questions are asked, the teacher can soon discover 
whether or not an assignment is understood. If the written forms are used, suf- 
ficient time should be allowed the 'students to ask questions regarding any parts 
which may appear to be difficult of understanding. A thoughtful teacher can 
often anticipate difficulties that might arise. 

3. Difficulties involved in assigning. 

Some speech teachers give a vague unorganized, or hurried assignment at the 
last minute of class time with little explanation of it; nevertheless they wonder 
why most of the class missed the point of the assignment. Other teachers give a 


general direction, such as "Study Chapter H, or Lesson V". This is also a poor 
type of speech assignment. The correct and proper one explains what is to "be done 
and why this action is essential. 

k. The time when an assignment should be made. 

This problem of timing an assignment usually creates trouble for inexperi- 
enced speech teachers. When it should be made is determined by three factors: 
the individual situation; the needs of the class; and the judgment of the tea- 
cher. Assignments can be given where they logically can be made. Some speech 
teachers prefer to give them at the beginning of the class period when sufficient 
explanation may be made; yet others choose to make them at the end of the hour, 
especially if they depend upon the amount of the content covered or the. practice 
received during the class hour. 

5. Correlation of speech assignments with other subjects. 

Such practice will improve class work. Speech pupils should be encouraged, 
for instance, to utilize topics in literature and to develop assignments, either 
individual or collective, which grow out of a day's work. In a high school : 
speech class at the time of the death of Edwin Markham, a student inquired if he 
could read the author's poem, The Man With The Hoe. He explained that he had it 
assigned for English, liked it, and believed that his classmates would enjoy it 
as much as he did. Students should be encouraged to make use of the content 
they are getting in other classes of the high school. 

6. The emotional aspect of assignments. 

Because assignments have an emotional as well as an intellectual appeal, 
they should be varied from day to day. Often encouragement and interest can do 
much to inspire a student to select, or at times, to complete, an otherwise un- 
interesting part of the work. 

• Activ ities or Unit Pl an 

Activities, or the solution of a learning problem by means of actual, practical, 
or material unit of action, are utilized in all courses of speech. Teaching Units 
enrich school life by wholesome, purposeful activities which serve to balance class 
work based upon the textbook. The prospective teacher must understand the meaning 
and the motive of these projects to be able to use them to advantage as an educa- 
tional medium. - .»-.., 

a. Advantages. 

The advantages of well planned units are primarily found in the self activity • 
of the student himself. This speech activity should include the following steps: 
(1) the selection of a suitable unit; and (2) a plan for an entire procedure. The 
student assumes responsibility for the completion of the job. He judges its pur- 
pose and decides the best way of achieving it, using any initiative and originality 
he may possess to reach the goal he has set for himself. He supplies all necessary 
equipment and materials. He struggles through his mistakes, learns to surmount 
difficulties, and works with a minimum amount of supervision. He uses his hands as 
well as his head in developing habits of skill and discovering his potentialities, 
as well as his weaknesses. He, ■ rather than the subject, becomes the center of in- '• 
terest. He is enlarging the subject matter in his education by experience and pre- 
paring for life by living. He shares experiences with the group socially. He 
forms a standard so that eventually he can evaluate his own work. 


b. Disadvantages. 

These are not inherent in the procedure but rather due to the teacher in charge. 
They are of three types: (l) those which concern the teacher (2) those which affect 
the student (3) those which result from the activity itself. 

1. Disadvantages arising from the instructor. 

(1) He poorly plans or manages a unit. (2) To make his work easy, he wrongly 
uses the project. (3) He gives too much help, (h) He makes grading of the unit 
difficult-. And (5) after initial assignments, he loses interest in it. 

2. Disadvantages to the student. 

(1) He does not distribute his time and effort satisfactorily. (2) He sac- 
rifices thoroughness for spoed. And (3) the; experience he gains is of little 
social value to him. ■ ■•:•': ." •;■;-.■ ■-. ; 

3. Disadvantages from the activity itself.. -.■ ::v ( ;w 

(l) The purpose of a unit is not clear to either teacher or students; (2) 
aims are immediate rather than ultimate; (3) the relationship between, theory -and 
practice is obscure; (k) , time is spent in class on discussion of .'the 'procedure 
rather than the activity itself; (5) a unit is not followed by class discussion 
and analysis; (6) quality of work is sacrificed for quantity; (7) the relation- 
ship between a project and other school work is not realized; (8) a unit is begun 
too soon before the class is prepared for it; and (9.) the textbook, does not sup- 
plement it. 

c. The assembly period program. 

The few minutes devoted to this period daily or semi-weekly is time, well spent, 
for it integrates the work of the entire school; the assembly is the one place where 
school, civic, national,; and international problems can be presented to the entire 

1. Nature of the assembly.;.. 

Breadth of view is widened by discussion's of. cultural, vocational, ethical, 
and informative subjects presented by guest speakers, faculty, and students. 
The spirit of participation arouses loyalty in the Ideals of the school and en- 
courages a co-operative attitude among students; and faculty. When public recog- 
nition is given to winners in studies and in. all forms of extra -activities, there 
is established an incentive to work. In many instances, the assembly period 
provides wholesome entertainment for the school audience. ■. 

2. Means to increase its value. •■ ; .. '.'-■ 

An assembly program must be well planned for the entire year. It must have 
a unified purpose but may be diversified, particularly if all departments are to 
be represented. If the year's work is planned early and evenly distributed among 
departments, the assembly program can be enjoyed by everyone. Its theme may re- 
late ^ to a certain person, period, or ".country;-, the program may include music, 
readings, and dances - all exemplify the same central theme. In planning a pro- 
gram, the time factor must also be kept in mind.' Too long a period may become 
tiresome; too short, a waste of energy. If the program is well managed, each 
minute can be of educational value. 


All pupils of the school should have an active part in the assembly, either 
as speakers or audience. One way to solicit the co-operation of a large number 
of participants is to have each club and organization be responsible for a com- 
plete program. A competitive basis with an award often improves the standard 
of programs . 

d. Examples of other kinds of activities. 

Worthwhile speech activities are not limited to the assembly period program. 
There are many other valuable activities which add interest to class work in speech. 
Projects vary in a number of ways: the number of participants, the materials used, 
the time when given, the place held, and the purpose of the project. 

1. Units classified according to the number of participants. 

Most speech activities are considered primarily for individual development; 
others, however, afford training to a small or large group. Small groups (l) 
radio broadcast; (2) illustration of telephone etiquette; (3) round-table dis- 
cussion; and {k) explanation and demonstrations of different sports. Large 
groups of people may be used in (l) auditorium program; (2) organizations like 
literary societies, reading circles, story telling clubs, hobby clubs, dramatic 
clubs, poetry clubs; (3) pageants; {k) "pep" meeting before athletic contests; 
(5) one-act play tournaments; (6) original one-scene play contests; (7) combined 
music and speech department programs; (8) combined speech and art department 
programs; (9) combined speech and manual training, history, or like programs. 

2. Classification of speech units according to the various types of materials 

(l) Bulletin board of selected current events may be kept during a semester, 
(2) A set for a play - each student may be assigned a period in the historical 
development of the stage and reproduce the costumes, . the settings, the stage in 
miniature. (3) Blackboard drawings or chalk talks may be used, (k) Charts 
dealing with the formation of a personality, or steps in building a speech, or 
illustrations of local problems may be devised by the students. (5) Newspaper 
clipping-file collected during the year is a valuable project. (6) Clay models 
of parts of vocal apparatus may be made, provided the teacher insists that the 
model be an approximate size and does not convey a false impression of the re- 
lation of parts. (7) Projects related to drawings and pictures may be utilized, 
for example, an original drawing of the speech apparatus, or a survey of Eng- 
lish drama, or famous pictures collected for a picture gallery, or an amateur 
photography exhibit. (8) A stamp collection may be explained. (9) The compo- 
sition of a make-up kit may be demonstrated. (10) Lights and lantern slides 
may be employed for many educational purposes (material frequently available 
from Extension Division of State Institutions). And (12) articles for various 
purposes of demonstration or explanation, for example, of salesmanship talks, 
musical instruments, travel talks, history of costuming or, perhaps, for a 
puppet show. 

3. Units classified according. to the time factor. 

Time is a factor which determines a number of activities which are classed 
as seasonal or occasional: (l) dramatization of 'different events during the 
year; (2) programs honoring an individual birthday, anniversary, or specific 
event, for example, a Lincoln Legacy, an Ideal Conversation, Better Speech Week, 
or a Student Congress; and special days during the school year. 


k. Units classified according to location. 

All speech activities are not confined to the school hut frequently to dif- 
ferent places. These may he visited, and oral reports may he made; for example, 
(l) touring the local industrial companies, radio station, city hall, museum, 
library, or certain puhlic "buildings for a study of acoustics; (2) practicing 
outside of school in meeting people; (3) arranging a community drive to sell the 
school annual; (k) Interviewing city officials for a "How to Succeed Program"; 
(5) selling advertising space for the school annual; (6) speaking at a dinner 
held in town; (7) arranging a miniature stage exhibit in a store window; (8) 
attending courts to study judicial procedure. 

5. Classified according to purpose. 

Units vary in the purpose for which they are held. In general, they are of 
two types, speaking and reading. The following examples are suggestive of the 
types: (l) debating a local problem before local organizations; (2) awarding 
honors in a "Speech Slogan" contest; (3) conducting a story -telling contest; (k) 
planning a schedule of assembly programs; (5) acting as a chairman or toast- 
master for a faculty dinner served by Domestic Science Department; (6) describing 
some adventure or travel by some means of visual illustrations; (7) making an- 
nouncements to the different classes of some future local event. 

e. Specific values in certain activities. 

Among those of • particular interest to the speech student may be listed: 

1. Training to read. 

Training in interpreting the materials originated and organized by another 
person, known as reading in its various forms, is of particular value to the 
speech student. A few examples are named: (1) cutting readings for public per- 
formances such as city clubs, P.T.A. meetings, and the like; (2) cutting modern 
orations and contemporary speeches for radio' presentation; (3) selecting lines 
from standard authors to be used as good exercises for vocal production; (k) mem- 
orizing poetry for class exercises or for contests;' and (5) dramatizing scenes 
from favorite books. 

2. Training to use senses. ; ■•' 

Training in acuteness of the senses is developed by units employing either 
reading or speaking. Among the projects affording this training may be mentioned: 
(1) a speech note book containing clippings from columnists, poets, or feature 
writers; (2) a calendar of new observations for each day during the school year; 
(3) illustrated reports of examples of local types of architecture; (h) a compil- 
ation of classified lists of words mispronounced in speech classes; (5) reports 
of speech criticism; (6) a record of a conversation written in phonetic script; 
and (7) a report of a radio speech or a favorite radio program. 

3. Training to develop imagination. 

Some speech units, more than others, develop imaginative powers and creative 
ability. Examples of these units are (l) an imaginary occasion, event, or situa- 
tion, as "If I Had a Million I Would - "; or an imaginary faculty meeting, pos- 
sibly in pantomime; (2) a future or current event or circumstance, perhaps in an 
original skit; (3) the collection of interesting facts and humorous' incidents 
suitable for speeches kept throughout a semester (a' card file may be used). 


k. Training to do accurate detailed work. 

Some activities may be utilized for training in organizing detail: (1) a 
blue print of a complete speech; (2) a rating scale to be used in criticizing 
speeches in class; (3) a chart of the mistakes in sounds made by different nation- 
alities; and (h) a complete schedule of programs for next year assemblies. 

5. Training to secure bodily activity. 

Pantomime in various forms, if well managed, gives training in bodily activ- 
ities: (l) the family album; (2) famous historical events; (3) famous literary 
characters; (k) famous men and women; (5) local or national characters; (6) fa- 
mous pictures posed in a life-size frame made by the Manual Training Department; 
(7) well known advertisements; and (8) various sign languages, for example that 
employed by the deaf. 

6. Training to develop social attributes. 

Qualities such as tact, good judgment, ability to meet people, and ease in 
an unfamiliar situation are developed in certain projects, for example: (l) in- 
viting guests of honor and guest speakers for school affairs; (2) interviewing 
city officials; (3) operating the school management, or perhaps city government 
for a day; (k) organizing speech committees such as additional projects of re- 
porting on good ennunciation, grammar, posture, and class organization. 

Estimating the Speech Work 

The worth of the student's effort can be presented under four heads: (1) re- 
view; (2) tests; (3) examinations; and (k) grading. 

a. Review. 

Review takes a number of different forms: 

1. Association of problems. 

This form requires a definite objective set for each day's recitation. It 
relates the problems of the content previously analyzed to the particular factor 
which is the assigned center of interest for the recitation. If this procedure is 
followed, previous content is constantly reviewed; in fact, each speech given is 
essentially a review. 

2. Use of questions. 

A carefully prepared set of questions which leads to recall of subject matter 
previously covered is another form review may take. Oral activity of this kind is 
of benefit to the entire class, for such a well- organized review emphasizes the 
important factors to be evaluated by the group. 

3. Drill. 

Drill, a form of review, to be effective exercise requires active student 
participation, for the number who benefit is an important factor in drill. A good 
rule to remember is not to drill a few to the disadvantage of many. The value of 
the game element in drill, suggested as far back as Quintilian, still holds good 
in speech work. Some teachers, more resourceful than others, devise and utilize 
exercises which possess this play spirit; thereby they assure general participation 


of pupils. Drills should be short and purposeful; frequent short periods of drill 
accomplish more than irregular, long periods. Purposeless drill of any kind is 
worse than no drill. 

k. Quiz. 

An announced oral quiz is another excellent type of review in speech work, if 
given during the semester rather than at its end. Review of this kind is a valu- 
able means of preparing for examinations. 

p. Value of review. 

The various forms of review can he made interesting if a speech teacher uses 
foresight in his choice and application; in fact, interest in the subject is cre- 
ated through different forms alternated throughout the semester. For the teacher, 
a review is an effective means whereby he can help a class to sense the relation- 
ships of different phases of the work, for a few minutes' review of each preceding 
lesson links the daily assignments, the new with the old material. Review allows 
a teacher to evaluate as well as correct the work covered; by its use a teacher 
can clarify the principles and other jjoints which need emphasis, while, at the 
same time he can correct faulty interpretations, Purposeful review is particu- 
larly valuable in a subject such as speech, for by means of it correct habits can 
be formed. Through effective review an observant instructor' can detect individual 
errors and prescribe special work. If review is to be of value, a standard should 
be set so that both teacher and students can determine the degree of efficiency 
expected from the various forms. 

b. Tests. 

These devices are means by which a teacher may evaluate the progress and achieve- 
ment of his class. He may also by them compare the accompli shments of his group with 
similar classes elsewhere. 

1. Kinds. 

The test both written and oral takes various forms. Different kinds are ad- 
visable such as achievement, intelligence, prognostic, reasoning, informational, 
recall, completion, true-false, matching, and identification. Variety of both 
oral and written tests creates an interest in what may be considered an otherwise 
unpleasant task. Tests differ in 'length as well as in kind. Occasional short 
tests both announced and unannounced are an incentive to the students to study 
the textbook and to perform the daily assignments. 

2. Time to be given. 

Tests should be assigned during the semester; a single final examination par- 
ticularly in speech work is not a satisfactory measurement of achievement. The 
best time to,give tests is at the end of the units of material being studied, 
rather than at prescribed intervals. If this procedure is followed, the students 
can demonstrate frequently what achievement has. been made. Occasional testing, 
especially in a fundamental course, also helps to dispel the erroneous idea which 
many students have that speech has little theory to be studied. 

3 . Value . 

Tests are a valuable educational medium, for' from their results deficiencies 
and weaknesses in the teacher as well as the student are revealed. They expose 


the points which were hastily explained, or, at least, not sufficiently stressed 
"by the teacher, as well as indicate the lack of skill and comprehension of the 
student. When a large percentage of a class obtains low grades, the teacher, who 
is sincerely endeavoring to improve his work, will look within himself, rather 
than without for the cause of poor work among the pupils; if he is honest, he may 
find it in his own procedure. Quality and quantity of work can "be estimated 
through tests so that the progress of the individual and the class can "be deter- 
mined impartially. Students know exactly what is expected of them since a stand- 
ard is set. Tests also serve as the basis of guidance for the teacher in deter- 
mining the individual who needs special help as well as the kind and amount of 
assistance he needs. The reverse is also true, for frequent short tests assist 
speech teachers to discover special aptitudes, a phase of speech training too 
frequently overlooked. Testing serves as an incentive for improvement, and, if 
followed later by constructive assistance, is of value to both teacher and class. 

c . Exami nat i o ns . 

The two general types, oral and written, are advisable, especially in a begin- 
ning course, so that the relation of the knowing and doing will be sensed. An exam- 
ination should be given at the end of every course in speech. Some schools require 
both kinds. Frequently, time is set in the general examination schedule for written 
work; sometimes the last round of speeches is used as the final oral examination. 
Variety in the type of examination is advantageous, for the uncertainty as to which 
form will be given creates interest. Different forms of examinations should be used 
for different sections of the same subject. The effort required to compile separate 
sets of questions is time well spent. 

1. Oral examination. 

The most apparent advantage of an oral examination to a teacher with many 
large classes and much extracurricular work is that a sentence outline of each 
oral talk submitted at the time the oral is held does not require much effort to 
oorrect . Its benefit to students is that many are better able to express them- 
selves orally than in written form; thus these individuals are given an equal 
chance to prove what they can do. Several other advantages in oral examinations 
may be mentioned: Each pupil profits by mistakes of another; errors, which the 
entire class may be making, can be discussed at the time they are made. There is 
opportunity for excellent training in oral expression, for an oral examination 
represents the best work that the student can possibly do. The number of ques- 
tions answered in the period is much larger in oral work. 

2. Written examination. 

An objective written final examination is required in speech. The knowledge 
that it will be given at the end of a course results in careful study of the text- 
book throughout the semester. If a factual examination is given, , it may be advis- 
able to compile two sets of questions especially when large groups are to write it. 
Written examinations should be long enough to keep the group busy the entire peri- 
od and sufficiently difficult so that only a few get perfect scores. If the exam- 
inations are too difficult, the average is too low; while if they are too simple, 
the average may be too high. Mimeographed or typed final written examinations, 
even in a small class, save time and confusion, for all can begin to write at 
once. A few minutes of foresight in planning written examinations, both as to 
order and value of content, save hours of time in correcting them later. 


3. Questions. 

If fewer memory questions are used, less cramming will be done. Information 
gathered throughout 'the course rather than the night previous to the examination 
is covered. The memory type based exclusively on the textbook may encourage uneth- 
ical practices in examinations which are much more detrimental to the pupil than 
his wrong answer. Examination questions should be worded carefully since mistakes 
may occur if they are stated indefinitely. A pupil too should be taught to observe 
whether the desired action of the question is to compose, enumerate, outline, list, 
contrast, or complete. Since questions need not all have equal weight - as many 
practice teachers believe - they must be given some value at the time that the 
examination is compiled so that grading based on them will be fair. , 

k. Correcting the examination. .. 

If care is required in compiling an examination and in writing it, it is 
also necessary in correcting it. Some teachers grade each question separately; 
others consider the examination as a whole and grade it as a: unit. 

d. Grading. ■ ; 

Effective grading of both quality and quantity of speech work can be secured by 
a. number of. different means. Some students, as well as some teachers, may be more 
interested in one phase of the subject than another; but if a fair evaluation of the 
pupil is to result, grades must be secured for both the art and the science of speech. 
They are not necessarily in equal proportions; in some courses 'theory is stressed; 
in others, skill. The latter condition is particularly true of the fundamental 
course in speech. 

1. Subjective and objective standards. 

In science, there is an objective standard; in art, chiefly a subjective one. 
If the entire class fails to accomplish what is expected of -it, the teacher's per- 
sonal standard may be too high. Perfection is' excellent in theory, but teachers, 
after all, are dealing with average human beings. Occasionally, the reverse may 
be found. If the entire class receives a perfect score, the standard upon which 
it is based may be too low. 

2. Relationships in grading. 

These take a number of forms. The first of which is the relationship of an 
individual to a fixed standard as previously explained. Another is personal 
achievement in general in relation to the speech improvement of the pupil. Al- 
though a pupil may have received A grades in other subjects, or have been on the 
honor roll, he may not do excellent work in speech. Often, the theory is easy 
for this intellectual type, but the art may be more difficult for him than for 
the average in the class. 

Another relationship suggested by the result of examinations is the objective 
rating of the individual compared to the class as a whole. A record of examina- 
tion, tests, and recitations often proves of interest to a student who wishes to 
know his achievements in both theory and practice in the class distribution. To 
discover that he is a third or fourth in a group may serve as an inspiration for 
him to reach the top. There is a danger in carrying comparisons too far, for those 
near the bottom of the list may become discouraged by them, even though general 
distribution, as well as individual achievement, is interesting to most high school 
classes. An inexperienced teacher may also be surprised to find that sections of 
the same class will differ aa much as individuals. 


J. Return of papers. 

Another suggestion "by no means trivial refers to grading examination papers. 
Return graded papers, whenever possible, for reference and consultation. Only 
when this is done can faults be detected and corrected. Any test worth giving 
is worth grading and worthy of consultation. 

h. Classification of class for grading purposes. 

'The last help in securing adequate speech grading is a knowledge of the 
three general groups in every class with which a teacher should become acquainted. 
These are divisions commonly known as : (a) above average or excellent (b) aver- 
age or fair (c) below average or poor. This classification used in evaluating a 
student's worth in speech forms a standard for grading. 

• The Grade of Excellent 

The grade of excellent is given to a comparatively small percentage of 
the class' and then only to students with certain characteristics. 

Mental attributes. 

The excellent student (l) asks thoughtful questions in class - generally 
a valuable contribution for the entire group; (2) is able to apply the princ- 
iples and facts developed throughout the course; (3) establishes relationships 
both within and without the class; (k) is able to do original thinking; (5) 
possesses initiative, and is able to progress with a minimum amount of sug- 
gestion from the instructor; (6) is proficient in both the oral-, as well as 
the written work assigned in speech; and (7) has a superior command of the 
English language. 

Social attributes. 

The excellent student. (1) is absolutely honest with himself and with the 
teacher in all of his work; (2) is dependable especially when problems become 
difficult; (3) is conscientious not only in taking assignments but in taking 
them correctly; (k) contributes information frequently for the general benefit 
of the entire class; (5) is genuinely interested in the class activities and 
problems; (6) co-operates with all members of the social group; (7) is eager 
to get all the value possible from the subject; and (8) has a definite goal and 
aims everything toward it. 

Attitude towards subject matter. 

The excellent student (l) does more than the required amount of work in 
the course; (2) consistently completes work which is neatly as well as thor- 
oughly done; (3) attends class regularly; (k) always reports to class on time 
or before the stated time; and (5) presents an excuse for every unavoidable 

The Average Grade. 

A grade of average is given to the largest percentage of members of a 

Mental attributes. 

The average student (l) occasionally asks questions more frequently based 
on the text than original; (2) is able to remember the general plan of the work 


rather than details; (3) is capable of using some originality and initiative 
in planning and organizing; (h) can apply as well as understand those princ- 
iples of speech which are discussed thoroughly in class; (5) gets along gen- 
erally with some criticism and direction from the instructor; (6) does better 
work of one type only, either oral or written; and (7) has an average command 
of the English language. 

Social attributes. 

The average student is generally honest with himself and with others; 
(2) is dependable most of the. time unless crowded with work, especially at 
the end of the semester; (3) takes most of the assignments when given, although 
frequently too hurriedly; (h) adds valuable suggestions to group discussion 
only occasionally; (5) is apparently interested in. the class i procedure most of 
the time; (6) co-operates decidedly better with some than , with other members 
of the class; (7) is willing to get as much as possible from the subject if it 
does not entail too much effort on his part; and (8) has no specific goal set. 

Attitude towards subject matter. 

The average student completes an average specified amount of required 
work — no more and no less; (2) finishes most work carefully, part of which 
is neatly done; (3) submits assignments, as a rule, on' time unless something 
more important interferes; (k) generally reports on time for class; (5) takes 
occasional cuts which he believes are allowed and to which he is entitled; and 
(6) presents excuses only when required to do so. 

Below Average Grades. 

The low grade generally is given to a small percentage of the class. 
The mental and social attributes and the attitude toward work is generally 
the opposite of those listed for the superior group. 

Average class has types. 

The three general groups the young teacher will find in varying propor- 
tions in each speech class. A knowledge of some of the outstanding charac- 
teristics of each helps form a standard, for ■ grading a social subject like 
speech is difficult. An alert teacher tries to observe each member of the 
class separately throughout the entire semester. By careful observation, he 
is generally able to estimate the amount of effort of each individual even 
though the work may have been accomplished with other pupils. It is better 
to arrange some method whereby the work done by each individual can be estim- 
ated from the beginning of a unit of activity than to endeavor "to evaluate 
the individual contributions at completion. 

5- The standard of grading. ■ < 

The progress curve for marking presents a problem for the speech teacher. 
"Should it be used?" "Must a teacher fail a certain percentage of his pupils?" 
"Will it always work in speech?" These are questions asked by the beginner in 
teaching. He will generally discover at the end of the semester that if he 
gives grades because they were deserved, his marks will correspond in the main 
to the curve which caused him so much needless worry. 

Intelligence in a group is distributed in a curve with the average pupils 
in its larger section; the above and below average compose the other parts. A 
perfect curve, which apparently most beginning teachers have in mind, may not be 


found in every group ; in an art such as speech there, may he no excellent grades 
in some sections; in others, no failures. At times, most of the excellent stu- 
dents in speech will he discovered in one section. The progress curve does not 
apply to small sized speech classes; the larger the group, the more likely the 
marking of grades will approximate the curve. 

6. Problem of written work in grading. 

Written work should be taken into account in estimating the total amount 
of work accomplished, for quantity as well as quality of written assignments 
and the number of papers handed in should be kept. Occasionally, a student ex- 
cellent in oral work will not think that it is necessary to do the written part - 
especially if the class gets the erroneous idea that the teacher of speech does 
not value the papers. For this reason, it is advisable to return" most of the 
written assignments graded, especially at the beginning of the year. 

Written work, especially outlining, requires careful organization before 
class; this preparation is time well spent; moreover it assures the instructor 
of a specific amount of work being done. It has the advantage also of requir- 
ing a student to write exactly what he means, and he gains thereby in accuracy. 
The actual work which has to be put into an original written assignment impresses 
a student with the significance of the subject as well as imprints on his mind 
its content . 

Too much written work may not benefit either the teacher or the students, 
for the amount of time to correct, file, and return written material may be un- 
duly large in a speech class. If too much is assigned, the marks received may 
become of more importance to pupils than the errors to be corrected. If in- 
sufficient time is allowed a student to do a representative piece of work, he 
may become careless.. 

7« Daily and final grade. 

Grading in speech is of two kinds, daily and final. A daily grade should 
be kept for each speech given in class. Marking a class immediately after ad- 
journment is an excellent practice, for grades are recorded while the value of 
the work is fresh in the instructor *S' mind. The general tendency 'now is not to 
use a numerical but a letter grade since the letter system of marking affords a 
larger range of grades. The large number of these daily letter grades gives a 
better estimate of the sum total of a speech student's activities than a final 
examination mark only. A grade is given not for what a teacher knows a student 
is capable of doing, but what he actually has done.; at times, there is a wide 
discrepancy between the two. If the class knows that daily grades are kept, it 
values daily recitation, which becomes the most important part of the course 
with better preparation being made for it. A speech teacher should not record 
grades during the speeches since the spontaneity which he desires in class may 
be lost. Discipline also improves where the speech class maintains a social 
situation, and everyone, audience as well as speaker, is considered as an influ- 
ence in the daily grading, 

When a final .grade is once filed, it ought not be changed without a great 
reason. It is a permanent record kept on file, and is essential to an adminis- 
tration, for it is objective proof of achievement to the student, teacher, school, 
and parent; it serves as the basis of promotion, and informs the adolescent of 
his own progress in relation to others of his group; it is a test of the tea- 
cher's efficiency and remains as an official report of his work as well as that 
of the school; it supplies the school with an objective basis for further- com- 
parison of individuals, grades, classes, and systems. 

8. Difficulties encountered in the grading. 

Problems in or out of the classroom affect grades. As far as they relate to 
the student they may be classified as: physical, functional, psychological, and 
social. Many of these problems have been discussed in relation to counseling and 
discipline. These points should, be reviewed by the cadet teacher who must real- 
ize that any circumstance which is a factor in preventing a pupil from receiving 
good grades should be investigated and if possible, rectified. 


1. Plan a general teaching schedule for the next semester' using a calendar in the 

preparation of it. 

2. Write a lesson plan for, one day's assignment in speech considering these factors: 

subject matter, activity, purpose, motivation, questioning, illustration, as- 
signment, timing, and grading. :.•••••• 

3. Discuss time-savers in a speech classroom. .. 

h. Write a letter to members of a school board explaining why a specific speech 
text has been chosen by you for their consideration. 

5. Give a specific example to show how a speech assignment can be correlated with 

another course. 

6. Organize a complete activity unit in detail. 

7. Plan a typical review of one unit of work in a fundamental course. ■ ; 

8. Compile an individual speech chart of speech progress. 

9. Discuss exemption from examinations. 

10. Discuss the problem in marking speech defectives. 

11. What type of oral examination is suitable to a speech class? 

12. Report on the following article: Spee ch Exa minations , Q.J.S., p. k^>6 , December, 


13. Illustrate by example the problems involved in mounting pictures for class 

use. Discuss techniques. 
1*4-. Bring to class an example of each of the types of objects that may be used for 
illustration: an object, a model, and a specimen. 

15. Organize a unit to teach the subject of bodily action. List the objectives to 

be attained, the material to be used, and the procedures. 

16 . Co ntrast Gu idin g Pr inciples in Curriculum Dev elopm ent at t he El ementary Level, 

Caswell, H. I., Q.J.S. p. 81, Feb., 19^3; with a similar article dealing with 
speech training. 

17. Discuss the subject of the improvement of the speech textbook. 

18. Discuss problems in using films, their care, and operation. 

19. Discuss the comparative values of some of the common teaching aids. 

20. You have- been assigned the work of consolidating all of the visual aids used 

in your high school. Outline the project. 

21. Compile a list of five new experimental techniques which you have discovered 

in your outside reading. 

22. Discuss the reason wiry the following points should be considered when building 

a speech curriculum: (a) the objective of each course in relation to the 
general purposes of the speech courses that may be offered in the light of 
finances, educational or administrative policies, type of student and his 
objectives, and community interests; (c) the kind of course, elective or re- 
quired; (d) the length of the course; (e) the number of meetings planned for 
each course; (f ) the specific group of pupils for whom the class will be of- 
fered; (g) the school facilities that will be available for the speech courses 
such as the auditorium, library, laboratories, classrooms, and teaching staff; 
and (h) the number of extracurricular activities associated with each course 


evaluated from the viewpoint of general school policy as well as from the 
need of the speech pupils. 

23. Is the actual speech curriculum in the high school more flexible today? What 

is the significance of the tendency to shift the attention from the develop- 
ment of the individual as an individual and to advance him in the group? 

24. What is the reason for the increasing number of discussion courses, radio 

courses,, and extempore speaking contests and the shift away from platform 
art, vocal development, and pantomime? What is the significance of the in- 
crease in discussion and the lack of interest in the mere formal debate? 
Are more political, social, and economic subjects discussed in high schools 
than literary topics? 

25. Is participation in extracurricular activities in a college important to the 

prospective speech teacher? 

26. Are you prepared to teach a diversity of speech courses and to direct extra- 

class work you may have assigned to you in a high school? Are. you over- 
specializing in view of the actual work in the average high school? 

27. Discuss the article S peech and Progressive Education, Q.J.S., p. 511, December, 


28. List five units of activities according to type, chronological arrangement, 

purpose, geographical plan, and age difference. 

29. Classify projects suitable to a fundamental class in high school speech. 

30. Discuss the following phases of an assigned unit activity: the project and 

class maturity, the project and class interest, unity of the project, rela- 
tion to a student's standard of perfection. 

31. Name some unit divisions which will cover an area you are planning to teach. 

Arrange them according to a psychological plan and also break units into 
daily lesson plans. 

32. Evaluate A Speech Program , Q.J.S., p. 454, Oct., 1936. 

33. A bright student is not working to his capacity. What would you suggest for 


34. How would you answer the general criticism that one teacher makes his subject 

so difficult that students do not have time to study for other subjects? 
35» Compile a rating scale to be used in appraising reading in .the class. 
36. How often should conferences or multiple group activities- be held in a speech 

37- What number do you consider suitable for a speech class in view of the problems 

of teaching and supplying the students with an audience? 

38. Plan an assembly program based on the legal holidays within the school term. 

39. List ten ways of creating good speech situations in the' classroom. 

40. Discuss the subject of multi- sensory teaching aids. "'•• . . „ 

41. Should a speech teacher plan his work in the class from the whole to the part 

or the part to the whole? 

42. Compile a chart to be used in analyzing a motion picture. Let it contain the 

story, the acting, the photography, the settings, and the musical score. 
Can you see reasons for motion pictures being brought into the classroom? 
43'. What is the advantage of dividing a speech class into the planners, the part- 
icipants, and the audience critics? ■• ; 

44. Explain three ways in which a speech student may in' cooperation with a teacher 

of another subject do speech work for credit. 

45. Report on The Elements of Excellence in Teaching. Ed ucation al A dministration 

and Super vision V. 27, p. 168, March, 1941. . 

46. Grades should evaluate the whole child. Set up a rating scale with this point 

in mind. . ,. ._' ' , ' ' 

47. Report your reaction to the following bulletin: The Training of Seconda ry 

School Teache rs especially with reference to English. Report of the Joint 
Com. of Harvard and Cambridge, Harvard Univer. Press, 1942. 


48. Contrast Some Current Problems in Contest Speech , Schmidt, R. N., Q.J.S. p. 95, 

Feb., 1943, with some of the present problems in the high school. 

49. Read the following; Assembly Program Suggestions , Bavely, E., U. of Cinn., 

College Hill, Cinn., Ohio.- 

50. For a project analyze a professional recording of a speech or reading. 

51. Do you hold that visual aids improve speech instruction? Cf. Visual Aids by 

Haas and Packer who hold that 35$ more information is retained if this method 
is used. ■;'■ '"'■■■- 

52. Demonstrate the advantages of lantern slides in the speech classroom.- 

53. Compile a list of sources for visual aids usable for speech training. Check 

local, state, and government sources, also the state universities. Consult 
list of sources in Visual Aids , Haas and Packer. 

54. Have posters any advantages over other visual aids? 

55. Are you acquainted with the services of the N.E.A., Div. of Audio -Visual — ; 

Instructional Service, Dept. of Visual Instruction? 

56. Prepare a serviceable analysis chart to aid you interpret voice and speech 

57« Give your suggestions for filing speech references'. '■ ' - 

58, What do you prefer in a textbook on speech for the beginning class? - 
59 • Illustrate the correct and incorrect way of arranging a speech bulletin board. 

60. Discuss methods of mounting maps. ■" '• 

61. Are you acquainted with the Bibliography of School Assemblies , National Recre- 

ation Ass'n., 315 Fourth Ave., New York? 

62. Class discussion of the following article: High School Assembly Q.J.S. , p. 515, 

Dec, 1947. 

63. Read Smith", J.F., Better Speech Training Through Teaching Technique , Coord. 

Com. of Western Ass'n. of Teachers' of Speech, Edwards Bros., Ann Arbor, 1936. 
6'4. Compare the Rating Scales Achievement Blanks and Progress Chart in Barnes, H.G. 
Speech Handb ook, New York, Prentice Hall,- 1946, with another- blank of the 
■J same type. ': • ■" \ ■■■■■' "■- , -:.•"'■'•■ • 

65. Study the Hampel Pamphlet on curriculum building, Dept. of Supervision and 
• Curriculum Development, 1201 Sixteenth Street, Washington; D.C. 

66. Read the section on Language and Communication in Forward General Educ ation, 

McGrath, E., and others, New York, Macmillan, 1948. 

67. Discuss the matter found in the bulletin of the New York Ass'n. of Teachers of 

English, Com. on Speech Activities in the English Classroom. . V. 22, p. 33, 
Sept., 19^0. ! . - ■ ■•■- 

68. List the satisfactory and unsatisfactory aspects of supervised study. 

69. What should be the length of the ■ average class talk or recitation? 

70. Name devices by which a teacher can determine whether the aim of the assign- 

ment is understood. 

71. List ten factors that distract. the attention of the speech class. 

72. Should absences be taken into consideration in grading? To what extent? 

73* Should students be graded primarily on objective tests, improvement made, or 
.effort expended?. ■ ■■. ■■■■■:> ■■: 

74. What determines the time of review? 

75. Should the standard of evaluation be one -third for oral work, one-third for 

written, and one-third for: examination? Is this a fair norm' for the funda- 
mental class? : ; ' .-;••: 

76. How often should written examinations be given? of what ; length? tests? 

reviews? • * ,; ..■ ' •! "... 

77. Read Student Teachi ng, Schorling, R., Chap. The Teacher Plans His Wor k, New 

York, McGraw Hill, 1940. ■ ■■' ' . ~~ ~*~ 

78. Evaluate the following works: Report of the National Commission on Cooperative 

Curriculum Planning,. New York, Appleton Century, 194-1 j Bull. 467 on course of 
study, Louisiana Dept .- of Education, 1942; Washington State Speech Ass'n. Bull, 
on an integrated course of study, 1937 . 

79. From the reference list choose a work for a book report. 



Allen, A. H., The Oral Examination (Southern Speech Bull., V. k:l^-l6, Nov., 1958). 
Allen, C. F., and Means, A., Extra-Curricular Activities in the Elementary Schools 

(St. Louis: Webster, 1937). 
Anderson, G. W., A Su rve y of Spe ech Educ ation in the Secon d ary Schools of Wisconsin, 

Master Thesis, (Minneapolis: Univer. of Minnesota, 1935). 
Archer, R. B., An Analysis of Some Textbooks on Speech and Public Speaking f o r the 

Secondary School, Master Thesis, ("ithaca, New York: Cornell Univer. Press, 

Berry, F. M., Report of Commit t ee on H igh School Courses (Q.J.S., V. 8:75-86, Feb., 

Billett, R. 0., Provisions for Individual Difference, Marking, and Promotion 

(Washington, D.C.: Department of Interior, Bu.ll. 17, 1932). 
Borchers, G. L., Grading the High School Spee ch Student (Southern Speech Bull. 

V. 5:1-4 Nov., 1937). 
Broady, K. 0., S chool Provisions for Indiv i dual Difference;, Polici es and Dat a 

Necessary (New York: Teachers College, Columbia Univer., 1930). 
Brusse, B. B., An Activi ty Program in Action (Dallas: . Upshaw, 1935). 
Buckland, G. S.,' A Project in Speech Educa tion (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse, 

Univer., 1937). 
Carr, W., and Waage, J., The Les son Assignmen t (Stanford, 'California: Univer. 

■ Press,- 1931) • v ' ; 

Caswell, E. L., and Canrpbell, D. S., Curr iculum Deve lopment (New York: American 

» Book, ;935). -i , • " . ' ; :-. . 

Class, E. C, Th e Effect of the Kind of Tes t Anno u ncem e nt on St ude nt's Pre p aration 

( Journal of Educa tional Research, V. 28:358-362, Jan., 1935). > 
Codding, .C L., Public Speaking and the High Sc hool Curriculum (Scho ol of Educat ion 

Record, V. l6;79-9l7 Pec .", 1930), '* 

Collings, E., Supervisory Guidance of Teachers' of 'Commu nication Act ivi t ies (New 

York: Macmillan, 19 3^). 
Collings, E., An Experi men t Wit h a, Pr oje ct Cu rriculum, (New York: Macmillan, 1923). 
Cortez, E. A., Proje ct Speak ing for Secondary Scho ols (Boston: Expression Co., 

1929). ■ " ' 

Cortright, R. L., Guiding Pr inciples for the Building of a Speech Curri culum 

(Speech Bull., V. 5:24*5, May ; 1932). 

Course of Study in. High School Speech (Salem, Oregon: Oregon 
Dept. of Education, 1937). 
Dale, E., Audio -Visual Methods i n Teaching (New York: Dryden Press, 19^5). 
Dent, E. C. , The Audio -Vi sual Handbook 5th Ed. (Chicago, Illinois: Society for 

Visual Education, 19^6). / - . ,■■ 
Douglass, H. R., Mode rn Methods in High School Teachin g (Boston: Houghton,, 1926 ) . 
Draper, E. M., Principles and Techn iques of C urriculum Mak ing (New York: Applet on, 

1936). ,, ". ; ~~~ ~~ 

Duncan, E. M. , Spee ch Training by the Project. Method (Em erso n Quarterl y, V. 8:5-6, 

Nov., I927)."' ~ ~ ~ - 

Edminton, R. W., Ef fects of Em pha sizing How -To Learn Upon Course Content and School 
Marks ( Journal of Edu cational Psychology, V, 28:371-381, May, 1937). 
Educ ational Film G uide (New York: Wilson). 
Ewbank, H. L., S peech Proje cts, A Manual f or the Stud ent (New York: Harper, 19kh) . 
Fargo, L. F., Activity Book for-School Libraries (Chicago: American Library Asso- 
ciation, I938 ) . 
Feat her st one, W. B., Th e Place of Sp e ech Tra ining in an Integ rat ed Curriculum 
(Education, V. 56 p. 1+3-^9, Sept., 1935 ). '" 

Teach ers Man ual (Public Schools' Speech Training .Curriculum, 
Guidance Series, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1938). 


Foster, E., Opportuni ties for Expression in Audience Situations ( North Centra l As - 
soci ation Q uarterly, V. 9 p. 321-28, Jan., 1935). 

Franz en, R. H., and Knight, F. B., Textbook Se lection (Baltimore: Warwick and 
York, 1922). 

Fuller, F. D., Scientifi c Evaluation of Text books (Boston: Houghton, 1918). 

Gifford, M. F., The Social Significance of Speech Development (Calif. J. of Elem. 
Ed., V. 6, p. 123-8, Nov." 1937TT~ 

Giles, H. H., Explorin g the Curricu lum (New York: Harper, 19^2). 

Giles, H. H., Teacher - Pupil Pl a nnin g (New York: Harper, 19^1). 

Gilkinson, H.,"and Knower, F. , Analysis of a Guidance Questionnaire for Stud ents 
of Speech (Journal of Experi mental Educati on, V. 9 p. I75-I76, Dec. 19^0). 

Gray, J. S., Wh at Sor t of Curriculum is Ap propriate for the Problem Sol ving Type 
of Education? (Education Administration and S upe rvision, V. 22:663-670, Dec, 

Green, E. A., Measuremen t and Evaluation in the Second ary School (New York: 

Longmans , 19^ 3 ) • 
Greene, E. B., Mea s urement s in Hu man Behavio r (New York: Odyssey Press, 19^1). 
Haas, -K. B., and Packer, H. Q., The Pre paration and Use of Visual Aids (New York: 

Prentice -Hall, 19^6). ~~ 

Harap, H., The Techniqu e of Curriculum Making (New York: Macmillan, 1928). 
Henderson, E. C., Reading and Speak ing Techniques for T eachers in J unio r High 

an d Grade S chools (New York: Pyramid Press, 193*0. 
His song, C, The Act ivity Movement (Baltimore: Warwick and York, 1932). 
Hoban, C. F., and Hoban, C. F., Jr., and Zisman, S. B., Visualizing the Curriculum 

(New York: Gordon, 1957). 
; Integrated Speech Program Coordinating Committee of the Western 

Association of Teachers of Speech (Ann Arbor: Edwards, 1936). 
Kelly, W. A., Educational Psychology (New York: Bruce, 1935). 
Kilpatrick, W. H., Foundat ions of "Method (New York: Macmillan, 1925). 
Kilpatrick, W, H., Remaking the Curr icul um (New York: Newson, 1938). 
Lane, R. H., A Teacher's Guide Book to the Activity Program (New York: Macmillan, 

Leary, B. E., Clas sified List of Cours es of Study 193^-37 Part h ~ Bulletin, Office 

of Education, 1937, no. 31 (Washington: Gov. Print. Off., I938). 
Lee, J. M., Testing Practices of High School .Teachers (Washington, D.C.: Gov. 

Print. Off., 1936). ' 
Lee, J. M., and Lee, D., The Child and His Curriculum (New York: Applet on, 19^0). 
Levine, A. J., Test ing Intelligence and Ach i evemen t (New York: Macmillan, 19 28). 
Marsh, L,, The "Project "" Metho d in Speech E ducation" (Q. J. S. v. 1^:181-9*+, April, 

McCall, W. A., How to Measur e in Educati on (New York: Macmillan, 1922). 
McKown, H C, Home Room Guidance (New York: McGraw-Hill, 19 3^) . 
McKown, E. C, and Roberts, A. B., Audio -Visual A ids to Instruction (New York: 

McGraw-Hill, 19^0). 
Melvin, A. C, The A ctivity P rogram (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1936). 
Melvin, A. G„, Activated Curriculum (New York: John Day, 1939). 
N. E. A., Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction, The Devel opment 

of a Modern Program in Engli sh. Ninth Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: National 

Educational Association,' I936). 
Net z er , R . F . , Evaluation of a Tech ni que for Measuring Impro vement i n Oral Compo si - 

tion_ (Univer. of Iowa Studies, Studies in Education New Series, No. JofJTTlO^ 

no. k, Feb., 1939). 
Odell, C, Trad itional Examinations and New Type Test (New York: Century, 1928). 
Orleans, J. S., Measurements ' in E ducation (New York: Macmillan, 1937). 
Owen, R. D., Principles of Adolescent Education (New York: Ronald/ 1929 ) . 
Osburn, E., Test ing" T hinking (Journal o f Educat ional Research V. 27:^01-^11, 
Feb., 193*0. " ~~ — _ 


Parker, S. C, General Methods of Teaching in High Scho ol (Boston: Ginn, 1920). 
Parker, R. E., Principles and Practice of Teaching English (New York: Prentice-Hall, 


Parks, C. R., Criteria for Determining the Content of the Public Course for Secon - 
d ary Schools (Ind. U. School of Education Bull., V. 6:7-16, March, 1930). 

Paterson, D. G., Student Guidance Techniques (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1938). 

Pierce, P. R., Developing a High School Curricul um (New York: American Book, 1942). 

Pulliam, R., Extra-I nstr uctional Ac tivi ties of the Teacher (New York: Doubleday, 

Robinson, K. F., Procedu r es fo r Teac hing of Speech in Secondary Schools (Secondary 

School Committee, N.A.T.Sp.. Chairman, 1943). 
Roemer, J., Allen, C. F., and Yarnell, Basic Student Activities (New York: Silver- 

Burdett, 1935). 
Rogatsky, F., Practical Aspects of the High Sc ho ol A ss embly (Q,J.S. V. 21:90-5, 

Feb., 1935). 
Ruch, G. M., Tests and Measurements in High School Instructions (New York: World 

Book, 1927). 
Ruch, G. M., The Objective or New Type Examinat ion (New York: Scott, 1929). 
Ruch, G. M., Improvements in Written Examina tion T^ew York: Scott and Foresman, 

Ross, C. C, Measurement in Today's School s (New York: Prentice -Hall, 194l). 
Ruediger, W. C, Teaching Pro cedures (Chicago: Houghton-Mifflin, 1932). 
Russell, C, Classroo m Tests "(Chicago: Ginn, 1926). 
Schorling, R., Student Teaching (New York: McGraw-Hill, 194o). 

S elected Educational Motion Picture , (744 Jackson Place, N. W. 
Wash. D.C., American Council on Education). 
Slocum, H., T est and Measurements in Speech Edu cation (W.P.A. Speech Project 150 

1448, Calif. State Dept . of Educ. Distributed by Western Assn. of Teachers of 

Speech) . 
Spears, H., The Emerging High School Curriculum (New York: American Book, 1940.) . 
Stevenson, J. A., The Project Method of Teachi ng (New York: Macmillan, 1925). 
Stinchfield, S. M., The Standardization of Speech Testing Material (Q.J.S. v. 

7:360-9, Nov., 1921). 
Stinchfield, S. M., The Formulation and Standardization of a Series of Graded 

Speech Tests (Psychol ogical Monographs 1923-33, 1-54). 
Strang, R . " M . ~ " Vari ed Techni que s f or T eachers ( Ed. Leaders hip, V. 5:535-9, ' May, 

1948)'. ~ ; 

Terry, P. W., S upervisin g Extra-Curricular Activities in the Amer ican Secondary 

Scho ol (New York: McGr aw-Hi 11 , 19 30 ) . ~~~ 

The Administrator and Speech (N.E.A., Proceedings , 1941.). 
Trabne, M. R., Measuring Resu lts in Edu cation (New York: American Book, 1928). 
Trommar, C. J., and Regan, T. A., Directing Lang uage Powe r in the Elementary School 

th rough Story, Dramatization, Poetr y~~(New York: Macmillan, 1933). 
Umstattd, J7"g"."," Sec ondary S c hool Teaching (Boston: Ginn, 19 37). 
Yoakum, G. A., I mprovement of the Assignment (New York: Macmillan, 1932). 
Waples, D., Procedures in High School Teachin g (New York: Macmillan, 1925). 
Wright stone, J. W. , Apjg^l l _g a l of Experimental High School Practices (Ne^ York: . 

Teachers College, Bureau "of Publications, 1936). 


Criticism should ennoble the person it touches . - -LILBOURN 



The Art o f Questio n ing 

a. A Means to Objectives 

b. An Educational Device for Stimulating the Student 

c. Types of Questions 

1. Questions on the textbook 

2. Questions "beyond the textbook 

d. Types to be Avoided 

e. Wording of the Question 

f. Rate of Inquiry 

g. The Teacher-Reaction to the Question 
h. Distribution of Questions 

i . Number of Questions 

j. Answers to Questions 

a. Criticism Not Censure 

b. Evaluation is Social 

c. Importance in the Speech Situation 

d. Various Kinds of Evaluations 

1. Class evaluation 

2. Teacher evaluation 

e. Kinds to be Avoided 

1. Negative criticism 

2. Imitation of a fault 

f . Difficulties in the Use of Evaluation 

1. Distribution 

2 . Amount 

3. Time 

g. Evaluation for the Speech Defectives 
Obedience and Forced Control 

a. Control of Group 

b. Based on Respect 

c. Sources of Difficulties 

1. Types of disturbers 

2. Cliques -. , 

3. Initial meeting of the class 
h. Conditions in the classroom 

5. Extracurricular activities 

6. Community influences 

d. Ways of Gaining Cooperation of a Class 

1. Emotional control 

2. Objective attitude 

3. Make correction personal 

k. Make correction unobtrusive 

5. Be business like 

6. Keep the class busy 1 

7. Avoid threats 

e. Time to Enforce Rules '■■>■ 



Adva ntages of Extracu rricular Activiti es 

a. They Afford Excellent Speech Experiences : ' 

b. General Speech Effectiveness is Improved 

c. More Work Accomplished 

d. The Spirit of Emulation Has Its Advantages 
Disadvantages of Extracurricular Activities 
a. Kinds of Disadvantages 

1. Related to participants 

Limits of participation 

Extent of participation ; . 

Nervous strain too great 

2. Related to the teacher 

Teaching- load too heavy 
Absence of a specific aim 
Lack of properly trained teachers 
Lack of proper planning 

3. Related to the activities themselves 

The number, kind, and extent 
They may disrupt the curriculum 
An expense to the student 
Reflects the glory of the coach 
Suggestio ns f or Organizing Activitle s 

a. Sources of Material 

b. Planning the Year's Schedule 

1. Competition must be encouraged 

2. Consideration of colleagues 

3. Consideration of students in planning 

c . Sponsoring Clubs 

d. Framing a Constitution 

e. Point System Suggested 
Suggesti ons for Super vis i ng Ac t i yl t i eg 

a. The Director to Remain in Background 

b. Choosing of a Contestant 

c. Planning a Forensic Tournament 

d. Judging 

1. Types of judging 

2. Qualifications of judges 

3. Standards of judging 
h. Direction to judges 

5. Direction should be specific 

6. Judging interpretation 

7. Purpose of judging may change with type of contest 

The preparation for class instruction and control is very important; yet such 
preparation is of small consequence unless skills are developed in the art of ques- 
tioning, criticising, and disciplining; and unless direction is acquired for the 
art of supervising the extracurricular activities. 


The procedures first to be explained will relate to the teaching processes 
within the classroom. 


The A rt of Q uestioning 

Careful questioning is particularly significant in speech training where it 
forms the nucleus of the teaching procedure. Upon it rests the success or failure of 
the course; by means of this key to training, the teacher teaches, and the student 
learns. As an art it can he learned and improved by daily practice. Its primary is to stimulate the students to think logically, clearly, and independently, 
rather than to secure uniform information. Its aim is to send students away from a 
class period eager to find truth rather than to dismiss them with the -smug assurance 
that they have learned all that there is to learn. "Telling is not teaching." Tell- 
ing simply satisfies the student's idle curiosity temporarily, hut skilled question- 
ing stimulates immediate constructive thinking as well as later reflection. 

a. A means to objectives. 

Skilful questioning is an important means of obtaining the objectives of speech 
training determined in advance by the organizer of the course. A teacher who under- 
stands the reason for which each class is held will ask questions which stimulate 
thought and lead to inquiry. He can direct the discussion, by means of planned 
questions asked at an opportune time, toward the single aim to be achieved at each 
meeting of the group. If a sequential relationship between questions is followed 
throughout the period, the daily lessons will be unified. If this procedure is em- 
ployed day after day, and the relationship between classes is explained, a clear-cut 
organized speech course with the attainment of definite objectives will result. 

b. Questioning - an educational device for stimulating the student. 

Students are encouraged and directed to raise significant problems themselves 
when properly questioned. Such a situation is not always possible at the beginning 
of a speech course but as the semester progresses, more inquiries should come from 
the class. Raising and defending problems which are suggested by the subject matter 
under discussion is valuable speech training. One of the best tests of adequate 
questioning is the response shown in the discussion which follows them. Variety, an 
important factor in speech training, is secured by student questioning; relationships 
of correlated subjects are analyzed and evaluated; and ultimately a broader point of 
view, as well as a fund of information, results. 

c. Types of questions used in speech training. 

Educators have classified questions in different ways, determined l>y factors 
such as purpose in test, review, and examination questions; scope, as in develop- 
mental, analytical, comparison, and. contrast types; content, as in informational 
questions regarding facts, opinions, reasoning, and examples; and mental processes 
involved, as in memory, perception, imagination, and judgment questions. The most 
common division is under two heads: (l) fact questions; (2) thought questions. As 
speech has both theory and practice, questions might be grouped under different 
points as: (l) questions on the textbook; (2) questions beyond the textbook. 

1. Questions on the textbook. 

By means of questions on the textbook, a teacher discovers the strength and 
the weakness of the subject-matter in regard to the class as a whole, as well as 
to the individual members. Content which has not been clarified by the author can 
be analyzed and discussed so- that a thorough understanding of the material re- 
sults. Careful preparation of the subject-matter is encouraged when it is fol- 
lowed by prepared questions. It is by means of a few outstanding inquiries pre- 
viously developed that the explanations in the textbook are recalled, evaluated, 


and often reorganized orally. In this way, the important is separated from the 
unimportant; cause and effect relationships are established; comparisons are made; 
the unknown is associated with the known; and synthesis results. 

2. Questions beyond the textbook. '"■ - 

Thinking is stimulated, to a large extent, by questions beyond the textbook, 
for it is by means of thoughtful questioning that the unknown can be discovered 
and correlated. By this means, a speech class can help to fill one of the great- 
est needs of our whole educational system - namely, the correlation of the speech 
content with other studies. The fact that Helmholtz lived at the same time as 
Delsarte is not appreciated without help from a thoughtful teacher. Through ques- 
tions beyond the textbook, principles are applied; curiosity aroused; associated 
problems raised; relationships in life situations analyzed; examples from correl- 
ated fields discovered; new methods of procedure formulated; independent thinking 
encouraged; and a philosophy of life instilled. 'With this type of questions the 
experienced teacher can make the speech course of life -long value in the integra- 
tion of the. personality of the student under his care. 

d. Types of questions to avoid. •..-.-..'. 

Questions which should not be 'used are those such as the direct inquiry. For 
example, "Is the human voice musical?"' type of question which can be answered by an 
unqualified yes or no_. Little constructive thinking will result from this kind of 
questioning. The leading question, which predicts the answer, is not of much value 
in stimulating thinking, for the answer may be suggested merely through a change of 
pitch or force on individual words. The general type of question, often begun with 
an indefinite "Tell us about", "Discuss", or "What do you know about?", is another 
offender. Because it is not directed to any particular phase of the subject, a sat- 
isfactory response cannot come from such a question. Long, involved questions, lack- 
ing terminal facilities, often including ambiguous or misleading words, should also 
be avoided by a speech teacher who wants to -improve the art of questioning. Ques- 
tions are equally valueless which do not take into consideration the experience of 
the class, or which are too far above or too far below the experience level of the 
group. Underestimation is just as poor pedagogy as overestimation, although it is 
not so frequently stressed. 

e. Wording of questions. • : ■ ■■■•'■'• ' ■:.' '■■ . ■•'."'..' 

Ability to express in clear, concise English exactly what is required, is a 
pre-requisite which teachers may overlook in questions. Inquiries should be framed 
so that they clarify what is asked rather than confuse the listener through their ■■•'■• 
fragmentary nature. A teacher of speech, particularly, should use clear, direct 
statements in intelligible English. If an inquiry is made 'clearly and distinctly, 
it should have to be stated only once. If well stated questions are used continu- 
ously in a class, and if habitual requests on the part of the pupils for repetition- 
are ignored, or better still, characterized briefly as- a' waste of time, everyone will 
learn to pay attention at all times. 

^An inquiry should be worded so concisely that the listener knows exactly what is 
required of him, and he can retain the meaning of' the entire question - stated in com- 
plete thought units - while he formulates the answer. Even when care is given to the 
wording, different interpretations 1 may result. A simple rather than a compound ques- 
tion is preferable, because the second clause generally requires a second response. 
On the whole, more time should be allowed for the answers beyond the textbook in order 
to give the listeners time to associate idea's and formulate- an intelligible answer. 
Drill questions, and those based directly upon the textbook, require less time in the 
formulation of an adequate response. 


g. The teacher's reaction to a question. 

After a question is asked, some instructors show disapproval or assent before 
the answer is completed. The emotional attitude of an inquiring teacher often af- 
fects the answer more than the teacher may realize; for if there is ease and assur- 
ance characterizing the query, the student feels the teacher assumes he knows the 
answer and he is likely to respond in the expected manner. But, if by his attitude, 
a teacher suggests that the student is unprepared and probably cannot answer, a dis- 
couraged response may be the result. 

h. Distribution of questions. 

The first question, preferably on the textbook, attracts the entire group; con- 
sequently it should be asked of the class rather than of an individual. During the 
moments allowed to formulate the answer, pupils are going over the question in their 
own minds. Later, members of the group compare their answers with those given by the 
one who has been called upon. Satisfactory distribution of questions should be made 
in order to avoid calling too frequently upon the best prepared or the most talkative. 

There is a tendency on the part of many teachers to question the student who 
habitually answers correctly, although he needs practice less than the others. How- 
ever, distributing the questions equally is the best solution unless this action be- 
comes methodical; then it defeats its own purpose. Occasionally it is advisable to 
arouse an inattentive student with a direct question. If the same student is called 
upon twice in a short period of time, he is made to realize that he cannot ' remain 
inactive after reciting. Methodical questioning in alphabetical or. any other fixed 
order habitually used should be avoided. Even though this method may not always be 
effective, shuffling the cards containing the names of the numbers is advisable. 

i. Number of questions. 

If too many fragmentary questions are asked, confused thinking may result. If 
questions are employed on all of the details of the assignment, the important points 
in each recitation may be underestimated or missed. A few important questions on 
the textbook can be prepared to advantage before the class period so that the tea- 
cher can evaluate the subject-matter. Those beyond the textbook, which are used 
more frequently by experienced teachers, cannot be easily anticipated until the 
class period progresses, although it is through these questions that variety is • 
secured and the speech- class is benefited from the background and interests of an 
experienced teacher. 

j. Answers to questions. 

A teacher of speech should never lose interest in the answer to a question. 
If time is given to formulate definite, concise questions, sufficient time should 
also be allowed for a thoughtful answer. Indeed, haphazard classroom procedure 
results from poor questioning followed by equally poor answering. A class quickly 
discovers whether or not it can escape its obligations with careless answers, and, 
if it can, bluffing results. The scope of questions and the type of answers which 
are forthcoming serve as a barometer of the quality of work being done. A discrim- 
inating speech teacher interprets the reactions of the class and thereby directs 
its thinking. An alert teacher has to be ready for any unexpected response he may 
receive, especially in questions beyond the textbook. It is his business to eval- 
uate the response quickly and redirect the procedure toward the goal which he has 
set for that class period. 

some answers are considered lightly while others form the "basis and direction 
of discussion; a teacher must be observant of circumstances in order to ignore, or 
answer implications made as well as to correct deficiencies immediately. If a 
student really disagrees with the teacher's opinion, and in a polite way challenges 
it, he should be encouraged to do so. A conscientious teacher does not expect - 
or want - his class to accept unquestionably all that he gives. Equal rights and 
independent thinking are encouraged in a class in speech. Often disagreement is 
an advantage, for it gives an alert teacher an opportunity to correct an errone- 
ous interpretation or to suggest further study. 

Answers require as careful technique as correct questions. The answering of 
pertinent questions may be consciously or unconsciously delayed until a later time, 
although this habit is inadvisable. If a question is important, it should be an- 
swered when it arises; if unimportant or irrelevant, the teacher can dispose of it 
with a brief word of explanation and proceed to more important matter. 

Another problem is the difficult answer. If the off-hand question cannot be 
answered, it is better to face the situation frankly, and admit that one does not 
know. Teachers are not infallible; they do not have to answer all questions which 
are asked. Often, some member of the class may be able to give the necessary in- 
formation; if not, it may be assigned for further study. 

Repetition of the answer is just as ineffective a phase of the questioning 
procedure as repetition of the question, since it may become a bad habit. After 
the entire class has heard an answer, why should the teacher, repeat it - generally 
in the same wording - for its benefit? Some teachers are guilty of repeating a 
large percentage of the ansx^ers given in a class. 

Forcing a student to answer a question after he earnestly admits that he does 
not know the answer is a waste of time. If a student, especially in a beginning 
speech course, is afraid to answer, he should be encouraged to participate in 
classwork, but he should not be put under too much pressure before its members. 
He really may not know the answer. 


This activity plays an important part in class control. Like the preceding 
points analyzed under this general heading of management, evaluation will be con- 
sidered from the viewpoint of its nature and its application to class procedures. 

a. Criticism not censure. 

The term criticism must be thoroughly understood and used correctly in class. 
Criticism and censure are not synonymous. Criticism, which is constructive as well 
as destructive, is a discerning judgment in which the favorable as well as the un- 
favorable characteristics are sought and evaluated; together, both kinds conform 
to a standard by which both speaker and audience, as well as teacher and student, 
can judge one another. Criticism is fundamental in any adequate conception of 
teaching, but especially true in speech training where it occupies a large part 
of the class time. 

b. Evaluation is social. 

As speech is a social phenomenon which requires two participants, so is crit- 
icism, with the giver and receiver closely related. Evaluation is a personal matter 
and so is the response to it. The personal reactions which result from it are not 
always the same even from the same recipient. The best rule for a giver is to try 


to put himself in the receiver's place. Criticism should fit the temperament of the 
individual to whom it is addressed,, for each case will have to be treated separately. 
This part of the class work differs just as the persons differ. The "blase", out- 
spoken, sophisticated winner of the oratorical contest cannot be treated the same 
in oral criticism as the reticent, shy, self-conscious freshmen. 

c. Importance in the speech situation. 

No single factor in all speech training is more important to the integration 
of the personality than rational evaluation given at the right time and in the 
proper spirit, for it is beneficial to all of the members of the class, who soon 
become able to apply the suggestion to themselves. This is the value of criticism 
given before the group rather than individual private judgment, since students 
learn to study themselves and to correct their own shortcomings. Criticism serves 
for stimulation as well as direction, although its importance as an" 'incentive to 
learning is frequently underestimated; in fact, its worth to the speech teacher 
himself is seldom appreciated. Often^, the resulting reaction to a judgment explains 
an otherwise misunderstood situation. Response of a pupil is like a mirror reflect- 
ing the one criticizing. The teacher, with his experience and reflective mature 
judgment, should bo able to predict, to a large extent, the reactions of youth, even 
though they appear at times spontaneous. The unexpected response to a suggestion 
which is made should not surprise him; .instead, the speech teacher learns to anal- 
yze it quickly before responding, or ignores it entirely. 

d. Various kinds of evaluation. 

Criticism in speech is of various .kinds. It may be written or oral, or in com- 
bination. It may be given by students, as well as the teacher; in fact, members of 
the class should be encouraged to participate in criticizing. 

1. Class evaluation. 

This may take the form of voting for the members who have improved the 
most during a specified time or while working upon a portion of the assignment. 
It is often surprising how honestly and accurately the class can judge. Per- 
sonal unsigned comments, written occasionally during the semester as well as 
at its end, are other effective means of expressing judgments; 

Class evaluation, although effective at times, is dangerous too early in 
the semester, for no standards of criticism have yet been formed. Neither is 
the teacher sufficiently acquainted with the students to trust their judgment. 
Often the personal element in criticism, which enters the class before the 
teacher can warn against it, has to be nipped early .In the semester. However, 
after a month or two, all members may participate in the group action to advan- 
tage. Usually, then, criticism does not become revenge. 

2. Teacher evaluation. 

A teacher may evaluate a pupil in different ways: when a pupil expects a 
caustic remark, the silence of the teacher becomes an effective form of criticism. 
A sincere compliment, if given at an opportune time, is' often the most price- 
less kind of criticism at the disposal of the speech teacher. When a task is 
especially well done, or improvement is noticed, a compliment assumes a valu- 
able form of evaluation; yet if used too frequently, it loses its effectiveness. 

Variety in evaluation helps to create interest 'in the group; yet if a tea- 
cher is not careful, he may make a habit of using stereotyped forms of criticism. 


His genuine interest in the class may be expressed individually to its members, 
and he will find his students will take criticism favorabley if it is tactfully 

Evaluation by the teacher must be purposeful and specific. To help the 
receiver realize his faults and to assist him correct them, criticism should be 
confined to the aim of each day's assignment. If every fault of a pupil is 
criticized in every recitation, as is too often done, the value of all criticism 
is lost. The student wonders if he can ever do anything well and soon becomes 
discouraged. The problem for each day should form the basis for the majority 
of the comments. One point, such as pronunciation, rate, pitch, motives, or 
examples, criticized at a time is better than a smattering based on a number of 
phases of the work at the same time. Often, remarks regarding the entire group 
at the end of the class period prove effective, for a supersensitive student 
may in this way indirectly apply the class criticism on a specific point to him- 

e. Kinds of evaluation to be avoided. 

Hasty, tactless remarks are the most disastrous type of oral criticism given ■ 
in speech work. A psychological wound inflicted by a careless remark may be felt 
for years. To belittle a sensitive adolescent, directly or indirectly, concerning 
a speech defect, social standing, foreign parentage, clothes,- or any other similar 
condition is inexcusable. 

1. Negative evaluation. 

This must be given with much foresight. It can begin with a favorable 
comment which puts the speaker in a receptive state of mind to receive a re- 
port of his faults. If constructive suggestion can be offered to the sensitive 
youth, discussion of his errors and defects will not lose its value. 

Ridicule is seldom effective, even x^ith the well-known smart and captious 
pupil. There are more effective, permanent methods of dealing even with him. 
As a rule, his faults are so near the surface that they can be corrected quietly, 
for underneath, he may be, and very often is, supersensitive and shy. A teacher 
can get his confidence early in the school year and hold it. If a speech tea- 
cher is not on guard, negative criticism may become habitual. If he uses de- 
structive criticism, he should follow it by constructive suggestions. Let him 
observe, 'for, example, that pronunciation may be poor, but the standing .posi- 
tion of the pupil decidedly improved. A teacher should always tell a pupil in 
clear complete sentences exactly what is wrong with him. Specific statements, 
rather than indefinite, vague suggestions should be made, since general nega- 
tive comment will not be applied by the students to themselves. 

2. Imitation of a fault. 

Impersonating is a method of evaluating frequently used in speech in order 
to have the speaker see or hear his difficulty. This is, occasionally, an ef- 
fective practice, if done in the right spirit; but if not carefully handled, it 
will do more harm than good. Imitating should never be done deliberately to 
make fun of a student or to bring laughter into the class. 

f . Difficulty in the use of evaluation. 

The difficulties encountered in evaluating speech work concern distribution, 

the amount, the time, and the specific. • - '• ■ ' ' 


1. Distribution. 

Criticism should be distributed sc that no person feels that he gets more 
than his share. Often, it is advisable to explain to the group that a detailed 
criticism is given to an individual member of the 1 class, not because he is a worse 
offender, but because all members are committing the same error; .he is simply 
serving as an example for the group. The necessary remarks should be given in 
relation to the rest of the class and criticism distributed as equally as poss- 
ible. The teacher should also remember that a lack of criticism may also be re- 
sented by the student. 

2. Amount of evaluation. ■- •;.;-•' . ;• 

Especially in a beginning speech class the amount of criticism is .a problem. 
The answer to the question, "How much should be given?" is simple;, no more than is 
necessary- -especially of the destructive kind. More indirect, rather than direct, 
constructive criticism is always worth while; so there need be no apprehension 
that it is overdone. As the semester progresses, less criticism, is needed. 

3. The time to evaluate. ->.-•■■•, •- 

This problem bothers new speech teachers. Constructive suggestions should, 
be given when the error is fresh in the minds of the speaker and audience. The 
time of criticism varies with the ability of the class ; as well as. with the type 
of student . . •.. ,'.; 

g. Evaluating the speech defective. 

A unique problem in a class is the student with a speech deviation, especially 
a stutterer. Effective ways for the' correction and control of speech defects and 
disorders will be presented in the final chapter of this text. .■■••: 

• Obed ie nce and Forced Control ' .. ■■::■'■ 

Fundamentally a social problem, class control requires the co-operation of the . 
class and the teacher. 

a. Control of group., ■ : • <•< <,; ■ .-,-. 

Discipline is necessary for, the class, .: since it sets a. standard and opposes by 1 
group force all violations of the regulations established by the members. Class 
disapproval is. as great an. aid to the .teacher as class; approval, for. both social ' 
methods are effective in high school training. No interference to the best interest 
of the group can be tolerated, since school life is a democracy where social stand- 
ards are set to be respected. If students are inspired to comply with the rules, 
written or unwritten, for the benefit of all, they soon think of discipline as a' 
positive force at work in the class. = .r ; . ?*.;..:.. ,-. .•:■■■ 

Training in order and obedience to a social standard aids the individual mem- 
ber, as well- as the. entire class, to submit to supervision which he respects, devel- 
ops not only self-control, .but self-respect, and trains for respect- for authority in 
later life. This rational /submission forms the basis of moral fibre greatly needed 
for citizenship. This training develops habits, attitudes, and intellectual powers 
that establish personal stability and responsibility; thereby it allows the student 
to participate in a democracy with advantage to himself and society. 


The speech class, on the whole more informal and personal, is different from 
any class which the students may have previously experienced. The subject-matter 
relates to personal development and the methods of teaching are mostly developmental 
so that any erroneous idea concerning the value of the work or attitude of indiffer- 
ence or amusement toward the class procedure prevents successful participation in 
the miniature society. 

b. Obedience based on respect. 

Respect is the foundation of obedience. The regard which the students have for 
a subject is in direct proportion to the respect which they have for the teacher who 
conducts a class. If a teacher knows his subject thoroughly he is unconsciously ad- 
mired by adolescents. A thorough knowledge of his subject and an enthusiasm in 
teaching it give a teacher poise, dignity, patience, and good nature. These qual- 
ities, adolescents appreciate, and they wish to cooperate with the teacher possess- 
ing them. . ■ 

A good instructor can gain class respect in many ways. He does not ask the 
class to do anything he would not do himself. He must give as well as expect court- 
esy, for respect is reciprocal. He must sense the difficult situations which arise 
from the viewpoint of the student as well as his own. No favoritism should be shown 
any child, no matter what position his parents may occupy. The teacher must not be 
one person in the classroom and another person outside of it. He must be. honest 
about his own faults, and not be afraid to admit them. He must scrupulously avoid 
parrying into the classroom the details of his personal problems. If he respects 
himself, his class will respect him. 

c. Sources of difficulties. 

Problems regarding obedience arise from different sources; principally from 
(a) the misunderstanding of types that may disturb the class; (b) cliques; (c) 
teacher's attitude in the initial classes; (d) classroom conditions; (e) the nature 
of extracurricular affairs; and (f ) influences of the community. 

1. Types of pupils who annoy the class. 

In the section treating of the student -teacher relation, the types of stu- 
dents were discussed, and suggestions were made for class control. Each pros- 
pective teacher must realize that most of the situations that arise in the 
classroom have been amply considered in textbooks dealing with educational psy- 
chology, and that standard practices have been devised to meet them. Every rule 
of applied psychology at the disposal of the teacher may have to be utilized, at 
some time or other, in controlling those creating disturbances. 

2. Cliques. 

Disturbers occasionally may be found in cliques. At the beginning of the 
semester it is advisable to separate friends as well as to recognize trouble- 
makers. The members who come from the same graded school or part of a city and 
are generally congregated in the back row at the first class meeting should be 
distributed throughout the room. A simple and unobtrusive way is to plan a def- 
inite seating arrangement which automatically separates offenders of all kinds. 

3. Initial meeting of a class. > 

The first meeting of the speech class is occasionally the source of later 
difficulties with discipline. The young speech teacher must master the class 


situation from the first meeting. He has now complete charge of pupils without 
the aid of a supervisor who in his practice teaching could assist him at a mo- 
ment 's notice. The first period is likely to "be a test period, for pupils some- 
times devise plans to find how much interference the new teacher will tolerate. 
If the class gets out of control, a teacher may have a difficult time to regain 
it. •' 

A teacher should stand at least during the first few meetings of the class 
so that he can have regard to small offenses. The first obligation of the in- 
structor is to show the class that he himself is there for business and expects 
it to he. If the class is begun promptly, if it gets to work immediatey, if it 
is kept busy every minute until the last bell rings, a successful year will re- 
sult. The teacher who has his first lesson well organized and prepared generally 
gains as well as retains good order. I 

k. Conditions in the classroom affecting group cooperation. 

Difficulties regarding obedience may lie beyond the student. Physical 'con- 
ditions such as dark, poorly ventilated, or crowded 1 classrooms give birth to 
general uneasiness among pupils. Proper lighting in- all parts of the classroom 
is a necessary factor for oral as well as for written work. If the teacher will 
go to different parts of the room, he may find unpleasant physical conditions 
which he has never noticed before. 

5. Extracurricular activities. 

Discipline problems which are not prevalent in the classroom may arise in 
extracurricular activities. ' However, if the suggestions 'for discipline in the 
classroom are kept in mind, the same co-operative spirit will prevail in these 
activities, and the same orderliness and control even in these informal activ- 
ities will be just as character forming as the classroom work. Wo other teacher 
has a closer contact with pupils than the coach' of outside activities whose task 
is to discover and correct as far as possible the causes of disobedience. 

6. The influences of the community. 

The problem of class control may be associated with certain factors of the 
community. An aggressive speech teacher should learn as much as possible about 
the community in which he is working in order to know better the students who 
came from it. Acquaintance with parents reveals a great deal which assists the 
instructor understand their children. High school problems in discipline reflect 
the previous years of training.- Are racial, religious, : or 'political prejudices 
carried into the speech class? Are parents co-operative? Is the school in a so- 
called foreign community? Do social levels among the adolescents cause difficul- 
ties in discipline? Do financial problems at home account for some disciplinary 
cases? What is the attitude of the administration toward discipline? What is 
the attitude of the city system toward it? These and other factors- must be con- 
sidered in order to solve the problem of obedience. 

d. Ways to gain cooperation of the class. 

The ways an instructor can secure the cooperation of his pupils in maintaining 
order in his class are of vital concern to the prospective teacher, for they are 
often significant in determining the reaction with which discipline is received. 


1. Have emotional control. 

Correction should be given under emotional control. If the teacher is 
uncontrolled, resentment on the part of the student accompanied by an impudent 
reaction, which he later may regret, may result. Talking over difficulties qui- 
etly will often cause a pupil to accept a penalty in the right spirit. An ap- 
peal to his sense of honor to respect the rights of others results in good class 
order. If disciplining is given in private, the teacher must control his emo- 
tions, but even more so before the group that has witnessed the offense. A 
student may accept disciplinary measures without comment; yet if he feels that 
they are unjust, unnecessary, or over-emphasized, he may become embittered by 
them with resulting dislike for the teacher. 

2. Have an objective attitude. 

If difficulty arises in any class, the teacher, as leader, must find its 
cause in the ranks. Frequently the same group of students reporting from one 
classroom to another is quiet in one and unruly in the next. What is the cause 
of the unruly spirit? Some teachers too quickly blame the class for any offense, 
Their attitude must be objective toward it and seek reasons for disturbances. 
By wise use of group opinion towards any disturbance, a teacher frequently 
finds that a class assists him indirectly in maintaining order. 

3. Make correction personal. 

Correction, as a rule, should be personal, for it is inadvisable to curtail 
the activities of an entire class especially when a teacher is not positive who 
an offender is. Adolescent youngsters resent group punishment, particularly 
when they feel that it is not deserved. Although discipline is specific and 
personal, a strong motivation factor in discipline is the general and social 
for the strongest appeal which can be made to all adolescents relates to the 
desire for social approval. To be well thought of by other members of the group 
is as- powerful a motive for good behavior as can be used with any individual 
adolescent offender. 

h. Make correction unobtrusive. 

Constant talking about disorder in the classroom often stimulates it. To 
focus attention of the class on every difficulty and to make an issue of every 
offense cause the class to lose its sense of values for all discipline. The 
experienced teacher controls a class by tactful remarks and effective use of 
his eyes. He pitches his voice low while counseling against thoughtleas behav- 
ior. He seeks to keep disciplinary measures in the background and hav@ them 
remain there as long as pupils act like decent human beings, fundamentally good. 
He takes the attitude that his class will be well-behaved. : 

5. Be businesslike. 

Although correction may be informal, it can be orderly. A speech class . 
should be conducted in a business-like manner. If a teacher is punctual in be- 
ginning and closing the period, and follows a time saving routine, discipline 
will be improved. A system can be arranged for collecting assignments as well 
as passing to and from classes, and the schoolroom can be arranged to make it 
easy for all, especially those at the back, to reach the platform without dif- 
ficulty. These and other devices to establish a business-like, well regulated 
class result in better co-operation on the part of all pupils. 


6. Keep the class busy. 

Keeping a class busy is one secret of good class order. Arouse new interests, 
stimulate creative thinking as much as possible, ; and keep the class active every 
minute. Vary the procedure from day to day so that the students do not know what 
to expect at each meeting; the unexpected often whets interest. Direct the en- 
ergy of the class to constructive ends; frequently., poor discipline results from 
misdirected energy and lack of sufficient work for the entire class. Arouse the 
interest at the beginning of the course and still more important, try to hold it 
throughout . 

7. Avoid threats. 

The traditional threatening should be avoided. The habitual "This must never 
happen again" attitude, too frequently followed by promised punishment which never 
materializes, weakens respect and encourages lax obedience. Promise disciplinary 
measures when necessary, but stick to the promise. Punishment, such as loss of 
privileges of one kind or another,, grade demerits,' an apology, or loss of member- 
ship in the group - all are effective methods in dealing with the adolescent. To 
call upon an offender to recite impromptu, especially at the beginning of the sem- 
ester, brings results.- A written assignment or test is also an effective" way to 
control a group. 

e. Time to enforce rules. 

The time element is an important factor often wielding more influence than by 
the manner and content of what is done. If correction is to be .given, it should be 
made as soon as a fault is committed. When the time is appropriate for discipline 
a teacher should hold to his decision to use it, assuming of course his commands 
have been understood. But he should avoid being too exacting or too lax, for either • 
extreme weakens respect for authority, A teacher of foresight makes a few rules, but 
these must be obeyed. Frequently too many regulations serve merely as incentives 
to violate as many of them as possible. Requests should be stated clearly, con- 
cisely, firmly, at the right time, and not repeated. 


Not all the problems common to the speech course relate to the classroom teach- 
ing. Some arise from the nature and function of the .extracurricular" work of the 
student arid from the administration of such activity on the part of the teacher and 
other executive officials. The different forms of extra-class speech work are an 
integral part ' of speech education, although termed extra-curricular. When these are 
used as a means rather than an end in themselves, they gain the objectives of second- 
ary speech training much the same as class work. In fact, this functional type of 
activity might be considered curricular; for example, debating might be thought a 
necessary course of study for a lawyer. At times more personal benefit is derived 
from the individual training and experience received in a literary club, debate, play 
or contest, than in any class in which credit is allowed. The question of credit is, 
to a large extent, the only factor which determines whether or not a speech activity 
is curricular, for often its purpose, scope, and procedures may be identical with 
those of the classroom. At any rate,, extracurricular activities supplement the cur- 
riculum and these two types of work, if properly balanced, may be co-ordinated to 

Advantages. •■..:■ -> • . 
Certain advantages may now be considered: 


a. Extracurricular activities afford excellent experience. 

They can utilize life experiences (1) when they have a definite purpose to 
achieve and (2) when they are well conducted and supervised. Although educators 
disagree as to the number and place of these activities in the high school program, 
and although some suppress many of them and others tolerate most of them, a large 
number of educators today encourage and utilize all of them. Even granting the 
fact that no textbook is used, or no academic formula is followed, or no. credit is 
given, these worth-while factors of speech training must not be underestimated. 
They afford actual experience, because they are based on learning by doing, rather 
than by knowing. If more students had the advantage of extracurricular participa- 
tion, the criticism that schools turn out graduates "with book knowledge only" 
could not be justified. 

b. General speech effectiveness is improved in both speaking and reading. 

Self-expression in different forms is experienced in extracurricular activity: 
The advantages of original speaking in its various forms come from training in 
rhetoric and grammar. To co-ordinate skills; to make vigorous, alert, convincing 
speakers as well as clear thinkers; to widen the background; to select an adequate 
arid forceful vocabulary on the spur of the moment; to train one 'in research so 
that the world's problems can be studied and analyzed; to formulate one's own ideas; 
to have power over others directly; to secure an audience reaction; to free the 
body in speaking; and to learn to adjust oneself to different situations and cir- 
cumstances quickly - in other words, to develop all of the skills in original speech 
making before an audience is a product of extra-class work. 

Interpreting the material of any author also has numerous advantages. Inten- 
sive reading in preparation for public performance gives training in laying hold 
of the author's meaning before it is communicated to an audience. Literary con- 
tests teach pupils how to analyze material as Well as express It; thereby they 
deepen as well as widen life experiences. They likewise arouse interest in cur- 
rent topics and create a reading habit which Is strengthened during the year while 
a contestant is preparing for competition. New interests are frequently stimulated 
and worth-while fields are examined. 

c. More intensified work is often done In extracurricular activities than in 
class work. 

Desire for perfection by the pupil in appearing before an audience often re- 
sults in more and better work than that incited where credit is offered for a reg- 
ular course. Intensive study on a selection or a part in a play, for example, 
where sustained preparation is necessary, is good speech training. The value from 
memorizing selections and from the concentration brought about by the training for 
public competition should not be overlooked as these activities develop worth- 
while habits. . . 

* "... 

d. The spirit of emulation fostered in extraactivities has its advantages. 

Knowledge of work done by others and comparison of achievements in a contest, 
for example, are the basis of establishing speech standards and intelligent crit- 
icism for students whether they participate or attend such contests.,. Habits, at- 
titudes, and ideals can be inculcated under adult supervision. To "see himself as 
others see him" is helpful to any pupil. The ability to accept defeat as well as 
to gain outstanding recognition gracefully is excellent social training for good 
citizenship. Merit should be recognized and rewarded in this type of training for 
the benefit of the loser as much as for the winner. When the contestant of an 


oratorical contest or debate has worked hard, he deserves every recognition which a 
high school can afford. He should he encouraged to engage in mental competition as 
much as the athlete is inspired to reveal his best capabilities in physical con- 
tests. If more inducements were to be given to intellectual combat, and more rec- 
ognition for weeks of hard work, more pupils would seek the advantages of extra- 
curricular activity. 

Pi sadvantages . 

Certain disadvantages are connected with extraclass participation. 

a . Ki hds , 

Although, on the whole, the benefits of extraclass participation are such, 
especially in adolescent training, that they outweigh the di sad vant ages , the un- 
desirable factors, often minor in most instances, must be analyzed, . and when pos- 
sible be subjected to correction. Careful organization and supervision generally 
will eliminate them. Problems concerning these extracurricular activities, in gen- 
eral, involve (l) participants j (2) the teacher; and (3) the activities themselves. 

1. Difficulties concerning participants. : , '_, . ,,.'■'... 

The disadvantages relate to the number of participants, the extent of the 
student participations, and their consequences upon the student. 

The objection is raised that the number of participants who receive the 
value from extra-class training is too limited. This objection is valid unless 
the school and the speech teacher recognize the modern tendencies in all speech 
training to encourage more general participation in such activities as group 
discussion, dramatic festivals, non-decision debate meetings, and the like. 

The extent of participation is also a problem in many high schools. The 
director or coach, after consultation with the school principal, should decide 
the number and extent of student participation. Sometimes the talented student 
in one speech activity also likes numerous other forms and enters too many of 
them. Another pupil may desire one phase of the work so very much that he 
diverts too much time and energy from his classwork. This condition is particu- 
larly true of dramatics in high schools. Different solutions have been .suggested 
for this difficulty of overstressing extra-class participation. In some schools 
membership is limited to certain activities in one's major field and then only 
with the approval of the head of the Speech Department. This procedure may, how- 
ever, limit the scope of the work even destroying the spontaneity and. interest of 
the student in it. Often the best method is a straight forward talk with the 
aggressive student, who is generally sufficiently intelligent to understand the 
situation and who will realize that the director in curtailing his participation, 
is doing it for his own good. 

That the nervous strain of competition is toe great for some adolescents 
is another fact which some educators find objectionable. 'There may be a student 
occasionally who should not participate in affairs, but he is the exception rather 
than the rule. In fact, frequently an adolescent who is tense in class, encour- 
aged to participate where credit is not . at stake, overcomes his nervousness in 
the fun of participation. Nervous strains are expected in life and to shield a 
speech student constantly from all emotional, disturbances is neither being good 
to him nor fitting him for a life situation. A little encouragement to make an 
excitable adolescent believe that he is normal rather than abnormal goes far in 
establishing real life training. The fact that the teacher thinks a pupil can do 


well in a certain extracurricular may "be the first step toward his successful 
participation. Securing results in spite of difficulties trains character I 

2. Disadvantages concerned with the teacher. 

Many disadvantages associated with extra-class activity arise from the 
nature of the teacher's work and of his training. 

Extra-class activities place a heavy load on a speech teacher's schedule. 
Teachers of speech spend more hours in conferences and extra-class work than 
those in most other departments, because the necessary speech work is not always 
distributed equally among the personnel. Extra-class work in speech is an in- 
tegral part of speech training and should be considered as such by any school 
administration. Many inconveniences to the speech teacher arise from problems 
associated with coaching plays, chaperoning events, directing contests and the 
like. Much of the detail work cannot be handled by the director if the ultimate 
purpose, of speech training in the high school curriculum is to be achieved. 

Unless a teacher has a specific aim in each activity, no matter what form 
it happens to take, he creates difficulties for himself. The aims in speech 
training have previously been discussed in this textbook. Reference to the 
material of this chapter from time to time by the prospective teacher will be 
found helpful. 

Some teachers are naturally better adapted to extra-class work than others. 
However, all graduates in speech should be qualified to handle all phases of 
speech in a high school even though they may prefer a certain type of work. 

In Order to make these extra-class activities worth-while, they should be 
planned by school authorities, and be sufficiently varied to interest different 
types of students. One person should be responsible for the complete schedule 
of the organization, club, squad, or group. If obligations are widely distrib- 
uted among authorities, no one will take the initiative to see that work is 
planned and conducted. 

Funds which must be gathered, held, and spent to sustain the organization 
should be carefully supervised by school authorities. It is not advisable to 
tempt needlessly an adolescent by making him responsible for large amounts of 
money. Under faculty supervision, however, some financial direction on the 
part of the pupil gives him excellent training. 

3. Activities themselves. 

Disadvantages arise from the nature of the activities themselves. 

The number, kind, and extent of the extra-class' activity present problems 
in planning. Extra-class activities arise to fill a definite need in each high 
school; consequently they should not be organized until the demand for them is 
felt. They should, then, be allowed to grow slowly into a permanent well or- 
ganized establishment. 

The charge that extra-activities disrupt the curriculum is not well founded 
when the activities are well planned, and supervised. Too often careless admin- 
istrators governed by expediency grow enthusiastic for this or that type of 
extra-class work. They frequently depend upon the popularity of some leader to 
insure the success of their pet venture. With the decline of the leader, the 
organization disappears. In the meantime, its rapid growth has disrupted the 


success of other organizations, or hampered the purposes of the more needed 
system! zed curriculum. ; 

"... The .cost to a student entering into any kind of activity can be reduced 
materially with the increase of general participation in the different types of 
•school organizations. ■ In most schools, the number who partake annually in extra - 
classwork is increasing so that the problem of costs is minimized. That foren- 
sics and dramatics are commercialized in one way or another to defray the costs 
of less popular activities is sometimes found objectionable by educators and 
pupils. A condition such as this need not exist, and it can be eliminated under 
proper auspices and supervision. Why deprive a group of adolescents of life- 
long benefits, because of extraneous difficulties which can and should be con- 
trolled by the adults in charge? 

The accusation that the extra-activities are conducted for the glory, or 
some like consideration/ of the coach is a narrow viewpoint held only by those 
who miss, the very objective of such activities in adolescent training. 

If the chaperonage of adolescents is well planned and maturely considered, 
it should not present the difficulty it sometimes assumes. When respect for the 
coach and good will among members of a group have been developed throughout the 
entire season, the conduct of individual pupils during rehearsals, contests, and 
on travel, . can generally be directed and controlled. Training in good discipline 
begins with the first meeting of the year, not at the beginning of some debate 
trip or some: stage performance.: 

Organizatio n Of Extra -Curricular Activi ties. 

Careful preparation of the year's work at the beginning of the season is 
time well spent., ■ Certain suggestions may be made as to the proper organization of 
these exbra-class activities: 

a. Sources of material. 

Where can suitable materials and assistance, outside of textbooks, be found 
that will aid the planning as Well as the coaching of extra-curricular activities? 
This is a question frequently asked in speech method courses. There are three com- 
mon sources of material: ) 

.1. Preparing your own by cutting a short story, pla.y, or oration. 

2. Finding selections of suitable length already prepared in library , 

3. Securing suitable material from a reputable supply company. There 
are a number of such companies throughout the country who will be . 

■■'■■ . glad to furnish upon request a complete list of readings, plays, 

etc. Each director of an extra-curricular activity should have the 
name of his school on these mailing lists and keep a reference 
library of publishers' catalogs and descriptive folders conveniently 
located for reference from year to year. 

b. Planning the year's schedule^ 

. Each activity to be successful requires specific as well as general planning 
to give it the prestige necessary to attract the type of students needed to repre- 


sent the school. Notices giving the exact time, place, and necessary rules for 
entering the specific form of activity should be posted some time ahead of an 
event. If a director does not wish to be the sole judge of determining candidates 
for an organization, he might ask some other member of the department or faculty 
to assist him. When faculty members co-operate in an all-school activity, fairer 
decision, at least according to the students' viewpoint, often occurs and results 
are more pleasing to the contestants. 

1. Competition must be encouraged. 

The student who needs the training the most is the one who has to be en- 
couraged the most to enter competition. Frequently, when self-confidence has 
been incited by a teacher's interest in his welfare, a student surprises even 
himself by the excellent speaking which he is able to do by the end of the sea- 
son. The young high school student should be encouraged to enter extemporan- 
eous speaking as his first form of competition. Later, he may become interested 
in entering oratorical contests. 

2. Consideration of colleagues in planning the year's work. 

The young teacher is advised to seek the advice of older faculty members 
in respect to an all-school activity. The debate coach invites members to as- 
sist him select the squad;' the oratorical director invites others to pick the 
school represent at ive; the English teacher requests help in proof reading the 
school annual. A high school play really represents a co-operative endeavor 
of the entire school. Valuable suggestions result when different faculty mem- 
bers are invited to criticize the rehearsals. If the young dramatic director 
receives corrections and suggestions by interested colleagues who wish to help 
make this school activity a success, he may remedy mistakes that the public may 
criticize at the time the play is actually presented. 

5- Consideration of students in planning. 

The difficulty with many new directors or high school coaches in assign- 
ing the distribution of work to the students is one of two kinds: (l) the 
director, lacking faith in the ability and responsibility of students to handle 
the work, prefers to care for all details himself; or (2) he allows the stud- 
ents whom he chooses for management to do all the work including his own. Both 
of these difficulties can be overcome if the director realizes that students 
accept responsibility only when an important job is given them, and if he 
chooses students whom he has watched in class, as well as outside of it, for 
their ability to handle details. 

c. Sponsoring clubs. 

Literary and speech clubs afford excellent speech training and have a place 
in high school life if well organized and managed. The aims of these clubs are 
frequently misunderstood even by the school authorities, for their purpose is not 
primarily to make professional actors or speakers of the adolescent members, but 
to serve as creative co-operative projects where self-expression can take place, 
appreciation be developed, and voice and body trained. Numerous talents are en- 
gaged in this co-operative enterprise. A club is a potential fountain of educa- 
tional values, but if non-social and non-artistic values result, it is the fault, 
to a large extent, of the director. The interest of all members is recorded in 
this co-operative project by the actual amount of work contributed to the general 
cause . 


d. Framing a constitution. 

■ A well conducted high school club, of any kind, affords excellent training in 
organization and parliamentary procedure if the meetings are held ,in a "businesslike 
manner. The first need of a newly organized group is to frame a constitution. A 
sample constitution which may prove suggestive for all kinds of societies and or- 
ganizations may be found in textbooks or parliamentary law. 

e. Point system a valuable aid in maintaining student interest in an organization. 

The point system of evaluating the worth of work done in all forms of extra- 
curricular speech activities is used successfully in many high schools to create 
interest' in participation. Each activity such as belonging to a club, holding of-- 
fice, honorary positions, or special work earns so many points. , This system serves 
as a check on the number and extent of participation, for .a student can earn only a 
certain number of points annually in relation to the grade he receives. A point sys- 
tem for high schools can be compiled which includes types of activity and number of 
points accredited to each. Schools differ, in range of activities, evaluation of 
points, and other details, but in general, points for activities can "be apportioned 
and evaluated in some equitable manner. ; _ 

Suggestions for Supervi sing Extracurricu lar Activities . 

A few suggestions that experience has shown to be of value in supervising 
activities may now be briefly enumerated: 

a. Let the teacher remain in background. 

Proper supervision prevents discipline from becoming another problem to the 
director. He should stay in the "background, offering criticism and suggestions as 
a friend or fellow-member rather than as a sponsor or superior. Nevertheless he 
must not go to the other extreme, to become one with the students. He may desig- 
nate part of his authority to the members of the group, but he always remains in 
charge in order that he may hold the respect of all of its members. If a stude.nt 
abuses authority, the director can always withdraw it, and he should never be hes- 
itant about expressing his authority where it is needed for guidance. Yet, he 
should avoid the other extreme of supervision, namely too much teacher-domination 
that defeats its own purpose. 

b. Choosing a contestant. 

The final choice of a contestant to represent the school generally rests upon 
the director. If a number of pupils who wish to participate are doing excellent 
speech work throughout the preliminary training, a choice among contestants may not 
be easily made. The director must study each contestant; then he must select ob- 
jectively one or more pupils. Only a representative who will do the best work under 
all circumstances of inter™ school competition should be selected. If the choice be- 
tween the first two is difficult, other faculty members might aid in the decision. 

Often a successful contestant in one form of speech activity, for example 
extemporaneous speaking, may not necessarily win in another type of competition. 
Moreover, different forms of the speech art require separate training and practice. 
An excellent silent reader may digest content, yet may not be able to communicate 
it to an audience. - 

The personal appearance of a contestant is sometimes not valued properly by 
an otherwise excellent coach who forgets that the audience judges a speaker from 


his first step on the platform. A student with sweater and corduroy trousers is at 
a disadvantage when he competes with an orator who is dressed in a conservative, 
well-fitting, neatly pressed suit. The latter will attract an audience favorably 
when he ascends the rostrum to take his place. A carelessly dressed or over-dressed 
girl may win, of course, hut if she does, she wins in spite of, not because of, her 
appearance. A vivid red or yellow dress may distract attention from the oration . 
itself and prevent an otherwise excellent evaluation of her oration. 

c. Planning a forensic tournament. 

A mimeographed sheet of directions should he given all contestants as well as 
all judges. This sheet contains all of the information needed for the entire day's 
activity. The following points are generally found in a day's activity chart: 
(l) Name of tournament and specific contests. (2) Date. (3) Place of meeting. 
(k) List of contesting schools or contestants. (5) Name of contest rooms, the 
floor and room numbers and directions for reaching these rooms. (6) Rules of con- ; 
testants: time limits of each form of preliminary and final competition, time 
keeper recognition, study rules, and regulations on bulletin board, (7) Rules for 
judges given prior to each contest: rating and percentage both given, scores range 
between 70-100$, brief comments immediately after each contest are appreciated, 
prompting disqualifies a student, no notes are used in extemporaneous speaking, 
contestants may be asked one or two questions by the judge on his speech, stage 
properties are not allowed. (8) List of contestants. (9) List of judges. (10) 
Awards to be given. 

d. Judging. 

Securing capable judges for the evaluation of speech work is an important part 
of extra-class activity. The procedures followed in casting decisions in the var- 
ious types of activities are so varied that judges must be chosen in connection 
with each type of activity. There are two general methods, however, the individual 
and. group, which pertain to all forms of extracurricular participation. 

1. Types of judging. 

The first type relates to the critic judge. He should know how to do a 
satisfactory work or not be asked to serve in this capacity. The single judge 
is chosen for his knowledge and background; he is generally a stranger to the 
group. His criticism should be considered his most valuable contribution. 

The second type refers to a committee of three disinterested, selected 
judges who may consult or not, as the rules advise, before awarding a decision. 
The matter of expense is sometimes an opposing factor in this method, although 
it is satisfactory in other respects. Coaches often serve on a committee of 
judges in deciding the winners. The ballots are prepared before the contest 
so that each coach ranks all other contestants except his own entry which is 
omitted or crossed out of his individual ballot. This method presumes that 
vitally interested and intelligent judges should be able to cast a fair vote 
for other contestants when not voting for their own entry. 

2. Qualifications of a Judge. 

What are the qualifications of a satisfactory judge? In the first place, 
he should know debate or whatever activity he is to judge. He should know the 
aims and educational value of the activity if its function is to be fulfilled. 
He should be interested and sympathetic with extracurricular work. He should 
have had speech training himself, or at least have a standard of good judgment 


In that respect . He should "be analytic so that he can weigh and render an impar- 
tial opinion of the relative value. He has to he alert to hear everything that 
is going on and "be open-minded and fair. If he is judging debating, for example, 
he is judging the debate and not his own approval of the question. He must be 
able to analyze his own reactions. A careful, firm decision which he is willing 
to explain and uphold is the task for which he was chosen. The ability to give a 
good oral criticism, both constructive and destructive, following the debate is 
.needed. If he is judging other activities, such as an interpretation contest, he 
must understand the matter and be able to evaluate the skills. In other words, 
the judge must be chosen for his qualifications to know the content and art of 
the given activity.. ... 

Other factors to be considered besides the personal characteristics of the 
judge are (l) the fee to be paid; and (2) official approval by other contesting 
schools (listing all available and qualified judges from which one is selected 
is a wise procedure). 

J. A standard for judging. 

This standard (l) guides inexperienced judges; (2) it aids any judge in 
arriving at a decision; (3) it helps a coach to improve his work; (k) it sets 
an objective ' criterion for. evaluating work. There are advantages in giving a 
judge a set ■ of complete directions. , . - 

h. Directions to a judge. 

A few suggestions may be helpful to a young teacher regarding the direc- 
tions to be given to judges: (1) They should be directed to arrive early so 
that they will have time to look through the directions before the contest is 
scheduled. (2) They should be told the purpose of the meeting, to observe all 
special local rules, and to meet the coaches and directors.. (3) They should 
select an inconspicuous seat where they carl see and hear, {k) They should be 
specially advised as to rules relating to conferences during or after the act- 
ivity. (5) They should be told not to talk to. those seated near them, but they 
should notice reactions on the part of the audience around them. (6) They should 
be advised to use their own experience as to how. many notes they should take; at 
least they should take sufficient ' notes to assist their memory for later crit- 
icism, but not allow this action to interfere with their judgment of the contest 
as a whole. (7) They should score cards as the contest progresses, judging on 
relative merit, shifting decisions as each' speaker leaves the platform. (8) In 
a debate they must judge the. constructive argument and the rebuttal, perhaps 
using Ink to record opinions for the one and pencil for the other. (9) They 
should arrange their decisions in parallel columns - which procedure allows in- 
stant comparison of speakers. (10) They should, give an honest clear criticism, 
if such is called for, after the competition, (ll) They should, encourage the 
loser as well as congratulate the winner. (12) They should realize that con- 
structive criticism is one of the most valuable results of all extracurricular 
competition for itssets a standard for future competition.. (15) They might be 
indirectly advised that generally it is better to. leave immediately when their 
work as judges is finished.'. ... - 

The rules of the interpretation contest should be understood by both coach 
and contestant. These include the type of selection, manner of delivery, use of 
properties, special local factors, and time assigned : to each entrant. If any 
question arises as to the delivery : of the declamation, the method of judging,, or 
awards, it is much better to ask the chairman to explain conditions before the 
contest is held. ;■•■. ; ■ >'■■ 


5. Directions to judges should "be specific. 

The judge should examine the judge's "blank and understand it before a con- 
test begins. He should ask questions regarding rules at that time. Rating 
scales in speech competition range, from "Here is a sheet of paper, use your own 
judgment" to a standard detailed form. Where no definite blank is used, grading 
as well as rating are generally requested so that in case of a tie in the judg- 
ing, the former can be used as a check. It is advisable for the director always 
to specify before the judges meet that if two judges place a contestant in first 
place he wins this place no matter where the third judge rates him. Otherwise, 
a contestant who is the first choice of two of the three critics may not place 
in the contest at all. Consultation after the contest is sometimes allowed and 
in other places, prohibited. 

6. Judging interpretation contest. 

The selection of a satisfactory judge in interpretation is more difficulty 
as a rule, than in debate. In this type of contest, the judge must know and 
appreciate the educative value of this particular type of speech .competition. 
A critical judge must be competent in both the appreciative as well as the in- 
tellectual aspects of declamatory work and, above all, interested in this par- 
ticular competitive form./ The director should avoid last minute selection of 
a judge'. Just any one will not do, for a good judge of declamation must know 
what he is doing, be alert and interested, especially when the contest is long. 
A judge who admits a predilection for poetry rather than prose, humorous rather 
than serious, dialogue rather than monologue, and ancient rather than modern 
selections in a declamatory contest, generally gives an unsatisfactory judgment 
when all. types of poetry must be impartially considered. 

7. Purpose of judging may change with type of contest. 

Judges should not overlook the distinction between types of contests. Some- 
times the requirements of a preliminary contest may differ from those of a final 
state contest. A judge must know whether he is to select a final winner or a 
speaker or reader who possesses the potential ability to overcome some difficulty 
within the month which remains for him to prepare the final draft of his speech. 
A student who falters in memory, for instance, in the preliminary contest might 
still be potentially the best speaker. A conscientious judge must keep in mind 
the purpose of the competition as well as the form. 


1. What, factors determine the number of questions asked? 

2. The logical sequence between inquiries in class is often forgotten. Explain. 

3. Name factors which affect the distribution of questions. 

k; Discuss disciplinary measures used by three different teachers of your 

5. Discuss one type of disturber in class. Name other types you have observed. 

6. Give five constructive suggestions to help secure good attention in a speech 


7. Let each member of the class prepare a plan for an extracurricular activity 

in high school. Class discussion will follow criticism of the plans. 

8. List three specific ways of • stimulating student participating in extra-class 

interests. .■■.. .,-; 

9. Tact is required in effective evaluation. Explain; . 

1 5 1 

it is the best way to overcome the notion that a speech course is unimportant? 

iluate the suggestions regarding questions in the following material: 

Jarvey, N.F., The Art o f Questioni ng, High School T each er, October, 1933; 

lall, J.W., The Quest ion as a Factor ' in Te aching, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 

I.9I6; Hamarm, I. M. The Art of Questioning, Jour, o f Education, Jan., 19^6', 

Iouston V., Improving Jibe Qua lity of Classroom Ques tion and Questionin g, 

educational Administrat ion and Supervision, V. 2k: P. 17, Jan., 193$; 

Stevens, R., The Ques ti on as a Me asure of Efficiency in Instruction, New York: 

.'eachers ' College, Columbia University, 1912. 

) you acquainted with the references : Cable, W. A., A Cr iti c ism C ard For 

'lass Use, Q.J.S., V. 12:186 April, 1926; Crocker, L., Class Criti cism in ; '' 

3 ublic Speaking, English Journal, V. 18:833 December, 1929; McGrew, J. F. 

Critici sm i n the Classroom, Q.J.S., V. 10:15 J + April, ' 192^; Miller, M., 

Constructive Criticism of Oral Work, English Journal, V. 18:251 March, 1929; 

)gg, H. I., and Immel, R. K., Criticism Chart s and Notebook, New York: 

Crofts, 19^5 I Eeager, R. C. and McMahon, E., The Cri ticism Chart and Its' 1 

Jse, New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers University Press, 193$; Williamson, A. B. 

md Farma, W. J., Speech Criticism Folder, New York: Crofts, 1928; Wihans, 

'. A., A -Question About Criticism, Public Speaking Review, V. 1:1^7, Jan- 

iary, 1912?" 

scuss in detail the following relationships which directly or indirectly ' 

if feet discipline: the mental, emotional, .physical, and moral character - 

.stics of the pupil; home life; personality of the teacher; the teacher's 

r oicej the speech subject itself; motives of students.; emphasis on punish - 

lent rather than upon reward. 

it impelling motives may the teacher use to secure order in the classroom? 

r can confusion be avoided in the supervised study periods? 

promptness in dealing with an unfavorable situation a virtue? . 

it ineffective questioning techniques have you observed in the classroom? 

fhat would you substitute for them? 

itraat the viewpoints of the following writers regarding extra-curricular 

activities: Douglass, J., and Aubrey, A., S ec ndary Educ at i on , New York: 

[ought on, Mifflin, 1927; Engelhardt and Overn, Se co ndary Education, New York: 

ippleton-Century, 1937; Douglass, K. R., Organization a nd A dmin istration of 

Second ary Sc hools, Chicago: Gisin, 1932; Foster, C. R.,, Excra-Cu rri cular 

t ctiv ities in the High School, Richmond, Va., Johnson Publish. Co., 1925; 

nngfitt, Cyr, and Newsom, The Small High School at Work, New York: American 

look, I936. 

icuss the relative values of the different types of questions. 

it devices are used to link a question to a pupil's experience? 

mid individual differences of pupils be considered in questioning? 

ie three ways in which variety in questioning can be secured. 

■ is the manner of questioning important? 

cuss the pamphlet of M. Hampel, Int erpre ting Childre n and Youth, The Ass'n. 

'or Childhood Education, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D. C. 

good answers signs of good questioning? Discussion, 
cuss the division set forth ^oj Professor Stevens of Columbia University 
or types of questions -••- memory, comparison, contrast, analytic, develop- 
.ental, and judgment. 

cuss ways of handling rebellious students, 
t should a teacher do who senses that he is disliked by a student? 




Albety, H. B., and Tahyer, V. T., Supervision in the Secondary School (Boston: 

Heath, 1931). 
Baker, H. J., and Traphagen, V., The Diagnosis and Treatment of Behavior -Problem 

Child ren (New York: Macmillan, I936). 
Baxter, B., Teacher-Pupil Relationship (New York: Macmillan, 19*1-1). 
Briggs, T. E., Improving Instruction (New York: Macmillan, 1938)' 
Douglass, K. R., Supervision in Secondary Schools (Boston: Houghton, 193*0- 
Garrison, K., The Psychology of Adolescence (New York: Prentice -Hall, 193*0. 
Hall, J. W., The Question as a Factor in Teaching (Boston: Houghton, 1916). 
Holly, E . H . , • The Tea cher's Technique (New York!" Century, 192*0 . 
Holm, J. W., How to Judge Speech Contests (Portland, Maine: Platform News, 1938) 
Hunt er , A . D . , A Comparison of Introverted and Extroverted High School Speakers 

(Q.J.S. Speech Monographs, Oct., 1935). 
Knower, F. H., A Suggestive Study of Public Speaking Rating-Scale Values (Q.J.S. 

V. -.15: 30-41, Feb., 1929). 
Marston, W. M., Emotions of Normal People (New York: Harcourt, I938). 
McCarthy, R. C, Training the Adolescent (Milwaukee: Bruce, 193*0. 
McKown, H. C, Extracurricular Activities (New York: Macmillan, 1927). 
Pringle, R. ¥., The Psychology of High School Disc ipline (Boston: Heath, 1931). 
Risk, T. M., Principles and Practices of Teaching;" in Secondary Schools (New York: 

American Book, 19*1-1). 
Stark, W. E. , Every Teacher's Prob lems (New York: American, 1922). 
Thomas, F. W., Principles of Modern Education (New York: Houghton, 1937). 
Thonssen, L., and Baird, A. C, Speech Criticism (New York: Ronald Press, 19*1-7) • 
Wrinkle, and Armentrout, Directed Observation and Teaching in Secondary School s 

(New York: Macmillan, 1932). 
Zachry, C. B., Personality Adjustments of School Children (New York: Scribner, 

1929 ) • 


Before you correct a fault, you must admit it.- -COX 

Each phase of the speech arts- -public speaking, extempore 
speech, interpretative art, dramatic art, discussion, radio 
speech^ and speech therapy- -has its own peculiar problems of 
teaching and its own particular difficulties in extra-class 
activity. The following chapters --seven to thirteen- -should 
aid the prospective teacher of speech with the problems of 
each class. If he finds that he lacks information concerning 
the content of any particular course, or the skill required 
for it, he should consult textbooks designed for each subject 



To speak, and to speak well, are two things . -- JONSON 


The Problem of Content 

a. Scope 

b. Procedures 

The Object ives of the Cou rse 

a . General 

1. Acquisition of information 

2. Development of skills 

b. Specific 

1. Control of the speech situation 

Knowledge of what constitutes a speech situation 
Evaluation of self (stage fright) 
Evaluation of audience 
Evaluation of purpose 

2. Diction 

Building a vocabulary 

Teaching the symbolic aspect of language 

Explaining the norm- of speech 

Creating right .habits 

Combating slang 

Teaching pronunciation 

3 . Grammar 

h. Use of rhetorical devices 

Collection and utilization of material 
Use of library- 
Use of dictionary 
Organization and development of matter 

5. Improvement in bodily expression 

Elimination of disorders 
Development of coordinations 

6. Improvement in vocal expression 

Elimination of disorders 
Development of skills 

7. Training in the different types of speeches 

8. Training in methods of presentation 

"Value in each method 



c. Conversation 

1. Points to be stressed in teaching conversation 

2. Conversational mode 

Certain Suggestions Regarding P^2 ce iLy^®. s 

a. "Vary Method" 

1. Known to unknown 

2. Kinds of procedure 

b. Be Guided by the Normal Standard 

c. Increase Participation . . ; 

d. Equalize Opportunity . ; 

e. Review Material Already Given 



Extrac urricu l ar Activities Associated with the Fundamental Cour se 

a. Types of Activity 

b. Specific Suggestions 


The Problem Of Conte nt 

Different viewpoints regarding the purpose, subject matter, and procedures 
of this particular speech course are heid. . . 

a* Scope. 

Of the two general opinions concerning the content of the initial course, 
the first is that the elementary course should be a broad foundation upon which 
later specialized courses can be built. If only one speech course is offered in 
a small high school, it is generally formulated to cover public speaking, inter- 
pretation, and discussion. Yet this basic course may vary in extent from one de- 
voted entirely to speech fundamentals to a survey course covering many subjects - 
for example, mental hygiene, personality development, oral reading, types of 
discussion, planned activities, dramatics, and parliamentary procedure. 

The second opinion is that it should be a public speaking class. The con- 
tent, then, would be based upon the capabilities of the pupils. The purpose of 
this class will determine the proportion of theory and practice, the number and 
extent of exercises, the amount of speaking or reading, and the types of speaking 
to be stressed. 

A prospective teacher should analyze the different views concerning the 
fundamental course, read educational as well as speech journals that discuss the 
problem, and attend local, state, and national conferences where these views will 
be explained. 

b. Procedures. 

Correct thinking and the development of speech skills may be emphasized in 
the first speech class. Procedures and techniques for obtaining them can be found 
no matter what form of training the initial course may take. 

The Objectives Of The Course 

The objectives in a fundamental course are both general and specific : 

a. The General objectives. 

These are the acquisition of information and the development of skills - 
purposes that may be lost if the process rather than the aim is stressed. Advo- 
cates of a survey type of training believe that if a speaker's interest for the 
subject is created, he will desire to continue his speech work. Theyhope that 
the student will acquire appreciation of the subject as well as information and 
skill. Yet if the content of the course is too broad, less subject matter will 
be left for the later courses . Those who prefer to limit the first course to 
public speaking believe that the initial work should be intensely studied. 


b. Specific objectives. 

In a fundamental course these are the control of the speech situation, the 
correct use of language, the application of rhetorical devices, improvement of 
bodily action, skill in vocal expression, and training in the methods of presen- 

1. Control of the speech situation. 

Speech training more than any other subject in the curriculum is concerned 
with the human being himself and his social relations. 

The four-fold elements of a speech situation are the speaker, the content, 
the audience, and place. ' Teachers usually impress upon the speaker that ideas 
are the actual content out of which speech is made. He must think of matter in 
terms of the number and relationship of ideas, and his feeling toward them. 
Study in different fields of knowledge that enlarges the stock and variety of 
information should be encouraged. A thorough understanding of the part that 
emotions play in speaking is also a requisite for effective training. The 
student should be taught that speech is a social phenomenon and that the speaker 
and the listener are' equally important to the speech situation. 

To sense one's strength as well as weakness is a primary objective in a 
beginning course. An adolescent cannot achieve this aim by studies of com- , 
plexes or repressions; he needs constructive, frank evaluation by a tactful 
teacher. The high school pupil must see himself as others see him. He Is 
aware of the effects of emotion upon himself and upon his classmates, parents, 
and .friends'. Ee knows that certain situations incite emotions, and that changes 
take place in his body when he feels emotionally awakened. Ee discovers mani- 
festations of emotional difficulties in an early study of self. He often has 
a sense of inadequacy, nervous reactions within his body. He has fears of dif- 
ferent kinds, particularly the fear of forgetting. When he has an understanding 
of the situation and is sufficiently prepared for speaking, he can. quickly over- 
come the symptoms of stage fright by such normal actions as breathing rhythmic- 
ally before beginning to speak, considering his audience as composed of friendly 
people, and choosing a subject in which he has a real interest. 

Although the high school pupil may in. general relate emotions to specific 
situations, he may be unaware • of the real cause of a certain behavior. When 
the teacher has more knowledge of the nature of emotions and their presence in 
the high school pupil, he will be' able to help the pupil who is completely baf- 
fled by his emotional outbursts. This subject-matter of emotions in relation 
to behavior has been considered in the section dealing with counseling, advising, 
and disciplining. With practice a teacher can sense even the fleeting symptoms 
of an abnormal emotion perhaps brewing in the mind of some quiet, reticent 
pupil, or in the student who over-expresses his feelings and who loves to re- 
lieve himself of his pent-up emotions, even if offensive to others. 

The high school pupil should be taught to value emotions as practical in- 
centives to accomplishments. The fundamental speech class is particularly a. 
good place to let him gain a better understanding of the benefits of emotional 
life as well as its dangers. He will see evidence in the elementary class of 
his own emotional growth. He will observe as he gains a sense of values in 
emotional life that some emotions must be awakened before they can be developed, 
that some stimuli might well be avoided, that some kinds have little reaction 
value; yet that others may be more intensive or frequently more extensive under 
favorable circumstances. 


The pupil's capacity for higher and more complex feeling is developing just 
as his intellectual powers and ability for judgment are growing. Yet the high 
school pupil seldom expresses himself emotionally as adults might wish. His 
emotional life will he characterized by its spontaneity and changeable ness; in 
other words, his emotional life is unfolding by stages. These stages are not 
identical with mental or physical age; in fact, many of the conflicts seen in a 
speech class are often due to the fact that individuals have grown physically 
or mentally, but not emotionally. Since emotional development is by its very 
nature desirable, the pupil usually is taught to face conditions that are ines- 
capable, such as meeting strangers and talking before other people. 

Emotional reactions are often a consequence of ideals. Since these are the 
controlling incentives for conduct, good or bad, the teacher who tries to direct 
emotional reactions by a stronger show of emotion will not succeed in his pur- 
pose, because he has not helped the student evaluate the worth of these ideals. 
To make his emotional life an asset to himself, the pupil needs to know the cir- 
cumstances of an emotional outburst and, if possible, its cause. 

Audience psychology plays an important part in the speech situation. The 
teacher will soon discover that he must know what the audience wants, before 
he can train pupils in audience motivation. Unless a student can appreciate 
another's point of view, he is likely to have little success on a platform. 
As an audience is analyzed in speech textbooks and psychological treatises, the 
prospective teacher is referred to this material as valuable to his work. 

No speaker should be allowed to use class time who has not a specific aim 
in speaking. The speaker considers his fellow students as composing an audience 
rather than being members of a speech class. Often it is well for the pupil to 
assume that the class becomes a different type of audience. In any case, it 
must be an integral part of every speech situation. A speaker has to be taught 
that speech is purposive and that he must estimate as well as interpret audience 
reactions, before, during, and after each talk. 

2. Diction.- 

One of the fundamental objectives of a beginning course is the study of 

The speaker's oral vocabulary is important. Generally his reading vocab- 
ulary has received attention in most of his previous classes. Different meth- 
ods of increasing as well as improving a vocabulary may be used. The following 
ways are suggested: (l) looking up a required number of words by day, week, or 
semester; (2) using word books; (3) listening to good speakers; (h) using vo- 
cabulary lists; (5) analyzing the foreign words being studied; and (6) using 
the new words in class. 

Some pupils consider the study related to the careful selection and usage 
of words as a waste of time and energy. The main problem for the teacher is to 
impress pupils with the notion that speech originates as ideas and that they 
require representation by means of signs. Both auditor and speaker must know 
audible and visual symbols instantly and accurately. The speaker might well 
be taught to make words a part of himself, to live with them, and to enjoy' 
their use. To enlarge and improve his vocabularly, he can develop his social 
instinct to communicate his thoughts to others, and he can stimulate his cap- 
acities for the art of expression, the niceties and grace of expression, and 
the power and effectiveness of utterance. 


The norm of speech is that used by the cultured class which resists 
attempts to level its language to provincial or barbaric utterance, and which 
opposes foreign domination of its form and structure. The speech teacher might 
stress the fact that learning to speak is a social necessity. But he should 
further observe that a pupil will seek out of his speech environment such a vo- 
cabulary as will allow him ease and effectiveness in communication. The diction 
favorable in one surrounding may not be completely acceptable to another one. 
As the pupil comes to realize that his education affords him entrance into 
social situations approved by the cultured class ; he often feels the need of re- 
vising his vocabulary and pronunciation to meet new conditions. Perhaps living 
in a neighborhood predominately of one foreign culture, he may have imitated the 
speech of others and has been able to meet the needs of communication. To meet 
the requirements of a new environment, he now must avoid certain usage of words 
and certain pronunciations. 

Training the student in ways to better his diction forces him to change one 
habit for another. The pupil upsets one systematized effort and habituates him- 
self to another. He acquires knowledge of individual speech activity; then, by 
practice of particular acts gains skill; eventually, he will find, that a proper 
stimulation starts' the physiological processes to function without a focus of 
attention upon specific actions which compose the total speech act. Recognizing 
the nature of the problem presented to the pupil, the teacher will help him 
understand it and furnish him with practice materials that skill may be estab- 

The faults of diction are generally given a.ttention in required speech 
courses taken by the cadet teacher. He will find these studies helpful; for in 
his high school teaching, he will observe many examples of poor diction, partic- 
ularly slang. Some high school pupils' glory in their devotion to slang- -a care- 
free childish language which may appear humorous and at times vigorous --that is, 
and always will be, an undignified form, of expression. The teacher of speech 
will likely be alert to impress a high school pupil with the notion that slang 
is too vague and general to be useful in communication where exactness and pre- 
cision are required in thinking as well as in speaking. Oliver Wendell Holmes 
answered the entire question of slang when he said, "The use of slang is at once 
a sign and a cause of mental atrophy". 

Some speech instructor's become so interested in teaching the compositional 
aspect of public speaking in the foundation course that they devote little at- 
tention to pronunciation. Illustrations of errors in relation to the quality 
and quantity of sounds should be given the student. Drills for good pronuncia- 
tion generally found in elementary speech textbooks should be used. 

As far as the theory is concerned, the high school student should have a 
basic knowledge of the physics of resonance, which is for the most part, a review 
of the material found in the elementary physics textbook. He should, furthermore, 
have a general notion of the anatomy of the oral and nasal;- channels, and have an 
appreciation of the functioning of the tongue and soft palate in the formation of 
vowels and consonants. He should understand that vowels and consonants are 
resonances ana that their tone color is concerned with the number of overtones, 
their relative pitch and intensity. In brief, then, if the physical and anatom- 
ical bases of voice are explained, and a formation of vowels and consonants is 
related to the physical principles of size, shape, and texture of the resonating 
cavity, the student will have a better appreciation of the qualities of musical 
sound called vowels and the qualities of noise, called consonants. He should 
also study vowels and consonants in relation to symbols that characterize their 
formation and nature. He may use the diacritical marks such as those found in 
Webster's Dictionary or the characters of the International Phonetic Alphabet. 


The high school student can hardly diagnose his own errors if he is ignor- 
ant of the position of the tongue or of the lips in the formation of some common 
sounds. He has become acquainted with the letters of the English language, but 
he may not be able to explain either the number of sounds in it or the anatom- 
ical factors involved in the function of speaking. If he is asked the question, 
what are the vowels in English, he will give the name of letters--a,e_, i_,o, u. 
This pupil should diagram each vowel; then he would realize how the quality is 
being determined by the size, shape, and texture of the oral cavity. Likewise, 
if he knew the general classes of consonants and the manner of their formation, 
he would be better able to understand his own faults of diction. 

The high school pupil should be taught to pay particular attention to his 
errors of accent. If he needs more information about the accent of a word, this 
subject should be reviewed for him. The relation of vocal expression to the 
factors of diction also might well be made clear to him. He often mistakes in- 
tonation and color for verbal expression itself. 

3 . Grammar . 

Many teachers assume that because students have had grammar in their English 
class they will automatically use correct forms in speaking. This assumption is 
not always true, for the rules of grammar may be well known, but not applied in 
a speech situation. A brief summary of grammatical principles often refreshes 
the student's memory of the rules he has once learned. This review followed by 
an occasional reference to either grammatical errors or correct forms (the lat- 
ter reference less frequently used by most teachers) makes the correct use of 
grammar an habitual rather than spasmodic procedure in speech training. A tea- 
cher will observe in many of his classes pupils who lack confidence in them- 
selves, not because they lack interest or understanding but because they are 
afraid of a class reaction when they make mistakes in grammar. Grammar is as 
necessary to any speaker as it is to a writer. 

h. Use of rhetorical devices. 

In the study of rhetoric a pupil learns to collect material, to organize 
it, to outline the principal ideas of his speech, to develop his thoughts, and 
finally to express the whole according to the principles underlying the art of 

In the fundamental speech class it would be advisable for the teacher to 
tell pupils how to collect material. A good beginning in this direction will 
be of great help to the speech student, not only in his courses in discussion, 
but in all courses of the high school curricula. 

Samuel Johnson, the great lexicographer, once explained that knowledge was 
that which we already know and that which we are able to find. Some speech 
teachers explain the values of using material, yet neglect to help the pupils 
seek the source of it. Some assume that information concerning the means of 
finding material was given by another teacher. Consequently, a number of stu- 
dents enter the high school speech class with a haphazard idea of how to use a 
library . 

The pupil should know, at least in a general way, the ten divisions of the 
decimal classification as well as some of its most frequently used subdivisions. 
A group visit to the public or the school library will assist the pupil gain a 
knowledge of its wealth of material, indexes, bound magazines, newspapers, and 
other sources. Knowledge of the arrangement of the card catalog room as well 


as the card system .is essential. Card catalogs are used for subject, author, 
''title, suggestive sources, and cross references. Acquaintance with indexes, 
such as Agricul tura l Index, Education In dex , International Index to Periodij^als, 
Poole' s Ind ex, Industr ia l Ar t s Index , and Reader's Guide to Pe riodic a l L itera - 
ture , is as necessary in finding bound magazine references as the card catalog 
in locating books. The explanations regarding magazine references should be 
clearly understood. 

Training in the use of the English dictionary is as important to the high 
school pupil as the knowledge of how to use the library. The range and variety 
of useful information contained within a large modern dictionary is not appre- 
ciated by many high school pupils who have learned to depend upon the abridged 
form. The dictionary is divided into three main parts: (l) the introduction; 
(2) the vocabulary, or main section;. (3) the appendix. The introduction con- 
tains valuable information concerning a large number of familiar words recently 
added to the language. If facts about places such as the size of Florida, pop- 
ulation of Cuba, or capital of Georgia are sought, the geographical section called 
"Gazeteer" should be used. Questions about people are answered in the biograph- 
ical section at the end of the book. The main division of the book dealing with 
words should be especially familiar to the speech pupil. He should know how to 
look up a word in this section of the dictionary. It is to his interest to know 
what words are current, what obsolete, colloquial, or slang. But of more import- 
ance to his speech work is his utilization of the dictionary to improve his pro- 
nunciation, to know definitions, and to value synonyms. The better he under- 
stands how to use a dictionary, the better his chances are of gaining good dic- 
tion and building his vocabulary. 

Methods of finding content for a particular speech should be made clear to 
high school pupils. An explanation of the various forms of outlines should be 
given early in the course so that much practice in the organization of thinking 
as well as speaking will result. The different ways of developing speech con- 
tent, the Greek rhetorical principles, the general aims in speaking, the factors 
of attention, interest, and impelling motives, as well as the forms of address - 
all should be thoroughly explained if a pupil is to have a basis for the other 
speech courses. With. well organized speeches, more . speakers can get practice 
during /the short class period, where time is so precious, and where the interest 
of the group is important. The teacher should require a short outline of each 
original talk to be -given to him before the speaker takes the floor, but he 
should not permit the. student to refer to this outline while he is speaking. 

5- Improvement in bodily expression. 

Both the ELIMINATION . OF DISORDERS- which already exist and the DEVELOPMENT 
OF CO-ORDINATION of body and voice in communicating thoughts and feelings to 
others are included in the improvement of bodily expression. Physical training 
in the initial speech class . involves total bodily activity as well as emphasis 
upon the content of the traditional divisions. of the speech mechanism which have 
been studied separately, forming parallel but interrelated pathways of informa- 
tion. The subject matter of the following divisions generally finds a place in 
the fundamental course: (1) poise and posture; (2) the physical aspects of 
voice production and breathing; (3) physical- basis of vowels and consonants; 
(k) the physical foundation of vocal ■ expression; and (0) pantomime. 

The relationships of posture to other phases of speech training and general 
health should be made clear to the pupil. Correct posture is necessary for sat- 
isfactory inhalation. Drooping shoulders, which cramp the activity of the chest 
and abdomen, or an over-arched back generally result in tension. Maximum breath- 
ing capacity cannot be achieved if the body is under or overtensed. 


Mannerisms characteristic of the young speaker, but nevertheless detrimental 
to his advancement, should he corrected. A speech teacher can help him establish 
a standard by drawing his attention to superior as well as poor platform posture. 
The sooner the pupil realizes the significance of his position on the platform, 
the sooner he will overcome mannerisms detrimental to his success. Emotional 
difficulties, likewise, result in lack of poise. Fear of the speech situation, 
excessive interest in self, and like emotional obstacles to poise must be ana- 
lyzed for the pupil. In brief, the teacher relates poise and posture to the 
total speech activity; yet he explains each bodily action; first, as a function; 
and second, as a product of value to the audience as well as the speaker. 

Training in pantomime is essential. Two extremes of bodily expression are 
found in the average beginning class, either too many or, more commonly, too few 
movements on the platform. Drawing the attention of the class to excellent gest- 
ures of all kinds helps to establish a standard for them. Ease and directness 
can be secured more quickly in a fundamental class by beginning the training with 
total bodily action rather than working with the gestures of the hand or posi- 
tion of the head or feet . A number of periods devoted to pantomimic studies may 
seem a waste of time to the inexperienced teacher; however, experience proves 
that confidence and poise on the platform are secured more quickly by physical 
training. Although much work in bodily action should be given, the focus ought 
not be placed on acting. The aim of its teacher is to prepare a physical basis 
for good speaking. 

6. Improvement in vocal expression. 

Vocal expression, as bodily expression, can be improved by the ELIMINATION 
OF DISORDERS as well as the DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS. An acute ear is required if 
a speech teacher is to detect difficulties in voice. Careful diagnosis of vocal 
disorders is needed if correct skills are to result. 

The significance of breath control as the basis of good voice should be made 
clear to the high school speaker. Generally the teacher gives a simple explana- 
tion of the framework of the chest and its relation to the functioning of the 
lungs. Most students need explanation of the types of breathing, the muscles 
functioning in the breathing process, and the part played by the breath in the 
initiation of tone. The teacher should use drills usually contained in public 
speaking textbooks, and in addition to exercises for breath control, excerpts 
from literature may be read. Exercise in breath control can then readily be 
associated with practice in correct phrasing. Reading aloud, if properly done, 
is excellent training in breath control. Often technical exercises can best be 
given in private conferences, while reading can be used in the class for the 
improvement of vocal expression. Indirectly these drills are a means of devel- 
oping better voice production. 

A student in a fundamental course should have a good notion of what is meant 
by a good speaking voice and what vocal qualities are considered either socially 
obnoxious or detrimental to good vocal function. When he realizes that he can 
have a perfect arrangement of content in public speaking, yet be unsuccessful 
before an audience, because of his vocal delivery, he will be able to sense the 
relation of vocal culture to successful and effective speaking. If he learns 
that the projection of his voice is important to him, he will not be like some 
students who recite so that neither class nor teacher can understand what they 
are saying. 

Since vocal improvement requires skill in using rate, pause, pitch, stress, 
emphasis, and tone-color, practice in acquiring these modulations is given in 

the initial speech class. The pupil realizes that modulations are, in a measure, 
vocal punctuation of value to the ear as the other marks are for the eye. Vocal 
modulations are not alone for the actor; they aid the interpretation of a speak- 
er's thought equally as well as the understanding of a dramatic line. One slight 
change of pitch during an emission of a vowel sound can alter the entire meaning 
of some speaker's utterance. Failure to have variety in pitch changes, in in- 
flection, or in tone color results in a monotonous speaking with obvious conse- 
quences upon the reception of thought and feeling by an audience. Subordination 
of an idea can be secured through proper pitch change or stress. 

The natural divisions of a selection can be communicated to the listeners 
by proper pauses, stress, and pitch - vocal modulations of importance in depict- 
ing contrasts and comparisons. If the speech teacher analyzes the relationship 
of the vocal modulations to meaning and feeling, perhaps by taking some selection 
and dividing it into its thought units, - those segments that answer the ques- 
tions,, who, what, where, when, why, and how - he can then demonstrate how differ- 
ent vocal modulation may be used to present exact and specific interpretation. 
To develop skills in vocal expression is definitely within the province of a 
f undame nt a 1 c o ur se . 

7. Training in the different types of speeches. 

There are several types of speeches that might be stressed in the funda- 
mental class. The deliberative and judicial speech have a place, but demonstrat- 
ive speeches should not be neglected. The after dinner speech and reports are 
types of speeches that a pupil will frequently use after graduation. He should 
be shown how to read any manuscript, how to stress important points, and how to 
improve his delivery in each type of speaking. 

8. Training in methods of presentation. 

Of practical assistance to speech students is an opportunity to give varied 
material through the medium of the different methods of presentation - impromptu, 
extempore, memoriter, and reading. 

Ro matter what kind of speech may be used, judicial, deliberative, or demon- 
strative, or what form of composition is employed, the pupil in the fundamental 
class will find that each method of presentation has benefits and disadvantages. 
The impromptu, for example, will develop a certain facility in speaking, yet may 
weaken logical thinking and fine habits of speech preparation. The extempore 
method (treated at length in Chapter VIII) is a valuable way of speaking if 
students learn to outline and develop speech material, and have acquired skill 
in delivery, yet it may encourage loose habits of organizing subject matter and 
effective delivery, if not properly learned. 

The memoriter form stimulates exact expression and. sound structure In a 
speech, yet may develop artificial style. After a pupil has developed a sense 
of organizing his material, gained a feeling of security in front of the audi- 
ence, has acquired a certain facility of expression, has given impromptu or ex- 
tempore speeches, and has read from manuscript, he should attempt the memoriter 
method. To get pupils to memorize any content -. lines from a play, declamations, 
interpretations, or orations, not to speak of a plain classroom speech - is a 
problem for many teachers. 

The truth is that some students do not know how to memorize any matter ef- 
fectively, and some teachers are not able to help them, because they do not know 
how to give them proper directions. The cadet teacher should consult textbooks 
on educational psychology in order to gain understanding of the function of 


memory, and how it may be cultivated. As the memoriter method is of particular 

value to the pupil, he should understand it thoroughly, and to do this, he will 

need the guidance of a well informed teacher who knows how to help him to train 
his memory. 

Although many textbooks devoted to the teaching of speech in the elementary 
class divide the content into speaking and reading, speech teachers often neg- 
lect to drill students in the latter. Some students will not have any other 
opportunity to gain a knowledge of or a skill in reading unless this art will be 
presented to them in the fundamental course. Speech teachers would be better 
able to teach oral reading if they had a better understanding of the processes 
involved in silent reading. With a proper background in this field they could 
help the student with the acquisition of ideas from the printed page, assist him 
get the meaning from the symbols, and interpret and. express them. Then they 
could direct the student to read' as he would speak, to employ vocal modulations 
naturally, and to adapt rate and volume to the needs of the audience. They could 
point out certain radio actors or 'announcers who can interpret reading in such a 
way that no one feels conscious that lines are being read from a script. They 
coulc finally impress the fact upon the pupil that an ability to read any form 
of literature - narrative, dramatic, oratorio, or lyric - not only will improve 
speech skills and give excellent vocal exercise, but will afford pleasure to 
listeners and will, cultivate literary taste for the reader himself. 

■ Oral interpretation, generally of matter composed by some person other than 
the speaker, has great value for the student. Some teachers favor teaching dec- 
lamation in the fundamental course, while others stress the interpretation of 
poetic and dramatic selection. Declamation - a rendition of an abridged oration 
- and reading - the oral expression of a poem, a short story, or a cutting of a 
drama - both should have a place in the elementary speech course. 

c. Conversation. ^• 

This basic speech form could well be the starting point instead of the conclu- 
sion of speech training. Conversation can be taught in the elementary course for 
the personal and social advantages it gives the high school pupil. It may also be 
stressed for the development of the conversational mode so necessary for speakers. 

1. Points to be stressed in teaching conversation. 

In any' real life situation, people in conversation wish to establish con- 
tact. The speaker feels more confident of his hearer when he is able to look 
him directly in the eyes while talking to him. The keynote of thoughtful con- 
versation is sincerity. If this quality of mental honesty is expected, of speak- 
ers in the fundamental course, they will develop a familiar, spontaneous inter- 
change, characterized by ease and enthusiasm. The hearer quickly. senses gra- 
ciousness on the part of the conversationalist. ■ ",.■■ ■ ., . 

Conversation is a natural emotional outlet .valuable to the speaker as well 
as the hearer. Relaxation is proper to social communication. A pleasant genial 
expression resulting generally from peace of mind begets a similar reaction 
from the hearer, yet conversation is not always dealing. with pleasing subject 
matter. There is a place for purposeful serious conversation.- Businessmen have 
discovered the close relationship that may be established in an informal meeting 
at lunch or at an office. Widespread social reactions may result .from personal 
comments and viewpoints. 


In order to keep conversation interesting in the fundamental class, the 
teacher should point out to his students certain values: (a) mood' in conversa- 
tion may "become monotonous,; excessive exuberance or gloominess is irritating; 
(b) variety of content is necessary; a conversationalist uses facts, summaries, 
analogies, examples, explanations,, reasoning, contrasts, and resemblances as 
well as the forms of composition; (c) variety of expression adds interest to con- 
versation; (d) animated conversation is generally not the result of planning; 
(.e) long-detailed explanations and long-winded expressions of interests should 
be avoided; (f ), old, ideas have fascination when freshly approached; ideas that 
indicate combat of forces similar to those in plays, novels, and stories prove 
interesting to auditors; (g) opposing views should be handled discreetly; (h) 
content generally improves following this order; acquaintances, events, ideas. 

As conversation is a social art, its first prerequisite is the desire to 
please. The speaker should keep the listener in mind, and the listener should 
realize that listening gives conversation its social significance. As partners 
in a social action, they must treat each other's opinions graciously. If the 
social significance is. impressed upon the high school student, he will acquire 
the ability to make friends, possess social ease and charm, and gain skill in 
social adjustments. 

A thoughtful conversationalist will help a reticent person take an active 
part in a group action. He will give the newcomer in a gathering the cue to 
the discussion. He will not speak on subjects offensive to the group. He will 
be accurate with his facts or significant quotations. In a group he addresses 
everyone and does not confine his talking to one or two individuals. 

A good listener does not ignore the speaker; he does not rudely change or 
terminate a conversation. If he pays close attention to what a speaker says, he 
will have some .contribution to make toward the conversation. Personal experi- 
ences, observations, and reflections are interesting, because they supplement 
what the talker has offered and are first hand information. 

A good conversationalist should be taught to think before he speaks. If 
the speaker can learn that conversation belongs to the listener as well as himself^ 
he will not make remarks which he will later regret. To express the proper 
idea at the right time is an art. If the speaker learns tact, he will not talk 
at length or in inappropriate places. He must learn that conversation is not 
concerned with hurried, thoughtless, or irrelevant remarks. Just as in public 
speaking the speaker should have something to say, so too in conversation the 
conversationalist should have suitable and appropriate content. 

Students could be taught that the purposes for which conversation is used 
are comparable to the ends of all kinds of speaking; namely, to acquire or to 
give information; to arouse and direct thinking; to appreciate as well as under- 
stand human relationships; and to share vital experiences, ideas, attitudes, and 
ideals.. '■■' 

The prospective speech teacher should convince himself that intellectual 
and emotional growth of his pupils will be aided by conversation and then he 
can use it for its training values.. He should direct conversation in the class- 
room into the various channels of purpose. One' time it may be related to' in- 
struction or belief; then again, to motivation and action. Finally, the purpose 
of entertainment should not be overlooked. 

Wide reading serves as the best source for interesting conversational con- 
tent. The high school pupil should be taught to cultivate the habit of reading, 


for the acquaintance with men- and events of all ages and all places can and 
should be utilized in every-day speaking. If he reads carefully, he can not 
only contribute intelligently to a conversation the facts at his disposal, but 
he can correlate the subject matter which he has read with that presented by 
the hearer so that interest on the part of both results. He can learn how to 
present a wide range of subjects, yet not display a wide range of encyclopedic 
knowledge, the use of a foreign, technical, or other unusual vocabulary, or 
high powered dramatics, merely to impress people. The best advice concerning 
this phase of conversational training was given by Chesterfield who once advised 
his son to "Pocket all your knowledge with your watch and never pull it out in 
company unless desired". 

The use of clear, correct English to convey the subject matter in conversa- 
tion should be impressed upon the pupil as a means of creating interest. An 
adequate and appropriate speaking vocabulary is a necessity in this art of ge- 
nial fellowship. In no form of speaking is an extensive, workable stock of 
words, which can be drawn upon quickly, more needed. Frequently a student is 
found who says that he has ideas on a certain subject, but is afraid to express 
them with the limited vocabulary at his disposal. The only remedy in his case 
is a conscientious effort to increase the fund of words and then habitually use 
them. With the continuous practice which a speaker receives in conversing, 
correct speaking will become a habit quicker than in any other speech situation. 

A quiet, refined pleasing voice, as well as variety of the speech modula- 
tions, characterize good conversation and should be cultivated. 

2. Conversational mode. 

Although each of the speech arts has its own form that is not identical with 
that of conversation, some of its elements as naturalness of the vocal proper- 
ties, directness of manner, and the like should be found in the conversational 
mode necessary to all the speech arts. If conversational mode is neglected in 
debate, it deteriorates into an academic lifeless drill. There can be no real 
oratory without the qualities of conversation being made a part of it. In dram- 
atics, the immediate listener is not the audience but the other characters on the 
stage. If conversation is not held, lines are artificially given instead of 
spoken directly to the other players, In interpretation of lines in any speech 
form, the speaker-hearer relationship remains just as direct as in informal con- 
versational speaking. The leader should stress the principle that directness, 
sincerity, emotional and social values are found in the style of each of the 
speech arts. 

High school students should further understand that the natural elements 
of oral expression, found in conversation - pause, touch, change of pitch, in- 
flection, tone color, and movement - belong to all forms of speaking. Yet they 
should realize that in any of the speech arts - debate, dramatics, interpreta- 
tion or reading - these vocal modifications are generally employed more intens- 
ively and extensively. Debate, for example, enjoying more vigorous expression 
than general conversation, has a characteristic style arising from the nature of 
argumentation as a form of composition, and has delivery influenced by the tradi- 
tions of the halls of legislation; and justice. Dramatics has a manner molded 
greatly by the customs of the theater, the type of compositions, and immediate 
influence of the character, the mood, the situation, and the locale of the par- 
ticular play. The high school student need3, therefore, to learn to 
accentuate the vocal elements natural to conversation, to use an appropriate 
bodily language and to respond by instinctive bodily modulations to emotional 
situations; and moreso to acquire the art form of the particular speech art. 


To do this, he should know the form of the given art and gain skill in its ex- 

A particular and common fault discovered in the delivery of a high school 
pupil Is the tendency to overstress any element of the conversational mode. For 
'example, over-emphasis creates monotony or no emphasis; if tone color becomes of 
predominant value, pitch and inflection are neglected and an emotional drift 
characterizes vocal expression. If directness is isolated as an element to be 
featured, boldness of manner may be a consequence; if 'simplicity is regarded a3 
the be-all and end-all of style, then bareness and poverty of expression may re- 
sult. In brief, if any factor of composition is overplayed because of its value, 
the total composition must suffer. Harmony of composition results from the in- 
clusion of all its factors - unity, coherence, emphasis, and beauty. If any 
factor of vocal or physical expression is over-stressed, speech loses the com- 
pleteness" of its appeal. Harmony of vocal and physical expression results from 
the inclusion of all their parts - all the vocal modulations, and all the in- 
stinctive responses to situation. 

Certa in Suggestions Regarding Procedur es 

Class procedures in this fundamental course, such as ways of varying the speech 
method, maintaining a standard, increasing pupil participation, equalizing oppor- 
tunities, and reviewing subject matter will now be discussed. 

a. Vary the method. 

Procedures in speech teaching should be made clear to a high school pupil at 
the beginning of the fundamental course if he is to secure. the best results from 
the course. 

1 . Known t o the unknown . 

As the student is progressing from the known bo the unknown, he should 
utilize his actual life experiences for his speeches before the class. A tea- 
cher should suggest subject matter close to the student's interests and even to 
his hobbies. He should draw heavily - especially the first few weeks of class - 
upon topics the student likes. A casual inquiry frequently shows that a teacher 
has a personal interest in each member of the class. If a student has traveled 
to Yosemite, the teacher should encourage him to tell about it in an impromptu 
or extempore speech.- Too often the student is directed to secure subject matter 
entirely through research, and he is led to count his own experiences as value- 
less.': A library should hot be the only source of speech material. The student 
should be stimulated to look within himself first for the subject matter of 
speeches before he seeks material from books and magazines. 

2. Kinds of procedure. 

Each member of the group is an individual problem in a fundamental course. 
The class is truly a speech laboratory. In view of the situations in which the 
high school pupil finds himself, he needs particular guidance. For this reason 
the prospective teacher of speech should be well acquainted with the material 
previously given which relates to evaluation, class control, questioning, grad- 
ing, and the like subjects. 

In the beginning class, six factors of speaking should be evaluated: dic- 
tion-- choice and use of words, pronunciation and enunciation; grammar-- syntact- 
ical construction; rhetoric-- invention, arrangement, development, and style; 


vocal expression — pause , touch, use of intervallic pitch, inflection, tone 
color, volume, rate, and emphasis; "bodily expression-- posture, representative 
pantomime, and manifest at ive pantomime; and lastly audience motivation and con- 
trol. Some teachers give each speaker advice on all six points. Other teachers 
would criticize him only on those points which have been the subject of the im- 
mediate class discussion. Some teachers wait to the last ten minutes of the 
class period; then direct the attention of the class to effective as well as 
the less effective examples heard concerning the points enumerated. Each method 
has its value. The teacher can "best apply his own method when, he observes the 
size of the class, its general composition and the speech theory under discus- 
sion; yet he should remember that evaluation is not concerned with one factor 
of speech but with six. 

An instructor should observe that his suggestions for speech improvement in 
a beginning course should be specific in order to lessen the emotional strain on 
the pupil. Indefinite advice such as "Keep a natural standing position, " "Let 
your breath do the work," or "Be natural," are often misleading. When any eval- 
uation is vague, it incites only meager attention. 

A fundamental course can be improved by varying from day to day the train- 
ing procedures. Although the matter of planning the speech course has been dis- 
cussed in a previous chapter, a few specific suggestions now may be worthwhile 
to the teacher. Volunteer as well as prepared work should be encouraged; the 
unexpected whets the interest. A short unexpected quiz often serves as a stim- 
ulus to better class effort; written assignments, interspersed between the oral, 
relieve the class of the strain of continually hearing speeches. 

Vary class routine: let the class give its views regarding a speaker after 
the semester has advanced; vary the order in calling upon students; use visual 
aids and supplementary materials; employ a note book to record subjects of in- 
terest to the class; pass a question box around the class so that the unsigned 
questions may be asked about the class procedure; form committees such as those 
on Good Enunciation, Outline, English, Grammar, or Observation; use class criti- 
cism blanks - these and many other ingenious methods may be developed by an 
alert teacher to maintain class interest . 

b. Be Guided by the normal standard. 


In a beginning speech course, there are generally three classes of students, 
the defective , the normal , and the tal ented . The interest of some speech teachers 
is often wrongly directed to the improvement of those in need of speech therapy or 
to exhibiting the exceptional pupil while neglecting the normal student of his 
group . 

If unsocial behavior or symptoms of a neurotic constitution persist in a pupil 
his speech problem may be better handled by a speech correctionist or psychologist 
rather than by the speech teacher. The main attention of the speech teacher is 
directed towards the average child without penalizing the bright student or being 
burdened by problems of the few speech deviates. 

c. Increase participation. 

Every member of the beginning class should be given an opportunity to partic- 
ipate in class exercises and speaking. Lectures on speech theory may be held to the 
minimum. Often members of the class can give oral reports on different aspects of 
the speech theory. Short speeches will allow more pupils to take part in the speech 
work. The suggestion previously given to encourage participation of the reticent 
and bashful pupils should be remembered. '■ 


d. Equalize opportunities. 

To encourage all students to participate in class work, the teacher should 
inculcate a spirit of competition in the class. The play element is a wholesome 
attribute for an adolescent and can often attain results difficult to achieve in 
other procedures. If carefully planned and controlled, the competitive spirit can 
bring naturalness and 1 vigor to the class. The equal distribution of opportunity in 
participation has to be watched carefully, for the student who needs the most prac- 
tice may avoid his responsibility, while the aggressive individual may get more than 
his share . 

e. Review material already given. 

In preparation for training a beginning speech class, a prospective teacher 
should review material already treated in other chapters, particularly those on 
assignments, questioning, evaluation, class control, unit activities, and the 

Extr acu r ricular Activities Associated With The Fundamental C ourses 

Many educators feel that extracurricular work particularly in the fundamental 
course places a burden upon a student hardly commensurate with. the rewards he will 
gain; other' educators hold the opinion that pupils gain many advantages from such 
participation. '■'■ 

a. Type of activity. 

Many high schools conduct one poetry interpretation contest each year restrict- 
ing , the contestants to those having an average of B and to members of the elementary 
speech course. In some •'schools' this contest is opened co the general public; gen- 
erally, however, the audience is composed of high school students. Whether the 
contests be restricted to poetry, declamation, dramatic readings, or even augmenta- 
tion, the type of activity chosen should have the interest of the class. Only a 
few contestants should be chosen; the contest should be directly connected with 

b. Suggestions.-' 

The extra-class activities used in conjunction with a broad foundation course 
will j Delude competitions of various types - meetings in which parliamentary pro- 
cedure may be practiced, or where different forms of informal discussions may take 
place. The extracurricular activities growing out of a class in public speaking, 
however, must be by nature mere limited in scope. These could, incluae the making 
and evaluating voice records, conversational gatherings, after-dinner speaking, 
informal discussions, speaking contests, radio work-shop, trip to the public li- 
brary, and visits to industries to acquire 'materials for speaking. The chief pur- 
pose of the activity, whether used in connection with a public speaking class or a 
foundation course, is to supplement the class room teaching with opportunities for 
the pupil for better speech skills, cultural, and social improvement. 



1. List three constructive suggestions for creating interest in the fundamental 

course in speech. 

2. Give suggestions to help an inexperienced teacher deal with extreme attitudes 

towards a speech class. 

3. What procedures will secure freedom in bodily activity on the platform? 

k. What plan would you offer to aid a bright student not doing capacity work? 

5. Analyze your speech recording. 

6. Compile a criticism sheet to be used in a fundamental speech class of a high 

7- Design three typical library cards containing varied information about books 
in the school library. 

8. Give three examples of tact in conversation. Discuss. 

9. Give three examples of thoughtlessness in conversation. Discuss. 

10. Are you familiar with the Merriam Company of Springfield, Mass. services and 

pamphlets which are of particular interest to the teacher of fundamental 

11. Compile a list of 100 words frequently misused in speaking. Compare your list 

with 100 Speech Demon s, Los Angeles Speech Ass'n. Bull. 3^0. 

12. Compile a vocabulary test which contains the following suggestions: Mark the 

words receiving the stress. Cross out silent consonants. Indicate the 
pronunciations of the letter s_. Distinguish the x_ pronunciations and class- 
ify in three columns. Compile two columns for the ch sounds. Name pronun- 
ciation of jg_ in different words containing it. Mark with appropriate dia- 
critical signs the vowels in a list of words. 

13. Build word lists showing the derivations, the common prefixes and suffixes, 

and specific words to be used instead of common general ones. 
Ik. Compile a list of twenty five words you know but generally do not use in your 
speaking vocabulary. ■ ' 

15. Compile twenty five words you expect to disapprove in your speech classes. 

16. Read Learning the Webster System of Diacritical Marks , The School Review , V. 

53, p. kQk, October, I9E5T 

17. Give a talk on the way that words enter into our language. 

18. Should tongue twisters be used in vocal and speech drills in the fundamental 


19. Discuss frankly what you expect to meet in the speech class in the nature of 

stage fright, mannerisms, and faulty posture. What are you going to do about 
the faults of physical expression you will discover? Compile a set of sug- 

20. How do you plan to treat breathing as a subject of discussion and demonstration 

in the fundamental class? 

21. What characteristics of voice do you expect to find in the classroom? What 

faults will you correct? What faults of voice do you hear in this class? 

22. Plan a lesson in pantomime. Plan for a demonstration of pantomime for an 

assembly period. 

23. Compile a test to be used following a unit dealing with conversation. 

2k. Read Monroe, A. H., and others, M easuring the Effectiveness of Public Speech 
in the Beginning Course , Bull. Purdue University, V. 37, September, 1936. 

25. Write a lesson plan for a specific assignment in the fundamental class dividing 

it into units of the subject, as for example: physical aspects of pitch, 
controlling the pitch, accentuating pitch in interpretation, drills for 
pitch, etc. 

26. Should pupils be told early in the course the number of speeches they must 


27. Read Initial Speech Tests , Q.J.S., April, 19^2. 

28. Make a list of ten supplementary text: books you would like to have purchased 

for your fundamental course. 


29. What do you plan for the firdt assignment? 

30. What are some of the basic rules for assignments? 

31. How much volunteering for speaking : do you expect in the fundamental class? 

32. Prepare a set of simple exercises for better voice. 

33- Contrast the discussions about vocal quality in Duffey, W. R,, Voice a nd 
Del ive ry with those found in Curry , S. S., M ind and 'Voice . 

34. Compile a chart suitable to evaluate audience response. 

35. Would you advise impromptu speaking in the fundamental course? 

36. Report on the diagnostic test measuring- the pupils' ability to use each of 

the eight fundamental skills used' in speaking. Cf. Tyler - -Kim ber Study 
Skills Test . Stanford University Press, Calif., 19^7- 

37- What practical helps do you get from Get ting Started in the High Schoo l Funda- 
mental Class, Robinson, K. R. Q.J.S., p. 340, October, 1944? 

38. How can individual talents be nurtured in the fundamental course? 

39- Discuss ways of teaching speech indirectly to students. 

40. What type of subject should be used for speeches in the beginning class? 

41. Evaluate a textbook like Sarett and Foster Bas ic Pri nciple s of Spe ech as to 

what should be taught in the beginning class. 

42. How do you plan to meet the circumstances created by students who remark: 

"I 'don't know what to talk about." "What am I marked upon?" "I get so 
nervous." "I can't say what I think." "Why do I need speech anyhow?" 
"What is wrong with slang?"' 

1+3 • Read Forensic Programs and Their Direction, Fest, T.B., Q.J.S. Feb., 1949 • 

44. Read Tea ching Aids, a report of audio-visual education in city school systems, 
N.E.A. Wash., D.C., Dec, 1946. 

k-5 . Are you acquainted with the Teacher Education Series , text-films, McGraw-Hill, 
New York? . :.•■. 

46. Criticize a teacher's report blank of a pupil's speech which contains the 
following items: Name, Title- of Speech, General Purpose, Proposition, 
Occasion, Type of Audience, Type of Introduction, Type of Conclusion, 
Situation Factors, Delivery, Content, Style, Audience Reaction, Evidence, 
and Verification of Authorities. 


Abney> X. , This Way to Better Speech (New York: World Book, 1940). .<■ 
Anderson, H. R., A New First Course in Speech- and English' (Q.J.S. v. 24: 70- 7 

' Feb., 1938). ' ' '•'• 

Anderson, V.'A., T rain i ng the Spe aking Voice (New York: Oxford- University Press, 

19^7. ' ~, '. ' ' - ;■ '•' . , 

Bailoy, P. M. , M easuring Achievement "in the Fundamentals of High - School Public 

Speaking (Master Thesis)' (Boulder, 'Colorado: Univer..; of Colo.., . 1-935) . 
Baird, A. C, and Knower, F.. H. , General Speech (New York: McGraw-Hill-, 194:90 . 
Barrows, S. T., The Voi ce: How to Use It, 'Rev : . Ed., (Boston:. Expression Co. , 

1942). ' ;-" ; ' n ;.» ■ •-. 

Barnes, H. G., Speech Handbook (New York: Prentice -Hall,- 1945).. , 
Bender, J. F., How to "Talk". W ell (New York:. McGraw-Hill, 1949).. 
Bender, J. F, , and Fields, N. A., Voice and Diction from th e Standpoint of 

Persona lity Growth (New York: Longmans, 1942). . 
Borchers, G. L. ,. Li ving Speech (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1938). 
Borchers, G. L., Outl ine of a Begi n ning High School ■Cours e' (Q.J.S. V. 16:208 

April, 19.30). 
Borchers, G. L. , and Wise, C. M., Modern S peech (New York; Harcourt Brace, 1947). 
Brigance, W. N., . Your Everyday Speec h (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1937). 
Brigance, W, N., ' Classi fi ed Speech Models (New York: Crofts', I93O). , . : 


Brigance, W. N., and Immel, R. K. , Speechmaking" Principles and Practices (New York: 

Crofts, 1945). 
Bryant, D. C, and Wallace, K. P., Fundamentals of Public Speaking (New York: 

Applet on-Century Co., 1947). 
Buehler, E. C, You and Your Speeches (Lawrence, Kansas: The Allen Press, 1949). 
Carroll, L., Conversation Please (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959)* 
Craig, A. E., The Contents of a High School Course in Speech (Q.J.S. 7. 15:350-64 

June, 1929). 
Craig, A. E., The Junior Speech Art s Rev. Ed., (New York: Macmillan, 1941). 
Curry, P., The Mechanism of the Human Voice (New York: Longmans Green, 1940). 
Dehly, A, G., F undamentals of Speech Education (Boston: Maydell Publications, 

Dickey, H. J., The First Year Course in Speech for High Schools (Master Thesis) 

(Austin, Texas: Univer. of Tex., 1935 )• 
Duffey, W. P., Voice and Delivery (St. Louis: Herder, 1941). 
Emsley, B., Jones, and Timmohs, Speaking and Listening (New York: American Book, 

19^5 ) • 
Everett, S. and others, A Challenge to Secondary Education (New York: Applet on- 

Century Co., 1935). 
Fair, J. F., Teaching Conversation in The Senior High Schoo l (Eng. Jour. V. 22: 

562-9 Sept., 1935). r 
Fairbanks, G., Practical Voice Practice (New York: Harper, 1944). 
Fairbanks, G., Voice and Ar ticula tion Drill Book (New York: Harper, 1940). 
Fields, V. A., and Bender, J. F., V oice and Dic tion (New York: Macmillan, 1949). 
Flesch, P., Th e Art of Plain Tal k (New York: Harper, 1946). 
Frederick, G. J., How To Be a Convincing Talker and a Charming Conversationalist 

(New York: Bus. Course Pub., 1937). 
Gilmartin, J. G., Building Your Vocabulary (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1939)* 
Gough, H., Rousseau, L., Cramer, M., and Reeves, J. W. ,. Effecti ve Speech 

(New York: Harper, 1938). '■• 
Gray, G. W., and Wise, C. M. , The Bases of Speech Rev. Ed., (New York: Harper, 

Grim, H. E., Practical Voice Training (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1948). 
Hamilton, E. D., A One-Year Speech Cour se (Q.J.S. V. 23:102-5 Feb., 1937). 
Harrington, W. L. , and Fulton, M. G., T alking Well - A Book on the Art of 

Conversation (New York: Macmillan, 1924 ) . 
Hedde, W., and Brigance, W., American Speech Rev. Ed., (Chicago: Lippincott, 

Hoffman, W. G. , How To Make Better Speeches (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 19^9). 
Hollingworth, H., The Psych o logy of the Audience (New York: American Book, 1935) » 
Judson, L. S., and Weaver, A., Voice Scienc e (New York: Crofts, 194l). 
Kleiser, G., How To Improve Your Conver sation (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1932). 
Kolberg, 0. W., C onversat ion ~7Q ". J . S , V. 25:94-8; February, 1937). 
McAllister, A-i H., A Year's Course in Speech Training (London: University of 

London Press, I938). 
McCall, R. C, Fundamentals of Speec h (New York: Macmillan, 1949)-.' 
McLean, M. D., Good American Speech "(New York: Dutton, 1930). 
MacConnell, and Melby, New Sc h ools For A New Cultur e (New York: Harper, 1944). 
Miller, M. H., A Description and Interpretation of a Course of Study in Speech 

(Master Thesis) (Pittsburgh: Univer" of Pitt-, 1934). '. 
Monroe, A. H., Principles arid Types of Speech 3rd Ed., (Chicago: Scott, Foresman, 

1949). ■ ' "• • : 
Mulgrave, D., Speech for the Classroom Teacher Rev. Ed., (New York: Prentice 

Hall, 1946). 
Murray, E., What Is' Fundamental in Speech? (Southern Speech Bulletin V. 4:1-4 

Nov., 1938). : ' . •. . 

Norvelle, L., and Smith, R. G., Speaking Effectively' (New York: Longmans Green, 

1948 ) . *" 


O'Brien, J. F., A Curricu lum in Speech Education for the Se co ndary S chool with Min - 
imum Standards of Teacher Traini ng (State College, Pennsylvania: Penn. State 
College, 1938). . * • :V 

Ogg, E. L. , and Immel, R. K., Spee ch Improvement : A Manua l for a Fundament als 
Cou rse (New York:-- Crofts, ■ I9S5.) • ■ " ■- .* . 

Oliver, R. T., Cortright, R., and Hager, C. F., The He w Training for Effe ctive 
Speec h (New York: , : /T&e,..Diya.6n Press, 1^9').. '. 

Ommanney, K. A., Voi ce an d Diction, Rev„ Ed., (New York: Harper, 1939). 

O'Neill, J. M., Foundations of Speech (New York: Prentice-Hall, 19^2). 

O'Neill, J., and. Weaver, A. T., The Elem ents of Speech Rev. Ed., (New York: 
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Orr, F. W., Vo ice for Sp eech (New York: McGraw-Hill, I938).. 

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Parrlsh, W. M., Speaking in Pub lic (New York: Scribner, 19*+9)« 

Potter, R. K., and others, Vi sl ble Speech (New York: Van Nostrand, 19^7) ■ 

Raubicheck, L., Improving Your- Speech (New. York ;., Noble, 1939 )• 

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(Boston: Houghton -Mifflin, 19^3). 

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1937). , .;' • 

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(New York: Prentice-Hall, 19*1-8). 
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Prentice -Hall, 19*1-1). ' 

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19^5). ~" ' ~~ 


How strong an influence works in well-placed words.-- CHAPMAN 



Specific Objective s 

a. Difference Between Extempore and Other Forms of Presentation 

b. Abilities to be Developed in Extempore Speaking \ .'■; 
Techniques of Classroom Teaching 

a. Content ' . ...• 

1. How to secure wide and accurate reading ■■••' 

2. How to secure defiriiteness of content :"'"•".. 
■ 3» How to develop an outline for extempore speaking 

1 h. How to begin and end an extempore speech • ': 

b. Method 

1. How to arouse interest in this type of speaking 

2. Talking to an imaginary audience 
Techniques of Extracurricular Activi ty 

a. Types of Extemporaneous Speaking Contests • 

b. Managing Contests 

c. Judging Extempore Speaking 


Specific Objectives 

a. Two types of Oratory ; ■ ' ,- 

b. Scope of the Subject 

c . Purpose of Training 

d. Advantages of Participation " • ; 
Techniques of Classroom Teaching ' : . 

a. Content 

1. Select an adequate subject 

2. Determine purpose 

3. Acquire variety of content and expression 

k. Develop imagery •'..'.' • •- ' 

5. Secure good diction ■ : - 

b. Method 

1. Secure proportion 

2. Relate parts 

3. Begin 

k. Develop the theme 
5. Conclude 
Techniques of Extracurricular Act i vit y 

a. Stimulate Interest in Competition 

b. Select a Contest Subject 

c. Select a Contestant 

d. Judge Oratory 





This form of speech presentation is the logical course to follow a fundamental 
class. It may he of one or two semesters in length. The objectives of this course, 
the approved techniques of training, the content and methods used, and means em- 
ployed in extracurricular activities to further the skill of the student should be 
known by the prospective speech teacher. 

Specif ic Ob jec tives 

Two specific purposes are set forth as a guide to the teacher. He should know 
(a) the differences' among the methods of presentation, particularly between extemp- 
ore and impromptu speaking; (b) the abilities of the student which should be devel- 
oped by this genre, and (c) the content. 

a. Difference between extemporaneous speaking and other forms of presentation. 

This speech form is often confused with impromptu speech, or presentation 
without any immediate preparation. The former is a prepared talk, carefully planned 
as to its length, content, and audience motivation, although its expression and 
words used are not prepared previous to its delivery. Preparation requires that a 
tentative outline be arranged for each extempore speech. A student should be made 
to realize that as a large percentage of his speaking in business or professional 
life will be extempore, he should early in his speech training develop skill in 
this form or presentation. Speeches are. seldom given word for word except in radio 
or oratory. He should not, however, repla,ce extempore speaking, by- debate . The two 
types of speech work supplement, but do not supplant each other. 

b. Abilities to be developed in extempore speaking. 

The speech teacher should stress the importance of developing a wide, general 
background which a yjupil can use in preparing his talks. The average student is 
impressed with the advantages of being well read and of having ample information 
en his subject. An extempore speaker must become a rapid but thorough reader who 
is able to we:igh, evaluate, and reject, .as well as select material. -.. A speaker 
thinking on his feet cannot falter for the exact word or construction necessary to 
make his speech sufficiently forceful to move' an audience,. The exact idea must be 
at his command if success in extempore speaking is to result. 

The characteristics of delivery in extempore speaking do not differ materially 
from those of other forms of address. ,, .-If he expects to arouse corresponding inter- 
est in his audience, the speaker needs to be interested in what he is developing. 
Ease before an audience is essential to him. Simplicity, sincerity, voice, poise, 
and conversational quality are required if an audience appeal is to be 

Techni que a. o f • . • CI as sroom Teachi ng 

Suggestions as to both" content and.method follow: 

a. Problems of content, '' 

These include the securing of wide and accurate reading, and def initeness of 
content, proper introduction and conclusion, and the development of an outline. 

1. How. to secure wide and accurate reading. "- 

Research which is well taught not only widens the scope of the speaker's 
knowledge, but it gives a new interpretation and value to observations previously 


made. Study in the various fields of knowledge which enlarge his stock of infor- 
mation will improve speaking of this type. The teacher should acquaint the pupil 
with the various sources of speech materials, and extend his observations. The 
extempore speaker also should he trained to use the library to advantage. 

Finding material is not of much value unless a student can utilize it to ad- 
vantage. He can be taught how to understand all symbols on the printed page; 
how to get the content; how to originate new relationships as well as associate 
the old; how to evaluate sources and keep a systematized record of material 
gathered from them; how an accurate bibliography should be compiled; how to take 
adequate and accurate notes so that complete citations can be recorded; how to 
read from general to the specific sources; how to analyze as well as synthesize 
the content studied; how to scrutinize details - the unusual, the similar; how 
to supply omitted material and secure relationships and logical order; how to 
distinguish fundamentals from accidentals; how to discover ideas such as the 
vivid, the vague, the major, the minor, the expressed and implied comparisons, 
the abstract, the concrete, the related and unrelated sources; how to evaluate 
different kinds of speech materials; and how to determine the importance of 
drawings, table of contents, graphs, maps, and charts. 

2. How to secure definiteness of content. 

This asset of good style should be developed. A speaker has to be reminded 
to utilize the factors of interest ingness, the impelling motives, and the dif- 
ferent types of building materials which he has previously studied. Facts and 
data of various kinds give stability to any problem being discussed. A speaker 
has to be taught to substantiate his generalizations by proof and specific in- 

3- How to develop an outline for extempore speech. 

A definite plan is as essential to a speaker as a blueprint to a builder. 
Through careful organization a speaker is able to progress in an orderly manner 
to an objective which he selected before beginning his preparation. A method to 
help a pupil appreciate order and content is that of analysis of a well planned 
speech. When a model speech is dissected and outlined, the order and value of 
the material, as well as the selected transitions which hold it together, can 
easily be determined.' He may likewise use a method of synthesis. An original 
list of points gathered in. preparation for a talk may be placed on the board. 
A pupil can arrange the subordinate as well as the main points for the outline. 

Teachers will find students who feel that they can give a good speech with- 
out making an outline. The high school pupil is seldom a veteran speaker, and 
generally he has not a fund of experience previously organized. He seldom can 
on the spur of the moment organize his material. The teacher should never allow 
a student to attempt to communicate disorganized material to an audience. The 
very habit of organizing material is an important factor in speech training. 

When the student has been taught how to determine the central idea of a 
speech and express it in one sentence, he should be taught how to form a clear 
cut skeleton of the entire speech around this unifying factor of his talk, by 
any of the three kinds of outlines, namely, word, phrase, and sentence. A sent- 
ence outline, although requiring more labor than other types of outline, is gen- 
erally preferred by the high school speech teacher, because it makes the pupil 
consider even the details of the entire structure he is erecting. A word or 
phrase outline has value for the more experienced speaker. 


To secure unity in an- outline, the extempore speaker can "be taught how to 
consider his purpose, the specific audience, the occasion, as well as the limit- 
ation of the subject. To gain coherence in an outline, a speaker learns to ar- 
range as well as relate the points selected, and have adequate transitions so 
that the points move forward logically to a specific end. 

Students should he shown how to outline according to the order of time; the 
logical order; the order of consequence used in numerous reports where a second, 
process could not he understood unless an explanation preceded it; the order of 
space relationship - commonly used where events or objects occur in different 
physical relationships, such as directions, distances, or places; the order of 
comparison as well as the order of contrast - where two or more persons, objects, 
events,- conditions, or circumstances are involved; the order of importance which 
takes a number of forms such as from the specific. to the general, the smallest 
to the largest, the details to the whole, the first impression to later impres- 
sions; the order of climax where opposing forces are arranged against each other 
until a point is reached where a clash occurs; and the order from unknown to 
known or vice versa. 

A teacher should include in training in outlining ways in which an idea may 
be made emphatic: by a mere statement of the fact x^hich identifies it as import- 
ant; by its position .such as. at the beginning or end,;, and by the proportion of 
space devoted to it. 

The necessity for a speaker to adopt one point of view is often forgotten 
by the young student. He has to be reminded to keep the same person and number 
in h:i s out 13 ne. 

The general mood in a speech should also be considered in outlining. Just 
as a novel, play, or poem has an atmosphere, so should a well planned talk. A 
general mood relates to emotions suitable to the entire speech situation with • • 
'variety of elements within the speech.. Students learn that a combination of 
serious and humorous, In different proportions, is the most generally acceptable 
combination to hold the interest of the audience. 

A brief simple form for short daily talks may contain. the following six 
points preceding the outline .of the body of the speech: (l) title; (2) general 
purpose - stated in a few words;;. (3) central idea -stated in, a complete sent- 
ence; (h) type of introduction - named; (5) kind of conclusion - named;. (6) 
type of audience - named. 

The purpose of using symbols and indention In outlining is to give both 
order and value to the materials. The conventional arrangement from the top to 
the bottom of the' page is for .order, and from the left to the right of the page, 
for value. Indentions indicate the value of the individual parts. The two 
types of symbols used, numbers and letters, are signs, indicative of the value of 
content, and generally alternate as follows: I, A^ 1, a, (l_), and (a) . 

Each heading represents a thought division, not necessarily a paragraph. 
Over -organization of an outline is as difficult for an audience to follow as 
under -organization. Major divisions should clearly state an Important relation- 
ship to the proposition at hand. The same relation which the main headings hold 
to the proposition is held by the subordinate points to the, main headings, if 
evaluation is to be clearly expressed to the listener. 

Consistency in form is required in a well constructed outline. Parallel 
construction is necessary in each speech outline, as well as in any list of items 


requested "by the teacher. In a list of nouns, for example, use the expression 
rapidity of movement , rather than employ the verb moves rapidly . Agreement in 
the use of "both number and tense throughout an entire outline improves the com- 
position. No punctuation is commonly used after each point in a topical out- 
line and each new point should "be begun with a capital. 

h. How to begin and end an extempore speech. 

The type of introduction and conclusion is a particular problem in this 
form of speaking. Frequently, a short memorized introduction is an aid to the 
speaker who is afraid of the audience. A warning against the use of an apology 
as an introduction should be made, for if used,, the audience watches for every 
fault which it might not have noticed if the lack of preparation had not been 
suggested by the speaker himself. The introduction in extempore speech should be 
planned carefully, for if a speaker gets a good start his confidence will be 
held throughout the speech. Students should be taught that an introduction is 
not an addition to a speech but an integral part of the whole composition. 
The relation between the introduction, body, and conclusion of the talk should 
be made clear. In careful preparation, the goal should be kept in mind to in- 
sure adequate transitions. , 

Training for a conclusion is often overlooked by inexperienced teachers 
who forget the lasting impression which a poor ending makes upon an audience. 
After the conclusion is determined, the transitions which bind the three parts 
of the speech can be developed with less effort. The significance of a force- 
ful conclusion cannot be overestimated in extempore speaking for the conclusion 
is an integral part of the speech instead of an afterthought. The conclusion 
may be memorized in order to give an extempore speaker a stronger sense of se- 

b. Method, 

The cadet teacher should not only gain a knowledge of the content of the ad- 
vanced speech course, but he should, likewise pay particular attention to exercises, 
drills, and activities suggested for the development of skills. He will find that 
the method of teaching extemporaneous speech differs from that of the fundamental 
class. His students must . know how to collect material quickly and organize it 
efficiently. Of great need to the prospective teacher is a method of teaching 
diction and vocabulary building. He will do well to consult textbooks for methods 
of teaching the invention, the arrangement, the development, and the expression of 
thought, inasmuch they are his chief concern in the course. 

1. How to arouse interest in this type of speaking. 

A foresight ed teacher can explain the value of extempore speaking in every- 
day life situations, both social and professional. Even in a beginning class in 
high school, students are already .visualizing themselves as doctors, nurses, or 
teachers. The practical advantages of this form of speaking have to be explained 
in order to have the class realize its significance in their own lives. 

2. Talking to an imaginary audience. 

This is good training for extempore delivery; it allows a speaker to hear 
his own voice before he appears before a real audience - and he can, therefore, 
improve audience relationship. An extempore speaker should be taught to talk 
directly to an audience... That he has a message to give is an important factor 
for him to remember; unless he is animated, eager, and direct, he can not hope 


to achieve his purpose in speaking. By centering his attention upon the audi- 
ence, the extempore speaker is much more likely to forget himself and think of 
his material. 

Techniqu es of Extracurricu lar Act ivity 

Three problems for the teacher which cause him difficulty in this type of 
extracurricular activity are: (l) the types of extemporaneous speaking contests, 
(2) managing contests, and (5) judging extemporaneous speaking. 

a. Types of extemporaneous speaking contests. 

There are different methods of conducting this form of cbmpetitioh. A contest- 
ant may draw two or three topics by lot from a list taken from recently selected 
magazines such as World ' s Work, Review of Reviews, Out look , or Atlantic Monthly, 
and in an assigned time, prepares a five or seven minute original talk on the one 
selected "by him. Generally, the names of the magazines from which the topics are 
chosen are posted at a date previously agreed upon "by the contesting schools so 
that general reading can "be done by all competitors previous to the contest. 

Another method of conducting an extempore speaking contest is to announce a 
general subject instead of a list of sources and, at the time ,of the contest, to give 
a choice of two or three specific phases of this general topic to each contestant. 
No access to reference books is generally allowed in this particular procedure al- 
though in some places notes or card outlines are used. Rules governing individual 
contests differ in details, yet the general procedure is the same. An important 
factor in this competition is time. In order to give each student the same length 
of time for preparation, some schools require students to draw subjects at seven 
minute intervals during the contests, especially if the number of contestants is 
large. In some places the prepared speech alone is given; in others, the original 
speech is later questioned by the judge. The contestant's ability to defend his 
viewpoint is taken into consideration in judging. 

b. Managing contest. 

Extempore competition requires as much management as any of the other kinds of 
contests. The details concerning time, order of speakers, material, and methods of 
judging should be completed previously. It is discouraging for a coach to prepare 
his contestant, only to have him draw an uninteresting subject carelessly chosen. • ' 
Content for extemporaneous competition should have intellectual appeal and an emo- 
tional climax if a speaker, as well as the audience, is to enjoy it. 

c. Judging extempore speaking. 

Either the single or group judging plan is satisfactory in extempore contests. 
Rating scales in this type of speaking vary in detail but generally include the 
following three factors in varying proportions: (l) knowledge of the subject dis- 
cussed; (2) logical thinking and composition; (3) effective delivery. These three' 
major points are often subdivided into numerous minor divisions with specific 
grades to be given each point. 

If a judging sheet is too detailed, a judge may become so engrossed in compil- 
ing the data that he misses much of the talks. If no percentages are suggested for 
the various items, a judge may, depending upon his chief interest, evaluate either 
content or delivery too high. A lawyer is inclined to center his attention upon the 
content; a speech teacher, upon the delivery. Both should consider content and de- 
livery in good judging. 



The oration is studied in the speech class of a high school either as a part 
of the fundamental course, an advanced course in oral English, or as a specialized 
course with its own proper content. 

S pecific Objectives 

Before considering the problem of the classroom in teaching oratory, the cadet 
teacher should understand the nature of the oration, appreciate the scope of the 
subject, the purpose of training, and the advantages offered in the oratory class. 

a. Two types of oratory. 

Oratorical work generally is divided into original and memorized. The trend in 
many secondary schools is away from the memorized oration. This action is to be re- 
gretted for the training in extempore speaking, or debate does not replace that of- 
fered by this finished type of' speaking. If more speech teachers were fully ac- 
quainted with this ancient speech art, more students would benefit from the sound 
training in composition and delivery that comes from presenting either type of ora- 
tion. • ..,-,. 

b. Scope of the subject. 

An oration is neither an essay, political speech, debate, sermon, nor poetry, 
although when the heights of thought and emotion are reached in its free flowing 
style, with rhetorical exactness and beauty, it is similar to the highest types of 
poetic expression. Prose-poetry it might well be termed. An oration, the most 
refined and polished of all prose styles is an oral discourse on a worthy and dig- 
nified theme which appeals to the whole nature of man. Oratory appeals first to 
man's understanding; so for this reason should contain worthwhile information if 
it is to be classed as genuine. If an oral address is delivered well, but has 
little worth-while content to move the hearers, it can not be classed as an oration. 
Real oratory should arouse the imagination of the audience, move it emotionally to 
respect or condemn a certain policy and influence the will, as well as inform it of 
a problem. It is this characteristic feature which distinguishes oratory from 
other types of discourse. 

c. Purpose of training. 

The primary purpose of oratory in high school is educative. An oration is not 
a collection of words beautifully spoken, but subject matter which the speaker de- 
sires strongly to utter. Oratory must have purpose. Sincerity is its most dis- 
tinguishing characteristic; it should include material worth giving, that is ar- 
ranged correctly and that possesses literary style. A positive, constructive ap- 
peal is the basis of this dignified -form of artistic speaking. . . 

d. Advantages of participation. 

The benefits gained from working on an oration far outweigh the disadvantages 
involved in preparing either the original or memorized forms. The actual writing 
of a finished speech makes an orator- appreciate the effort that is required to per- 
fect a composition of this kind. When a pupil learns to select, plan, and organize 
material, and develop' a careful, smooth, polished style, he has advanced far in the 
speech arts. When he attains skill to move an audience, to have great exactness in 
writing, to command a true oratorical style, he will have acquired an art of great 
service to him. Or if he engages in memorizing prepared orations, he will find that 


the intimate acquaintance with famous writers and a careful study of their works 
will give him a standard to appreciate speech form as well as content . Furthermore 
he will gain excellent training in delivery - poise, dignity, refinement, enthusi- 
asm, and sincerity - if he participates in either kind of oratorical training. 

Techniques of Class ro om Teaching 

Probably in none of the speech arts is more material available concerning the 
content and method of teaching a speech subject than for a course in oratory. The 
cadet teacher is referred to the first chapter of this text where he will find much 
information regarding the rhetoric of oratory. He likewise should study many of 
the older treatises dealing with oratorical composition as well as the chief modern 
textbooks now in use in high schools. 

a. Content. 

Of prime interest to the teacher are the number and kind of topics that should 
be presented to the high school student. He will generally find it necessary to 
give attention to the collection of suitable materials for the oration, methods of 
outlining, ways of developing material, and of grave importance, ways of motivating 
an audience. Some lessons may be set aside for the consideration of oral style. 
Delivery is a very important factor in oratory; classes might well be arranged for 
the study of vocal expression and pantomime. 

Some of the problems in relation to teaching content can now be treated: 

1. How to select an adequate subject. 

The selection of an adequate subject is always a problem. The first reac- 
tion of most students is to hurry to the library to see what other people have 
written; instead, a little thinking of their own would prove a better starting 
point for all oratorical endeavors. Orations written by others should, be studied 
for ideas, mood, construction, and style, but an oration should not "be written 
directly from them. Students should be encouraged to think before they read as 
well as write. The chosen subject should be sufficiently practical and timely 
to interest and affect the audience as well as the orator. Concrete, present 
day social or economic problems which arouse feeling of the entire group are 
generally acceptable' subjects. 

■2. How to determine purpose. 

A pupil should know exactly why he is writing. The central idea of the 
entire oration, or the target at which he aims, should be expressed in a short 
declarative sentence, the nucleus of the entire oration, which may or may not 
be stated for the audience. The necessity for an adequate, detailed outline 
based upon the chosen purpose should be stressed with inexperienced writers, 
• for it promotes unity, coherence, and emphasis; it gives order and value to the 
content; it affords transitions which give an oration smoothness; and it is 
helpful later in memorizing the content. A writer has to decide upon a central 
idea for the entire oration and then write in big bold strokes its development. 


3- How to acquire variety of content and expression. 

A variety of speech materials, including facts, opinions, reasoning, and 
examples, although often difficult to combine, adds interest to an oration. A 
right combination of elements results in an attractive and interesting as well 
as instructive utterance to which an audience likes to listen. Facts are the 


foundation upon which an oration is built - although often students have the 
erroneous opinion that they are confined only to debate. Variety of expression, 
such as that gained by the use of different forms of sentence structure, gives 
power and beauty to an oration. 

h. Plow to develop imagery. 

Imagery is an essential phase of a well written oration, for its appeal to 
sight, as well as the other senses, helps the listener to take an active part 
with the speaker. The analogies, contrasts, comparisons, and descriptions should 
be graphic so that they come vividly within the experience of the hearers in the 
quickest possible time. Practical suggestions frequently will make positive 
audience appeal. An implied comparison, for instance, allows the audience the 
freedom of supplying their own background. Pictures formed constantly in the 
mind of the audience intensify the speaker -audience relationship throughout the 
entire speech. 

5. How to secure good diction. 

The choice of words must be the best that the student is able to use, for 
in no other type of prose writing is a more polished, finished style needed. 
All of the rhetorical devices which the writer has learned in composition classes 
can be applied to an oration. Short meaningful words in brief sentences, on the 
whole, are preferable to long, involved ones which may confuse an audience later 
when content is given orally. The way to test the diction in an oration is read- 
ing it aloud. Occasional figures of speech which help to develop imagery, as 
well as give variety to style, are appropriate, although they should never be 
added merely for decoration. As a general rule, the third person is preferred 
in writing this type of speech. '•'■'- 

b. Method. 

Many teachers advocate extensive reading and a study of good models in prepara- 
tion for an original oration. They further require that some class time be given to 
the problems of presentation. An oration modeled on the speech of some famous ora- 
tor may be ill-adapted to a modern audience hearing the subject matter under circum- 
stances not present at the time of the original speech. How best to prepare a stu- 
dent for audience motivation is of chief concern to the teacher and pupil. Another 
problem of method is keeping interest in a class which is listening to formal ora- 
tions of ten to fifteen minutes in length. Whatever method is used to teach the 
principles of the oration to pupils is to be guided by the consideration of their 
age and experience. The classical sources should be related to topics treated in a 

1. How to secure proportion in writing. 

Authorities on oratorical structure are generally agreed that a problem and 
a solution are the basis of a good oration. A central theme followed by a single 
definite solution is better as the nucleus of a well constructed oration than 
several minor ^problems with one solution, or one problem with several solutions. 
The larger proportion of subject matter should be used to develop the issues. 
Yet the emotional climax, an important- part of a well written oration, should not 
be overlooked by the coach. The climax should be powerful and brief or an anti- 
climax may result. 


2. How to relate parts. 

An orator has to be trained to keep in mind the purpose, proportion, and re- 
lationship of each part of the complete oration—introduction, body, and conclu- 
sion. If the introduction is too long, a sense of proportion at the beginning is 
lost; if the conclusion is too long, the oration will drag after the climax is 
reached. If the three parts are kept in mind and good transitions are used to 
connect them into a completed whole, smoothness of delivery will result. Choppy- 
delivery is frequently due, not so much to the structure of the individual. sent- 
ences, as to the lack of adequate connections between them. Between the three 
major divisions of the entire oration, transitions are used. 

3. How to begin. 

A strong, compact, gripping opening which will attract the attention of the 
audience quickly i s an advantage in oratory. Since interest of the hearers must 
be held from the beginning to the end, the teacher should insist that the pupils 
learn to use an attractive opening sentence in their orations. The many ways of 
introducing subject matter and getting a hold upon the audience should be well 

k. How to develop the theme.' 

The structure of an oration should be so clear that it can be easily fol- 
lowed by the audience. If the composition is carefully written paragraph by 
paragraph until the emotional climax is obtained, the theme will be well-devel- 

'•;>. How to conclude. 

A brief summary and emotional appeal end the oration. Finality should be 

sensed by the audience so that the closing is not too abrupt ..• There are some 
seven or eight standard ways of closing a speech. These means should be taught 
to the high school pupils." 

Techni que s o f Extrac urricu lar Activi ties 

Much that has been said in Chapter VI concerning the organization of extra- 
curricular activities can be read with advantage in connection with the extra-class 
interests in oratory. Although the formal oration may not have the emphasis in the 
classroom that it had in former years, oratorical contests are still a popular 
forensic form in most high schools. A few suggestions that are specific for this 
type of activity are now offered for the guidance of the cadet teacher. 

a. Stimulate interest in competition. 

With an adolescent group, it is advisable to put an extracurricular activity 
upon a competitive basis with prizes. An appeal for school representation in foren- 
sic competition should be made as attractive as in sports. If more high school ad- 
ministrators gave intellectual competition more time and effort, more orators could 
be encouraged to enter contests. 

b. Selection of a contest subject. 

The first problem which confronts the- student is the selection of an adequate 
subject for oratorical competition, If a memorized oration is to be chosen, one 
which the audience does not know is preferable. A student should spend time finding 


a suitable selection for a contest, since a Judge generally pays closer attention 
to a vigorous, stirring, 'up-to-date problem which affects him directly than a hack- 
neyed selection, literary as it may he. The number of times the judge has had to 
listen to the same oration affects his interest in it, particularly an old selection 
repeated on the program. 

c. Selecting a contestant. 

Since oratory requires more poise, power, and variety than any other form of 
speaking, the orator should be selected who is sincerely interested in his subject 
and who has demonstrated his ability in competition. He needs power in reserve 
and should be capable of sustaining audience interest to the conclusion. Judges 
should not select an orator who is powerful in the introduction, but gradually 
weakens toward the end of his speech. They a.nd the instructor should also consider 
the characteristics of a good contestant as previously mentioned in Chapter VI. 

d. Judging oratory. 

This matter of judging speech contests has been treated also in Chapter VI. 
It is sufficient here to say that rating this particular activity is often diffi- 
cult for the inexperienced speech teacher if he does not use a scale. Different 
judges consider different phases upon which to base a decision. Because of the 
nature of oratorical contest, two primary factors, composition and delivery, are 
always considered in original work, while delivery is the primary factor in the 
memorized oration. [ See appendix for a judging scale.] 


1. Contrast the specific objectives of extempore speaking and oratory. 

2. Set up a sample card appropriate for high school use in note -talcing in re- 


3. Compile a list of magazines from your school library which would be appropri- 

ate for extempore contest work. 
k. Compile a Judge's Sheet to be used in evaluating extempore speaking. 

5. Analyze a modern oration, particularly for emphasis, proportion, climax, and 

variety of content . 

6. Hand in a list of ten appropriate subjects for a high school oration. 

7. Analyze a paragraph from a newspaper: Underline facts, once; opinions, twice; 

reasoning, three times; examples, four times. 

8. Study an oration from the standpoint of diction. 

9- Discuss specific methods of arousing interest in oratorical competition used 
in a high school. 

10. Compile a rating sheet for judging oratory. 

11. Prepare a lesson with the aim of teaching outlining. Treat of the common 

errors in -out lining. • 

12. Some professors hold that extemporaneous speaking should precede memoriter 

presentation. Discuss this view. 

13. Does training in oratory create a formal style of speaking? 

14. Compare problems in memoriter presentation with those in reading from manu- 

script . 

15. Prepare a paper on the problems of motivating an extempore speech. 

16. Put the content of a speech' outline in "Palm Notes." 

17. Build a short extempore speech on a quotation. 

18. Contrast an essay and an oration. 

19. Compare a short story with a short oration. 


20. Contrast modern theory of rhetoric with that of any of the older writers. 

21. Compile a "brief syllabus for a speech course to follow the fundamental course. 

22. Submit five satisfactory ways of opening and closing a speech. 

23. Discuss the National Forensic League list of criteria for memorized and orig- 

inal oratory, Cf . The Rostrum, p. 18 March, 1936. 
2k. Bring to class examples of good transitions for extempore speaking. 

25. Contrast two textbooks in their approach to the problems of extempore speaking. 

26. Are you acquainted with workbooks in the speech field? Report on one of your 

own choice. 

27. What type of subjects do you think should be used in the extempore speech class? 

28. Demonstrate your ability to use the card index system of a library., 

29. Class discussion of the qualities of an orator. Cf. Shurter, E. D., The 

Rhetoric of Oratory, Chap. I. 

30. What rhetorical content do you expect to cover in the speech classes in your 

high school? 


Baker, J., The Short Speech (New York: Prentice -Hall, 1928). 

Baird, A. C, Represen tative American Speeches (New York: Wilson, Annual Series). 

Bautain, M., Extempore Speaking (New York: McDevitt -Wilson, 1928). 

Becker, M., Spe aking For All Occasions (New York: Prentice Hall, 19^9 )• 

Bellefrold, C, Sa cred Elo quence trans, by Duffey (Milwaukee: Marquette, 19^3) • 

Bixby, M. E., Demonstr ation Ma terial For Use In Teaching Ext empore Speech 

(Master Thesis, University of Washington, 1936 ) • 
Blair, H., Rh etor i c and Be lle Le ttr es (London: Cadell, 1798). 
Brigance, W. N., C lass ified Speech Models (New York: Crofts, 1930 ). 
Brigance, W. N. , and Iramel, R., Spe echmaking (New York: Crofts, 1939)' 
Brink, C. M., The Making of an Oration (Chicago: McClurg, 1913). 
Brooks, C, and Warren, R. P., Mod ern Rhetori c (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 19^9) • 
Bryant, C., and Wallace, K. R., Oral Communl c a t 1 on (New York: Applet on-Century, 

Cicero, Ora tory an d Ora tors trans, by Watson (London: Bell, 1909). 
Doxsee, H f M., A P ractical St udy of American Speeches (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1935). 
Duffey, W. R. , "and Duffey, F."A., Public Speaking" (St . Louis: Herder, 19^)^ 
Duffey, W. R., and Croft, A., Speech Models (Milwaukee: Bruce, 19^6). 
Dupille, E f , Confes sion o f an Afte r Din ner "Speaker (Philadelphia: Mayfair, 1930). 
Edgerton, A. C, A Speech for Every Occasion (New York: Noble, 1936). 
Ehrensberger, R., and Pagel","~E ., Noteb ook 'for Public Speaking (New York: 

Prentice - Hall, 19^6). 
Finn, J. F., Effective After Dinner Speaking (London: Chapman and Hall, 1931). 
Fresidder, S., and Jones, H., Writing a nd Spea king (New York: Ronald Press, 

19^5 ) . 
Gilmartin, J., Word Study Rev. Ed. (New York: Prentice Hall, 19^0). 
Goodrich, C. A., Ed., B riti sh Eloquence (New York: Harper, 1854). 
He nry , H . , Hi nts to Preach ers (Ci nc 1 nnat i: Benziger, 1 94 ) . 
Holley, D., Extempore Speaking (New York: Wilson, I9V7). 
Jenkins, D., Toa sts and After Dinner ^Speeches (Philadelphia: Penn Publ. Co., 

Judson, L. S., and Lambertson, W., Af ter Dinner Speaking (New York: Noble, 1937). 
Law, F. H., How to W rite an d Deli v er an Oration (New York: Putnam, 1926). 
Lee, G. C, The Wo rld's Orations' (New York: Putnam, 1900). 
Mathews, B., Orato ry and Orat ors (Chicago, Scott Foresman, I896). 
Monroe, A. H., Principle s and Types of Speec h 3rd Ed. (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 

19^9). ' 


O'Neill, J. M., Extemporaneous Speaking (New York: Harper, 19^6). - \ 
O'Neill, J. M., " Modern Short Speech es (New York: Century, 19 50). 
Pearson, P. M., Extemporaneous Spea king Rev. Ed. (New York: Noble, 1930 ). 
Quint ill an, Institutes of Oratory, trans, "by Watson (London: 187-5). 
Sanford, W. P. and Yeager, W. H., Princip l es of Effective Speaking Vth Ed. 

(New York: Ronald Press, 19^0). 
Sarrett, L., and Foster, W. T., Mod ern Speeches (New York: Houghton, 1939). 
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Wilson, 19U27. 
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Ronald Press, 19^5). 

Vital Speeches of the Day (New York: News Publishing Go., 19^3) • 
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To judge an affair, one must hear two sides.-- FRENCH PROVERB 



Forms of Discussion D isting uishe d 

a. Personal Advantages of Both Kinds 

b. Specific Advantages of Informal Discussion 

c. Specific Advantages of Debate 

d. Common Objections to Debate 

1. Number of participants 

2. Tournaments have little social value 

3. Coach does the work 

k. The content in debate work is of little value 

5. Debate encourages faulty speech delivery 

6. Extrinsic considerations 
Tech nique s of Cl assroom Teaching 

a. Content 

1. Careful planning of informal discussion 

2. Planning the tentative year's schedule in debate 

3. Planning a practice debate schedule 
h. Planning to hold interest in debate 
5- Planning for try-outs 

6. Adequate subject-matter in informal discussion 

7. Training in note taking in discussion 

8. Training in finding material for debate 

9. Different kinds of material used in debate 

10. Different forms of informal discussions distinguished 

Round table 
.."* Committee 

11. Modern trends in debate training 

12. The importance of a proper attitude 

13. Relation of debate to living 

b. Method 

1. Point of view regarding discussion 

2. Training the leader in informal discussion 

3. Training the members in informal discussion 
k. Training in reading for debate 

5. Training in organizing material for debate 

6. Training for the .constructive case 

7. Training for rebuttal 

8. Training in delivery peculiar to debate 

The speaker 

The opponent 

The audience 

The subject-matter .... 
T echniques and Principles of Extracurricular Activ i ty 
a. Scope of Activity 



b. Trained Coaches Needed 

c. Some Suggestions as to Coaching 

1. Coaching affirmative teams 

2. Coaching negative teams 

3. Coaching the individual speakers 
k. Techniques used in competition 

d. Different Methods of Judging Debate 

e. Serving as Critic Judge 

f . Ballots Used in Judging 


Specific Objectives 

a. Understanding the Purpose 

b. Knowledge of Fundamentals 

c. Permanent Benefits Derived 
Techn iques of T eaching ;• 

a. Method of Teaching 

b. Minimum Content in a High School 

1. Organization of a meeting 

2. An application for membership blank 

3. A constitution 

k. A set of resolutions . " 

5 » A proxy note 

6. Purpose of a motion 

7. The types of motions 

8. The wording of most common examples of each type 

9. Order of business •. . 

10. Rights and duties of officers • I'- 
ll. Common methods of voting 
12. Election of officers. 

c. Extracurricular Organization 


The purpose of discussion in the high school is to train. future citizens by 
means of free expression of opinions to accept the personal responsibility neces- 
sary in a democracy. Such an endeavor is not an educational frill, for the time 
spent on it whether curricular or not is worth while, to the student, the school, 
and the state itself. :'" 

Forma of Discussion Distinguished 


Discussion, the kind of speaking midway between conversation and formal speech 
making, consists of a number of different forms. In modern speech training, it is 
commonly divided into two types: (l) informal discussion, including the forum, 
symposium, panel, round table, committee, and conference and (2) formal discussion, 
in the form of debate. 

Informal discussion and debate differ in specific objectives as well as pro- 
cedure. In the various forms of informal discussion, a large number of views are 
explained and. a conclusion drawn from the entire judgment of the group, while in 
debate two sides of a proposition are upheld. In discussion, a speaker searches 
for truth and the best possible solution for a problem. In debate he endeavors 
to convince others of the truth of a proposition, as well as to analyze and accept 


the "best solution to be found. Both forms give excellent speech training if well 
supervised. The techniques used in conducting both kinds of discussions although 
different are not antagonistic. 

a. Personal advantages of both kinds. 

The debate coach should stress the view that the ability to meet all unexpected 
situations with poise results from practice in discussion. Even in one year the 
development and self-assurance of a student as a member of a discussion group or i 
debate squad will be obvious. Confidence is a prerequisite to successful speaking 
and in discussion the pupil learns the important lesson of thinking before he speaks 
and of enjoying rather than fearing a speech situation. Yet the real dividends may 
not become evident until later when the speaker becomes a lawyer, teacher, politi- 
cian, clergyman, or other leader. Nevertheless they will come to the speaker who 
learns to analyze and defend a proposition. 

b. Specific advantages of informal discussion. 

Informal discussion has both personal and social advantages for a participant. 
The speaker realizes that he must have something to say and that he need not be 
afraid to 'say it. He understands that he must present his thoughts concisely, ac- 
curately, and enthusiastically to a real audience in a life situation. In an in- 
formal discussion, he finds an advantage in taking an active part; he observes 
that silent members contribute little to the final solution of any problem. He 
learns to listen attentively at all times, • to limit discussion to the problem at 
hand, to have his ideas criticized and to accept sensibly criticism concerning 
them, to express that to which he is opposed as well as favorable, to analyze a 
problem discriminately, to evaluate what he has read and heard so that it can be 
discussed publicly later, and to develop his feelings as well. as to cultivate a 
tolerant attitude. 

Well managed informal discussion has many social advantages. It teaches 
speakers to cooperate with others, and to formulate a course of action based upon 
the accumulated judgment of the entire group rather than upon a pet opinion or in- 
terest of >an individual member. Discussion 'trains pupils to weigh opinions rather 
than to form hasty judgments which they -'of ten tenaciously try to uphold. It tea- 
ches them that the other member may be right and an individual speaker, wrong. In 
discussion a student finds that it is no disgrace for him to admit that he is wrong, 
or to modify or even retract Ms' statements. A knowledge of the procedure in dis- 
cussion - how to organize a panel, • how to get practice in an actual co-operative 
thinking project, how to analyze both sides of a problem, how to learn to share 
experiences and views, how to understand himself as well as others - educates an 
adolescent in social behavior and fits him to participate later in the civic af- 
fairs of his locality or country. ■ •■ 

c. Specific advantages of debate. 

This procedure trains speakers not only to think/but to think quickly. The 
ability not only to find, but co separate, evaluate, contrast, compare, reject, and 
finally organize data which has been gathered for presentation to a listener is a 
worth-while activity. Open-mi ndedness results from debate training. The appre- 
ciation that after research two sides to a' problem can be defended helps. a debater 
view both sides of a question. He is more hesitant about taking a positive stand-" 
after a short period of debate training.' Respect for the other fellow's opinion 
which results from an experience of this kind is carried from the debate platform 
into life. Debate does not always imply argument with another; it is just as sig- 
nificant to learn how to argue logically with ones -self, a value of training in 
debate which is seldom considered. 


d. Common objections to debate. 

A debate coach should be prepared to answer opponents of debate who contend 
that it has disadvantages. They usually relate them to six factors: (l) number 
of participants too small; (2) tournaments have little social value: (5) coach 
does the work; (k) content of little value; (5) debate encourages faulty speech 
delivery; (6) extrinsic considerations. 

1. Number of participants. 

Some educators feel that the number of students who receive the benefits of 
a debate coach's time is too small; consequently they say that the activity is 
neither democratic nor permanently worthwhile. This criticism is less effective 
if three rather than two-man teams are used, and if the experimentation of dif- 
ferent styles of debate procedure, particularly informal debating, is undertaken, 
and if the season's schedule is planned so that more students will be able to 
take advantage of intra -mural debating. 

2. Tournaments have little social value. 

That the present method of conducting tournaments gives the participants 
little audience training even though a large number of debates are held is also 
given as a general criticism. By creating a genuine interest in the activity 
throughout the year, by assigning reports on debates held at the high school, 
by a few trips to neighboring schools during the season, by doing excellent 
debate work which would be enjoyed and appreciated by a real audience away from 
school, this objection can be minimized. 

3. Coach does the work. 

It is the fault of either the individual coach or the administration if too 
much emphasis is placed upon winning teams. Intra -mural debating instead of too 
much inter-school competition would help to solve the problem of over-emphasis. 
The coach himself must be the first to dispel the notion that a knowledge of a 
few principles plus much debate coaching produces an experienced debater. De- 
baters are not born, they are made - made by means of much hard work on their 
part only. 

The coach is primarily interested in debate as an educational activity. 
Occasionally, the educational objectives are lost sight of in an effort to win, 
but when winning becomes the criterion of the educational worth of debating, or 
when too much emphasis is placed upon it, then it is true that debate is not a 
worthwhile extra-class speech activity. Indeed, if debate is used primarily for 
exhibition rather than an educational procedure, it defeats its own purpose. If 
the purpose for which debating is held is clear to all concerned, the edu- 
cational values will be derived from this more formal type of discussion. 

h. The content in debate work is of . little .value. 

The point that the subjects chosen for debate are too far removed from the 
experience and interest of the debaters is frequently established as a criti- 
cism of the debate activity itself. Certainly it would be better. to choose more 
appropriate propositions than on this account forfeit the advantages of the 
activity. The selection of an adequate subject suitable to a high school pupil, 
a fair proposition which does not favor unduly either team, is the obligation of 
the administration. If it fails, in its obligations, it is not a fault to be at- 
tributed to the speech activity itself.. 


5. Debate encourages faulty speech delivery. 

An objection to debate is that superficial, overbearing, insincere, yet glib 
speakers, are being trained. This is a valid objection if the coach allows pu- 
pils to memorize or read their speeches, to stress debating techniques, to lose 
their respect for truth, to parrot opinion without any value of its worth, to 
evade issues, to become overbearing with opponents --in general to make debate 
an end in itself instead of a sound means to speech training. 

The abuse of supplementary aids, such as the dependency upon cards, at times 
is cited as poor training in speech. The criticism does not relate to a few 
systematized notes or visual aids, but to over use of reference cards. When 
visual aids -- charts, diagram, and the like are properly employed, debate train- 
ing becomes more effective. Debaters can be taught to question and analyze visu- 
al material carefully, to find the glaring inconsistencies, substitutions, or 
omissions which they often contain, and to have no fear of this formidable ap- 
pearance of an opponent's illustrative material. The student will find it to his 
advantage to learn how to keep his eyes on the audience while pointing out detail 
in a chart, to explain in proper sequence the content of a visual aid, to use 
effective gestures, not mannerisms such as toying with a chart or covering its 
detail, and to display visual aids only while they are serviceable as illustra- 
tion. To employ visual aids effectively, a student must have practice in their 
use . 

6. Extrinsic considerations. 

Some of the object ional features of debate are not inherent in the activity. 
These factors, for example, the lack of appreciation of the value of the activ- 
ity by members of the faculty outside of the speech department, or the lack of a 
sufficient budget to run a debate activity effectively, or the inability to se- 
cure audiences, or a satisfactory judge for a sufficient number of debates should 
not be credited as intrinsic weaknesses against the activity itself. Often de- 
bate activity in a high school gains a poor reputation from some circumstance 
while the good inherent in the activity is forgotten. The prospective teacher 
of debate would do well to become acquainted with the similar objections against 
his activity in the high schools of his particular area. 

Techniques of Clas sroom Te achi ng 

The subject matter relates to (a) content; and (b) method: 

a. Content. 

The following points are considered under content: careful planning of infor- 
mal discussion; planning the tentative year's schedule in debate; planning a prac- 
tice debate schedule; planning to hold interest in debate; planning for try-outs; 
adequate subject matter in informal discussion; training in note taking for discus- 
sion; training in finding material for debate; different kinds of material used in 
debate; various forms of informal discussions distinguished; modern trends in debate 
training; the importance of a proper attitude; and relation of debate to living. 

1. Careful planning of informal discussion. 

Informal discussion requires as much organization and planning as debate if 
all types of students are to receive its benefits; if different points of view 
are to be represented; if the discussion is to be correlated with the student's 
other school work; if it is not to interfere with other school activities; if 


adolescents are to be taught to organize and conduct an impersonal discussion 
with others of their own age; if it does not have too much teacher domination; 
and if it is to achieve the primary purpose for which it is held in high school- - 
to improve both thinking and speaking. 

2, Planning the tentative year's schedule in debate. 

The duties of a high school debate coach vary from planning the season's 
work to chaperoning a team at a tournament. Although duties may be quite dif- 
ferent in separate localities, the inexperienced coach will find the following 
suggestions valuable: that planning early in the year is necessary; that the 
season's work should be organized to give the students as much of the work to 
do as possible; that one person should be made responsible for each meeting 
with help distributed for the different aspects of the activity such as admin- 
istration., publicity, finance, social/ chairmen; time keepers, and judges; 
that carbons of all correspondence should be kept by the director when the re- 
sponsibility for the activity is divided; that the director decides the number 
to be selected for the squad; and that the director constantly keeps alert for 
potential debaters. 

3. Planning a practice debate schedule. 

A regular schedule of practice debates within the squad during the year 
can be planned to advantage. Suggestions to improve this schedule follow: (a) 
secure variety and interest by changing the set procedure followed in weekly 
practice meetings; (b) schedule practice on both sides of the question in order 
to strengthen the case before a public meeting is held; (c) present to the de- 
bate squad as many arguments as possible so that their appearance in debate 
later will not be a surprise to the debaters; (d) give advice to each team in 
practice, since neither is likely to debate the other in public; (e) remember 
that all members represent the same squad, coach, and school; (f ) discuss the 
entire case with all members of the debate squad whether they are debating or 
not; (g) explain good work done as well as weak points in order to give pupils 
a sense of values. 

h. Planning to hold interest in debate. 

Keeping as well as creating interest in debate is important in practice. 
To accomplish this: (a) call upon students prepared on one side to take the 
opposite unexpectedly; (b) change the members of the teams frequently so that 
experience working with a larger number of people is received; (c) use a slogan 
which develops during study of the question; (d) compliment occasionally, so 
that tangible recognition can be given; (e) combine an old and new debater on 
a team to the advantage of both participants I 

5. Planning for try-outs. 

Try-outs should be carefully organized. It is advisable to select all mem- 
bers of a squad by this fair method. A coach must decide whether try-outs are 
to be held annually, or whether once a pupil is a member of a squad, he is always 
a member. He himself must choose a squad or use a committee of faculty members. 
The try-out should be a test of both the prepared speech and the rebuttal. The 
coach should post the question for the try-outs which will not require too much 
research, a few weeks ahead so that all participants have equal time for prepara- 
tion. He will make the try-outs more effective by stating the length of the 
speeches; by compiling a bibliography . for the competitive event; by having stu- 
dents draw for positions; by using the same judges for both try-outs when so . 


many pupils enter that two contests must "be held; by selecting debaters who are 
good thinkers, organizers, speakers, and workers; by picking potentially good de- 
baters, for frequently an untrained, nervous student with capacity for hard work 
is preferable to an over-ambitious, undependable member who makes a favorable 
first impression. 

6. Adequate subject matter in informal discussion. 

Problems, ranging in difficulty from local to international scope, politi- 
cal, social, and economic, should be used in discussion, for they afford an op- 
portunity to acquire a wide informational background for the student . Problems 
of both types, those which can be solved by a specific action or by an indefinite 
future procedure, should be discussed. Problems can be clarified by the informal 
interchange of opinions. Students are encouraged to talk them over freely and 
honestly and to support their arguments by as much evidence as possible. If this 
procedure were followed, it would help to overcome one of the chief objections to 
informal discussion- -a waste of time on superficial problems due to lack of prep- 

7. Note --taking. 

Students might well question the value of their authorities before they 
gather evidence. They should be encouraged to take as many notes as bime will 
permit in order to select only the best when organizing the case, yet they should 
be warned to use a minimum of notes on the platform. Notes should be recorded 
carefully, accurately, and systematically . Note takers should write what they 
expect to use at the time of presentation and not trust facts or names to their 
memories. Notes should also be evaluated while being gathered (Textbooks on 
debate generally devote ample space to the methods of note-taking). 

8. Training in finding material for debate. 

Sources of material for speech making in general have already been dis- 
cussed. All students interested in debating should become familiar with the 
valuable sources of debate materials generally available in libraries even of 
the smaller towns. LSee appendix for a suggested list of debate references.] 

9. Different kinds of materialised in debate. 

There are five kinds of materials used in debate: facts, opinion, reason- 
ing, examples, and questions. 

In training students to utilize FACTS AND STATISTICS, the teacher should be 
certain to consider the following questions: Is authority acceptable to audi- 
ence? Are too many statistics used? Are they up-to-date? Representative? 
Definite? Is any outside 'influence interfering with the apparent trend? Have 
conditions changed since to alter their value? Do they point both ways? Do 
they cover enough cases to be reliable? Were comparisons used where known? 
Were round numbers used, or did the audience become lost in a maze of figures, 
and forget what they are to prove? The hearer grasps round numbers, percentages, 
and comparative figures, especially within the range of his experience, quickly. 
With long lists such as 21^,416,519 the hearer remembers the 19, or perhaps the 
519, but does not hear the number of millions which is important. Are facts 
and opinions distinguished? Are the sources of facts checked carefully? 

In training pupils in the use of OPINIONS, the teacher should include the 
following considerations: (a) if quotations are used, they should be copied 


exactly; (b) a thread of statements either by a writer or the debater does not 
prove a point; (c) authorities should be tested carefully; (d) notice whether 
an authority in one field is made an authority in other; (e) remember that au- 
thorities may disagree, but they give reasons for their views. 

SEASONING is an important factor in debate: A coach will observe that his 
students avoid (a) sweeping generalizations instead of sound reasoning, commonly 
heard on a debate platform; (b) giving facts without drawing conclusions from 
them; (c) justifying the logic of a case without studying that of the opposition; 
(d) argument that does not advance the proposition. 

EXAMPLES are a valuable type of material. They illustrate the main points 
or sub-heads of a proposition; they motivate an audience to accent a viewpoint; 
they may create imagery and make an argument clearly perceived. Some coaches do 
not insist upon enough apt illustration in debate speeches. 

Students should be taught not only how to use QUESTIONS to advantage in a 
debate, -but how to defend themselves against the methods of opponents who seek 
by their use to waste time or to force a defence. Debaters should learn to 
think before they answer any question, but they cannot ignore every question. 
Let them point out to the audience when they can the irrelevant questions of 
their opponents. By talcing time to answer a question in detail, a debater 
admits its importance. Students should be advised not to ask too many questions. 

10. Different forms of informal discussion distinguished. 

Every prospective speech teacher should be familiar with the distinguishing 
characteristics of at least the most common forms -including a FOBUM, PANEL,' 

A FORUM consists of a small number of speakers, generally not more than two 
or three, with the audience also participating. A forum is held at an assigned 
place. Each participant is allowed previous study, but his speech is' held to 
time limits. People are generally challenged by the problem discussed so that 
active audience participation results. A high school fifty minute class period 
is ample time for this satisfactory type of discussion. 

The open-forum, another variation of discussion, is conducted by a chairman 
who calls the meeting to order and, after naming the subject under discussion, 
calls upon the audience for different viewpoints and reactions. 

A PANEL is composed of a larger number of members than a forum, usually 
between four and eight, selected generally because of their known beliefs on 
the subject at hand. No : formal speeches are prepared, although short tentative 
discussion outlines are generally used. During the opening session in which the 
members participate, they sit in a semicircle facing the audience, in order to 
talk to both members and audience, although apparently only to the panel. Mem- 
bers are interested and active even though silently participating, for listening 
is an important part of the procedure. After an allotted period, about two- 
thirds of the time, the audience enters the discussion with comments, questions, 
and added information. If a panel is conducted in a business like manner, sin- 
cere constructive co-operative thinking will result. In choosing members, it is 
advisable to select those of similar rank so that the contributions will be of 
approximately the same value. 

The chairman of a panel should be trained to assume his responsibility, for 
the success of this type depends largely upon him. A tentative outline of the 


entire procedure should "be prepared "by the chairman and given to each member be- 
fore the meeting. A high school chairman and members may rehearse the proceed- 
ings in order to avoid duplication of material before a public audience or radio. 
The chairman announces the topic and procedure so that the audience knows that it 
will participate at the close of the meeting. As in a forum, the chairman en- 
courages, stimulates, and directs discussion and summarizes the conclusions at 
the end. 

The chairman may interrupt, if necessary, at any time in order to keep the 
discussion progressing satisfactorily. He conducts the audience discussion, 
distributing opportunities to speak to all, and sees that the meeting is business- 
like. If any in the audience wishes, he may question any member of the panel. 
If no particular person is specified, the chairman determines the member to an- 
swer . 

The chairman has numerous other details for which he is responsible: he 
should require all speakers to talk loudly enough so that the audience can hear 
them; he should be fair to all members present; set and keep the time limits; he 
must be firm at times' in order to control the situation and to follow parliament- 
ary rules; he should review the progress of the meeting and conclude the meeting 
with a statement of the majority opinion. 

In a SYMPOSIUM a smaller number than a panel is selected to present inde- 
pendent expert opinion or research on a special phase of a general subject pre- 
pared carefully in advance of the meeting. Each speaker presents his own ap- 
proach, so different points of view on the same subject generally result. A 
second speech of three or four minutes may be allowed after the audience partic- 
ipation, as in a forum. Variety is secured by limited audience discussion after 
each speech instead of at the close. Speakers may be questioned by other speak- 
ers. Although there are variations of procedure used in different places, as a 
rule, each speaker gives only one main talk with definite time limits placed upon 
it. There is more formality than in other forms of discussion. The chairman may 
question the audience after the symposium, and he closes the meeting with a com- 
plete summary. 

A ROUND TABLE discussion is one in which the presiding officer leads the 
discussion with the members rising at their own discretion. Although there is 
less formality in this type of discussion, the chairman should control the pro- 
cedures and situations in order to further the purpose of the meeting. 

A COMMITTEE gathering uses an informal method of discussion whether it con- 
sists of a small selected group or the organization participating as a committee 
of the whole. The expression of the entire group is heard before a final vote, 
which records the opinion of the assembly, is taken. Representatives of both 
sides of a problem should be placed on a committee so that the final report will 
be generally accepted. The advantages and duties of committees will be found in 
textbooks on parliamentary law and should be explained by the teacher to the 

A CONFERENCE consists of a series of connected meetings on different phases 
of the same general subject, and is attended by a small group of people with 
definite interest in and ■knowledge of a subject. The meetings are held to ex- 
change views, to formulate a common plan or policy for the group as a whole, and 
to devise policies. Although each member may contribute little to the general 
fund of knowledge obtained, the entire accumulation of these bits is like a 
mosaic which, when finished, forms a complete picture. The success or failure 
of a conference depends upon whether or not the fundamental agreement is reached 


at its close. A tactful chairman who handles with respect all divergent groups 
is essential to this particular form of discussion. 

11. Modern trends in debate training* 

This textbook does not repeat the information that the pupil has already 
learned regarding the wording of the proposition, issues, and analysis of the 
case. The problem will be discussed from the viewpoint of the debate coach who 
trains students in the art of debate. He considers such matters as the follow- 
ing: (l) the experimentation on different styles and types of debating - the 
heckling type, the Oregon Plan, the audience participation type, the so-called 
split -team debate, the popular non-decision debate, the time-limited type, the 
off-campus debate before a woman's club luncheon or some other meeting, and the 
jury type; (2) the tendency on the part of some schools to replace the conven- 
tional type of debate by discussion groups of one kind or another; (5) popularity 
of debate clinics and non-decision tournaments; (h) change in the wording of the 
propositions to make it easier for high school debaters to agree on terms; (5) 
the variety of voting methods such as the single critic judge, student judging, 
coach judging in tournaments, group of judges, and audience decisions of one 
kind or another; (6) the steady increase of the number of students receiving 
the benefit of debate each year - training which is so vital in our democracy; 
(7) popularity of radio debating; (8) interest and encouragement by national 
debate fraternities; (9) better organization of forensics as a whole, both local 
and national. 

12. The importance of a proper attitude. 

To instil the right attitude toward debate as a speech activity at the be- 
ginning of the season is necessary, for the attitude held by the coach is re- 
flected in the debaters. The responsibility of looking at the activity in a 
broad, fair-minded way, of getting a sense of values regarding the merits of 
the work, of setting the standards of techniques as well as intellectual hon- 
esty- -these belong to the director who must show pupils that to belong to a de- 
bate group is a privilege and an honor. The reason for activity being included 
in secondary education should not be overlooked in explaining the importance of 
debate to pupils, for this consideration, to a large extent, determines proced- 
ures and results. 

13. Relation of debate to living. 

The right attitude toward this activity can also be secured by an explana- 
tion of the relation of debate to life. Rules, techniques, terminology, formal- 
ities, and procedures necessary in academic training to save time and to make it 
systematic, orderly, and parallel throughout the country are not the objectives 
of debate. If students can appreciate that they are in constant debate, they . 
will get a sense of values regarding the entire activity, 

b. Method. 

We have considered under the techniques of classroom teaching, some thirteen 
important points regarding the content of discussion. There now remains the prob- 
lem of method which will be discussed from the viewpoint of the teacher of discus- 
sion in relation to training high school students in the various techniques belong- 
ing to the subject matter.. These include various points of training - the leader 
and the members in informal discussion, reading for debate, organizing its material, 
the constructive case, rebuttal, and delivery peculiar to it. 


1. Point of view regarding discussion. 

If worthwhile results are to he achieved in this face-to-face speech re- 
lationship, a clear knowledge of the purpose,, procedure, and results to be ob- 
tained should be made clear to the class. The teacher should explain that the 
spirit in which discussion is held is important, and that the individual has an 
obligation to the group so that it can arrive at a fair consensus of opinion. 
A student should know his duties as either a member or a leader. He should un- 
derstand his own weakness as well as strength, and analyze his own prejudices 
whether they be racial, religious, social, or political. 

2. Training the leader in informal discussion. 

The value of discussion depends to a large extent upon the leader. He has 
to be trained to decide who is to talk, when, how long, and upon what. It is 
the chairman who begins and directs the discussion, evaluates and unifies the 
contributions given by the various members, examines the solutions offered, 
draws the group conclusion and suggests the final solution or remedy of this 
co-operative enterprise. He has to cultivate a sense of humor, patience, and 
emotional control which are necessary attributes of any successful leader. He 
can be taught how to meet and greet graciously the members and audience; how to 
open and close the meeting on time; how to introduce the subject to the group; 
how to deal with any emergency which may arise without too strong an emotional 
reaction; how to deal tactfully with till kinds of personalities in the group; 
how to stimulate contributions from as many members as possible; and how to 
apply his knowledge of parliamentary procedure; how to talk distinctly so that 
all members can hear; how to keep the discussion moving smoothly (which can be 
done by occasionally summarizing the content for transition); and how to get 
variety in discussion. 

5. Training the members in informal discussion. 

Training a pupil to be a good member of an organization as well as a leader 
can be done if duties are distributed daily. A leader at one meeting becomes a 
member at the next. An average member has to be taught how to follow the direc- 
tions of the chairman; how to respect the rights and privileges of others; how 
to keep quiet so that he does not monopolize the procedure; how to organize ma- 
terial in his own mind before expressing it; how to give only one point at a 
time; how to state in concise English the view he holds; how to advance the dis- 
cussion intelligently; how to' test the reasoning and weigh the opinions of other 
members; how to alter or even discard a personal opinion if found to be at fault; 
how to volunteer information; how to reveal fallacious reasoning tactfully; and 
finally, how to be courteous though aroused over the problem being discussed. 

h. Training in reading for debate. 

A debate coach will find that better work will result if a few suggestions 
applicable to research are stressed. Students will find reading is necessary in 
order to gather proof; that purposeful reading is an important step in debate; 
that reading from the general to the specific is generally done; that a reader 
weighs material, correlates content, and checks sources while reading; and that 
material on both sides of the subject should be analyzed, regardless of side to 
be upheld; that reading does not replace original thinking on the question; and 
that discussion of content read is advisable. 


Training in organizing material for debate. 

A teacher can save time and energy of students "by assisting them in organ- 
izing the material which they have collected for the debate. Because content 
is of little value unless accessible, a card file can be suggested. The usual 
headings for divisions in the case include: (1) origin; (2) definitions; (3) 
background; (4) existing evils; (5) plan suggested; (6) alternative plans; (7) 
analogous cases; (8) direct quotations; and (9) refutation. 

The coach should also assist the debater to relate the evidence gathered 
to the proposition and to keep this relationship constantly in his mind so that 
later he can present the same relationship to his audience. 

Briefing often creates a number of problems for the inexperienced coach. 
He must know not only how to brief a proposition himself but how to explain it 
to his pupils. He should make the point particularly clear that a difference 
exists between a brief and an outline. Textbooks on the subject of debate and 
argumentation should be well studied for the section on briefing and its rela- 
tion to discussion. 

6. Training for the constructive case. 

A few suggestions such as the following will help debaters learn how to 
organize a constructive case: (l) Anticipate the opponent's arguments before 
they are actually presented. (2) Remember that debate makes an emotional as 
well as an intellectual appeal. (3) Know the entire case as well as your own 
part in it. {k) Appreciate team-work as essential in debate as in athletic 

The development of the constructive case can often be simplified. A good 
plan for the coach is to write the proposition on the board, dividing it by 
short vertical lines into its thought units which the students then have to 
define. Frequently, this division into the various parts suggests an entirely 
different interpretation when the proposition is analyzed. Students should be 
encouraged to consult specialized fields for definitions, such as a legal dic- 
tionary for a law term, or a medical one for medical term, rather than refer 
to the general dictionary. 

Another way to develop the case is to have students bring in a list of 
fifty reactions regarding it, such as people affected, places influenced, and 
any other phases, associations, or connections. This apparently jumbled mass 
of material is valuable, for it gives a breadth of view regarding the question 
which students would not otherwise realize for some time. It can form the basis 
of discussion before much research is done. The coach will find that the eval- 
uation of the material begins as soon as it is discussed. The most valuable 
part of this first study, however, is that from it the issues are developed, a 
much better procedure than for debaters to select the issues first, as is some- 
times done, and then look up. proof for them. All affirmative and negative ar- 
guments can then be separated so that the different sides of the proposition 
can be sensed. 

7. Training in rebuttal. 

Planning on the teacher's part is just as essential for rebuttal as for 
the constructive case. Rebuttal should be as well organized as possible both 
as to order and value of material. A general attack on main points as well as 
specific attacks on minor points can be planned. Students should be trained to 


refute only what is necessary to prove the case. Emphasis as well as order of 
points should also be watched. Time is an important factor in planning a re- 

Debaters should be taught to keep the purpose of rebuttal in mind; to re- 
member that it is constructive as well as destructive; to defend their own case 
as well as to attack the opponent; to strike at the main issues so that oppon- 
ents answer or admit all of them; to point out lack of sufficient or satisfact- 
ory proof; to look for arguments which opponents ignore; to prepare for attacks 
before they are launched; to delay immediate action by promising to answer ques- • 
tions later; to finish an argument once begun; to deny main points by showing 
that sub-points do not prove them; to waste no time on details; to re-emphasize 
their own constructive arguments; to test amount, kind, and use of evidence; to 
pay close attention during constructive case; to withhold evidence which may 
prove more effective toward the end; to clinch points for the benefit of the 
audience; and to end with a well planned summary. 

The coach should explain the audience factor in rebuttal which influences 
a group as well as the constructive case. For example, if a picture is drawn 
for the audience, a debater can show how by extending It still further, a dif- 
ferent conclusion may be reached. The emotional reaction upon an audience, as 
well as the intellectual, should also be explained to the debaters. One of the 
most significant suggestion regarding rebuttal which can be given a debater is 
that he should leave a favorable impression of his case on the mind of the au- 
dience before he leaves the floor. 

8. Training in delivery peculiar to debate. 

Training in delivery in debate concerns four integral parts of the process: 

THE SPEAKER is the first factor to be stressed in training. The same rules 
for successful speech making treated in previous chapters apply to debaters, 
although some of them seem to consider debaters as beyond the laws of good speech- 
making. In particular, the debater needs a simple vocabulary which eliminates 
technical terminology. He speaks from the outline which he adapts to the oppos- 
ition as he progresses. He must aim to be original, for an audience finds it >'. 
difficult to listen to stock material. He neither takes advantage nor asks any 
favors or concessions. He keeps in mind his purpose for being on the platform 
and does not quibble or evade the clash. 

THE OPPONENTS are the next consideration in training. The debate coach will 
find that inexperienced debaters become so very much interested in the develop- 
ment of their own case that often they do not pay sufficient attention to the 
opposition before or at the time of the debate. They can be trained to be court- 
eous to opponents at all times, yet, when necessary, weaken the opponent's prest- 
ige, and do this fairly. 

THE AUDIENCE is not to be forgotten in debate -training. Audience psychology 
is so important to a debater that he must learn to keep the listener always in 
mind. The debate coach need not present ideas of persuasion from psychological 
treatises to high school students, but he can communicate sound principles of 
audience motivation to them, and give them ample illustration from current 
speeches, advertising matter, and radio announcements. 

THE SUBJECT-MATTER is the fourth factor in training debaters. Coaches will 
find that inexperienced debaters can learn to use subject-matter wisely. Among 


the many cautious to be given are the following: Let them keep to vital issues 
and make the relation of an argument to the entire case clear. Further do not 
let them use detailed statistics or lengthy quotations in place of proof; or 
quote too many authorities as substitutes for their own thinking. They might 
be taught to repeat main points - an effective method of impressing the audi- 
ence; to use summaries at the end of each talk as well as a balanced summary 
at the end of the debate; to omit page references unless questioned; to broaden 
interpretation where possible instead of basing the case on a technicality or 
narrow interpretation; and to remember that the three Greek rhetorical princ- 
iples apply in debate as well as any other form of speaking. 

Techniques and Principles o f Extracu rricular Activity 

Under this subject-matter are included the following: (a) scope of activities; 
(b) trained coaches needed; (c) different methods of judging; (d) serving as critic 
judge; (e) ballots used in judging.. 

a. Scope of activities. ■, ::;. 

Informal discussion contests of various kinds either supplement or substitute 
debate in many high schools. ' The purpose and subsequent training in the two types 
of competition differ, each with Its advantages and limitations. They give differ- 
ent experience and are best suited to specific situations where each kind of train- 
ing is needed. A student would benefit by both types at different stages in his 
speech training. Where possible, the informal would precede the formal for gradual 
speech development 

b. Experienced coaches of debate needed; • 

For either kind of discussion a trained director is needed. Even the great 
football stars have not made good athletic coaches, because they did not know how 
to teach. It is one thing to do and: another thing to explain how to do. A teacher 
of some high school subject may have been on the debate team when he was in college; 
yet this fact does not give assurance that he will make a good debate coach. Few 
schools today can afford to train teachers, at the expense of the students. Tea- 
chers are expected to have principles' and methods of the subject-matter in colleges 
and ample practice in teaching before . they .apply for a position. In debate the 
instructor who knows his subject-matter and the procedures of instruction will 
usually succeed. 

c. Some suggestions as to coaching. '•".': ■•; 

In view of the fact that a common mistake in coaching relates to the failure 
to distinguish between the procedures .required for the affirmative and for the 
negative teams, a few suggestions are herein offered: 

1. Coaching affirmative teams.,.' - ... ''• 

The affirmative team should decide, under supervision, what type of case it 
is to use. It should remember that people do not like to be shocked into a radi- 
cal change, for their first, reaction is invariably to oppose it. If an appar- 
ently radical change has to be proposed, more historical background should be 
placed in the introduction in order to show the audience that the proposal is not 
nearly so radical as it first appears. Occasionally, an unexpected interpreta- 
tion is effective; however, one which , the listeners' 'will accept as reasonable and 
honest should be proposed. Since the burden is on the affirmative, it should be 
advised to know the prevailing opinion and attitude toward the question in order 


;o influence the audience to accept it. Affirmative debaters should he warned 
lot to use too many main points, for a few strongly supported with proof are more 
Lamaging. Order and emphasis are both important factors in presentation - a 
)oint frequently overlooked by an inexperienced coach. The "burden of proving" 
should be impressed upon every debater. The affirmative should be cautioned not 
,o assume more burden than is necessary for them. An old rule, but a good one 
'or a team to remember, is that every affirmative team should answer three ques- 
tions: What? Why? How? 

After the first affirmative presents his case, the other debaters adapt and 
id just their materials to the opposition. That debating is horizontal instead 'Of 
r ertical speech making can be explained by the coach. The issues should be made 
;o stand out clearly throughout the entire debate. The affirmative should be 
earned not to be put on the defensive; it is to be ready for the attack from the 
start. The students should be trained not to give too early all details of the - 
)lan they propose, otherwise the opposition will have too long a time to prepare 
mswers; nevertheless, it is not advisable to withhold the details too long from 
;he opposition or the audience may feel that an unfair advantage is being taken. 

2. Coaching negative teams. 

Many debaters have the erroneous opinion that anyone can debate the negative 
side without preparation. It is true that the negative has a choice of cases, 
>ut any case requires planning for worth-while results. The different types of 
sases have certain advantages and disadvantages which should be weighed before a 
Lefinite case is chosen. Although the negative answers the affirmative case, • : 
Lebaters - should be taught to hold to their own contentions. The audience likes 
:o hear a constructive rather than a purely destructive negative; it prefers to 
lave the negative team stand for something. A keen-minded negative team makes 
/he affirmative answer the three questions previously suggested: Why? What? 
low? If only the first two questions are answered, then the affirmative is ad- 
rocating a theory, but it is not telling how a plan should work, and an audience 
'.s generally interested in the practical side of any problem. 

5. Coaching the individual speakers. 

The coach may have to impress debaters with the importance of the first 
iffirmative speech from the standpoint of both contestants and audience. This 
.ntroductory talk should gain the attention of the audience, arouse its interest 
.n the subject discussed, supply it with the necessary information; for by it 
Lebaters interpret the proposition and outline the case. The same general 
'ules which are given in a speech class for an introduction apply in debate. 
?hey are not to be forgotten if the debater, who may give excellent speeches in 
:lass, forgets his audience when introducing the subject-matter of a debate. 

The significance of a first negative speaker is not to be forgotten by a 
:oach. The first negative is an intelligent, dynamic speaker who arouses' the 
mdience interest in his team. In order to influence his hearers, he links his 
speech with the previous affirmative. Audience interest must be secured espe- 
cially when the first affirmative speaker is impressive. This debater of the 
legative has to offset any bias created by the preceding speaker, and make the 
legative case clear to the audience. 

The negative team attacks from the beginning to the end of the debate. The 
Mrst speaker thoroughly analyzes the position of the affirmative and presents 
serious objections in order to raise doubts in the hearers' minds regarding the 
sase. Each argument which he gives should be presented, proved, and concluded. 


He must clinch the arguments after his proof with effective reiteration. When 
arguments are not linked closely enough to the proposition, the audience will 
discover the weakness of the case. The debater may know his material so well 
that he forgets that the audience does not associate points as quickly as he 
does. Since this first speaker is so very important to the success of the team, 
the coach should make a careful choice among his candidates to get his best 
first negative speaker. 

The final speakers can be taught to refute the strong case of the affirma- 
tive before presenting their proof. They also have to be trained to watch time 
carefully so that it will be proportioned well. Often, too much time is spent 
by the negative in answering the opposition rather than in developing its own 
case. If there is sufficient time, minor points raised by the affirmative can 
be attacked to advantage of the negative, for such procedure weakens the con- 
fidence of the audience in the opposition. 

A debater's attention has to be directed to the fact that the end of the 
final speech is- important . The last speaker on each team should be able to see 
the debate as a whole as well as his own side, and each learns to summarize the 
entire case well with both intellectual and emotional appeal. This is an im- 
portant step as far as the audience is concerned. 

k. Techniques used in competition. 

Various techniques used in debate should be explained by the coach to the 
pupils. They- should know that subject-matter of the debate can be tested in 
various ways.- He might draw attention of the debaters to misrepresentation of 
facts or statistics;; he might train them to look for contradictions, omissions, 
and inconsistencies and explain .them; he might point out lack of proof and warn 
debaters that strategy does not replace proof; he might show them an evasion of 
an issue, and how to dispose of strategy - perhaps by ignoring it, or answering 
it briefly. 

Debaters should also be shown how to emphasize their own strong points; how 
•* ' to spend less time on the floor explaining or criticizing debate technique of 
the opponents; how to avoid sweeping generalizations; how to escape being led 
on by opponents; how to resist the impulse to tell the opponents too much, es- 
pecially at the beginning of the debate; how to accept' graciously what the op- 
position offers so that they do not become excited and nervous by an unexpected 
case; how to watch for false reasoning, especially dilemmas, for in many cases 
they are not when analyzed dilemmas at all; how to answer a dilemma as soon as 
possible if one does exist; how to remain calm in the face of the so-called 
"challenges" which often sound much worse than they are in fact. 

d. Different methods of judging debates. 

How debates are decided should be carefully explained to inexperienced debaters, 
They should understand that the single expert judge is perhaps the most satisfactory 
method of judging a debate although group judging is also satisfactory, but often 
prohibitive due to costs involved. Another method is concerned with judgment by 
coaches; each coach rates all speakers except those of his own team. Audience 
judging has proved interesting in many places, although too often some outside 
circumstance will affect the decision. Judging individual debaters rather than 
team is a modern trend which has proved satisfactory where used. 

A popular fashion in debate is the non-decision type. Occasionally, this is 
advantageous to use but it should not be employed exclusively, for the competitive 


spirit which arouses interest and results in intensive preparation by an adolescent 
may he eliminated. No matter what type of judging may be used, debaters should 
understand the decision aspect of debating. A judge's approval does not mean that 
the winning side is right and the other side wrong; it simply means that the winning 
team argued more effectively. Judging in any form is a weighing process. 

e. Serving as critic judge. 

A critic judge is sometimes asked to serve as chairman, time keeper, judge, and 
consultant. He may be asked to perform any or all of the following functions: (l) 
see that the debate gets started promptly; (2) keep time; (3) announce the speakers; 
and (h) criticize the debate, generally upon the following points: grasp of ques- 
tion, preliminary analysis, statement of issues and partition; argument, the validity 
of the inferential processes used; evidence, particularly expert testimony; organ- 
ization of case, coherence; speech style, delivery, voice, gesture, posture, move- 
ment; refutation. 

Critics sometimes are requested to give running comment on their debates and 
the plan seems to meet with favor wherever it is employed. It should not be used, 
however, unless both teams agree upon it before the contest. If a critic judge is 
asked to discuss the debate with a group, he should give as much constructive crit- 
icism as time and situation will permit, for it is by means of criticiism that pupils 
will improve the next competition. (Eeview subject-matter concerning judging in 
chapter 6. ) 

f . Ballots used in debate judging. 

A typical Judges' Blank may be found in The Appendix. 


As numerous books on parliamentary law have been written, it is not the inten- 
tion of the authors to repeat their content. The procedure is discussed here from 
the viewpoint of the speech instructor who has to teach this subject to high school 
students. If the real purpose of parliamentary law is made clear to students, they 
will appreciate the practicability of the subject-matter and desire to learn all 
they can about it. A knowledge of the fundamental principles upon which it is 
based makes them appreciate the significance of the study, particularly in a demo- 
cracy. The permanent benefits to be derived from its study can be pointed out to 
pupils in high school. Techniques of classroom as well as extracurricular activity 
teaching of parliamentary law follows: 

Specif ic Object ives of the Procedure 

The specific objectives discussed in the following section deal with (l) under- 
standing the purpose; (2) knowledge of fundamentals; and (3) permanent benefits to 
be derived. 

a. Understanding the purpose. 

High school students should be taught that parliamentary procedure is neither 
a bag of tricks nor a procedure so difficult that it is the weapon only for an in- 
telligent few. It is the application of a philosophy of democratic living. They 
should also understand that membership in any group demands responsibilities as well 
as privileges. A member has to pay for the privilege of sharing the knowledge, and 
experience of others, of expressing his own opinion, and still more important in a 
democracy, of opposing other viewpoints and actions. 


A knowledge of Robert's Rules of O rder is of chief importance to high school 
students. References to it can first be made indirectly, such as mention of the 
duties of officers, the formation of a Constitution, or the correct writing of the 
minutes. A discussion of the book then may follow. 

b. Knowledge of fundamental principles. 

The rules of parliamentary law are simply a common sense way of achieving more 
and better business in a minimum amount of time. There are five traditional prin- 
ciples upon which the procedure is based: (l) full and free discussion is advocated; 
(2) one subject should be completed before another is presented; (3) the will of the 
majority is followed while that of the minority is respected; (k) every member has 
the same rights; (5) business should be confined to arguments. 

c. Permanent benefits derived. 

The purpose of studying parliamentary law in class is to enable the student to 
overcome the fear of the procedure by acquiring a sufficient amount of experience 
with, as well as knowledge of, the ordinary business meeting which he should be able 
to conduct at any time or place. To be able actually to run a meeting with ease 
is one task; to be able to correct with certainty others who may be conducting it 
is another. 

Techniq ues o f _ Teaching 

Parliamentary law is taught in some high schools directly in class while others 
give training in it indirectly by means of extracurricular activities, such as 
dramatic or society meetings. No matter in which way it is used, the purpose of 
parliamentary law must be made clear by the speech teacher before he analyzes the 
material or procedures. He should select a minimum number of essential rules nec- 
essary for the average business meeting; then later other rules may be discussed 
and enforced. If parliamentary procedure is thought of as a common sense proced- 
ure, it will impress pupils as a way to simplify rather than complicate business 
procedure . 

a. Method. 

The most satisfactory way for the pupils to acquire a knowledge of parliament- 
ary procedure is for the teacher to run the speech class as an assembly; then the 
rules are learned easiest because they are brought into practice. 

b. Minimum content in high school. 

If all high school students understood the following twelve requirements, they 
would be sufficiently equipped with parliamentary knowledge: (a) organization of 
a meeting; (b) application for membership; (c) a constitution; (d) set of resolu- 
tions; (e) a proxy vote; (f ) purpose of motions; (g) four common types of motions; 
(h) wording of most common examples of each type; (i) order of business; (j) rights 
and duties of individual officers; (k) common methods of voting; (l) election of 

1. Organization of a meeting. 

The steps in organizing either a temporary or permanent meeting should be 
practiced by organizing both kinds of groups in class. Problems will arise as 
students work out their own plans for a specific society. Officers should be 
changed constantly to give all members an opportunity to serve in as many dif- 


ferent capacities as possible. Criticisms and suggestions for organization 
should "be welcomed. At the beginning of each meeting the material learned at 
the preceding meeting could be reviewed to advantage. Charts of various proced- 
ures could be posted during the practice meetings. Reference to Robert's Rules 
of Order is also encouraged. 

The organizational meetings create unique problems such as the drafting of 
a constitution, election of permanent officers, etc. Every member of the class 
should be required to participate. 

2. An application for membership blank. 

An application blank sufficiently general to be used by most organizations 
may be found in the Appendix. Each organization has specific requirements re- 
quested of applicants which could be added to the essential information included 
in this blank. 

3. Constitution. 

A constitution for a high school club can be found in books on parliamentary 

h. A set. of resolutions. 

One of the duties of members of an organization occasionally is to serve on 
a committee to draft a set of resolutions to be sent in the name of the organi- 
zation to an individual or group upon some special occasion. A form of such a 
typical set of resolutions can be found in the Appendix. 

5. A proxy vote. 

When members of an organization are not able to attend the meeting at which 
voting is held, they may generally cast their vote by proxy. The common form in 
which the vote is cast can be found in the Proxy Vote Blank found in the Appendix. 

6. The purpose of a motion. 

If the significance of the motion is thoroughly understood, a nucleus of 
parliamentary law is gained. Each step in the disposition of this central fact- 
or can be made easy if the member knows why as well as how he should address 
the chair, wait for recognition, state the motion, and have the motion disposed 
of by the. chair.- The chairman will find if he appreciates the purpose of a mo- 
tion, the rules for seconding the motion, opening the discussion, putting the 
question to a vote, and conducting the vote, that all become simple common sense 

7- The types of motions. 

The four common types of motions can be easily understood, if the signific- 
ance of their names is explained to the class. Main 'motion is 'frequently under- 
stood, in its proper relation to the others, if it is termed initial instead of 
main . This notion gives the implication to most students that none of the other 
motions can have preference over it. This single suggestion often clears the 
way for a better understanding of the precedence of motions. One way of teach- 
ing the relationship of the different kinds of motions is by means of diagrams 
so that the importance of the relative type's can be remembered. 


8. The wording of the most common examples of motions. 

One of the problems in teaching parliamentary procedure is that of getting 
pupils to give the proper wording to motions. Only three words "I move that" 
need to "be remembered, followed by the proposal advocated. If the class remem- 
bers to associate who , what , when, where , why , and how with motions, they will 
be worded more clearly and accurately. The chairman should also be advised to 
listen carefully for the answers to these six important questions when a motion 
is stated so that he can repeat it accurately. 

The jumbled mass of motions which confuse most students can be simplified 
if the various motions are grouped under the few purposes for which they are pre- 
sented such as: (l) to initiate business; (2.) to change the original motion; 
(3) to dispose of a motion either definitely or indefinitely; (k) to correct the 
procedure; (5) to request information; (6) to close discussion or end the meet- 
ing. A chart set up according to purpose rather than precedence often clarifies 
the common motions under each heading for the pupils. 

9. Order of business. 

All who study parliamentary procedure should know the rules concerned with 
the order of business. Poise is secured by the student from the mere knowledge 
of what to do next throughout a parliamentary gathering. There are only eight 
steps to the process which can be put on the board and then followed in the 
assembly until all of its members know them by heart. All students should have 
sufficient practice with these rules until their fear of making an error in pro- 
cedure is gone. 

10. Rights and duties of officers. 

If the characteristics of a person as well as the duties needed to fulfill 
a certain office are discussed, the duties of the office will, long be remem- 
bered. By alternating the "offices" in class, each member at one time or 
another serves in the different capacities. One method of learning the duties of 
the different officers is to set up a model constitution for the class. Direct 
study of Robert's Rules is advocated for each officer appointed. 

11. Common methods of voting. 

A knowledge of the various methods of voting is essential. The value of 
one method over another is an important point to discuss. Occasionally, methods 
of voting can- be taught indirectly, even when the teacher is not dealing directly 
with parliamentary procedure as such, by voting on the best speaker of the day, 
etc., in the regular class period. In fact, many phases of parliamentary pro- 
cedure can be acquired indirectly to- advantage so that when the procedure itself 
is studied, it is not all. new to the student. 

12. Election of officers. 

Election of officers even in an informal group should be followed according 
to the rules of parliamentary procedure. The duties of officers as stated in 
the constitution of the organization should be explained as well as the reference 
to them in the by-laws. If the members of the class elect officers, it is better 
practice for the pupils than for the chairman to select all of the necessary of- 
ficers. ■ '..■■■■.■■■■' 

c. Extracurricular organization. 

A speech club, with its primary purpose of giving a short period, only fifteen 
or twenty minutes weekly, to parliamentary procedure can be formed. In fact, pro- 
cedure according to H. M. Robert's Rules should be used in all high school activi- 
ties such as clubs of various kinds, election of class officers or other business 
meetings, so that students become accustomed to parliamentary law as a regular dem- 
ocratic process rather than an added feature. If the parliamentary procedure is 
followed throughout high school, many problems of conducting a meeting will be met 
in one organization or another and parliamentary procedure will be learned as a 
matter of course. 


1. Contrast two methods of discussion used in education, 

2. List the duties of the chairman planning a discussion. 

3. Compile a judge's sheet to be used at any debate. 

k. Bring to class a newspaper editorial analyzed as to kinds of materials used. 

5. Submit a list of magazines for debate references you would like the school 

library to contain. 

6. Discuss the practical advantages of knowing parliamentary procedure. 

7. Imagine yourself one of the officers of an organization. List your duties. 

8. Compile a chart of motions based on purpose rather than precedence. 

9. Compile a typical set of resolutions to be sent from an organization to the 

bereaved family of its late president. (Refer to Robert's Rules of Order 
for the form. See Appendix h.) 

10. Contrast advantages of debate as an elective, required course, or extra- 


11. Suggest specific methods of securing better debate publicity in school pub- 


12. Is it advisable to mix teams in high school debate? Is a boy-girl team an 

advantage to both speakers and audience? 
13- Look up Judge's Ballot in the' textbook Modern Debate Practice , p. 33l.> ^J 

Willhoft . 
l^f. Consult the four types of Judge's Score Cards listed in Oral English and 

Debate . Fort , L . M . , p . 301 . 

15. Is it advisable for the high school debate coach to help with the briefs or 

should he let the team accept defeat without much assistance? 

16. Do you agree with the list of advantages derived from debate in the Q.J„S. 

volume 18? 

17. Hand in a list of five debate texts appropriate for high school. 

18. Could the debate society be given charge of an intramural program of debates 

between classes, clubs, or home rooms? Should a trophy be awarded? If so ; 

19. Is it advisable to require high school students to attend debates as assign- 

ments after which a written report is due? 

20. Is it preferable to continue work on the same question throughout the season 

or to change topics? 

21. Read: Discussion and De bate - A Re -examination, Thompson, W. N., Q.J.S. 

p. 288, October, 19^. 

22. Discuss in class A Se lected List of Re ference Wo rks from the Bibliography 

of Re ference Works, Thonnsen, L., p. 215, Q.J.S. April, 19^1. Comment on 
the six headings used. 

23. Should most discussions be explanations? 


2k. Report on one article from Bibliogr ap hy of Per iodica l Literature on Debating 
a nd Discu ssion, Ewbank, H. L., Q.J.S. V. 2ki63k Dec, 1938- 

25. Base a debate on a controversial subject drawn from another high school course, 

26. Read: Adapting the Teaching C ycle to Debate , Hance, K. G., Q.J.S. p. kkk, 

Dec. 19^. 

27. Hold a round table discussion on selection being studied in a literature class 

at the same time. 

28. Discuss: Sugg ested Units In Discussion and Debate For Secondary Schools , 

Robinson, K; F. Q.J.S. p. 385, Oct. 19U6. 

29. Think of ways of varying the procedure in the Question and Answer Periods. 

In one class, the speaker may ask the question and a member of the audience 
answer; in another, the class questions the speaker. 

30. Hold a class discussion where two students are called upon impromptu to 

discuss a problem. 

31. Report on reference materials from Teaching Public Discussion , Q.J.S. p. 13, 

Feb. I9U3. 

32. Do you agree with A Philosophy of Pa rliament ary Law, Gray, G. W., Q.J.S. 

p. kyj, Oct* 191+1? , ; 

33. Devise a chart for change of audience opinion before and after a discussion. 
3^. Use the article entitled Argument ation and Pers ona l Su c cess , p. 22, Q.J.S. 

Feb. 19^3, as the basis of a talk on the same subject. 
3 r j. Conduct an entire period discussion on a subject suggested at a previous meet- 
ing. Appointed chairman suggests the subject. 

36. Compare textbook content with Mana g ement of Gr oup Discussion , Shoemaker, C.C., 

En g lis h Journal v. 36:508, Dec. I9V7. " 

37. Discuss one phase of group discussion suggested by a reference from Experi - 

mental Res earch in Gro up Discussion, Dickens, M. and Heffernan, M., Q.J.S., 
Feb. 19^9. 

38. Compile a list of twenty subjects from the daily press appropriate for class 

39* Make a study of audience analysis based on the findings of Monroe, A.H. in 

The Measurement and An alysis of Audience Reacti ons Bull. Purdue Univ. 

v. ""^3, Dec". , 1937." 
ko. List the duties of a chairman. 

kl. Analyze the behavior patterns common to discussion groups. 
k2. Discuss gains which can be achieved through group discussion. Cf . Making 

the Discussion Gr oup an Ef fective Democratic I nstrument , Myer, S. W., 

American School Board Journal, Sept. 19^8. 
43. Discuss the relation of group size to type of discussion. 
kk. Give a five minute talk based on the definition of discussion in Principles 

and Methods of Discussion, McBurney, J. H. and Hance, K. G., p. k } Harper, 

k^. Report of the value of Deba ter's Magazine , Nichols, E. R., Qlk Campus Avenue, 

Redlands, Calif. 
k6. Compile a parliamentary procedure chart to be used by the chairman of a 



Auer, J., The Essentia l of P arliam ent ary Procedure , 2nd Ed. (New York: Applet on- 

Century, Crofts, 19^9). 
Baird, A., Discussion (New York: McGraw-Hill, 19^5). 

Bogoslovsky, B. B., The Te chnique of Controversy (New York: Applet on, 1933 ). 
Brigance, W. N. , A Hi story and Criticism of American Public Address (New York: 

McGraw-Hill, 19^9). 


Brown, M. 3D., Panel Met hod of Discussion (Nebraska Agricultural College, 1936). 
Cable, W.... A Decalogue of Conte st De batin g, (Q.J.S. V. 15:254, April 1929). 
Clarke, J., Logic (London: Longmans, 1925). 

Crocker, L., Argument at i on and Debate (New York: American Book, 1944). 
Courtney, L., and Capp, G-, C, .Practical Debating (Chicago: Lippincott, 19^9 )• 
Cruz an, R., Pract i cal Parli amen tary Procedure (Bloomington, Indiana: McKnight, 

19^7). """"' ". 

Elliott, H., The Process of Group T hinki ng (New York: Association Press, 1928). 
Ewbank, H. L. , and Auer, J. J., Discussion and Debate (New York: Applet on- 

Century- Crofts, 1949). 
Fansler, T., Discussion Methods for Adult Groups (New York: American Ass 'n. 

For Adult Education, 195^ 
Foster, W. T. , Argume ntation and Debate (New York: Houghton, 1939) • 
Garland, J. V., and Phillips, C. F. /'"Discussion Methods (New' York: Wilson, 1940). 
Gosling, T; W., The Reorganization of Methods of Debate i n Hi gh Scho ol ( The 

English Journal V. 9:210, April, 1950). 
Graves, H. F., Argument (New York: Gordon, 1938). 

Hall, A. B., and Sturgis, A. F., Parliamen tary Law (Nov/ York: Macmillan, I923) . 
Harlan, R. 3D., Strategic Debating (Boston: Chapman and Grimes, 1940) . 
Holcomb, M. J . , The Cri t "i c Judge" Sy at em ( Q . J . S . V. 19:28, Feb., 1933). 
Immel, R. K., and Whipple, R., Deba ting for Hig h Schools (Boston: Ginn, 1931)« 
Johnson, T. E., How Should Debates be Judged? (Q.J.S. V. 21:396, June,' 1935). 
Judson, L. S., Combining Deb ate and Parliamentary P ract ice (Journal of Expression, 

V. 4:71, June, 1950)7"* ", 

Judson, L., and Judson, E., Modern .G roup Dj scussion (New York: Wilson, 1938). 
Lahman, C. P., Debating Coaching „ (New York: Wilson, 1936). 
McKean, D. P., a" Bibliograph y of D ebating (Q.J.S., V. 19:206, April, 1933). 
Melzer, A., High Sch ool Forensic s (New York: Wilson, 1940). 
Musgrave, G. M., Competitive Debate: R ules an d Techniques (New York: Wilson, 

Noble and. Noble, Yearbooks of Oratory and Debate, New York. 

Oliver, R. T., The Psych olog y of Per suasive Speech (New York: Longmans, 1942). 
O'Neill, J. M., Layccck, C., and Scales, R. L., Argumentatio n an d Debate Rev. Ed. 

( New Yor k : C e nt ury , 19 31 ) . 
O'Brien, J. F., Discussion and Persuasion (New York: Longmans, 1942)... 
Phelps, E. M., U niversi ty Debat er' s Annual (New York: Wilson). . 
Reeves, J. W., and Hudson, H. H., Principles of A rgumen ta tion and Debate (Boston: 

Heath, 194l). 
Reiss, K. S., A Reading List on Forums and Group D iscussions (New York: New York 

Uni vers I ty , 19 36 ) . 
Bobbins, E. C, The High Sc hoo l Debate Book (Chicago: McClurg, 1939). ■ 
Robert, H. M., Parli amen tary Law Rev. Ed. (New York: Century, 1925). 
Spotts, C. D., Debate a nd Di scussion: A Syllabus (Boston: Expression, 1941 ). 
Summers, H. B., and Whan, F. L., How To Debate Rev. Ed. (New York: Wilson, 1940). 
Til son, J. Q., A New Manual of Parliamentary Practice (New Haven, Conn., P.O. 

Box, I832). 
Ulman, R., Uni versity Debater's An nuals (New York: Wilson). 
Walser, F., The Art of Conference (New York: Harper, 1934). 
Wiener, P. P., Scientific Method and Gro up Dis cussion (Jour, of Adult Educ ation, 

V. 2:136, April,""" 1957). 
Winans, J. A., and Utterbank, W. E., Argumentatio n (New York: Century, 1930). 
Forums For Young People (U.S. Dept. of Interior, Off. of Ed., Bull. 

"25, "193717* 
Talking It Through ; A Manual For Discussion Groups (Dept.. of Sec. School 
Principals of the N.E.aT^ 5835 Kimbark Ave., Chicago, 111., I938). 


Literature is not in the book. Her life is in the song, the 
ballad, the story and the oration, the epic and the drama.-- CHUBB 


Scope of Subjec t r 

a. Platform Art 

b. Choral Reading 

c. Dramatic Art 

Specific Objectives in Platform Art 

a. Right Attitude of the Teacher 

b. Develop Standards of Judgment of Good Literature and Art 

c. Incite an Appreciation of Good Literature • 

1. Use different forms 

2. Use recreat.ional approach 

3. Create love of subject matter 

k. Stimulate the emotions , imagination, and the intellect 

5. Stimulate backgrounds for life situations 

6. Stimulate good English expression 

d. Create Skills for Other Forms of Speaking 
Techniques of Classroom Teaching 

a. Improve Understanding of Subject Matter 

1. Method of preliminary study' 

2. Getting the meaning 

Discover central theme 
Finding the key words 
Getting the background 
Analyzing the situation 
Getting characters 
Meaning of words . 

b. Explain the, Cutting of a Selection 

1. Unity 

2. Coherence 

3. Emphasis 

h. Characterization 

5. Situation 

6 . Place 

7. Mood 

8. Proper timing 

c. Improve Skill of Oral Interpretation 

1. Stress audience contact 

2. Train pupils in vocal expression 

3. Stimulate bodily expression 
h. Develop spontaneity 

5. Improve diction 
Techniques of Extra cur ric ular Activity in Platf orm Art 

a. Kinds of Contests 

b. Advantages of Competition 

c. Right Choice of Selection 

1. Suitable to the type of contest 

2. Humorous or serious 

3. Dialect 



k. Age of selection 

5. Worth-while material 

6. Suitable to the audience and occasion 

7. Suitable to the interpreter 

d. Building a Program 

e. Selecting a Representative 

f . Judging an Interpretation Contest 
1. Suggestions as to judging 

2.. Example* of rating blanks 
Sp®? i f ie Objectiv es in Chor al Reading and Audience Reading 

a. Cultural Ac- vantages 

b. Social Advantages 

c . Speech Advantages 
Technique s _of Classroom Teaching 

a. Content 

1. Subject matter suitable for group interpretation 

2. Dramatic and lyric interpretation 

3. Age and type of selection 

b. Method 

1. Experienced director required 

2. Method used dependent upon characteristics of group 

3. Directions must be specific 

h. Problems of method in relation to subject matter 
Techniques of Extracurricular Activities 
a. Preparation for a Public Performance 

a. Past History 

b. Modern Contributions 

c. Application to Speech Field 


Scope of Subject 

Although interpretation may be said to be a subject belonging to writing, read- 
ing,, and speaking, it is, also, considered a subject matter in itself. Among the 
interpretative arts that relate to speech courses are three distinctive fields of 
speech skills: (a) PLATFORM ART; (b) CHORAL READING; (c) DRAMATIC ART'.' Each of 
these fields will be treated from the viewpoints of objectives in training, educa- 
tional procedures in classroom teaching, and extracurricular training in this and 
the following chapter. 

S pe cif ic Obje ctives in ; _Pl a t fo rm Art 

The prospective teacher of this 'art . should have right training for his work, 
and particularly, a right attitude of mind towards the value of his subject. He 
should, furthermore, develop in his students right standards of judging good art, 
incite appreciation of literature, create skills for interpretation in platform 
art and in other forms of speaking, and train students to value interpretation as 
an aid to the proper use of leisure. 


a. Right attitude of the teacher toward platform art. 

The teacher of platform art will never be successful if he feels his course is 
inferior to public speaking, debate, or dramatics. The content of a course in plat- 
form art is one of the most valuable taught in the speech curriculum. Its assets 
are perhaps more important to the average speech student than those coming from 
another speech course. Although in this age there are fewer professional opportun- 
ities in platform art than in drama or public speaking, the training values of the 
course, nevertheless, are needed by the speaker, the debater, the actor, and the 
every day professional or business man. 

The teacher of interpretation will know his subject matter well, and be a 
skilled interpreter of literature himself. Although in this particular type of 
speech work he should keep in the background, and work with students indirectly, 
he is always a director capable of exemplifying a point of interpretation, and 
sometimes stimulating a student to experiment with his own skill. 

b. Develop standards of judgment for all arts. 

One specific objective for the teacher in oral interpretation should be to de- 
velop standards of judgment of good literature as well as the other arts. By in- 
citing careful study on the part of the student, the teacher can give him a deeper 
personal insight into and liking for the charm and .power of literature and open to 
him the wealth of thought embodied in the classics, both ancient and modern. Sup- 
plementing this background with observation, meditation, and discussion, the stu- 
dent will acquire a standard of judgment regarding speaking and writing. The devel- 
opment of the art of interpreting, also, indirectly establishes a norm of judgment 
regarding the other arts, such as music, acting, and painting. 

c. Incite an appreciation of good literature. 

The teacher can incite in his students a taste for culture and an appreciation 
of good literature. Before he can do this, he knows himself the training values of 
the forms of literature . 

1. Use of different forms. 

Each of these, such as dramatic, lyric, .and narrative, for example, has its 
own purpose as well as structure. 

For beginning work in interpretation,. EPIC POETRY and the SHORT STORY cre- 
ate in the student a sense of communication. An understanding of the epic spirit 
cultivates the sense of transferring one's own experience or. the experience of 
the writer to another.' A true sense of the epic prevents exaggerated impersona- 
tion and allows a character taking part in a situation to tell his own story. 
The epic, also, strengthens the student's appreciation of a sequence of events. 
It allows him to center his attention upon a theme and learn how to subordinate 
details. He incites an appreciation of manners, emotions, and thoughts of men. 

The narrative is the easiest form for both boys and girls to interpret, 
for they all love the story element in it. The epic, the loftiest form of nar- 
rative poetry, with its heroes arouses emotional values in the adolescents. 
Before using an ancient epic, a teacher should be assured that the student has 
sufficient background regarding the home life,, dress, habits, recreations, or 
warfare described in the poem. The student should look up in reference works 
any allusions which he does not understand. 


As a means of developing the vocal Interpretation of another's thoughts, 
DECLAMATION may be used. If the student takes the tho lights and words of the 
orator and makes them his own, he will learn to get directness, clearness, and 
emphasis into his delivery. Declamation encourages skill in delivery and cre- 
ates the ability to analyze effective oral composition. 

A study of the DRAMATIC SPIRIT will give a student an insight into char- 
acters and life situations. It, likewise, will arouse emotional life and create 
a sympathetic understanding of human behavior. Learning to evaluate characters 
in action, the influence of environment, the types of character and the mood 
gives a student a realization of living reality. The dramatic spirit can well 
be studied for the motives that influence behavior. When the student understands 
characters, plots, locations, and scenes, he is not only acquiring information 
but is getting an understanding of some author's viewpoints and developing a 
taste and a culture for literature. Selections from drama with interesting 
situations, characters, and scenes and cuttings from one act plays are frequently 
used in contests. For class work they are well suited to the average student. 

The LYRIC in encouraging reflection stirs the imagination and develops the 
personal element in oral style. Its depth of feeling stimulates rich vocal ex- 
pression and varied bodily activity. It offers, particularly, a study in co- 
ordinations. To make a lyric poem live, the interpreter manifests the. 'feeling 
and the thought of the poem; he cannot depend simply upon the denotation of 
language and representative pantomime. Lyrics are so subjective that they are 
not generally adaptable to oral competition as are the other forms, especially 
for younger readers. However, in advanced reading contests, and in senior class 
work they may be used to advantage. 

The various forms of literature therefore give speech training when adapted 
to the age and interest of the student. They have a special value in that they 
allow a student to be placed into a given situation where, by the aid of his im- 
agination, and dramatic instinct, he can feel an expression suitable to such a 
situation. Interpreting' literature stimulates vocal and bodily expressions. If 
the many forms are used correctly in speech training, they serve to balance the 
mechanical aspect of technical exercises. If subject-matter has literary value, 
it can also have educational worth in speech training. Although the exhibition- 
ary pieces have certain audience appeal, they seldom are assets in developing 
interpretive skill and an appreciation of culture and taste. 

A young teacher may believe that an understanding of the printed symbols is 
the only work in teaching oral interpretation. Appreciation of good literature, 
as of anything else, does not come by chance but is contagious, and an alert 
speech teacher utilizes every means at his disposal to see that it is "catching". 
To expose the students in numerous ways to different forms of good literature is 
advisable. A variety of good books, conveniently located to be accessible, 
should be placed in the speech classroom. Notices on the boards will direct 
attention to good reading materials and illustrations. Students should be en- 
couraged to discuss books that they have read as well as to keep annotated bib- 
liographies . 

2. Use recreational approach. 

Literature should be approached with more of a recreational attitude than it 
is sometimes; although work is required, it should be a creative activity in 
which the student utilizes his own past life experiences to be enjoyed as well 
as analyzed. The author is only telling, as the student himself is in his speech 
class, of something he saw, heard, experienced, or Imagined. Since literature is 


life experiences, they can beat "be appreciated by a reader who has re-created his 
own similar adventures and experiences. Assignments, especially at the beginning 
of a course, should be optional so that correlations of the student's own exper- 
iences can be utilized in interpreting those of another. 

3. Create love of subject matter. 

Any teacher who can create a lasting love and appreciation of good litera- 
ture in a student has done much more for him than the teacher who only leads him 
through the classics to analyze and dissect their structure. Poetry should be 
taught by a teacher who has a love as well as a knowledge of it. He should. also 
use language correctly in reading it, also appreciate the value of sounds, rhy- 
thm, vocal patterns, thought content, verse form, imagery, and association of 
ideas. But his technical knowledge should not interfere with his own pleasure 
in reading nor with that of the student. 

k. Stimulate the intellect, emotions, and imagination. 

Interpretation deepens as well as broadens the intellectual horizon. Ideas 
are associated and evaluated. In finding the author's purpose, thought -provoking 
questions are not only aroused but answered; facts are discovered and weighed; 
new problems present themselves; and valid conclusions are drawn. Habit of 
thinking as well as speaking are formed.. 

Oral interpretation of good literature, more than any other phase of speech, 
develops the whole person, since an artist is a creative thinker before he is a 
creative interpreter. Thought which a reader communicates to an audience is 
alive. He recreates it for an audience at the time he gives a selection. This 
action necessitates the training of every mental faculty. 

The degree of feeling expressed in interpretation is determined by the gen- 
eral mood of the selection and the variety of emotions discovered in its parts. 
Any emotion is unnatural and monotonous if .it is held too long without reaching 
a climax. To depict the variety of the emotions of a character is difficult for 
some students. Nevertheless, if they stop to consider the human beings whom 
they are portraying, they will realize that persons are seldom angry, or afraid 
during an entire scene. The characters whom adolescents can best portray, will 
fall within the range of their experience. To make the actions of a character 
real, personal, and vivid, students should clarify and intensify their own reac- 
tions to life. 

5- Stimulate real background for life situation. 

Interpretation gives insight into the characters that a reader portrays, and 
it allows him an opportunity to study intimately the motives of men, their dif- 
ficulties, failures, and aspirations. The ideas obtained by a thoughtful reader 
are associated with past as well as present and future life situations. Oral in- 
terpretation means the re-living, not the mere relating, of experiences of men. 
The author records facts of characters, scenes and situations; the interpreter 
creates living characters seen and heard in situations. 

6. Stimulate good English expression. 

A basic knowledge of diction, grammar, punctuation, and composition is im- 
proved through oral interpretation. Every mark and symbol of a selection is an 
integral part of oral interpretation, for a reader cannot give what he has not 
previously obtained from the printed page. The author expresses his meaning, 


motive, and mood in carefully selected words arranged in a definite pattern with 
rhythm, symmetry, and beauty. The pupil who seeks to express in oral language 
this content is himself receiving an excellent training in good English expres- 
sion. Moreover he will become aware of his own speech habits and critical of his 
own vocabulary. 

d. Create skills for other forms of speaking. 

Effective training in oral interpretation is one of the best possible means of 
developing skill in other forms of speaking. In arousing the emotional ahd imagina- 
tive experiences of a pupil, it gives variety and genuine dramatic power to his 
speaking. His ears are trained to catch the subtle shades of feeling as well as 
meaning. He gains a knowledge of the speaker --speech- -audience situation, so essen- 
tial to all speaking. When this relationship is sensed and practiced in interpreta- 
tion, he will know how to handle similar conditions in any speech situation. 

Techniques of C lass room Tea ching 

The subject-matter of a course in interpretation consists of poetry and prose 
selections adapted to the age and interests of the high school student. The types 
of selections exemplify the various literary spirits ---epic, dramatic, oratorical, 
and lyric. The techniques or skills relate, therefore, to storytelling, reading 
and cuttings of plays, declaiming, and reading of poetry. Constructive suggestions 
for the teaching of oral interpretation may be listed under three heads: (l) those 
which will improve the understanding, and appreciation of the material from the 
printed page; (2) those which will assure the cutting and the preparation of the 
subject matter for presentation, and (■}) those which will improve the skill of oral 
interpretation for an audience. 

a. Improve understanding of subject matter. 

The first techniques used by a teacher are employed to impress upon the student 
a good understanding of the subject matter of the various forms of literature. 

1. Method of preliminary study. 

The preparatory study calls for a thorough understanding of authors ' work: 
his background, home life,- philosophy, personality, occasion and purpose for 
writing this particular work, his special qualifications, particular fields of 
interest drawn upon by him, and the kind and reason for the reader- -author rela- 
tion. The author's approach to the subject matter is important. Does he speak 
to the reader directly? Does he speak through a character? Who does speak? In 
a word, the student discovers the author's technique in communicating his thought 
and feeling to his readers. 

When the interpreter feels he truly understands his author, he re-reads him 
in relation to the auditors who will actually hear the selection. He realizes 
that the audience holds no. manuscript, and that it does not know what the reader 
is planning to give. He keeps in mind, also, that it must get the content from 
one hearing only. The speaker, the audience, and the selection, even in prepara- 
tion, are interdependent and related. All share a part of the total experience 
of preparation. If a reader keeps the three in mind throughout his preparation, 
he will be more likely acquire his subject matter in the light of audience reac- 

2. Getting the meaning. 

This analysis may be divided in two parts: a general study of the plan or 
framework of the entire work, and a careful study of the details. 


The entire play, story, selection or oration is read throughout to get the 
general theme and its main divisions. Unless the teacher stresses this point, 
the student will he unable to understand the natural units or divisions, stanzas, 
scenes, or parts and their relationship. 

The key words in each stanza as well as in each line should be sought. For 
example, the key words in the first two stanzas of A Rainy Day are the day com- 
pared with my life in the second stanza. When the intellectual key word is found, 
the emotional key word in the entire poem as well as in each stanza should also 
be determined. 

When both the intellectual and emotional key words are decided, the Big Six 
- who? what? where? when? why? and how? - should be applied to the study first 
in the entire selection, and later in each sentence. When this work is finished, 
the author's ideas should be put in the reader's own words, for paraphrasing 
often brings numerous difficulties to light. By doing this in poetry, the sent- 
ence order which often causes difficulty is clarified. This particular method of 
study must be demonstrated by the teacher. He can, through his wider experience, 
supply the background or situation for the poem that otherwise may be somewhat 
remote from the actual life experience of the student, and he can, thereby, at- 
tract a student to a philosophy and to other interests of value to him. He 
should begin with the simple concrete homely material which the student likes. 

As students differ in appreciation and in knowledge, the study of interpret- 
ation must be greatly individualized. . If one type of material is not suitable 
to the student, the teacher should try another type and begin with situations 
known to the reader. Inasmuch as training and tastes differ in students - one 
may have traveled extensively, another represents a home with an excellent li- 
brary - they develop in different degrees. The teacher explains backgrounds, 
then, from the viewpoint of the student and should not expect any two will de- 
velop at the same rate or in the same time. If the instructor has patience, 
the student with limited advantages will greatly improve his reading. 

The reader should picture the characters in his own mind. Are they stand- 
ing or sitting? What personality have they? Are they old? How are they dressed? 
What is the significance of names the author has chosen to identify them? The 
reader should try to make characters flesh and blood people, for he must learn to 
know them intimately. Then he' visualizes, the settings, the events, background, 
and scenes; furthermore he gets color,- smell, and images from all other senses. 

After the situations, mood, and scenes of the selection are understood, 
character portrayal becomes the chief concern of the interpreter who should not 
be content to know characters; he must live them. When a student is ready for 
character portrayal, the teacher generally senses whether or not that student is 
merely representing externals of the character or manifesting the real qualities 
of emotional and mental attitudes. He uses all his skills in helping the stu- 
dent feel character, then to walk and talk like the character established by 
the author. Much patience is now required by the teacher and many rehearsals 
may be necessary before a student will give a live character. 

Many pupils are careless in their appreciation of the particular words an 
author uses. Since a reader interprets symbols according to his own experience, 
the denotation, and connotation of a word should be considered in a study of the 
content. A thorough knowledge of all allusions, and analogies, is also funda- 
mental to intelligent interpretation. A study of the details - such as the rep- 
etition of words - is then important to good reading or 'the listener suffers. 


Since the word order and imagery in poetry are frequently stumbling blocks 
to interpretation, each word in a sentence must be fully understood by the pupil 
so that he can clarify the meaning for the listeners. The fact that three or 
more modifiers or phrases precede, rather than follow a verb, should not be dis- 
concerting to him if he understands grammatical constructions. Diagramming a 
difficult passage is the quickest way to impress any student with grammatical 
relationship of words. 

b. Explain the cutting of material for oral interpretation. 

The Greek principles of composition, and factors of style should be kept in 
mind by the student when any selection is shortened. The teacher should stress 
the following points: 

1. Secure unity. 

Keep the thread of the story unbroken. If entire scenes or parts are elim- 
inated, as is frequently necessary, be sure that the continuity of the plot or 
the central idea is retained. Unity of mood as well as of plot should be ac- 
quired if an harmonious whole is to result. 

2. Secure coherence. 

Watch the transitions. Often, these are to be supplied when large sections 
of material have been cut. Long descriptions, interesting as they may appear, 
frequently are shortened or sometimes removed without directly affecting the plot. 

3. Secure emphasis. ■ 

The proportion of time devoted to major characters and incidents should be 
considered in cutting, for this determines the emphasis given them. The propor- 
tion of space devoted to the different parts, introduction, body, and conclusion 
is significant. Frequently, when cut, material is unbalanced and too much space 
given one or the other part. Retain a satisfactory introduction and conclusion, 
for both are important positions in the plot. Above all, retain the climaxes, 
both intellectual and emotional, as well as all necessary incidents leading up 
to them. The teacher should stress the point that a student must build his in- 
terpretation to the climax by developing the series of lesser climaxes. Each 
stanza, as well as each paragraph, has a point of highest interest which a reader 
should endeavor to discover and interpret. If the questions - Who?, What? Where? 
When? Why? How? are used in deciding what material to cut, the speaker-listener 
relationships will not be lost sight of during this cutting. 

k. Secure characterization. 

Do not cut important facts dealing with the main characters; yet, at times, 
the minor character parts can be eliminated entirely without affecting the plot. 
If characters or incidents are cut, be sure that no reference is later made to 
material that has been removed. 

5. Secure situation. 

The number and significance of the incidents and their relation to the in- 
dividual characters should be considered. What percentage of time is devoted to 
them? Why? Eliminate unnecessary details and unsuitable situations. The move- 
ment of the plot is a factor often forgotten in cutting'. As a rule, it is better 
to strike out sentences which slow the movement and are not material to character 
development . 


6 . Secure place . 

References to place and locations are important. Do not allow the students 
to cut material in such a way that action hangs in the air. Situations happen 
somewhere . 

7. Secure mood. 

The dreary mood of the first scene in Hamlet is obtained on stage by proper 
lighting effect. That same mood so important to the drama could be suggested to 
the audience by means of vocal and bodily expression. When situations .are cut 
from poems , dramas or novels, the mood of the selection should not be destroyed 
for the auditors. The prospective teacher should check a student's cutting so 
that he can determine what emotional values that create mood should be saved. 

8. Secure proper timing. 

The time element is significant. How long should the cutting be when fin- 
ished? The purpose for which it is to be used - radio, after-dinner speech, or 
lecture - effects the time element. A specific time limit is allowed in inter- 
pretation contests and in radio and it is the obligation of the interpreter to 
keep within it. Since readers under any nervous strain generally express mater- 
ial faster or slower than in rehearsal, a cutting must conform to the speech 
needs of a pupil at the time of its delivery. 

c. Improve skill of oral interpretation. 

The skill factors of oral interpretation relate to audience psychology, vocal 
expression, bodily expression, and diction. These subjects have been discussed in 
previous chapters; only a few remarks are necessary at this time. 

1. Stress audience contact. 

The teacher of interpretation usually stresses audience motivation. He must 
be sure that his students understand motives, that they know how to plant the 
stimulus in the audience for the desired motives, and how to control the urges 
they have aroused. He might well explain the sensory basis, the rational basis, 
and the emotional basis of motivation. Let him indicate the values of actual 
demonstration, the consequences of intellectual attitudes, and the power of sug- 
gestion. The interpreter becomes an expert in understanding human reactions, 
and is capable of taking advantage of the instinctive behavior of people who are 
banded into a psychological unit. 

2. Train pupils in vocal expression. 

Interpretation requires a thorough knowledge and skill in vocal expression. 
This subject may be divided into the factors that compose it: namely, pause, 
accent, change of pitch, inflection, tone color, rate, rhythm, and movement. 
The teacher who has had proper training should be able to explain and demonstrate 
each of these elements. He should, furthermore, be able to judge the student's 
ability to use these factors in interpretation, to give adequate criticism, and 
suggest exercises for remedial work when they are required by the vocal condition 
of the student. The teacher's chief concern in teaching voice in relation to lit- 
erary interpretation is to develop the student's expression in order that he may 
interpret well. 


Some readers believe that poetical form requires an affected delivery just 
as some speakers hold that an oration must be pompous and unnatural. Listening 
to his natural voice when he paraphrases what he has read is an excellent device 
to impress naturalness upon a reader. The line form in which poetry is written 
is for the eye and not the ear. The reader who divides his material into lines 
instead of thought groups may change the sense or the "beauty of the thought. 
When form instead of content becomes the significant factor in oral reading, 
vocal expression dissociated from the sense of the selection becomes artificial. 

5. Stimulate bodily expression. 

Not only does bodily action stimulate the conditions for vocal expression 
but it "talks a language". It can be 1 a conscious use of means of communication. 
Bodily language and bodily expression - both have their place in interpretation. 
The first is learned as any language. The interpreter knows the signs and sym- 
bols of bodily action that have meaning for the audience. He, likewise, places 
himself into situations that incite emotional responses in order to acquire 
bodily expressions which manifest emotional and intellectual attitudes. The stu- 
dent should feel that he is being trained in bodily action, either linguistic or 
nonlinguistic, in order to give expression to the thoughts and emotions of the • 
characters of his selections. He needs insight into a situation before he can 
expect to display a bodily pattern of an emotional display or an intellectual 
attitude . . 

The teacher who does not fully know the techniques of physical action will 
hardly be able to teach them. Bodily characterization in interpretation is a 
source of trouble for some students. They should express for the audience fewer 
characters with distinction than a number of characters not clearly defined. 
Some high school contestants have not learned the techniques of platform art be- 
fore attempting a public performance. The bodily transitions from one character 
to another are to be given, skillfully. Merely wandering from character to char- 
acter is not good technique; often the abrupt or rhythmical movements which ac- 
company the turning of the head or body from the audience are distracting to a 
judge who is likely to lose interest. in the contestant. Locating the characters 
for the audience during an interpretation requires much practice. 

k. Develop spontaneity in students. 

If a reader is to create as he unfolds the material for an audience, he 
cannot center his attention upon form. If correct reading techniques have been 
acquired under careful guidance, the interpreter will appear spontaneous. If 
this can be done the illusion Of reading the content for the first time can be 
achieved, a condition necessary to hold the interest of the audience and to allow 
the interpreter to share his experiences with it. Motor skill is not the conse- 
quence of a knowledge of the individual activity, but of habitual action. To 
bring life into the acquired skill, the student supplies the motivating action. 

5. Improve diction. 

Some interpretation contests have indicated that a skilled interpreter may 
lose rank by his failure to pronounce or enunciate his words correctly. Class- 
room drills in pronunciation, and enunciation are important as a student's train- 
ing in interpretation. What has been said in previous chapters regarding the 
importance of diction training might well be re-read by the prospective teacher 
who must understand well the standards of language and the means that must be 
used to stimulate students to use better diction, and to avoid wrong pronuncia- 
tion and faulty enunciation. 


Techniques of Extracurricular 

Just as there are techniques to the classroom teaching of interpretation, so 
there are techniques of directing and conducting contests involving the interpret- 
ative skills. Before treating this matter, a word will he given regarding contests 
themselves and the advantages of competition. 

a. Kinds of contests. 

Interpretation contests are generally divided into two classes: prose and 
poetry. The prose selections may he separated into two kinds: serious and humor- 
ous. Both types of interpretation are sometimes combined in the same contest hut 
it is advisable to separate them. The non-humorous selections generally consist 
of cuttings of plays, short stories, or so-called "readings" of a dramatic serious 
theme involving the characterization of an individual or group of people. Humorous 
declamations, on the other hand, consist of light entertaining material frequently 
based upon situation rather than characterization. (The term declamation is some- 
times used in reference to the interpretation of some adapted material from an ora- 
tion. Thus used, the term is distinguished from platform art which refers to in- 
terpretation of narrative or dramatic prose or poetry.) 

Reading and acting as two distinct forms of speech activity are not always so 
distinguished in interpretation contests. Reading is one art; acting, another. 
Reading is based upon suggestion; a reader does not kneel, lie on the floor, or go 
through other actions in order to make an audience understand a situation. A com- 
petent judge recently, when asked why he awarded a vote to a certain contestant 
answered, "When I judge reading, I judge reading, not diluted acting". 

Two types of contests are increasingly popular in high school competition, 
namely, poetry contests and extemporaneous reading contests. Certain suggestions 
may be appropriately made concerning them: 

1. Poetry contests. 

They have as their objective the intelligent and artistic expression of 
poetry. They incite the student to link the values received from training and 
competition with those gained from his literature class, and with the more per- 
manent advantages to be gained in later life from the intelligent interpretation 
of textbooks, newspapers, directions, rules, in fact, any form of printed matter. 
They lead to the love and the enjoyment of good literature. They increase vocab- 
ulary and improve diction. They strengthen good habits of reading. They create 
directness, exactness, force, and beauty in expression. They give a pupil know- 
ledge of audience motivation and help him understand himself. 

2. Extemporaneous reading contest. 

This type of contest is a comparatively new form of speech competition in 
which the procedure is similar to that of extemporaneous speaking. Places on 
the program are drawn \>j lot before the contest. The same length of time for 
preparation - generally one hour for a five or six minute reading - is given all 
entrants. At the time of the drawing, a choice of two or three selections may be 
given each contestant. ...-....' 

Contestants should, read the same kind of material, although not necessarily 
the same selections. For if this would be the condition, the last reader on the 
program because of repetition of the selection would be at a disadvantage, unless 
a judge would be especially acute to evaluate the worth of each contestant. The 


number of final participants should be limited for the benefit of the audience 
and the judge. 

Skill In handling a book has to be acquired before an oral reader can inter- 
pret material on the platform. If a reader grips a book with both hands, he is 
hardly free to give a good reading. By holding the book securely at the middle 
with the left hand, the reader has the right hand free to turn the pages. The 
height at which the book is held is also a factor in retaining audience contact. 

Getting and giving the content from the printed page are the two major prob- 
lems in extemporaneous competition. To keep animated, alert, and interesting to 
the audience through direct conversation, indirect characterization, or whatever 
the script contains, a reader needs not only to know the Intellectual and. emo- 
tional content, but also to have a strong desire to communicate it to an audience, 
In order to acquire ability in platform art, a reader should engage in oral read- 
ing for some time before the contest under teacher supervision until correct mech- 
anical habits are formed. The contestant should also be trained to obey the 
rules of the contest. A memorized reading, although well done, is not extempora- 
neous . 

Furthermore he should be properly coached in the proper method of ending 
this kind of contest. Some pupils become confused and nervous leaving the plat- 
form after uttering a weak, abrupt, or unfinished sentence. The contestant can 
be taught to anticipate the warning signal indicating the final time and end his 
selection satisfactorily. All in all, if a contestant is to be well received by 
the judges and the audience, it is advisable for the coach to give him proper 
directions concerning the conditions of actual participation. 

b. Advantages of competition in platform art. 

Since less time is required in this form of extracurricular contests, a larger 
number of the average high school students can participate in interpretation con- 
tests than in either dramatics or debate. Practically all the advantages previ- 
ously listed for the study of platform art in the classroom may be applied to train- 
ing for contests. 

c. Right choice of a selection. 

The choice of a suitable selection for public competition is the chief concern 
of a director of extracurricular activity. Certain considerations enter into the 

1. Suitable to the type of contest. 

A selection, although well adapted to the interpreter, may not be fitting 
for the particular kind of contest. The director should know the rules govern- 
ing a particular contest. He should understand what subject matter Is allowed 
and what, restricted. He should find out how much time is allowed each contest- 
ant for his interpretation. He should secure as much information as posible 
about the type of audiences, the type of judges, and the kind of selections that 
have received favorable comment in past contests. Showmanship means adaptabil- 
ity, and a pupil cannot adapt himself to conditions unless he is aware of proced- 
ures that Influence or govern them. 

2. Humorous or non-humorous. 

Let the entrant choose a selection which suits him intellectually and emo- 
tionally. Strange as it may seem, a title is likely to be the sole element in- 


fluencing the choice of an adolescent in a humorous selection. If this kind of 
selection is given at an opportune time on the lengthy program, and a judge is 
"bored with the serious selections, he may he greatly influenced by it. The se- 
rious, which contains good human interest, climax, and variety of emotion, how- 
ever, rather than the humorous or the tragic, sob story type, is more likely to 
appeal to the average audience and judge. 

The choice of an adequate humorous declamation raises a few definite prob- 
lems. Here are points for the teacher to consider: What is the purpose of a 
declamation of this type? Is it funny? To whom? What kind of humor is in- 
volved? Crude? Refined or subtle? Does it affect the head or heart? Is it 
new or old? (Older humorous selections, pporly done, are more difficult to 
listen to attentively than serious selections from the same era.) Has the humor- 
ous selection a climax? Is it appropriate for the speaker as well as the occa- 
sion? How many characters are portrayed? Is the plot well developed? 

3. Dialects. 

Abnormal characterization of any kind is a poor choice for the student as 
well as the audience. Students need training in improving their speech rather 
than in perverting it. Dialect often becomes only a repetition of certain key 
sounds; then the amateur believes that his work is finished. A true interpreter 
makes an audience visualize a specific nationality. The rhythm, rate, sentence 
order, inflectional pattern, and distribution of force, for example, must be 
considered by the high school competitor. To interpret a selection in dialect, 
a pupil needs skill to suggest all of the speech and bodily elements involved, 
and unless he does this especially well, he will seldom win in competition. 

k. Age of the selection. 

The familiar type of selection, which everyone already knows by heart, is 
to be avoided unless a contestant can give it new beauty, spontaneity, and charm. 
On the other hand, a declamation, because it is new, may have less merit than 
the older literary gem. Recently a judge awarded the decision to a contestant 
who gave "Wynken, Blynken and Nod". He felt for the first time in his life that 
the first two lines of the poem had meaning. He had heard children read the 
poem so often, wrongly interpreting the poem, that he never visualized the three 

5. Worth-while material. 

Is the selection worth the time of a busy adolescent to memorize? As it is 
so much easier to win a contest with well-chosen selections, the coach should 
assist the contestant if he has difficulty in finding appropriate material. Fre- 
quently, a student can cut to advantage a well written play or short story of 
literary value, containing a carefully developed plot and well developed char- 
acters rather than look for the proverbial decla mation. 

6. Suitable to the audience and occasion. 

Does the selection create pictures for the audience? Does it leave a uni- 
fied trend of thought in the mind of the audience? Arouse associations in list- 
eners? Does it cause the audience to feel? When the selection has been cut, 
does it spoil the plot for the audience? Will the audience accept the situation 
described as real? Does the selection make a broad enough appeal to warrant its 
choice? A thoughtful high school forensic coach keeps the audience constantly in 
mind, for he remembers that it listens to a number of selections. 


7. Use material suitable to the interpreter. 

The poem or prose selection should "be chosen keeping in mind the understand- 
ing, age, and desires of the student. An effective way for the teacher to arouse 
interest in poetry, for example, is for him to read a part of a poem to the group 
telling it where to find the selection. He can state that if a pupil likes the 
poem he might finish reading it at a later time. It is surprising how many stu- 
dents will call for the book at the school library. 

Help the student make a choice of reading material by encouraging him to 
find the beauty in a selection himself. Appreciation is spontaneous. If he 
wants to express himself, give him an opportunity, but do not force him to ex- 
press a reaction which you think he should have. Appreciation develops from 
within and cannot be forced upon a reader. It is sometimes difficult to arouse 
in a speech class, yet if a teacher has it himself it is generally reflected in 
his pupils. 

d. Building a program. 

If a program can be arranged, selections may be grouped according to some 
standard: such as, type of content ■• ballad, sonnet, prose or poetry; mood of 
material - humorous or serious; excerpts of a certain period or date; opening and 
closing selections; selections of a certain place or country; selections by the 
same author or type of writer; length of selection. Scenes from plays, longer 
cuttings from orations, and the like are preferably given on separate programs. 

e. Selection of a suitable representative. 

A reader should have a wide background and much experience in interpretation 
before he is chosen to represent his school. Since the time factor is an important 
element in preparing a student for competition, no student should be chosen who has 
not developed good habits of both reading and speaking. In order to impress an 
audience favorably, a representative uses good enunciation and pronunciation; he 
has ease on the platform, and in his delivery. Assuming the representative has the 
necessary skill in interpretation, he still is judged for his fitness to represent 
a school. He must be approved Idj school authorities for his academic standing and 
often by a committee for his eligibility. He will be chosen only after due deliber- 
ation upon his personal characteristics. 

f . Judging an interpretation contest. 

What methods are used in judging interpretation contests? The two primary ele- 
ments, content and delivery, are the basis of this as well as the other forms of 
speech competition. The intellectual and emotional elements are always considered, 
no matter how the distribution may be made on a rating blank. 

1. Suggestions as to judging. 

The judge should remember that he is awarding the decision although the 
audience reactions should not be entirely ignored. Judging in interpretation 
is done generally without criticism; yet it has value unless it makes the con- 
test of too great length. Although three judges are commonly used in declama- 
tion, many schools prefer a critic judge. cf . Chap. 6. 

2. Rating blanks. 

A Judges" Report typical of those used in .declamatory work will be found 
in the Appendix. 


Specific Objectives In Choral Reading and Audience Read ing 

Choral Reading, or interpretation "by a group trained to read as a single beaut- 
iful voice, has a number of advantages in a secondary speech program if the technique 
is thoroughly understood. . ., ,. 

a. Cultural advantages. v - 

Group reading affords a cultural advantage through the rich experience which a 
participant receives from the vast field of literature with which he becomes famil- 
iar, as well as the thorough understanding and resulting appreciation of it. In 
order to express the thoughts and feelings of the writer, an oral reader has to be- 
come imbued with the spirit of both the writer and his work. A genuine understand- 
ing of the content, an essential of worth-while choral work, also inspires the read- 
er with a love of the English language which fact alone would justify its inclusion 
in secondary speech education. 

b. Social advantages. 

To share one's love of beauty with others, as well as to appreciate it for 
one's self, is another objective in choral speaking. Giving an opinion regarding 
the real meaning of the lines for the benefit of the entire group is a pleasant 
form of self-expression. This speech activity, essentially creative, also serves 
as an outlet for the student who, for any reason, is not actively engaged in any 
other form of self-expression such as debate, dramatics, or athletics. It is es- 
pecially valuable to the person who would be timid about expressing his views alone 
on a speech platform. He finds, in choral reading, his most valuable opportunity 
for spontaneous self-expression. 

c. Speech advantages. 

If well taught, choral reading affords excellent training in voice and enuncia- 
tion. In no form of speech education is a genuine appreciation of good diction more 
likely to result than in a group with interests in it. Better vocal quality and con- 
trol, sincerity of thought and feeling, a sense of rhythm, careful phrasing, variety 
of pitch, and careful enunciation - all should result from this. artistic form of 
expression. Choral reading .has worth also in training different types of students. 
Just as it submerges the exhibitionist in the group or stimulates the nervous type 
to express himself, those who read slowly are made to hasten, while those who hab- 
itually read too fast are required to read slowly. This discipline involved in 
training the group has splendid educational values for adolescents. 

Techniques in Classroom Teaching 

These techniques may be related to content and method: 

a. Content. 

A few suggestions may be offered regarding the content of choral reading: 

1. Material suitable for group interpretation. 

A number of factors have to be considered before satisfactory selection of 
reading material can be made for members of the choral group. What material do 
they enjoy reading? How much literary background have they? What is the purpose 
of the organization? What is the age of the members? Where and when are the 
readings to be given? Prose or poetry with literary value, yet not too subject- 


ive, cut to the desired length for public performance, is satisfactory for choral 
reading. Prose affords good training, particularly if it is adapted for group 
interpretation. Poetry, strong in imagery, ranging from the simple dramatic, 
poems of adventure, ballads, jingles, and nonsense verse for younger or inexper- 
ienced groups, to blank verse, sonnets, and lyric poems have "been well received 
by the public. A two-refrain selection is generally used for beginners. Spin 
Las sie Spin, by Strachey, is an example of a good type of selection for early 
study. Material that appeals to a group rather than to the individual, such as 
patriotic poetry, is preferable for both listener and reader, 

2. Dramatic and lyric interpretation. 

In dramatic interpretation, children benefit by the addition of lights, 
scenery, costumes, and appropriate activity, including dancing and pantomimes. 
Lyric interpretation avoids these extraneous factors, since they sometimes leave 
the audience confused as to the real purpose of the reading. The lyric interpre- 
tation depends upon suggestion aroused by a variety of vocal modulations. 

3. Age and type of selection. 

If they have an appealing theme, both ancient and modern works are utilized 
for programs. Drama, particularly, is the source of some excellent material, but 
whether dramatic or narrative is chosen, mood is an important factor in the 
choice of the selection. Different moods either serious or humorous are quickly 
incited in an audience under the spell of emotions. Selections pertaining to 
war, such as the poems of Robert W. Service, or excerpts dealing with the sea, 
nature, or dramatic adventure of strong opposing forces, natural or human, are 
appropriate for a group of boys. Girls, on the other hand, like more quiet home 
themes, dealing with subjects within the range of their experience. For a mixed 
group, the Santa Fe Trail, by Lindsay, is a favorite type of selection. 

A significant factor in the choice of reading material, especially for group 
work, is the relation of the sound and meaning. A large number of popular nature 
poems such as Wi nd In The Pine, by Sarett, Mount ai n Whi ppo orwi 11 , by Benet, Grass, 
by Sandburg, and T he Bird and The Tree, by Torrence, are frequently heard in 
choral reading. Leaves , by Davies, Gras ses , by Middle ton, Little Th ings, by 
Gould, Voices, by Bynner, Merc hants from Cathay , by Benet, Caliban in Coal Mines , 
by Untermeyer, Four Little F oxes , by Sarett, have a content which allows full 
freedom to vocal interpretation. 

b. Method. 


Problems relating to method of teaching and directing choral groups center 
about the personality of the director, the group itself, and teaching means. 

1. Experienced director required. 

This speech art requires a talented, trained director [not any speech 
teacher] who has a knowledge of the technique of group speaking, as well as of 
oral interpretation. Study in personal expression of the printed page does not 
give adequate training for choral reading. Although the knowledge and love of 
poetry are essentials to the director, he should read both poetry and prose 
well himself, have an appreciation as well as knowledge of drama, and above all 
have the personality and forceful characteristics required in a leader. 

Yet leadership does not demand that all the work in choral reading must be 
performed by the director. Often a conscientious leader will take too much of 


the responsibility and then wonder why the class is not interested. High School 
groups should he trained to interpret a selection, to plan suitable costumes, 
lighting, and grouping, to evaluate a reading, and frequently to lead the group 
themselves later under the careful guidance of the teacher. 

2. Method used dependent upon characteristics of the group. 

A choral group has certain characteristics of importance to the teacher. 
He will probably find the type of student who either can not be taught to under- 
stand the material, or is unable, or unwilling if he does understand it, to ex- 
press it. He may find the individual who, for one reason or another, not fitting 
into the choral pattern, breaks the unity of spirit so essential to this kind of 
speech training. He may have discipline problems, for there are always a few 
who are an occasional nuisance to a conscientious choral director. He may have 
to deal with the student who seems enthusiastic about the choral group, yet will 
not sacrifice sufficient time and effort required for voice improvement; or he 
may be concerned with the person who is not sufficiently co-operative to be of 
service to the whole organization, or with the reader who lacks the power of con- 
centration or discipline necessary for satisfactory group participation. His 
main problem often arises from the adolescent who views choral work only as an 
effeminate reading of memory gems. Method of teaching," then, must be adapted to 
different kinds of members who require individual direction by the leader. 

3. Directions must be specific. •, :■■■■■■ 

The leader of this speech activity knows what is required of all particip- 
ants, yet with his wider experience and background, a director may not realize 
that the acquisition of both content and delivery of choral reading are new ex- 
periences for the adolescent. Instead of ignoring a question, trivial or irrel- 
evant as it may sound, a tactful teacher will answer it. But he can minimize 
the number of inquiries if he makes his directions specific. 

h. Problems of method in relation to subject matter. 

The acquisition of a unified *group feeling can be brought about (l) by the 
proper selection of material - a pbint we have noted, and (2) by proper direction 
of interpretation. 

The director may find that his group lacks an understanding of interpreta- 
tion. Here are a few questions he may ask: Have the rhythm and meter been 
under-stressed, so that the relation of sound and sense are not associated, or 
over-stressed so that the reading becomes mechanical and monotonous? Have too 
many selections of one type been used in training so that versatility is lacking? 
Were the selections too difficult emotionally? Has material requiring different 
amounts of intensity as well as variety of pitch been utilized? Is he as direc- 
tor becoming set in his method, losing his enthusiasm,' or. accepting slip-shod 
performances? Is he: failing to note that the voices are not well arranged ac- 
cording to quality and pitch? Is he receiving a variety of expression while at 
the same time retaining the essential unity of the selection? Does his chorus 
blend the tones as in singing? Does it develop a climax? Has the selection been 
well timed? Have the enunciation and pronunciation of the words been checked? 

Choral .reading requires good grouping, not only because it is pleasing to an 
audience, but because it is essential to correct tonal interpretation. In read- 
ing as in acting, an audience sees," feels,,, and hears. Some leaders arrange the 
group numerically so that a balanced stage plan results; others, according to 
voices - high, medium, and low. The hollow square grouping in which the director 


stands on the fourth side, close enough so that he can he seen, heard, and felt 
as an integral part of the group, is the most common arrangement. If stage faci- 
lities are not large enough, steps can he utilized in arranging the group to fit 
the meaning and mood of the material read. Geometric figures of one kind or 
another, such as a triangle, or perhaps a pyramid, arranged around the leader, 
are frequently formed. These figures will show flaws if not properly costumed 
or staged. The chief concern of the director is to form his group as artistic- 
ally as he can without sacrificing sound for appearance. Vocal interpretation 
is his first concern when a problem arises in regard to grouping. 

Choral reading is sometimes given over public address and radio broadcast- 
ing systems. The teacher 'who knows the proper grouping of people before a micro- 
phone will get the proper interpretation of his material. He should understand 
the best methods of vocal interpretation as they are modified by the conditions 
of mechanical transmission. Much practice will be required of any group using 

A director of choral reading, like one of any specific speech art, is in- 
clined to forget the relationship between the objectives and techniques of his 
own art and those of the other speech subjects. There are certain basic laws 
governing literary interpretation in a speech art; certain principles of vocal 
interpretation are of great importance to the singer, the actor, the reader, or 
the d.ebater; worthy techniques of all the arts may be utilized by the director 
of any specific art. It is to the interest of the choral director to keep in 
mind such matters as right principles and applications of voice production, 
vocal expression, bodily poise and expression, diction, showmanship, and audience 
motivation. He often can improve his own method of teaching and directing choral 
reading if he is better acquainted with educational psychology and principles of 
teaching. In fact, the more he applies his knowledge of method in general to a 
particular means, the more likely he is to receive better interpretation of his 
subject matter, enjoy his associations with the choral group, and give more sat- 
isfactory performances for the audience. 

Techn iques of Extracurri cular Acti vitie s 

Choral reading is not restricted to the classroom. Many high schools engage 
in extracurricular work in this kind of activity and often compete with other 
schools. What has been previously said regarding public performance in a speech 
art will apply to extra-class work in choral reading. A few specific suggestions 
may be of interest to the prospective teacher. 

a. Preparation for a public performance. 

The purpose, occasion, time, location, and audience affect the choice of mater- 
ial for public performance. A special holiday season, a specific event, or person 
may determine the choice of material. The more the director plans a program suit- 
able to an occasion, the more chances he has of being successful with his group. 
He will find that long and hard work with any group is necessary before a finished 
presentation is ready for the public. Before a representative piece of work can be 
built, much memory work and practice on the part of the group are needed. There 
will be many details to check in rehearsals regarding the work of the performers, 
but of much concern will be actual direction of the public performance itself. Per- 
haps a hall is to be hired, tickets sold, ushers appointed, programs printed, in 
fact, such detail similar to that the dramatic coach usually handles in relation to 
staging a play in public. 


The choral director appoints an efficient staff, perhaps "builds an organization 
that not only can perform but can get the necessary work done in connection with 
public performances. He generally visits the auditorium to arrange his group and 
stage his performance. The size and acoustics of the room affect group reading es- 
pecially. He should also find out as much as possible about the part which his 
choral group is to play in the entire performance, its relation to the event which 
precedes and follows it, as well as the time allowed for it. If possible, he should 
schedule a rehearsal in the auditorium. 


Unless a complete chapter be devoted to the field of semantics, it is better 
to place a brief discussion of it under interpretation as this chapter has within 
its province the subject of meaning. 

Signs were early used loy man to represent outwardly what was within the mind in 
mental activity. Spoken and written words became symbols of mental and emotional 
experiences. Aristotle devoted space in his works to names, classifications of 
ideas, and the study of meaning. This practice was common with other philosophers, 
St. Augustine, for example, in De Magistro discussed the sign-idea or thing rela- 
tionship. In the Middle Ages, the School Men did not neglect the psychological as 
well as the logical aspect of thinking, feeling, and their representation. Later 
men like Bacon, Ockham, Hobbes, Hume, and Locke found interest in establishing the- 
ories regarding the processes involved in acquiring meaning and in indicating act- 
ivity by objective means. In more recent times, such philosophies as Positivism, 
Evolutionism, and Pragmatism presented theories of knowledge which greatly influ- 
enced the modern semanticists. 

Semantics is practically a recent development. Some authors feel that Breal's 
study gave it its birth about 1897 • Some of its content, however, came from older 
works in logic and rhetoric, and studies made of primitive speech. Kohler, for 
example, was interested in the sensory world and the processes involved in meaning. 
Others like Hollingworth and Wheeler were attracted to the problems involved in 
perception. Many important contributions to the field of semantics came from the 
study of the speech of children and the various expressions of animals. 

The study of semantics is important to the future teacher of high school speech 
because it will bring him into relation with a body of information concerning the 
connection between language and thought. It is important for the speech teacher to 
know that words must be used exactly, specifically, and definitely, but it is of 
equal importance that he realize that words must be accurately related to ideas and 
feelings. Semantics as a subject should help the speech teacher realize not only 
that the word is a symbol and sign of thought but that the sjnnbol is something more 
in communication for it involves the relation of the speaker's mind and words to 
those of the hearer. The symbol has meaning in its context. 

The speech teacher particularly must realize that words can be related to men- 
tal fictions. So, fallacies and falsities of reasoning should be as familiar to 
the speech teacher as to the teacher of logic itself. Metaphors oajn be useful in 
transfering meaning but they may also actually confuse. Personification, likewise, 
may be of vital interest to a teacher of interpretation, yet it is possible for per- 
sonification to confuse the real meaning. Semantics, then, presents a content which 
shows the various dangers which may destroy the true value of the symbol and its 
intellectual content. If a speaker wishes to influence or control the actions of 
others, his verbal representations has to denote the intellectual content as well 
as to connote his attitudes and feelings. 


Semantics can be applied to many phases of the modern speech arts. The teacher 
of speech in high school learns that it is important to the fundamental class re- 
garding conversation. Words as well as pantomimic signs often are used to indicate 
attitude as well as thought. A teacher who understands semantics can help the high 
school student in the interpretation of words and activity as well as to help him 
"bring unity and. order into his speaking and reading. The subject is vital to dis- 
cussion which plays such a large part in modern speech training. It is important 
that word.s used in discussion "be used accurately as well as forcefully. Many prej- 
udices would, disappear if mere attention were paid to actual word.s used. If a 
speaker is taught to clear his linguistic barriers and harmful slanting of terms, 
his expression will become more honest. The success of parliamentary law depends 
upon the correct statements used. Obviously, the word selection is as important 
as the ideas contained. In interpretation the reader must know the author's mean- 
ing in order not to recite words only. Meaning in literature is important to the 
actor as well as to the interpreter of platform art. Even factors of illusion 
so significant in dramatic art are closely associated with symbols. The high school 
speech teacher with semantic training has a better opportunity in understanding all 
forms of interpretation for he appreciates the processes in using symbols as well 
as the importance of the symbols themselves. 

Although the content of semantics is not of recent origin as a science, it has 
in modern times been organized until today it is one of the significant foundations 
of speech training. It has particular value in integrating' the subject matter of 
the various speech arts and gives modern application to the older fields of logic 
and rhetoric. 


1. Cut a selection of your own choice for a ten minute radio performance. . 

2. Suggest three different methods of creating a love of poetry. 
J. Memorize a short poem analyzing the process as you proceed. 
k. Close the book and give ideas in your own words. 

5. List types of content high school freshmen enjoy in choral reading, 

6. Cut and adapt a long poem for this type of activity. 

7. Give five examples of prose material which would afford a good speech training 

when adapted to group interpretation. 

8. Discuss a two-refrain selection appropriate for a beginning class in choral 


9. List discipline problems common to choral 

10. Plan a list of problems that may be discussed at a staff meeting preceding a 

public performance of a choral group. 

11. Make a list of ten words which suggest imagery. 

12. Is choral speaking a means to an end in speech, or an end in itself? Discuss. 

13. Suggest different methods of developing a love of poetry. 

lfr. Write a report on one of the following: Basic Reading Materials, Cultivating 
a Taste For Reading, or Appreciation of Reading Materials. 

15. How can a speech teacher help to make a study of poetry attractive to students 

with different backgrounds? 

16. What suggestions would you give to an over-dramatic reader? 

17. Sounds of words are important to a reader of poetry. By a careful choice of 

sounds a poet makes a bell tinkle or toll, leaves whisper, or storms rage. 
Find selected sounds which affect mood. 

18. Examine the rhythm in two selected poems. 


19. Is marking a poem for phrasing an effective way of analyzing it? 

20. Distinguish the explanation of phrasing in three different textbooks. Sum- 

marize your conclusions. 

21. Dramatize a poem for the class. Let the students identify it. 

22. Plan an assignment, the purpose of which is to train in Listening. 

23. Discuss ways in which variety in wording can he secured. 
2k. Arrange a modern short story for a speech contest. 

25. Discuss: Problems in Present Conduct of Declamatory Contests, Johnson, G. E., 

English Journal v. 9:156, 1920. What changes do you note? 

26. Cut a monologue for a preliminary contest. 

27. By what means can a teacher improve a mechanical reading habit? 

28. Give assignments in pantomime from familiar interests such as a scene from 

every-day life, or a familiar scene in literature or history. Work for total 
bodily activity, spontaneity, and freedom, but at first do not criticize too 
closely the details. 

29. Give an oral report on Stanford Tests in C omprehension of Literature , Burch, 

M. C, Stanford Univ. Press, 19k'J . 

30. Submit from the daily paper five examples of the different "factors of inter- 

est ingness" . 

31. Which should deserve a better grade - a difficult selection given fairly well 

or a simple one given very well? 

32. Do you agree or object to the statement that poetry is a better exercise for 

the voice than formal drills? Defend your choice. 

33. Plan a rhythmic game assignment for a freshman group. 
3^-. List practical ways of increasing a vocabulary. 

35* Eind the same general idea expressed in two different ways. Contrast. 

36. Select five stanzas from different poems, each of which stresses a particular 

37- Find three words repeated three times. Account for the repetition in each case. 

38. Assume that a class in choral reading is preparing a poem for an assembly pro- 
gram. Distribute copies of the poem to the audience. Let all present read 
the selection. 

39- Prepare a class lesson on any of the following authors read in high school: ' 
Poe, Lindsay, Kipling, Dickens, Sarett, Lowell, Longfellow, De la Mare, 
Masefield, Seton, or Stevenson. 

ko. Prepare a score card for oral reading based on these factors: reader, selec- 
tion, audience, occasion. 

kl. General discussion of Humor in Speech Work. Have a report on The Place of 
Humor in the Cur riculum, Jour, of Exper. Ed. v.8:403, June, 19^0. 

^2. Find illustrations in poetry of factors which serve to stimulate vocal ex- 

43. Plan a series of class exercises which help to get meaning from a poem or 

kk. General discussion on the subject - What Makes a Poem Great? 

45. Prepare one choric reading selection assignment from Your Speech and Mine , 

Unit 15, Wat kins, P. and Frosty E. B., Chicago: Lyons and Carnahan, 19^5- 

:.. 211 


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Adams, E. and Croesdell, A., A Poetry Speaking Anthology F o r Choir Use (Boston: 

Expression- Co. , I938). 
Ainsworth, S., Galloping S ounds (Expression Co., Magnolia, Massachusetts: 19^-6). 
Babcock, M. M., Handbook For Teachers of Interpretati on (Chicago: Univ. of 

Chicago Press, 1930). 
Bassett, L. E.V A Handbook of Oral Beading (New York: Houghton, 1959)* 
Bates, G. D., and Kay, H. Literature for Interpretation (Boston: Expression Co., 


Bennet, A., Liter ary Taste and How To Fo rm It (New York: Doran, 1910). 

Bond, G. L., The Auditory and Speech Characteristics of Poor Readers (New York: 
Bull. Teachers' College, .Columbia Univ., 1935)* 

Bond, G. L. and Bond, E., Developmen tal Re ading in High Schoo l (New York: Mac- 
millan, 19^1). 

Bennett, R., Play Way of Sp eec h Training (Boston: Expression Co., 1937)' 

Bradford, A., Whe n Oral Interpretation Comes of Ag e (Q.J.S. v. 2U:W+ Oct., 19.38). 

Brigance, W. N., Speec h Communica t ion (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 19^+9) • 

Bryson, L., The- Communication of ideas (New York: Harper, 19^8). 

Butcher, S. H., Aristotle's Theory of Poetry an d Fine A rts (New York: Macmillan, 

Clark, S. H., and Babcock, M. M., In terpretation of the Printed Page, Rev. Ed., 

(New York: Prentice -Hall, 19klTT 
Colby, J. R., Training Teachers of Appreciat ion ( Eng lish Journa l, v. lU:277 

April, 1925). 
C omper e , M . , Living L i terature For Oral Interpretation ( New York : Applet on - 

Century -Croft s, 195-9)". . ' . " 
Crocker, L. G. and Eich, L. M., Oral R eadi ng (New York: Prentice Hall, 19^7). 
Cruise, P. Q., Chor a l Sp eech, ( Grade Teacher , p. Ik, Feb. 1935). 
Cunningham, C. C, Literature As a Fine Art (New York: Thomas Nelson, 19*1-1). 
Curry, S. S., Imagination and Dramatic Instinct (Boston: Expression Co., I896). 
Davison, A. T., C horal Conducting (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. 

Press, 19^0). .. ; A.; ■'■ <■ 

DeBanke, C,_, The Art of Choral Speaking (Boston: Baker's Plays, 1937). 
De Witte, M. E., Pra ctica l Methods in Choral. Sp eakin g (Boston: Expression Co., 


Enfield, G., Verse Choir: Va lues and Technique (Boston: Expression Co. , 1937). 

Farma, W. J., Prose, Po etry, an d Drama For Oral Interpretation (New York: 

Harper, 1930). 
Gullan, M., The Speech Choir (New York: Harper, 1937). 

Herendeen, J. E., Spe ech" Quality and Interpretation (New York: Harper, 19^6). 
Hamm, A. C, Choral Speaking Techniq.u 'e~(Milwaukee; Tower Press, 19^0). 
Hubbell, J. B., The Enjoyment of Literature (New York: Macmillan, 1929). 
Johnson, G., Studie s in the Art of Int erpretation (New York: Appleton-Century, 

Johnson, G., M odern Literature For Oral Interpretati on, Rev. Ed. (New York: 

Century, 1930). 
Keppie, E., Choral Verse Speaki ng (Boston: Expression Co., 1939). 
Lowrey, S., and Johnson, G. E.," Interpretative Reading (New York: Appleton, 1942). 
McLean, M. P., Oral Interpretation of Forms o f Lit eratur e (New York: Dutton, 

19^2). ~^ 

Newton, M. B., The Unit Pla n For C horal Sneaking (Boston: Expression Co., 1938). 
Oliver, R. and others, Essentials o f Communicative Spee ch (New York: Dryden Press, 
191*9). ~ " 

Prit chard, F., Training in Literary Appreciation (New York: Crowell, 192*0. 


Robinson, M. P., and Thurston, R., Poetry Arranged For The Speaking Choir (Boston: 

. Expression Co., 195^ ) • 
Parrish, W. M., Reading Aloud Eev. Ed. (New'York: Eonald Press, 19^1). 
Schubert, L., A Guide For Oral Communication (New York: Prentice -Hall, 19^9 )• 
Smith, W. P., Prose and Verse For Speaki ng and Eeading (New York: Harcourt Brace, 

1930). " " i 

Swann, M. , An Approach To Choral S peech (Boston: Expression Co., 1937) • 
Tassin, A., The Oral Study of Literature (New York: Crofts, 19^5). 
Tresidder, A., Reading to Others (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 19*1-0). 
Walsh, G., Sing Your Way to Better Speech (New York: Dutton, 1939)' 
Whitney, L. K., Directed Spe ech (Boston: Ginn, 1936). 
Woolbert, C. H. and Nelson, S. E., The Art of Interpretative Speech (New York: 

Crofts, 193*0. 
Young, H. H., Why Choral Speaking ? ( Progressive Education v. 12:396, Oct., 1935). 


Breal, M., Semanti cs trans, by Mrs. H. Cust (New York: Henry Holt, 1900). 

Bergson, H., C reative Evolution (New York: Henry Holt, I938). 

Cassirer, E. trans, by S. K. Langer (New York: Harper, 19*1-6). Language and Myth . 

Ducasse, C. J., Some Comments on C. W. Morris' "Foundations of the Theory of Signs " 
( Philosophy and Phenome no logical Research , V. 3, 19*1-2). 

Glatstein, I. L., Sema ntics Too Has a Past (Q.J.S. Feb., 19*1-6). 

Gray, J. S., A Behavioristic Interpretation of Lan guage (Q.J.S. 3, Feb., .1935) • 

Jesperson, 0., Mankind, Nation and Individu al fro m a Linguistic Point of Vi ew 
Oslo: H. Ascheloug and Co., 1925). 

Korzybski, A., Science and Sanit y (Lancaster, Pa.: The International non- 
Aristotelian Library Publishing Co., 19*1-8). 

Lee, I. V., The Language of Wis dom and Folly (New York: Harper, 19*1-9 )• 

Morris, C. W., Signs, Language, and Behavi or (New York: Prentice Hall, 19*1-6). 

Ogden, C. K. and Richards, I. A.,' The Meaning of Meaning (New York: Harcourt 
Brace, 1938). ' " _ 

Pollock, T. C, The Nature of Literature (Princeton, 19*1-2). 

Russell, B., My sticism and Logic (New York: W. W. Norton, 1929). 

Urban, W. M., Language and Reality (London: 1939). 

Walpole, H., Semantics (New York: Norton, 19*f-l)« 

Wilson, R. A., The Birth of Language (London: J. M. Dent, 1937). ['. 


In receiving any extreme (favorable ) impression, the face 
kindles, the whole torso sympathetically expands, the 
body becomes more ereci, and nearly all the mvs* 
cles more or less change their condition. -- CURRY 


Specific Objectives 

a. Purpose of Training 

b. Advantages to an Adolescent 

c. Advantages to the School 

d. The Dramatic Director 
The Course in Dramatics 

a. Content 

1. Acting 

2. Production 

b. Method 
Extracurricular Acti vity 

a. Content 

1. Selecting a play 

2. Selecting, a , cast 

3. A double cast 

k. Factors of the production 
5. Interpretation of the lines 

b. Method 

1. Planning a schedule 

2. Details of planning 

3. Distribution of work 

hi Eehearsals , . 

5. Preparation for final performance. 

6. Make-up and costuming 

c. Organization 

1. Dramatic club director 

2 . Programs 

3. Maintaining the organization 
h. Financial problems 

d. Judging Plays 


Specific Objective s 

Tiie problems in this chapter, both personal and professional, are primarily 
those facing the young director. 

a. Purpose of training. 

Where the real educational objective--the mental, emotional, physical, and so- 
cial development of a student --is kept in mind, dramatic art whether in course or 
extra-class becomes an integral part of speech training. Plays are caxefully se- 



lected, directed, and managed not, primarily for public exhibition, but primarily 
for speech training. Public production like credits for a course is chiefly an 
incentive for good work in the class or in the workshop. 

» . ; • • -i ... 

b. Advantages to an adolescent.. • . . « t . .'. 


Benefits are derived from part ic-i pat ion in dramatic art whether a student is 
acting or making scenery. Through dramatics, latent talent in a pupil is often 
discovered and developed. Plays in high school' are not thought about --they are 
acted. Meaning is accompanied by fitting gestures and bodily activities. Freedom 
and purpose in physical action often result more from dramatic work than any other 
speech activity. 

Through dramatics in high school a student discovers his own weaknesses and 
appreciates his own strength by comparing his own capacities with those of fellow 
students. He develops a critical attitude toward himself as well as others. More- 
over he makes friends. This alone is one of the greatest recompenses for time 
spent in dramatics. 

c. Advantages to the school. 

Dramatics are of benefit to the school, since they establish a wholehearted 
co-operation between departments, and often between the school and the community. 
Where is there a better medium in high school to correlate the work of the differ- 
ent teachers? All of their efforts become an integral part of high school dram- 
atics, and if the activity is well managed, all instructors, parents, and towns- 
folk are glad to contribute their share to the most popular of all speech arts. 

d. The dramatic director. 

He is generally overloaded with work.-*- Attempting to direct, coach, and 
manage plays, along with his classwork, a director finds he has problems peculiar 
to this particular phase of speech training. The large number of details which 
must arise in dramatics; the endeavor to please officials, students, players, and 
the public; the intensity of the work in the short time given to it; the diffi- 
culties with finances; the long hours and large amount of night work which the 
activity necessitates - all these factors will discourage the young teacher unless 
he plans and organizes his activity well, and directs the work with a minimum of 
effort . 

Often, a director becomes so intensely interested in creative work that he . 
neglects needed recreation; he reduces his social contacts; finally, the emotional 
strain begins to show in his behavior. He no longer is able to keep an interest 
in the theatre, books, or outside interests. The dramatic coach should learn to 
budget his time, and distribute the details of management if he hopes to remain 
successful in his field. He can seek the whole-hearted co-operation of all of his 
colleagues, and be entitled to the "particular help he will need from school author- 
ities . 

The C ourse In Dramatics 

Teaching problems within the classroom arise in connection with the content 
of dramatics and the methods of teaching the subject. 

^-Consult a survey of one hundred and. fourteen directors described in the E nglish 
Journal , vol. 22, no. 1, January, 1953- 


a. Content. 

On the basis of a survey of speech textbooks used in high schools for the last 
twenty years,, it is evident that when dramatics has been taught within the class- 
room, the subject has been made a part of the foundation course. In recent years, 
however, some schools have offered courses in acting and play production independ- 
ent of other speech subjects. Whether dramatics is taught as a separate subject 
or combined with other courses, the content is approximately the same - acting and 
play production. 

1. Acting. 

The content of a course in acting is based upon interpretation. of lines 
and also the arts of vocal expression and bodily action. Some teachers prefer 
to use dramatic selections from many plays rather than to study one or two plays 
during a semester. Whether selections or entire plays should be used in course 
is a matter of opinion. In either case, however, the teacher requires material 
for teaching the art of acting. 

He should cover such topics as securing mood in a play, evaluating a dram- 
atic situation, acquiring correct tempo and rhythm for a scene, developing char- 
acter, improving dialogue, learning, dialects, stage deportment, and acting 
skills- -in a word, those subjects related to the law and the technique of the 
drama., the principles of vocal expression, the laws of physical action, and lit- 
erary interpretation. A prospective teacher of speech who has had courses in 
dramatic art does not require further discussion of this content. He needs only 
to review college texts on the subject, and then study some of the modern speech 
texts on a high school level to discover what matter they cover. 

2. Stage production. 

This study belongs chiefly to the mechanical arts. In class, students may 
prepare model stages, learn how to construct scenery, to secure lighting ef- 
fects, and to dress a stage properly. A subject like stage design falls within 
the province of engineering, while matters relating to furniture, draperies, and 
the like are within the field of Interior decorating; stage lighting is the con- 
cern of the electrical engineer; the laws applicable to painting scenery are 
within the subject matter taught in art schools. The problems for the high 
school teacher are concerned with determining what subjects should be brought 
into the production course, and how intensive the work should be in each field. 
The study of costumes belonging to different periods, or of the science of stage 
construction, for example, could be the work of a lifetime. Since the field of 
study is entirely too broad for high school pupils, most teachers restrict the 
content to the understanding of the practical operations and management of a 
stage, the construction of scenery for particular plays, the study of make-up, 
and the application of the basic laws of stage decoration. For these matters 
the cadet teacher is referred to high school texts so that he can see for him- 
self what is today considered the normal content. 

b. Method. 

Teaching dramatics in a classroom requires a happy blending of the authorita- 
tive and developmental methods of teaching. The subject matter Is entirely too 
extensive to expect a student himself to acquire it by discovering all the phases 
of the subject. Instructors usually explain much of the matter, yet textbooks are 
a practical necessity. On the other hand, more emphasis is now being placed on the 
developmental method in teaching interpretation. Few directors expect a student to 


imitate their expressions in this or that part, or to be guided by a set of spec- 
ific directions for standing, sitting, or "walking. When a director can get a pupil 
to sense the acting situation, to feel the character he is portraying, and to ob- 
serve the few basic rules of stage deportment, he will find that the pupil will re- 
spond with more natural vocal expression, and physical action, and he will keep his 
characterization in better relation to those of his fellow actors. 

When a teacher of dramatic art uses the developmental method extensively, he 
should, employ a varied content. The more dramatic situations in which a pupil can 
be placed, the better training he will receive. During a semester, a student should 
be given a chance of portraying different characters as well as characters in dif- 
ferent situations. Farces are particularly good vehicles for the application of 
developmental method. They have situations which generally stimulate good physical 
action and vocal responses. 

But whatever medium is used, the teacher can incite the pupil to express a 
character, to keep in situation, and further the action of the play. And the pur- 
pose for this, is not generally for some professional objective, but rather to help 
a pupil improve himself in expression. This point the teacher keeps in mind when 
he is determining a method of teaching dramatic art. 

Extracur ricular activity 

Teaching dramatics generally includes the direction of its extracurricular 
activity. In some high schools dramatics is catalogued as curricular, but in most, 
the work, is in the extracurricular field. Nevertheless, regardless of classifica- 
tion, teaching and directing dramatics should be thoroughly understood and appre- 
ciated by students training to be teachers of speech. 

A director of dramatics in high school considers method as well as content. 
To select, cast, and produce a play, he needs certain techniques and skills. Under- 
standing of the physical characteristics of the production as well as interpreting 
lines is essential to this training. ' If he is to direct dramatics successfully, he 
plans a workable schedule and distribute his burdens among- his students and col- 

a. Content. 

The content of the subject Is concerned with the selection of plays, the choice 
of an adequate cast, and direction of rehearsals, and the production of plays. 

1. Selecting a play. 

The choice of any play for public production might well be guided by the 
factors of purpose, place, participants, and patrons. The beginning director 
will find that the best list of plays is a card catalogue of plays he has read. 
About each play he can take notes regarding such facts as cast, age of char- 
acters, costumes, sets, and the like.' Plays should be secured from reputable 
companies. The test of a play is not its age nor its success elsewhere. It 
must be inherently good and likewise suitable for a particular time, group, cir- 
cumstance, or occasion. The choice of a play must be wisely made, for rehearsing 
a poor one is mostly a waste of time. 

There are two general reasons for producing a play - education and enter- 
tainment . Many directors have the erroneous opinion that Wholesome plays for 
amateurs must be either one or the other. It is true that some plays may have 
literary value, even read well, yet because they lack action or emotional variety, 


they cannot be produced successfully. Yet many plays of great educational worth 
are dramatic successes. The two purposes in producing a play need not be antag- 

Characteristics sought in a play for high school are (l) a moral and ration- 
al outlook which is fundamentally sound; (2) inspiration for the formation of 
character; (3) a strong narrative element consistent with life; (k) suitability 
to audience, cast, and community; (5) plausibility of character drawing and sit- 
uations; (6) skill value; (7) artistic worth; (8) appropriate humor; (9) inter- 
esting; (10) adaptability to the intellectual and emotional stage of the adol- 
escent; (ll) good taste; (12) elements which broaden the knowledge of the actor 
and challenges his imagination; (13) producible. 

Which comes first --the play or the cast? Should a play be chosen to fit 
the actors, or should the actors be selected when the play is determined? The 
new director often is so much interested in these questions that he may forget 
other factors which should influence his choice, such as the limitation of the 
stage, the equipment, or the desires of the people who will pay admission. The 
experienced director has learned also to keep in mind such matters as the ultim- 
ate cost, the amount of work required in preparation, the pupils available for 
casting, the number of performances before he makes his final choice of a play. 

If a drama is to be presented in a contest, a popular form of speech com- 
petition, a few factors are necessarily kept in mind when a choice of a play is 
made. What are the rules regarding length as well as purpose, kind of play, 
characters, and equipment? What are the staging problems where the contest will 
be held? Is one setting used for all productions, or are different ones allowed? 
How far must equipment be transported? What plays have generally been success- 
ful? What type of plays will be used in the contest? What will other schools 
offer in acting talent? Who will judge the plays? 

The most frequently neglected element in the selection of a play concerns 
the audience. The high school auditorium is in more than one way a community 
center. If it is to be used as such, the director who wishes to have a large 
audience should choose a play that will draw the local people. To choose a play 
with audience values does not mean that the director needs to lower his stand- 
ards. It does mean that he should avoid such productions as have limited appeal. 
Generally the director can use varied types of plays during the season so that 
different appeals can be made. For example, no schedule should include all com- 
edy or tragedy. It is often advisable where three plays are directed for a sea- 
son to begin with a comedy or lighter production, to follow it by a weighty major 
production of the year, and to complete the season with a less serious closing 

A director has good reasons to remember the good taste of a community. He 
can present literary productions and theatrical successes which the audience in 
many places would not otherwise be able to see. He will find that, on the whole, 
the average high school audience is neither over -sophisticated or over -analytical. 
Yet it will demand a high moral tone in amateur production. Plays that present 
characters using profanity or drink, that stress phases of immorality, that tend 
to be over-sophisticated, that treat pathological problems, or sex are not gener- 
ally approved. Although these plays may have inherent values, they cannot be used 
unless the director can cut parts which are not fundamentally needed, and thereby 
he may utilize an otherwise objectionable play. 

lln The Quarterly Journal of Speech of October, 19^0, p. 388, can be found an ex- 
cellent list of three hundred and thirty -eight plays prepared for the schools of 
Texas . 


2. Selecting a cast. 

The choice of actors is generally determined "by the requirement of the play 
and the purpose of production. Success in selecting an adequate group for a 
specific play results from;- the- ability of a director to use his imagination; He 
must visualize his actors, ;see them in their parts, and observe their contribu- 
tions to the entire play. 

Some directors seek the assistance of others, such as a student committee, 
or faculty group, in selecting a cast. They find the suggestions of colleagues 
valuable before they make the final selection of actors. Whether the director 
casts the play himself or is aided by others in the choice of actors, the pur- 
pose for which a play is given will always be the determining factor in casting. 
If the director aims to have a finished public performance, he will look for the 
best actor for each part. But if his purpose is to' distribute the educational 
advantages which he believes come from participation, and if he seeks to main- 
tain his organization, he will endeavor to see that other pupils get a chance to 
act. A director may have a different aim for each of his productions or he may 
endeavor to combine the educational and the professional purpose in any play of 
the year. 

Another problem in casting a high school play is concerned with the type. 
Should a student be selected because his own characteristics are represented in 
the part? Should he be given a character with qualities opposed to those of his 
own personality? Directors differ in opinion as to this choice, but in any case, 
no director should make the physical characteristics of chief importance unless 
the plot centers about them. He should use what abilities the actors already 
possess. Generally the director has little time to develop latent capabilities. 

If an adolescent is timid or reticent, as many are, he should be assigned 
a part which he can do well rather than one which will require much training. 
A part directly opposed to his disposition or temperament may be too difficult 
for him. The sensible course for most directors is to select characters for 
the students that are not too far away from their own personalities or entirely 
beyond their abilities. 

Group selection is a fair way to determine a cast. Although some directors 
select actors in personal interviews, this action is not advisable for the dir- 
ector may be accused of partiality, and the morale of an otherwise well organized 
group will be undermined. Any form of group selection such as a formal tryout, 
is preferable, particularly from the student's standpoint. It is frequently 
wise for the director to list on the bulletin board the characterization of each 
part, and then let actors seek in competition the characters they like, although 
the director may tactfully suggest one or more parts for which he may feel the 
individual is better fitted. Different combinations of actors may be tried until 
the director eliminates a^l but the two or three for each part . In working for a 
unified cast, the director must remember that personalities as well as costumes 
clash on a stage; he must see the characters of the cast together. 

5. A double cast. . 

A double cast is often chosen by experienced directors, although some prefer 
to designate an understudy for each role. When two groups of ,actors are selected, 
more students have a chance to. participate in' the activities of the group; the 
system is also good for the morale of both casts', for in providing competition ' 
better work results, discipline is improved, and protection against the absence 
of an actor the night of the performance is assured. . -i 


There are a few disadvantages of the double system. It requires generally 
twice the number of rehearsals, and as these for each group must be limited, the 
production may suffer in its artistic finish. Then, too, a second group cannot 
be expected to rehearse for weeks without having a chance to appear before the 
public. A repeat performance is generally required so that the second cast may 
satisfy its desires for public appearance. A double cast generally insures a 
larger audience for the play. 

h. The production of a play. 

Producing a drama includes its staging as well as acting and the intelligent 
reading of the lines, factors which too frequently are not distinguished. As a 
general rule, the average director is more efficient in one than the other be- 
cause of his knowledge, interest, and background. He will not, however, sacri- 
fice acting for the staging of a play. The average audience will overlook inad- 
equate settings if given an opportunity to witness an otherwise carefully pre- 
pared, worthwhile performance. People find their chief interest in an interpret- 
ation of scenes from life. 

5. Oral and visual interpretation of the lines. 

The chief concern of a director should be with the intelligent reading of 
lines. To get into character before entering the stage and remain in character 
until the final scene, is difficult for most amateurs. Actors are taught to 
listen to lines as well as to speak them. They have reasons for every movement 
and change of situation. The director, therefore, should be an apt student of 
oral interpretation and understand vocal expression and £)antomime as well as 
the law and technique of the drama. 

b. Method. 

A well trained speech instructor knows not only what matter falls within the 
province of dramatic art, but how this matter can best be presented to the student 
by means of extracurricular activities. He has, in other words, a method of proced- 
ure so that he can do his best work. He organizes the schedule of the entire year, 
determines the number and kind of performances, prepares a rehearsal plan, distrib- 
utes his own work and that of the students, plans for the final performance, and, 
in particular, applies his knowledge of the art of makeup and costuming. 

1. Planning a schedule for dramas. 

If dramatics is carefully organized early in the term, many of the last- 
minute problems, which arise at the time of the most intense rehearsing, could be 
reduced. At the beginning of the school year the director should become thor- 
oughly familiar with the facilities of the stage where he will produce his plays. 
He then should make a list of every essential needed for each performance. Know- 
ing his budget, the director can determine what he can afford for production. 
He can consider also the number and kind of performances he will direct (in some 
places, two or three one-act plays are given; in others, the regular three act 
performances). When possible, he can plan the exact time for rehearsals; thereby 
he will save the time and the energy of the cast as well as his own. 

2. Details of planning. 

Details of each performance need careful planning. These relate not only to 
the production, but to the acting. Some directors keep a director's manual with 
every fact related to the interpretation of lines, the grouping of characters, 


■c.l : 

the location of characters, the costumes, the exits and entrance of the char- 
acters, and such like accurately listed. The manual also contains property- 
lists, details of setting, and cues for lighting and music. In a word, the; 
manual contains all the information needed for the successful coaching of the 
play and for its staging at the time of the performance. 

In addition to the director's manual or prompt-hook, many directors build 
a model stage for each act or each scene. They also have a floor plan of the 
position of the actors. For this purpose some instructors use colored thumb ' 
tacks to trace the movements of the characters in each situation. With the de- 
tails of production and acting properly planned and recorded, the director is 
less likely to run into difficulties on the night of the production. 

3. Distribution of work. 

The overwhelming number of details involved in a major production only can 
be handled effectively when they are distributed to different students early in 
the preparation for the play. Then each helper knows exactly what his respon- 
sibility includes. The duties of the students aiding the director may be briefly 
listed as follows: 

The student director helps the director and is in charge when his chief is 
absent from the scheduled rehearsals or even from the final production. He co- 
ordinates the work of all the assistant managers and keeps the director con- 
stantly informed of progress. This particular student should be carefully se- 
lected, for the progress of the production depends a great deal upon him. 

The stage manager is the handy man who helps with the production problems. 
He may with the approval of the director help adapt the play to the exigencies 
of the stage, make lists of stage business, properties, music and costumes. He 
may hold the prompter's copy at the final rehearsal or at the final production, 
for he knows the play as well as the director does. It is he who is responsible 
for the setting of the stage and calling the actors to their positions. 

The social chairman is concerned with the social events which follow the 
play. Generally the cast enjoys a social gathering under school supervision. 
The plans for this party must be submitted to the business manager of the organ- 
ization, and often to the principal of the school. 

The business manager selects the theatre and directs the complete ticket 
sale, the advertising campaign, and the hiring of an orchestra. He collects all 
money and pays all bills with the approval of the director. 

The director of publicity has complete charge of public relations, works 
directly under the business manager, and can relieve him of many of the finan- 
cial details which accumulate before production. 

The chairman of sets sees that all necessary scenery is made, painted, and 
ready for rehearsals and production. He is responsible for its delivery to the 
theatre, that it is set in place, and that it is tested before final rehearsals. 
When the play is over, this chairman has the duty to return all scenery to its 
owner or proper place of storage. 

The property man makes a list of all properties needed for the production. 
He often checks his list against a similar one made by the director. His part 
of the work is to find out where the properties can be secured cheaply and eas- 
ily. The coach should see that the property man gathers his materials as early 


as possible so that the different items can be used in practice, and he should 
return all properties to the owners in the same condition as they were taken. If 
accidents occur, as frequently they will, he takes the responsibility of making 
good the damages. 

The chairman of costumes makes a thorough study of the entire play in order 
to know what costumes are needed for each actor during the play. Under super- 
vision he decides what each actor should wear, and what color effects and styles 
are appropriate for each, in relation to the scene, setting, furniture, lighting, 
and other characters. He rents or makes costumes early enough for the important 
rehearsals. Like the property man, he must return all costumes on time and in 
the same condition as they were when borrowed. 

The electricians list technical equipment and have it installed and in work- 
ing order for the rehearsals. They should experiment with lighting effects to 
secure those necessary to successful staging of the play. If a light plot of 
the play is not made' previous to its production, improper lighting generally 
results. Often lighting effects must be adjusted in virtue of changes made in 
the scenery, in the costuming, or in the stage furniture. The electricians 
should become so familiar with equipment that they can work it in the dark. 
They should be the only ones to use the electrical devices, and they also should 
be responsible for the condition of the equipment. After the performance they 
should return them to their proper place of storage. 

The make-up men, either professionals or students, should study each char- 
acter as much as the individual actor who plays it. They should have a make-up 
rehearsal, under the same conditions as will exist at the time of the play. 

The house man has charge of the auditorium the night of the performance. 
He directs activities in the lobbies and oversees the work of door men and 
ushers . 

k. Rehearsals. 

Rehearsals may be conducted daily for short sessions or two, possibly three, 
times a week for longer periods. Generally they become more frequent toward the 
end of the production activities. Whatever the arrangement may be, the director 
should remember that the class work of the student actors must come first. Some- 
times he can arrange short scene rehearsals or sections of the play. If he com- 
piles a rehearsal schedule., he can require actors to attend meetings only when 
they are needed. 

Alternating the hours for rehearsals, afternoon and evening, also conserves 
time for members of the cast. How long should a play be rehearsed is a question 
commonly asked by a cadet teacher. He will, find that a. three-act play will gen- 
erally require about six weeks of intensive work if he is to produce a satis- 
factory perf ormance . He should net lengthen the period of rehearsals unnecessar- 
ily, for when rehearsing becomes tedious, it may prevent spontaneity at the time 
of performance. 

If the director during the first meeting of the actors is enthusiastic, and 
seeks the whole-hearted co-operation, sympathetic support and zeal of his group, 
he will be wisely preparing for future success. An explanation of the value of 
the production often helps establish a basis of appreciation for a forthcoming 
play. He might stress the fact that minor roles, as well as the leading parts, 
should be well played. He can emphasize co-operation and the need of careful 
organization. He can outline his general plans, his method of casting a play 


and his notion of how specific parts should be read. He will make such announce- 
ments regarding the time and nature of rehearsals as to insure regular attendance 
of the cast . 

The way a director conducts rehearsals is a guide to his probable success or 
failure in staging a play. He should not waste time at rehearsals. He should 
always begin work at the assigned time even if he must eliminate from the cast 
those pupils who come late, and by this action impress his actors with the need 
of prompt attendance. He should dismiss players promptly at the assigned time so 
that they too can plan their work and leisure. He should consult other teachers 
regarding the studies of the pupils in the cast so that if they are using the 
play as an excuse for incomplete work or failures he may warn them of their neg- 
ligence. He should make each rehearsal contribute definitely to the vocal and 
bodily improvement of each member of his cast. 

5. Preparation for final performance. 

. Every rehearsal is a preparation for the final performance. Even details 
such as applause or laughter on the night of the play should be mentioned to the 
cast. Too many directors become so very busy with the major elements of the play, 
that they forget the small things that give a production its finish. Each re- 
hearsal must contribute to this final polish, for if a director waits for the 
final rehearsal, he will miss many opportunities in the daily rehearsals to im- 
prove this or that detail of the play. For example, laughs from the spectators 
may cause the cast an unexpected reaction. If the incident which will call for 
applause or laughter is known during rehearsal, it is accepted as part of the 

The final rehearsal often causes a disappointment to directors. They need 
not become too discouraged at the lack of finish, however, for adolescent actors 
if well trained in early rehearsals, will generally respond to the occasion. To 
insure success, some directors have a number of special rehearsals instead of 
the usual dress rehearsal. At one of these lighting, settings, and properties 
are tested; in another, only music is discussed; in another, costumes and make- 
up receive attention;, in the final one, acting techniques such as picking up cues 
are tested. 

6. Make-up and costuming. 

What is satisfactory in costuming and in make-up can only be learned by 
experience. Both factors of production are very important. Many plays have been 
well-coached, and produced before excellent settings, but the improper costumes 
or make-up destroyed all possible chances to create illusion. As most amateur 
plays are produced close to the audience, make-up and costumes should be tested 
under the stage lights which will be used at the final performance. The testing 
should continue until naturalness results. Under -lighting is as undesirable as 
over -lighting. The work of making up a cast should be done behind stage in a 
place away from the confusion, where materials can be spread out and where ample 
lighting is secured. Costumes should be checked for proper fit and particularly 
for stage effects. Sometimes one costume can destroy the unity of the stage 
picture and also the mood of the scene. 

c. Organization. 

Organization and supervision of a dramatic club are frequently placed among 
the duties of a speech teacher. 


1. Faculty director of a dramatic club. 

Organization and management are essential to the success of a dramatic club. 
The faculty director has responsibility not only to the school principal but also 
to the members of the group. He runs the organization according to parliamentary 
rules, and gives his support to officers of the club. He and his group plan such 
matters as means of selecting members, method of financing the organization, and 
ways of conducting business. Members should be encouraged to use initiative in 
the club. The director might suggest some plan as to the selection of members. 
He and his committee might establish a probationary period for candidates so that 
.each member will have ample time to prove his worth to the organization or give 
his place to another student who is willing to co-operate. He might encourage 
his group to select pins, flower, motto, or colors, and devise ways and means to 
instil a good co-operative spirit. He will find that his chief problem in a 
dramatic club is to keep teen aged youngsters interested and busy. 

2 . Programs . 

Planning the work of a dramatic club for a year is time well spent. The use 
of a printed year book, similar to that of women's clubs, is an excellent way of 
having the officers and the faculty sponsor plan the year together. The first 
few pages of the yearbook might contain a list of active members with telephone 
numbers and addresses; another page could have the list of reference books sug- 
gested, for the year's study. These books could be placed in a special section 
of the high school library. The whole membership could be divided into five 
smaller groups serving together on each program. 

Here are a few typical programs for regular or called meetings based upon 
the theme of a Global Year which gives a unity to the year's schedule: 

1. Shakespeare Program: discussion -- Shakespeare, dramatist, poet, man; 
scene from a Shakespearean play being studied in the class in English 
literature; description of the Shakespearean stage; a play-back of a 

■ recording of a scene. 

2. Some modern English Dramatist; discussion, characterization. 

3« Irish Dramatists-: . John M. Synge; presentation of Rider s to the Sea ; 
brief discussion of William Butler Yeats; story of the play, Land of 
Heart ' s Desire ; a study of lighting effects. 

h. French Drama (Moliere); talk on costuming or stylized acting. 

5. Russian Program: synopsis of Love of One's Ne ighbor ; violin solo by 
a Russian composer; story of Anton Tchekoff ; story of The Cherry 
Orchar d; solo dance -- Russian. Illustration of make-up problems. 

6. American Program: William Vaughn Moody; synopsis of The Great Divide ; 
presentation -- Where But in America ; discussion on building a scene. 

7. Other programs might include: Wisconsin Dramatists, A Musical After- 
noon, The Opera, The One-Act Play, Poetic Drama, -- Satire, -- Tragedy, 
— Comedy, -- Melodrama, The Modern Stage, Modern Actors, and A Moving 
Picture Program. In each program show relation between a play and 
some acting or production problem. 

8. Radio Plays and Problems 


9. Banquet (Annual) ■ >• 

10. A Christmas Party-, for underprivileged children. 

A problem for the inexperienced director arises when he needs programs for 
the intervening- meetings between plays . He can get variety in his offerings if 
he has plays read and discussed; a pantomime . rehearsal can be conducted; the 
physical stage may be explained; lessons in make-up can be given; outside speak- 
ers may be procured; principles of .acting may be demonstrated; the story of cos- 
tuming told; and the complete planning of a radio show might-be undertaken. 

J. Maintaining the organization. , : ., . ,;:; ■ 

The continuance of the dramatic group from year to year is the responsibil- 
ity of the director. He should be careful in the distribution of parts in plays 
to give consideration to the younger members. If he does not, he will find that 
the older students who receive all of the leading, roles graduate leaving him 
only the inexperienced members -for his productions. He will find also' that he 
should train younger officers to fill the more important positions. If new 
people are trained for both, -production and organization the top ranks will never 
be, depleted." *."..' , . v .- ><'[■{::*■ - "' :: 

k. Financial problems. .-. .. ■■ ■• '*-' '<• ;: 

Management of the high school dramatic program includes difficulties other 
than those in directing. , The financial; aspect is an important factor ih high 
school dramatics. How much money can the director spend? How much does he hope 
to clear on the production? .How much will a certain play cost to produce? How 
can he best use the money which- is ; allowed for the play? These are the types of 
questions he will answer. . The . director sometimes finds that pressure is brought 
upon him to present a play that will make money for some venture such as raising 
funds for a deficit on an annual or buying football sweaters. In view of these 
conditions he should, not select, a. play or musical production of little educa- 
tional value to his own group. 

The financial factor should not be overlooked in planning the dramatic 
budget. Since most of the high school plays published today have a fee at- 
tached to their production, royalties should be considered among the necessary 
expenditures. Directors who deliberately seek means to avoid the payment of 
royalties are unethical. Since companies producing amateur plays like to do 
business with a trustworthy director, he should write to the company holding a 
copyright on the proposed production explaining the exact situation, giving size 
of audience, locality, ticket price, number of- performances,- and like informa- 
tion. He will be notified whether the play is with or without royalty. 

d. Judging plays. ' ,'] r , . ... •- ■, i ...■•..•.; ■ -i 

An instructor in dramatic art . is. frequently called upon to judge plays. He 
should be familiar with a rating sheet of some kind. 'Although each form may vary 
in detail, all generally contain a space for percentage and rating on these general 
factors: (l) choice of play; • (.2) characterization; (3). interpretation of lines; 
(h) voice and articulation; (5) pantomime. In the Appendix will be found a list of 
questions which should help a director to evaluate fairly the plays when he is 
called upon to judge them. ■■.■• ,■": 

As a rule, constructive advice is asked after plays are judged, or if a series 
of one-acts are in competition, ratings may be requested after the last play in the 


group has been produced. When the plays are analyzed for the audience, the norms 
used In criticizing are "based upon matters of interest to the listeners as well as 
the participants. After the decision is announced, the judge generally remains to 
discuss problems, answer questions, and give constructive suggestions for the im- 
provement of the next performance. The judge's evaluation of the play should make 
the next production a better one. [Cf. Chap. 6 for discussion of extracurricular 


1. Plan a year's program for a high school dramatic club. 

2. Is the unity of a program violated by combining tragedy and comedy? Explain. 

3. Give specific illustrations of the relation of action and reaction in an 

amateur play. 
k. What do you mean by educational drama? 
5.' How far should the director allow free expression of interpretation? 

6. How realistic can one be in "holding a mirror up to nature"? 

7. Which is preferable, a time intermission or unrelated fillers, such as vaude- 

ville or music? 

8. What rules determine the type of play to be selected? 

9. Report for class discussion the list of plays published by the National Council 

of Teachers of English, entitled Guide of Play Selection , Milton Smith, 
Applet on-Century, 193^ • 

10. Plan and arrange a schedule of rehearsals for a one-act play. 

11. Discuss the relationship that exists between classwork and a public production. 

12. What academic credits should be allowed for participation in a public perfor- 

mance of a play? Should these credits be considered equivalent to laboratory 
credits in speech training. 

13. Discuss: Course of Stu dy i n Spee ch and Dramatics for the Senior High School, 

Dramatics, v. 2, Des Moines, Iowa, Board of Education, 193^. 
Ik. Are you acquainted with the Dramatic Index, Boston: Faxon Co., 1909? 

15. Do you agree with the nine statements concerning educational theater organiza- 

tion as outlined by : Morrison, J., Q.J.S., April, 19^+9? 

16. What are your theories of tempo in play production? 

17. Are you satisfied with the rehearsal schedule suggested in Art of Play 

Production , Dolman, p. 229? 

18. Look up play selections published by the National Council of Teachers of 

English 'called Guide of Play Selection, Smith, M., Applet on-Century, 19 3U. 

19. List ways of securing so-called "atmosphere" in a production. 

20. Discuss the common changes between the original story and a film based upon it. 

21. Prepare a brief outline of the Little Theater Movement in America. 

22. Have you any suggestions regarding -the treatment of social issues in American 


23. Summarize the facts you have gathered on the subject of effective make-up. 
2k. Show how content from a Social Study Class could be dramatized. 

25. Interview two dramatic coaches as to their methods of directing a Senior Class 

Play. Contrast and evaluate the procedures. 

26. Survey the literature on the Costume Play.. 

27. List conventions of the theater applicable to high school players. 

28. Analyze the different forms of dramatic expression. 

29. Justify your choice of a good high school play. 

30. Give five examples of taking advantage of local events and situations for 

dramatizations in class. 

31. Discuss the following contest points as suggested by a well known playhouse: 

Direction, 17$, Interpretation and Characterization, 28$, Voice and Diction, 
22$, Tempo, 22$, and Make-up and Costuming, 11$. 


32. Report on: P lay Stan dards, Q.J.S. p. 89, Feb. 19U0. 

53;. Plan a One-Cay One-Act Play Festival including the following details: Purpose; 

Registration plans; Care of contestants, coaches, and judges; General rules; 

Special rules; Rating' sheet ; Judge decision; Awards. 
$k. Read: Judging On e -Act Plays, Q.J.S. p. $85, April, I9U0. 

35. Discuss Objectiv es in E ducational Drama , p. 33*+, Oct., 19^-7 • 

36. Dramatic study is frequently based on seven units. Can you name them? 

37. In preparation for a discussion of the production of a high school play, read 

Select! ng, Ca sti ng, and Rehears ing the High School Pl ay , Cortright, E.S., 
p". kkj, Q.J.S. Dec. 19^57 

38. Ever heard of a scriptless play? Method of developing this unique activity 

can be found in A Scriptle ss Play Prepared.- in S chool , Elmer, M.S., The 

Instructo r, p. 2k, Nov. 19^-5 . 
39- Discuss one article from the High School Theater Section of Players Magazine , 

122 E. Second Street', Plainfield, New Jersey. . 
ko. Name examples of plays of these classifications: Melodrama, Realism, Fantasy, 

Farce, Naturalism, Problem, Expressionism. 
kl. Prepare an assignment based on the common errors of amateur actors. 
k2. Plan a scene for a class period depicting a literary or historical event 

studied in another class. ! "... 

43. Report on Some S uggested U nits in Acting and S tage Make-up For Use in Secondary 

Schools , Robinson, K. F. and Shaw, W. T., Q.J.S. p. 71, Feb. 19^6\ 
kk. Do you approve of the three specific methods for "double casting" as advised 

in Double Casti ng Methods, Bart let t, J., D ramatics , Oct. 19^5- 


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Watkins, D. E., and Karr, H. M., Sta ge Fright And Wh at To Do About ' It (Boston: 

Expression Co., 1939). 
Webster, M., Shakespeare Without Tea rs (New York: McGraw Hill, 1942). 
Ward, W., Playmaking With Childre n (New York: Apple ton -Century, 1947). 
Wimsatt, G. B., Chinese Shadows S~hows (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. 

Press, 1937). 


No part of the tone passage is controlled specifically and in- 
, dividually in ordinary speech. The slightest act is inti- 
mately connected with all the parts. All these in produc- 
ing, a tone act sympathetically and almost as a unit.-- CURRY 


I ntroducto ry •; 

The Radio Structure iVi 

a. The Background Re-quired' of the Speech Teacher 

1. Radio organization and administration 

Influence of the chain systems 

Radio, a business . . .-•'•. 

2. Advertising policies and techniques of selling 

Regulations' . ...... 

■ Province ' .,,,," 

. Motivation " .' .,' 

How to teach motivation in the radio class 
"b. Program Policies * ■ . 

c. Techniques of Program' Production ; 

1. The radio play 

2. Educational drama 

3 . News programs 
h. Sport programs 

5. Extempore speech programs 

6. The public service programs 

7. Children's programs 

8. Poetry and interpretation programs 

9. Instructional programs 

d. Radio Delivery • 

1. Announcing- 

2, Acting ' : 

e. Technical Problems and Solutions 

1. Principles of transmission 

2. Radio reception 

3. Public address system 

h. Need of good equipment and skill on part of an operator 

5. Sources of technical supplies 

6. Broadcasting studio 

7. Microphones 

f . Radio Law 

S tandards and Criteria to Judge the Educational Effect i veness of Pr og ram s 
De signed for Schools 

a. Problems Presented by Educational Broadcasts 

b. Norms for Judging Radio Effectiveness 
The Radio Workshop 



-228 ■ 



The- amazing growth of radio into a many hi 11 ion- dollar industry has something 
more than financial significance, for such an organization has brought into the 
field of education not only marvelous technical equipment and methods of research, 
hut a new art of speaking. Broadcasting is today a profession; students must he 
trained 'for 'it . A radio art has been founded that relates to public speaking, drama, 
interpretation, and public discussion. A radio science has been established which 
has furnished method and content to the study of voice and speech, in particular to 
speech therapy. The art and the science of radio have effected instrumentalities of 
social importance that bring men of diverse locations, traditions, and language to- 

The training course in radio for high school pupils furnishes a splendid oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of the varied talents of students. The scope of material 
that may be brought into the radio class can insure a variety and an intensity of 
student interest. The types. of programs, while giving knowledge and experience to 
pupils, frequently expose them to conflicting points of view. Radio speech there- 
fore creates a need for an evaluation and a study of audience psychology. Pupils, 
feeling inadequate to handle all the view points presented to them, find a need for 
standards of criticism and particularly adult guidance. Inasmuch as they become 
acquainted with the problems and interests of their own country, and also with those 
of other lands, they gain many of the advantages presented to children who travel 
extensively, meeting people as well as knowing places. 

By means of the radio braodcast, high school students become acquainted with 
well known people and with the social conditions of their lives. Furthermore, they 
come in contact with current events and the topics of the day. They train them- 
selves not only in listening to radio content but in giving a sound basis for their 
judgment and evaluation of social events. When attention is called to the speech 
techniques employed by actors and announcers, the pupils can, under the direction 
of the teacher, improve their own skills. Finally, an incentive is established in 
the radio class to use the subject matter of other courses of the high school cur- 
riculum. , 

Tho Rad io St ructure 

The prospective teacher of speech should have an appreciation of the radio \ 
structure. The radio industry enters the life of the American family when it pur- 
chases a radio set. It continues to affect this life stimulating the purchase of 
most of its daily needs, and disseminating ideas which influence its thinking and 
its behavior. In fact, the very existence of radio depends upon one factor, "pub- 
lic interest". To serve the public, vast radio chains have been built. 

The speech teacher should become acquainted with the activities of the broad- 
casting station, particularly how it operates upon this principle ; namely, that 
its programs of information and entertainment must create public interest, and that 
the audience gained by these programs can, at the same time, be sold certain goods 
necessary to its existence or happiness. Radio lives because it is a medium of ad- 
vertising. Otherwise it can only thrive by subsidies from some source which pays 
for its existence as a medium of communication. The manner in which those in charge 
of radio have been able to build a structure that has as its chief aim the diversif- 
ication of programs which in order to maintain a general appeal to its public, must 
be of interest to any teacher attempting to instruct students in the art of sustain- 
ing this appeal. 


The legal concept of a broadcasting station is a common carrier. This concept 
embraces the notion that all who wish to use a radio station have this privilege, 
if they tender a fair rate, and conform to reasonable legislation. The radio in- 
dustry, although a product of private. enterprise, is not privately owned. It exists 
because of a license from the government, and must submit to government regulation. 
Radio, then, is not merely a business with patents creating or assuring it a general 
monopoly, or a business with commercial programs designed to attract the largest 
listening audience as the backbone of its income. It is a public trust and needs 
regulation as any public utility. 

It is, furthermore, a great implement . of public education. It can raise stand- 
ards of appreciation, teach learning processes, give information, and incite worth- 
while activity. But as radio braodcasting can unlimber the mind, it can upset opin- 
ions, traditions, .and customs; it can encourage the acceptance of wrong as well as 
right doctrine.. It can make people question the validity of accepted forms. As an 
educational trust, it needs regulation by educators who understand education and who 
have ideals for humanity that are consistent with man's rational nature, and his 
ultimate end. As a world business, radio may create a common intellectual and 
spiritual foundation for the right kind of internationalism, and as a great implem- 
ent of democracy, it can stress the fundamentals of our form of government; and 
thereby it can stimulate our citizens to become better citizens; 

Although it is a safe principle to admit that any regulatory body or any educa- 
tional organization should set higher standards than the measuring sticks employed 
by the people that it regulates or instructs, sound radio policy requires that the 
wishes of the people, their mental and emotional reactions, and their present needs 
be considered. The air belongs to the people, the government is their trustee, and 
the people are free to enjoy or reject the radio broadcast. 

No educational institution can maintain a radio station that disregards those 
facts which experience has gathered by trial and error in building a system of pub- 
lic service. The educational radio station can not set itself up as a radio au- 
thority in opposition to well established traditions of the radio industry. While 
working for constructive changes it should not impair the very service it would 
supplement . 

Even the existence of college or high school work shops depends upon the ser- 
vice they can render people. , If they become .independent educational stations with 
full or part time devoted to educational programs, they must justify their right to 
operate over the air. If work shops can not justify themselves, as independent 
broadcasting units, their proper place is in an affiliation with a commercial sta- 
tion that can utilize their valuable radio resources in the interest of the cultural 
advancement of its listeners. In either case, to be a successful educational vent- 
ure, a radio station depends mostly upon its facilities in meeting the exacting 
requirements of the listener. A radio work shop must be something more than a 
training 'school, .or a research laboratory; it must be a well equipped, completely 
staffed business "with the capacities for the production of those types of programs 
of value and interest to its listeners. > - ■■' 

■■'.'■' ■' ■ ' "■ ' 
a. The background required of the speech teacher. 

The teacher of radio speech must have specific training in the many phases of 
the radio, arts before he can hope to be successful in teaching such complicated 
skills as acting and announcing., such an art as radio writing, or such a science 
and art as radio production. At the present time over four hundred colleges in the 
United States are offering radio courses of interest to the cadet teacher. Among 
these courses are: program planning; program production; script writing; radio 


speech - announcing, and acting; radio music; radio advertising; radio direction and 
management; the technical aspects of radio transmission; and radio law. 

Besides presenting radio courses, some colleges operate their own radio sta- 
tions, or have arrangements with the local stations for educational broadcasts. 
Some schools "broadcast non-credit courses in such subjects as public health, civics, 
and human interest material. A few colleges offer classes in teaching by radio 
certain recognized secondary education subjects or courses from the vocational 
school curriculum. A teacher of speech can gain an understanding of programs rough- 
ly classified as: forum or discussion programs of interest to general or specific 
groups; news broadcasts; music; supplementary instruction to classroom work; and 
promotional broadcasts of civic or school importance. In these colleges the pros- 
pective teacher of radio has splendid opportunity to broadcast , programs, and gain 
actual radio experience in acting, announcing, and perhaps in writing. 

The speech teacher will find radio organization important to an understanding 
of radio procedures. Since the basic idea in radio is that the industry exists be- 
cause a listening public will allow a station to lease its facilities for a given 
period to an advertiser who is said to sponsor a program, or will permit a station 
to build its own programs during other periods primarily to sustain a public inter- 
est until such time as a station can bring forth its selling programs, the speech 
teacher should know something of the following matter: (a) the organization and 
administration of the radio station itself; (b) its advertising policies and tech- 
niques of selling; (c) its program policies; (d) techniques of production; (e) its 
technical problems and its solutions for them; (f ) its procedures in maintaining 
public relations; and (g) its procedures in obeying radio law. 

1. Radio organization and administration. 

Only a hint can be given in this text of radio organization and administra- 
tion, but details may be secured from texts devoted to this subject. It is 
pert: lent here to direct attention first to the chain organizations. 

In order to insure better radio reception, a number of stations are tied by 
means of telephone -wire connections; consequently, all the stations that are 
members of the chain take the same program for local distribution. These sta- 
tions, being on different wave lengths, can cover a large territory and give 
wide distribution to any given program. This idea of radio-station coverage 
completely revolutionized the early conception of radio importance. It brought 
forth the entire organization plan to further radio as a valuable advertising 
and sales medium. The "live" program may originate in any station belonging to 
the chain, but generally is initiated in the large centers of New York, Chicago, 
and Hollywood. Programs prepared for broadcast by means of records may be sent 
out over the chain, mailed directly to stations, or recorded by any station for 
its own distribution. 

The operation of groups of stations woven together by so many circuit miles 
can only be suggested by a consideration of the personnel required to conduct 
such an enterprise - the operators, the linesmen, the clerical help, the engin- 
eers, etc. To operate radio successfully, the industry, mighty in itself, must 
be associated with the personnel of the telephone and telegraph companies, the 
manufacturers of technical instruments, the motion picture and stage professions, 
radio magazine editors, writers and columnists, musicians, music publishers, the 
large advertising corporations, the large sales organizations, not to speak of 
those industrial and agricultural organizations which produce the goods that are 
to be sold. And all this organization is dependent upon the reception of the 
commercial program by listeners. 


The foundation of the radio industry and of many of its allied industries is 
"based upon the commercial program. With this premise established it is easy to 
see that the organization of radio advertising and the radio manufacturing are 
the two pillars that support the industry. Broadcasting is a business, a profes- 
sion, and a regulated utility with interlocking structures of interest to the 
speech teacher. At least a survey of this structural aspect of radio belongs to 
a radio course. The student, likewise, needs some notion of the standards estab- 
lished for the commercial practice and the codes of ethics and legal procedures 
under which radio operates. 

2. Advertising policies and techniques of selling. 

The teacher of radio speech should acquaint himself with the policies of 
radio stations in regard to program content and presentation. 

The teacher will find that as the radio audience consists of all types of 
individuals, certain regulations as to content and presentation are necessary. 
Matter regarded as offensive to people in general or to classes of people is for- 
bidden. Fraudulent advertising or grossly exaggerated statements as to the merits 
of a product is subject to stringent regulation. Inasmuch as an audience - dif-" 
ference exists among periods of the day and night, the broadcast with its adver- 
tisements must be adapted to the particular audience and even to the particular 
location. No station manager can afford to use a type of advertising, or use it 
so often, that he loses listeners for his station. He is obligated to seek 
clients who maintain at least the standards set up for other fields of advertis- 

The advertising business of the radio relates to the establishment of rate 
cards, transactions with recognized advertising agencies, the arrangement of con- 
tracts with clients, the determination of the clients' financial responsibility, 
the arrangement and supervision of programs that are suitable to further the 
sales of these clients' products, and to sustain their good will in the mind of 
the public. Of particular interest to the speech teacher is a study of the means 
of persuasion employed by advertisers and advertising agencies. A radio audience 
generally hears a program in. the intimacy of a home; consequently the builder of 
a program employs audience motivation in its multiform lights and shades. A pro- 
gram is built for some one's enjoyment and more so for some one who will say 
that he enjoys a program and who will act upon the suggestions incorporated with- 
in the program. t A radio show cannot overadvertise, nor can it, in view of its 
tremendous financial cost, fail to get every ounce of value' out of its cost of 
time, money, and energy. 

A radio program of a commercial nature is not a glamour business. It is the 
product of a service staff, either belonging to the station itself, or to the ad- 
vertising agencies in association with the concert and stage bureaus, that knows 
how to motivate people to a purchase, that understands the selling policies of a 
manufacturer, and that values the proper relation between sales volume and the 
costs of production and distribution. As the advertising agencies have so much at 
stake, they can not afford wrong sales motivation. 

The prospective teacher has fine opportunity to study motivation and trans- 
fer his knowledge of motivation to the students by his understanding the radio 
advertising. He will find that an agency analyzes fan mail to determine trends 
of audience approval, that it understands "showmanship", that words and music are 
discussed from the angle of advertising techniques before they are placed in the 
care of announcers and musicians. In brief, the broadcasting program is studied 
by experts who must please a public, yet bring profits to the station, the adver- 


tising agency, and. to the advertiser himself. The motivation employed by the 
radio, then, is excellent matter to be studied by both student and teacher. 
Much that can be learned is applicable not only to the radio speech class but 
to all courses in the speech arts. 

One of the objectives of a radio course being to teach motivation and audi- 
ence psychology, six means to do this are suggested to the prospective teacher: 
(a) have the students listen to "spot" announcements, either those in the pro- 
gram itself, or those generally placed between programs, or sometimes heard on 
special programs devoted to the sales of many products; (b) require analysis of 
the announcements given by professional announcers; (c) devise class recitations 
on the types and application of motivation; (d) assign work in writing one-minute- 
spot announcements; (e) require the student to practice reading his sales talks 
before the microphone; (f ) allow class discussion and evaluation of each stud- 
ent's selling technique. 

b. The program policies. 

The public has an appetite for amusement. Radio executives recognizing this 
fact made the radio business a part of the huge world of the entertainer and the 
entertained. Although the home can not be transformed into a theater, a psychol- 
ogical connection exists between the performer on the radio and the listener.. The 
emotional responses incited among people in a theater, the infectious reactions of 
a group are lacking in a home, yet by means of the very suggestion that a person 
is part of the unseen audience, he takes on much of the behavior of the person en- 
joying a performance in a theater. The analogy between the person in an audience 
witnessing a stage exhibition, and one at home listening to the radio can not be 
carried too far, for other factors enter into the building of a program for the 
home listener. Yet the basis of organizing a successful radio program is the know- 
ledge of what will entertain people, and how this entertainment must be built. 

The information that the theater, the motion picture business, and other enter- 
tainment enterprises have learned about the likes and dislikes of people in their 
amusements serve as a basis for the radio art of entertainment. 'The chief idea be- 
hind most radio shows is reflected in the following questions: Does the program 
please? Will it hold the listening audience to keep the radio dials set for this 
station? Radio programs can therefore be studied for the techniques employed in 
giving pleasure to people. 

Various studies have been made of radio likes and dislikes. Although tests 
have not brought clear-cut results as to preferences, certain general views can be 
established. People like symphony orchestras, bands, and operas; they likewise enjoy 
good dance orchestras. They have less interest in vocal music, violin solos, con- 
cert music, string quartets, and trios. They enjoy news commentators, and programs 
that keep them abreast of current events. They are less interested in formal educa- 
tional talks and speeches, yet will turn their dial3 to political speeches when they 
realize that important issues are at stake. Scientific talks, poetry readings, and 
debate are less interesting than football news or travel. Plays over the air have 
popular reception. The full church services seem more appealing to people than the 
isolated sermon, religious talk, or hymn singing. 

Perhaps the major difficulty in interpreting the public wish regarding pro- 
grams is the lack of responses to good programs on the part of those people who 
really enjoy them. The so-called fans of the big hit shows write the stations to 
express their appreciation of dramatic and musical programs, whereas the listeners 
of the better programs are sometimes loathe to give their opinions concerning the 
type of programs which should be sponsored over the air. Tests do, however, clearly 


indicate that there are people in the country who desire better music, deserving 
stage plays , and suitable educational programs. 

c. Techniques of program production. 

Since radio programs differ in kind, radio presentation must be adapted to the 
kind of program. 

1. The radio play. 

One of the chief interests of the listening public is in the radio play 
which differs from the stage drama in certain respects: (a) it is designed only 
for the ears; (b) it is written rapidly and correctly; (c) it is planned for a 
particular time, a specific audience, and a small cast. 

Inasmuch as the radio play depends for its success upon the images that are 
received by the listener through his aural sense, it must by its very nature be 
highly suggestive. Its characters must be human. Its plot must be simplified. 
The heavy drama of scientific realism or of psychological analysis is not as 
welcome to a listener as types of plays that give him an opportunity for relax- 
ation. Action plays, therefore, are more popular than character studies. The 
plots and dialogue over the air limit the radio form of even successful Broadway 
hits. The technical aspects of a radio play likewise restrict its form. 

The prospective teacher of speech, realizing that radio speech has become 
one of the popular courses in the high school speech curriculum, should under- 
stand not only how to construct the radio play itself but how to produce it 
professionally. Generally speaking, he will take a course in radio play writing 
and radio production in his college work, but if he is to be a successful teacher 
of radio speech, he should have a fine sense of criticism of the radio plays pre- 
sented over local and chain stations. 

The further business of the instructor is to become acquainted with the 
progress made in the mechanical and technical aspects of production. He will 
find that many improvements have been achieved in the musical arts in radio. 
He will observe that whereas a few years ago one or two texts in radio were 
available, today there are many on all phases' of radio and in particular con- 
cerning the radio play itself, sound effects, microphone technique. Many the- 
atrical magazines devote sections of their publications to radio, and, at least, 
a dozen current magazines give over their entire content to radio plays and radio 
personalities. With such material available to the teacher of radio speech, he 
should have little trouble in keeping abreast with the activities in field of 
dramatic art as applied to radio production, especially the type of characters, 
plots, and procedures. 

In choosing plays for class production he should keep in mind the type of 
audience that may be injured or benefited by the performance. He might well 
study the techniques of professional program managers of radio stations who not 
only understand audience psychology but actually create demands for their pro- 
grams. If the high school radio play is to be produced professionally, the time 
of broadcast is important to the success of the play. What other radio stations 
are carrying at the proposed time for the play greatly determines the available 
audience for it. 

Inasmuch as managers who operate talent bureaus or those in charge of pro- 
grams in commercial stations keep adequate files regarding available talent, the 
high school teacher might well investigate the possibilities of the high school 


radio talent and keep accurate record of auditions, types of voices, and act- 
ability. He should give consideration to the necessary work of building a 
i file of radio scripts. Such a file must "be well indexed, generally by 
Les, subject matter, and individual program files. He must further develop a 
?ary of recordings, particularly of radio plays. Events of unusual signific- 
?, such as the abdication address of the Duke of Windsor, have teaching as 
L as historical value. A well equipped workshop will have recording machines 
: can make transcription. Eecords may be purchased from commercial sources, 
rbher words, the more the director of radio plays in high school, uses suc- 
3ful ways and means employed by professional radio managers, the better his 
)rt unity will be for. success in his own. dramatic ventures. 

Educational drama. 

The radio play produced by the university radio station has often been 
tied the educational drama, generally because it has been a dramatic adaptation 
i successful play by a famous dramatist. Today the chains devote special per- 
3 to dramatic masterpieces which have not only pleasure as an objective, but 
) educational value. Another type of drama which has also been termed as edu- 
Lonal relates to the dramatic production of subject-matter which is education- 
for example, a radio play dealing with the problem of prevention of tubercu- 


Just as Ibsen and other dramatists of his time produced the thesis drama and 
;ain French novelists, the thesis novel, so today there is radio thesis play. 
3 educational drama has the advantages of composition, noted in the thesis 
jl, and likewise its weaknesses. Only too often the novel based upon some 
il or educational theme became boring, or dry, likewise some educational ma- 
Lal itself, being dull, may not be adapted to a radio drama no matter how 
Lfully it is constructed. Often its purpose is so obvious that the public 
."s its educational objective. On the other hand, just as some of the plays 
Dumas f ils were dramatic successes even though preaching a moral lesson, 
:ain thesis plays over radio have had subject matter of educational worth 
at the same time were fine of educational play writing and dramatic 
luction. There is ample opportunity in the radio class in high school to 
luce educational plays for assembly periods, for special occasions, and for 
:ings such as PTA meetings, fathers' organizations, and mothers' clubs. In 
3 localities the educational drama will be found acceptable to the commercial 
Lo station. 

The difficulties in producing the educational drama are great even with good 
srial, but when improperly presented they, give a black mark to other educa- 
lal ventures. If the high school organization cannot afford to produce educa- 
lal drama, it should not produce any sketch, slip-shod jumble under its name, 
l proper co-ordination of students, faculty, and parents, educational drama 
it well be produced by more high schools. 

tfews programs. 

Most news is rewritten especially for radio as it must be made hearable 
ler than readable. Although news is gathered from special sources and various 
mizations, the station presents it from the angle of community interest; what 
lews in one community may not be news in another. Most stations carry the 
3 which makes headlines in the large metropolitan papers. In any event, old 
3 is no news and happenings must be given date lines. 


There are different ways of presenting a news broadcast, first in relation 
to the news itself, and second in relation to the radio delivery. Some stations 
present news simply as news; other stations mix announcements with news of na- 
tional importance or even that of local concern. Some programs are in truth 
comments upon views while others are strictly news reports. Both news' commenta- 
tors and news reporters often intersperse their talks with stories of human in- 
terest or comments of humorous import. 

Some programs are news dramatization, for example, The March of Time Program . 
As some programs are built primarily to gain attention, news items are so placed 
that they give the proper setting for spot announcements. Some news programs are 
designed in imitation of the newspaper column, while others are essentially fea- 
tures containing stories related to personality, events, or even industrial con- 
ditions written much in the manner of feature writers, who weave stories of in- 
terest to the hearer. Lastly, some news reporters realizing the disadvantage of 
giving disconnected news items attempt to gain unity, coherence, emphasis, and 
variety by getting into their continuity a narrative often built with concluding 
sentences that are expected to maintain attention for the narrative in a subse- 
quent broadcast. 

News broadcasts that are particularly instructive to the high school student 
in regard to both content and form- are the reports on current events. Every part 
of the world contributes to the current event program. Science, art, politics, 
and every day life furnish events of interest to people. The news announcer is 
primarily concerned with what is in the news and then what is the feeling of the 
people toward the news. When an event "breaks", the announcer or the news writer 
must have at his disposal background material relating to the event. 

A plane is carrying military personnel to Pearl Harbor. It falls into the 
sea. Who was aboard? What facts must' be secured that deal with the past achieve- 
ments of some of these men? What were these men doing in a Navy airplane? They 
were flying in a fog. What, were the hazards? They fell near the island of 

. Where is that place? The plane was a . Why was this type of 

plane flying at elevation? General , who went to his death when 

the plane toppled from the skies, married Rita Lu . How does she feel 

about the accident? Did his ex-wife Lue 11a _____ make any comment when informed 
of his death? The plane carried bullion for Korea. How will the loss of this 
asset affect the banking situation? 

In brief, then, the fact that-'the plane had an accident is simply a start 
for the news announcer. He or the writer must have more facts for immediate use. 
Consequently, he draws upon history, science, art, geography, politics, personal 
charts, in fact about any source, for a current event program. Obviously, the 
student learns much from listening to these programs. He will learn much, too, 
about writing news broadcasts if he assumes some event as taking place and then 
works into his broadcast interesting facts and observations secured either from 
research in a library or from conferences with people. 

The high school pupils in a radio course will learn that news broadcasters 
are not free to say what they please over the air. Chains and local stations 
have regulations regarding broadcasts. The National Association of Broadcasters 
have their own rules. Mention cannot be made of frightening or horrible conse- 
quences, murders, sensational and lurid stories, and the like. What may be 
broadcasted at one time may be entirely out of place at another. For example, 
the public at fever heat over a murder might be incited to greater crime by a 
remark that at another, time would be of little concern. 


The radio teacher should "bring into his classes ample examples of types of 
news "broadcasting, "be capable of instructing a class in how to listen to the 
various broadcasters, be able to write scripts either for classroom broadcasting 
or broadcasts in connection with local stations. He should be prepared to check 
the contents of school broadcasts in order that they will conform to the stan- 
dards of the commercial station. 

In news broadcasting delivery is important. Words are to be distinctly 
enunciated and correctly pronounced, and their connotation in a broadcast con- 
sidered. A word may be given in such a manner that the implication will create 
misunderstanding. Whether a news report be given in a rapid or slow rate is a 
matter of station policy. Generally speaking, writers of radio news are re- 
quired to avoid obsolete and hackneyed words, the obscure and colorless phrase, 
or in other words, the writer is instructed to use a vocabulary of effective 
diction, and in particular to avoid words which are difficult to pronounce. He 
is likewise told to eliminate rhetorical devices that have value only to a 
reader; for the style of a news broadcast must remain orally effective. 

h. Sport programs. 

Sport broadcasts may be on-the-spot description of some athletic event, 
or a resume' giving the color of the occasion in an after-event broadcast. Of 
particular interest to a radio class is a descriptive account of some athletic 
event which purportly is coming over the telegraph service. The class may also 
write scripts that dramatize different sporting events. 

Obviously, the teacher as well as the pupil, to be successful in sport 
broadcasts, must have knowledge of sports in order to give competent judgment 
as to the value of the sport broadcast as well as its presentation in the school 
studio. Both need to prepare themselves for a sporting contest. The student 
should be directed in methods of gaining information previous to an event that 
appears over the air to be spontaneous. He should, likewise, obtain kinds of 
publicity available to him. He usually gathers ample material to be used in 
case the contest has been delayed or time is taken out either during or between 

A definite technique to sport announcements may be studied by listening to 
some of the prominent sport announcers of the country. The pupil will find 
that there are certain traditions developed in relation to the broadcast, for 
example, the announcer must present the event just as if the listener were ac- 
tually present at the contest. The announcer, however, is expected to emphasize 
the color of the event, yet he is not expected to have a prejudiced viewpoint. 
He should, however, have showmanship connected with sports broadcasting, ability 
to see the event from the angle of the listener, yet not neglect the viewpoint 
of the actual participants or the active audience. 

It is necessary, then, for the teacher of radio to give students a knowledge 
of writing the script for the sport broadcast, and presenting it in a manner that 
is pleasing to the listener. The radio class, can often serve as a laboratory 
for creative English, and in fact may work in conjunction with the. English tea- 
chers of the high school in arranging sport broadcasts over the central broad- 
casting system for instruction and purposes of amusement. 

5. Extempore speech programs. 

Extempore speaking, excepting perhaps in sport broadcasts, has been feared 
since the inception of radio. Practically every program is accurately controlled 


by what has .been placed in writing. The script allows proper supervision of con- 
tent and assures the program management of conformity to program policies, to 
legal obligations, and general notions of public good. Within recent years 
round table discussions allowing extempore speaking have been in vogue, but not 
every so-called unrehearsed program is truly extempore. , 

It is a common practice for a group that is appearing on an impromptu pro- 
gram to sit around a studio in free discussion while a recording machine cuts 
a record of what is being said. At the end of the informal proceedings > a sten- 
ographer makes a copy of the conversation directly from the record. Typewritten 
copies are given to the participants, and by mutual agreement material is added 
or omitted, but the informality of the discussion is strictly preserved. The 
revised copies are used by each person during actual broadcasting, and the gen- 
eral public gets the impression of an unrehearsed and purely extempore program. 
There are, 'however, certain professional shows that contain features generally 
given impromptu. Within the high school the extempore radio programs not being 
for the- public can preserve the spirit of spontaneity without endangering the 
school in any legal consequences. 

Certain high schools give extempore speech contests in connection with radio 
speech programs. Other schools often arrange to have some portion of the regular 
extempore speech courses given over the school microphone. Others employ extem- 
pore speeches much as regular public speaking classes uses impromptu speaking to 
relieve the strain of serious speeches, to allow injections of humor, to help 
students get away from faults found in reading manuscripts, and to allow more 
variety in methods of presentation. 

Extempore radio speech often creates interest for the adolescent; whereas 
the more formal types, restricted to more serious content, may at times become 
tiresome. Most radio classes can use some extempore programs as a balance to 
the radio play or the educational program, particularly by featuring supposedly 
sidewalk interviews, conferences with. the dean, a talk with certain athletes, 
or a discussion regarding some forthcoming play. 

6. The public service programs. 

A radio speech class should train students to participate in local public 
service, to write and to broadcast programs for the Red Cross, the library, 
organizations interested in paper collections, fire prevention, etc. Students 
should broadcast farm market reports; stock markets; weather predictions; local 
ball games; parades; concerts; news about school organizations, city officials, 
interviews, police courts, better business bureau, health programs, religious 
services, medical services, farm improvement, parent -teacher programs, political 
conventions, law enforcements, happening in the state assembly or in Washington, 
and sheriffs' departments; activities in local industries, banks, community rec- 
reation, community drives, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, YMCA, YWCA, charitable organ- 
izations and , fraternal organizations; in fact,, any type of program of interest to 
the radio station in building up a favorable public opinion for its programs, 
both commercial and sustaining. • •„ 

The success of a public service program often depends upon the type of 
audience that is secured previous to a specific broadcast. For example, a field 
agent of some agricultural activity often acts as an advance agent for types of 
broadcasting referring to specific farm problems. Weather reports are very im- 
portant to the farmer, the cattleman, or the fruit-grower. If these people are 
to tune in to a program concerned with effective agricultural methods, or home 
economics ,, not only to hear the weather report, but to gain information from a 


friendly intimate style of teaching, they will need at their disposal, manuals of 
instruction guides, outlines, and the like. When such material is available for 
these programs or any of public service, a listening public is assured. In fact, 
it has been organized to meet the requirements of a particular program. Stud- 
ents should become acquainted, therefore, with the mean3 used to develop an au- 
dience for the public service broadcasts. 

If outlines and reference material are important factors in securing an 
audience for these programs, they are equally of value in following up work 
after a broadcast. Parents may listen to a program and become stimulated to 
investigate the possibilities of a local library. If proper follow-up material 
is available to them, they may become interested in some community informational 
project, or book reviews. Other valuable projects could be acceptable to groups 
if effective follow-up methods were employed following a wide awake type of 
broadcast . 

Students of a radio class could for example write advance or follow-up 
material for some type of public service broadcast. They should prepare such 
subject matter after the study of good models. They may secure this content 
from the local library or they may get it by writing to some national programs 
which use such matter. The libraries of Des Moines, St. Louis, and Minneapolis 
have arranged timely book reviews which are in the hands of radio listeners dur- 
ing a public service broadcast. High school students of radio speech should find 
these reports excellent samples of what can be placed with the listeners. In 
fact, preparing and organizing a program of public interest is an important way 
of training a student for his civic responsibilities, and the skill in giving 
this kind of broadcast is excellent speech training. 

Equally important to the success of these programs is the co-operation a 
speech teacher can give a radio station by preparing and presenting programs 
himself. Even if the local station is of low power and does not cover a large 
area, an educational program directed by the speech teacher need not be insig- 
nificant. In fact, the program may be developed into a work of importance and 
of great service to any community. 

7. Children's programs. 

Children's programs include adventure stories given by professional perfor- 
mers, dramas and storytelling by children themselves, and programs relating to 
games, contests, and educational matter. The radio station today, realizing 
that it owes a debt to its community, aims to include in its listing public 
people of all ages. It is found that children's programs, demanded by both 
parents and parent -teacher organizations, have created many problems of policy. 

The radio station recognizes that the child is very much interested in en- 
tertainment, but he likewise seeks information, particularly when he has been 
stimulated by adults or by his fellows to an appreciation of how little he knows 
of certain subjects and how much he needs to know regarding other subjects. The 
main problem, however, for the manager, relates to a time factor. When do the 
children want knowledge and when do they want entertainment? Should they be 
given an educational broadcast on Saturday morning at a time now devoted to a 
story of adventure? 

The problem then, of the children's broadcast relates principally to these 
circumstances: the children want information, but do they want it by radio, 
when do they want it, and what type do they want, and who do they want to give 
it to them? Admittedly also, children are interested in the program of adventure. 


Can these programs be written and "broadcast with ethical values in mind? Can 
they be written full of adventure without creating an emotional strain upon the 
child? A further problem .for the schools as well as the radio station relates 
to who should administer the children's program, how it should be organized, and 
how financed. 

The radio controlled entirely by educational sources has placed programs 
over the air that educators feel are suitable to children and that children have 
accepted as pleasing to them. Many programs of the commercial stations generally 
condemned by parents and educators have a large audience of children. Whatever 
is to be done regarding the highly stimulating adventure stories will call for 
co-operative effort on the part of teachers, parents, and the radio organization 

The radio classes in high schools and colleges, however, must develop pro- 
grams particularly designed for children and give these programs before the 
grade children in their assembly periods or on special occasions. More experi- 
mental work can be conducted in both the college and high school regarding the 
type of program not only suitable to the child but pleasing to him. The child 
is interested ■ in the play that he likes. He is not always pleased with the play 
or story that the theoriest believes he should be. 

8. Poetry and interpretation programs. 

A radio class in high school will find that there is an advantage in devel- 
oping interpretation programs principally devoted to the reading of various types 
of poetry. The narrative poetry is particularly valuable in developing a direct 
radio manner. The pupil is taught to speak directly to his audience, to tell his 
story as if talking to a live audience, and to feel an audience reaction to each 
varied situation of the story. 

Dramatic poetry is especially valuable in drilling the student in microphone 
positions. He finds it necessary to develop characters that are appreciated by 
the audience, solely by the aural sense. To get situations of the poem clearly 
in the audience's mind, he cannot read a dramatic poem simply as an intellectual 
feat j he needs to arouse moods in the audience. Dramatic poetry, therefore, is 
valuable in developing a pleasing radio delivery. 

A particular interest of the high school student and his audience is the 
type of poem relating to folk lore, customs and manners. Songs, ballads, and 
tales of adventure may be given in the manner of story -telling or dramatized. 
If poems are dramatized, the scripts should be well written giving ample play 
to characters and to situations. Musical backgrounds may be secured and mech- 
anical effects built to create effective moods. Sometimes these scripts are 
written for the use of one person, but often they are arranged for a radio cast . 
The high school radio teacher might use poetry as a means of developing radio 
technique and also of giving cultural backgrounds to the pupils. 

9. Instructional programs. 

Many programs heard over the air are not designed especially for the class- 
room, yet are educational .by nature. They usually deal with making something 
familiar to the listener or making it impressive by repetition of ideas. Some 
of the programs mentioned as those of public service or those designed for 
children belong to the province of the instructional broadcast. 


The high school teacher of radio speech will find that his students are in- 
terested in preparing programs for special events; let us say, an informative 
program of concern to mothers. Some pupils may wish to write a series of "broad- 
casts dealing with the care and training of children; others might find value in 
a consumer's program, or a broadcast telling the "busy housewife how to "buy food, 
prepare menus, and use food efficiently. Similar programs may "be arranged for 
housekeepers regarding clothing, shelter, new "beauty care, or personality devel- 
opment. Pupils also might write programs concerned with prevention of disease, 
employment of leisure time, or responsibility of citizenship. 

Inasmuch as a high school pupil may need models of the instructional pro- 
gram, he can study the radio guides; then he can arrange to hear certain pro- 
grams. Sometimes the teacher can consult the daily newspaper in order to know 
in advance what is on the air and to make proper plans for radio reception in 
the classroom. 

The teacher of speech who wishes to develop instructional programs should 
become aware of some of the chief problems connected with educational broadcasts. 
'The first one, no doubt, is how to fit adult education into radio broadcasting. 
If the teacher wishes to train pupils for programs of educational worth he should 
see the broadcasting problem from the angle of the station as well as the list- 
ener. Some managers of commercial stations feel that in giving the listeners 
socially desirable information they are broadcasting programs of educational 
value. Others stress the point that a practical application of information is 
educational. Some observe that telling someone how to do something is an educa- 
tional program. Others feel that a program is educational when it presents a 
problem and a solution that stimulates an audience to a conclusion. 

As a result of these viewpoints, types of educational programs may be class- 
ified as the educational talk; the broadcast that exemplifies something; a pro- 
gram which dramatizes some action and the radio project which stimulates dis- 
cussion. Directing some person into an activity with explanations of it and 
tests concerned with skills have been applied to music, art and some of the 
sciences. Interesting broadcasts have been presented from actual places, for 
example, from a museum or a mine or a factory. Actual operations are described 
as taking place in real location and situation. 

In order to prepare instructional programs, the teacher uses the technique 
of building a show for the level of his audience. A program should be arranged 
to insure listening participation. For example, if. a lesson in arithmetic is to 
be given, the instructor' should time the rate of his talk to the actual studio 
audience that is taking- down notes and that is actually participating in the • 
same manner as the listening audience. When music lessons are given, direction 
should be timed with the actual work of a student in the radio studio. 

If vocational guidance, a popular subject for radio, is to be presented, 
the teacher should aim the broadcast to listeners who have an interest in the 
nature of certain professions or businesses. People want to know about working 
conditions, pay, necessary qualifications and other points such as opportunities 
for advancement, vacations, and social values. , Vocational guidance subjects can 
be given by talks, dramatizing' a subject, or employing an interview. Elementary 
science is of interest to a radio audience. Let the teacher have a studio audi- 
ence go through the operations presented to the listening public and he can then 
time his directions. History and geography may well be presented by dramatiza- 
tions. Speech can be taught by radio not only the subject matter but pronuncia- 
tion, enunciation, and arrangement of material. 


A successful broadcast in any particular subject answers the questions the 
average listener might ask, and stimulates further questions which may be an- 
swered by some educators or, at least, may be found in available material. A 
good instructor over the radio must understand the thought of hi3 listeners. He 
must formulate these thoughts in words more aptly than the average listener, can 
express them, and he must in answering questions stimulate activity. In other 
words, he must make audience participation of some educational worth. 

Various superintendents of city schools have prepared teachers' guides 
which are sent in advance of programs to instructors who make use of radio edu- 
cation. The prospective teacher of radio should collect samples of the various 
types of educational broadcasting* The United States Office of Education has 
many pamphlets dealing with this subject. A number of universities offer tea- 
chers' courses in methods and educational procedures of radio education. Cadet 
teachers should familiarize themselves with the content of these courses. 

Although the people of the United States are radio-minded and are accus- 
tomed to instructional broadcasts, they are not the only peoples who employ 
radio in mass education. Of great interest to the radio teacher should be the 
activity directed to educational purposes which is taking place in other parts 
of the world, particularly in Europe. This subject-matter can generally be 
found in current magazines and textbooks devoted to radio. 

d. Radio delivery. 

Some distinguishing features of delivery may be observed in radio presenta- 
tion. Some factors will be found common to any oral utterance, while others are 
noticed only in certain forms of the radio art. For the sake of simplifying the 
discussion of radio delivery, the subject matter may be treated under two heads: 
(a) announcing; and (b) acting. Inasmuch as the chief problems of radio delivery 
are concerned with the oral interpretation of written content, three important 
skills must be considered under each division: (l) vocal expression; (a) diction; 
(3) bodily expression. . 

1. Announcing.. 

The vocal problem arising in radio announcing may be considered from the 
viewpoint of the intensity, pitch, and quality of sound. 

The high school student should be well drilled in the chief characteristics 
of vocal intensity. As an announcer he can learn to use a volume consistent 
with his best vocal quality. Since the amplifier can make a voice loud or soft, 
the announcer must choose a position before the microphone which will give the 
listeners the most pleasing tone color. Learning to use the proper distance 
from the microphone, and seeking positions best adapted to further the interests 
of interpretation are important procedures for the student who wishes to acquire 
good tonal effects over the air. Announcers are cautioned neither to speak too 
far away from the microphone nor to come too near to it. The first procedure, 
in spite of mechanical amplification, may give an unpleasant hollow quality to 
the voice of the announcer. The latter practice may not only affect the speak- 
er's enunciation, but it may establish a tonal quality usually inconsistent with 
the mood of the continuity. If some speakers assume positions too close to the 
microphone, certain unpleasant partials of the tonal complexity may be amplified. 

The high school pupil should be cautioned against random changes before the 
microphone as such actions affect his vocal quality and volume, and often such 
practices interfere with the control that may be desired by the technical opera- 


tor. Any position before the microphone must "be chosen after due consideration 
of its effect upon the voice. Although the tendency today is to give the an- 
nouncer more freedom in movement "before the microphone, and to let the operator 
regulate the volume., better work is done when the- announcer and the operator 
co-operate in their work. Proper radio volume then depends upon two factors: 
(a) the microphone position of the announcer; and (b) the level of volume set 
by the operator of the amplifying system. Of course, the volume heard by the 
listener depends upon other technical factors, particularly the volume level 
of the receiving set. 

As far as the interpretation of the script is concerned, the announcer 
uses stress emphasis with much caution, otherwise he may create a jerky style 
of speech form. Emphasis by proper changes of pitch and by rightly timed pauses 
are particularly effective in radio announcing. Sometimes the writer of the 
script may use understatement as a form of emphasis. -The announcer should be 
prepared. to interpret vocally any device used to create emphasis and contrast 
in the continuity. In fact, training the announcer in right use of vocal in- 
tensity is an important part of any radio teacher's work. 

The announcer must learn to choose a characteristic glottal pitch suitable 
to the thought and mood of the content. This pitch must be easy to produce, not 
be strident and high, or sepulchre and low, but be replete with pleasing over- 
tones. Once a predominate pitch is chosen, and the right vocal level assured, 
the intervallic pitches and inflection should be maintained as in animated con- 
versation; yet not so intensified or excessive as often heard in formal public 

Mono-pitch is an irritable hindrance to good radio appreciation on the part 
of the listener. If this habit persists in a high school student, the teacher 
should have him underscore meaningful words and phrases. Then let him give vocal 
variation to discriminate scenes, situations, or ideas. Many professional radio 
speakers and actors underscore words in a script in order to impress the eye 
with some sign that will stimulate a vocal reaction. 

A set pitch pattern is a serious handicap to an announcer. If he attempts 
to secure vocal variation by the same mechanical pattern of high and low pitches, 
particularly raising or lowering the voice at certain fixed spots in a sentence, 
he will lose appropriate vocal quality, and flexibility of pitch changes. Since 
pitch variation is so important to the announcer, he should seek to develop his 
vocal range by appropriate exercises which generally are found in textbooks on 
voice and diction. Likewise, since the pitch of the voice is a property dir- 
ectly related to oral persuasion and appeal, drills should be given students 
which will effect meaningful intervallic modulation and inflectional variety. 
A nice sense of blending pitch, stress and pause give a rhythmical quality 
pleasing to the listeners. 

Some radio announcers seek a booming pectoral quality of voice, while 
others choose a metallic nasal tone. Although one must admit the tendency 
among radio announcers to accept certain styles of vocal quality as indicative 
of the mood of the continuity, or the policy of the advertiser, or perhaps the 
art notion of the announcer himself, one must likewise observe that treating 
vocal quality from the viewpoint of utility may eliminate a consideration of 
two other important factors :■ namely, (a) vocal quality in relation to the res- 
onances of vowels and consonants; and (b) vocal quality as determined by the 
number, variety and relation of the overtones comprising the tonal fusion. 


The teacher of radio speech should have a good background in the physics of 
sound in order to understand how each vowel and each consonant has its own char- 
acteristic frequencies. The color of the voice depends in part upon the correct 
pronunciation of each English vowel and consonant. Each linguistic element of 
a sound having its own fixed quality, gives in turn a quality to each verbal 
sign or symbol. This linguistic quality of voice is to be understood before a 
teacher can correctly analyze the problem of pronunciation and enunciation. 
He, likewise, realizes that tone color or vocal timbre can be explained better 
by establishing in a pupil's mind the nature of overtones, and the way the oral 
and nasal channels act in the production of these overtones. Finally he can 
indicate the consequences on vocal quality by functioning agencies that absorb, 
reflect, or refract sound, or change the size, shape, density and the texture 
of some resonating cavity. 

The third problem regarding vocal quality in relation to radio to be pre- 
sented to pupils is concerned with its application to (a) the microphone and 
other technical equipment; (b) the interpretation of the content; and (c) the 
reaction of the listening audience. The first two points have been previously 

The announcer learns to value the action of his vocal quality upon his 
: hearers. It may' be pleasing, yet not influence the sale of tobacco; it may sell 
fruit juice, yet drive away a customer for perfume. Since vocal quality is used 
generally in the service of some seller, it can do everything that a salesman 
-does with his entire personality when he enters a home, sells a product in some 
office or over some counter. 

Good vocal expression is not probable unless the announcer is given good 
readable continuity, yet a good rugged language may be written in the continuity 
and be expressed by some announcers in such a pompous manner that all effective- 
ness of the writing is lost. Good announcing requires a nicely balanced effort 
on the part of the announcer and the continuity writer. Both should know the 
implications in words. They must observe the awakening of intellectual atti- 
tudes when words are skillfully used for the purpose of denotation, and they 
should sense the effect of inciting of emotion when words are wisely chosen 
for their connotative values. 

An audience judges an announcement by a speaker's language and voice.- It 
likewise builds the qualities of the announcer's personality from his manner of 
speaking and his language. It gives an announcer not only physical character- 
istics on the basis of voice and language, but mental and emotional qualities - 
enthusiasm, optimism, weariness, boredom, tired, lazy and like marks of behavior. 
Since diction and voice of the announcer determine audience reaction, the student 
in the high school radio speech class should know the properties of his voice 
that are his assets. 

Radio has made the American people speech conscious; it has brought more 
public speaking before larger audiences than at any time in the history of ora- 
tory. Wo matter what limitations are natural to the microphone, or what liber- 
ties are taken with oral English, the fact remains that radio is providing the 
models and the examples of American speech. Good or poor as these models may be, 
they are being widely imitated and radio has become the chief means of unifying 
American speech. The announcer has great opportunity to influence the speech 
form of the American people. American speech is more homogeneous than people 
imagine, even though much twang, drawl and flatness abound in it. Although some 
local stations cater to regional dialects, more uniform pronunciation is heard 
over the larger stations. 


The microphone is an agent for standardizing the spoken word. But "before it 
can "be, the norm must he agreed upon. This is the speech of the cultivated 
people in any part of the country, not the local, not the "barbaric, not pedantic 
utterance. Those persons who have been schooled to accept the comparative stand- 
ard of English speech rather than the norm of local usage are not fearful that 
standardization means the destruction of vocal personality. They sensed the fact 
that any remark relating to inaccurate, careless, or incorrect utterance indic- 
ates that there is a norm to good pronunciation, and correct enunciation; and 
that purity of speech is a national asset, an expression of personal culture, 
and quality consistent with personal manifestation. 

When a high school student is told his speech over the microphone is inac- 
curate, careless, or incorrect, he realizes he needs good enunciation, and cor- 
rect pronunciation. For the first process he seeks good vocal drills to develop 
skill in the use of the organs of articulation. He avoids slovenly contractions, 
dropped endings, and misplaced accents. J 'eat? Ju ? Wy'n ch a, whad daya , whoya, 
better 'n at, have no place in an announcer's vocabulary. The ng sound at the 
end of many words should not become an n sound. List of words such as going or 
rag ing should be practiced until the final sound is well given. Word endings 
frequently mispronounced or wrongly enunciated are those ending in ment which 
become munt . Overstressing initial consonants, particularly compound sound, 
ch(tsh), j(dzh) ,, is a serious radio fault. Likewise grinding out r ' s ? hissing 
_s_' and lisping th's are disagreeable practices. 

The tendency to run words together will be noticed in radio speech. Slight 
changes of pitch between words, and more accurate use of inflection will remedy 
the difficulty. Yet often the breaks, hesitations and irregularities of every- 
day conversation can be made an effective part of announcing. Real faults, how- 
ever, should be avoided. 

The pupil should carefully watch any inclination to misplace accents on 
words used either as nouns or verbs. He should use the dictionary when in doubt 
about such words as survey , estimat e, protest, or perfect . He might make a list 
of such words and practice their pronunciation in sentences. He should further 
observe words beginning with the long e. sound; they often are carelessly changed 
to short e_. 

Although the importance of correct pronunciation, clear enunciation, and 
pleasing tonal quality cannot be overstressed, stilted pedantic enunciation is 
almost as undesirable as slovenly usage. Speech can be correct, clear, and 
melodious, yet, at the same, time, be easily and naturally spoken without the 
listeners aware of the techniques employed. 

The general run of faults in enunciation are usually 3.isted in texts con- 
cerned with radio speech. The teacher should consult these lists and make such 
application of them as will assure good enunciation and pronunciation in his 
radio speech classes. Since pronunciation is so important to the announcer, he 
should be drilled in the use of a dictionary (a point previously stressed in 
relation to the foundation course). Inasmuch as many difficulties arise from 
the attempt to pronounce the names of persons and places foreign to Americans, 
those sections of the larger dictionaries which are devoted to the pronunciation 
of foreign phrases, names and places should be well-known. Musical and technical 
terms are subject to mispronunciation. They should be studied so many terms at 
a time; and then when these phrases are found in the continuity, they may be 
checked for accuracy of signification and pronunciation. 


In the Interpretation of the intimate language of a script , an announcer 
speaks to an audience as if it were in the room with him. He is interested in 
his listeners, as they are interested in themselves. They have loved, sighed, 
and dreamed, in other words, they are intensively human. In any style of an- 
nouncing, the language must be understandable, simple, In current usage, and 
consistent with the type of product. 

The announcer does well to convey the impression "here is just the thing 
or idea that you (the select audience) always wanted." His delivery, therefore, 
cannot smell of the oil of preparation; it must be spontaneous, yet not suggest 
a talking down to an infantile group. To gain simplicity without indicating a 
desire to impress stupidity makes a microphone rehearsal as important to the 
announcer as to any actor. Since any oral interpretation of language Is subject 
to misinterpretation, it can never be too clear, or too truthful, or too tactful. 
Inasmuch as an announcement . is condensed, yet of good substance, the essential 
must be set forth from the accidental. 

Any announcement should be written with a full appreciation of the values 
in unity, coherence, emphasis, and variety. Propriety of words Is likewise im- 
portant. The business of the writer is to get into the continuity these good 
qualities of style, and the sole purpose of the announcer is to transfer every 
bit of goodness inherent in the script. The writer expresses ideas so that the 
audience can understand a situation or a problem; the announcer talks so that 
the audience must understand the advantage or disadvantage of a situation and 
be moved to specific action. 

If the script is properly typed and properly marked for expression, par- 
ticularly for vocal levels, inflections, and types of emphasis, better oral 
interpretation will be assured. The script should be typed with double space. 
No words should be crossed out or partially obliterated. No part of content 
should be placed in the margin nor should any parts of words be left in the 
final line at the bottom of the page. 

The announcer should have scripts properly timed, and this time should be 
recorded in the margin of the script for every thirty seconds of reading. He 
must keep within the period, yet avoid the strain. of speaking rapidly because 
the clock Is ticking off the seconds. To overcome the stress of speaking against 
time and in order to make the rate consistent with the interpretation of the con- 
tent, the student must be' well drilled in the fundamentals of reading. He cannot 
read words instead of evaluated ideas for an audience, which gets its content 
only from voice. Thought grouping, answering the questions who, or what, what 
about the who, when, where, why, and how is significant in this particular type 
of speaking. ', 

Gestures may be used in front of the microphone inasmuch as action helps 
the speaker get in the mood and keeps him in it. Yet mannerisms may interfere 
with voice production and even prevent proper placement of other persons in 
front of the microphone. All pantomime before the microphone must have utility 
value: (a) in improving vocal action; (b) in creating a better mood for inter- 
pretation; (c) in keeping an announcer in character and in situation. 

The radio speech teacher should follow some standard in his advice to the 
student announcer. The following is suggestive of questions that may lead to 
a proper evaluation. Is the speaker easily understood? Is his speech diffi- 
culty due to poor enunciation? Poor vocal conditions? Faults of pitch? In- 
tensity? Tone color? Eate? Some other reason? Is the speaker interesting? 
Is his subject interpreted poorly? Is the style formal or informal consistent 



with the subject-matter? Is his expression pedantic or childish? If you were 
free to do so, would you tune-out the speaker? Why? Is the speaker guilty of 
poor pronunciation? Is he able to arouse your interest? Why? Is it some per- 
sonal vocal characteristic? Is he uninteresting? Why? Is it some vocal man- 
nerism? Is the speaker able to amuse? Is he able to gain immediate contact 
with .you? Is he able to express the central idea simply and exactly? Is he 
able to give a unified viewpoint? In his use of emphasis and variety effective? 
Is he able to give the impression of fitting his announcement into the mood of 
the broadcast? Is the listener conscious of the length of the announcement? Is 
the speaker obeying all the radio regulations? Is he acquainted with the rules 
of the studio? Does he know the signals of the director or the operator of the 
program? Is his announcement typed on proper paper? Did paper rattle or crackle 
during the microphone appearance? 
2. Acting. 

Voices are characters,, and from the effect of vocal action must an audience 
visualize dramatic situations and locations. Yet an individual voice cannot 
have such variety of pitch,, intensity, or tone color, that it leads the audience 
into believing that many characters are in action. Vocal variety in relation to 
the individual character is strictly limited to what the audience will accept as 
the expression of one man. 

The acting technique of radio must allow actors their best vocal qualities, 
yet, at the same time, not interfere in any way with the interpretation accepted 
by the listener as vocal indication of the dramatic situation, the location, the 
development of character and the advancement of the plot. Any microphone posi- 
tion assumed by an actor must not make him appear to be some other character than 
the one the listeners have accepted as a consequence of his vocal expression at 
the beginning of the play. 

Obviously, a radio play must be cast according to voices. The director him- 
self should be ear -minded, and make his players forget their stage conceptions 
and become ear-minded also. He must cast a play and listen to It in rehearsal 
under the same conditions as it will be received by the listeners. Even his 
technical problems - those in relation to microphone position, the control of 
sound effects, the manipulation of mechanical factors involving mood and tempo 
of the play ■- must be solved from the viewpoint of how the audience will react 
to certain sound patterns. 

Acting is likewise important in the radio play. But the content itself is 
of equal importance. For example, poor dramatic material may sometimes be used • 
on stage because it may actually be Improved by good, acting, but radio material 
remains poor even if interpreted, by experts. In the matter of diction all 
straight characters have speech free from territorial peculiarities while char- 
acter actors may have dialects or speech deviations of all types. Actors talk 
to the last seat in the theater. In radio they talk to a microphone. All en- 
trances and exits are exemplified to the listener by the actors working in and 
out of set microphone positions. On stage an actor may pause; the audience sees 
the cause and the condition of this pause. Over the air an actor may pause and 
the listener will interpret it as lack of action. No audience will maintain its 
interest when it finds itself asking the question "What is happening now?". 
Pause over the air as well as any other vocal modulation must have meaning for 
the audience . 

The student who wishes to be successful must learn acting in detail. Many 
colleges are offering specific courses in radio writing, radio production, and 
radio acting. If the prospective teacher of radio is able to take up the proper ' 
subjects, he will be better able in his high school work to understand the proper 


casting of a play, to time it successfully, to make the dialogue natural and ef- 
fective, to choose the right type of radio play in view of plots pleasing to the 
average listeners, to secure mood and illusion, and, particularly, to train stud- 
ents in proper acting technique. He will know how to conduct effective rehears- 
als; to handle such problems as grouping actors before the microphone, securing 
crowd effects, and getting proper musical backgrounds; and to use such technical 
equipment as will further the effectiveness of this play. He will know, further- 
more, the forms of platform and dramatic art that have become successful mediums 
for radio production. He should be able to help the high school student write 
and direct his own plays, and finally, he will be more conscious of the educa- 
tional possibilities in the radio drama. 

e. Technical problems and solutions. 

The teacher of radio should have an understanding of the equipment used in 
radio transmission and receiving. He should likewise be able to explain to high 
school pupils the general principles of radio broadcasting and radio reception. 
He will find it to his advantage to know how to operate a central sound system 
and how to cut records. 

1. Principles of transmission. 

The teacher might illustrate to his radio class how the impulses developed 
in the microphone are carried by wire to the control board, located either in 
the studio itself or usually in an adjacent room. He can show how the operator 
amplifies volume, keeps it within certain prescribed limits, checks the quality 
of the program, and prevents various sound distortions. In demonstrating the 
means used to insure a program against various disasters, he can emphasize that 
even with this equipment, the studio performers, the studio operators, and the 
operators at the transmitter must work in co-operation. 

After illustrating how a program can be properly amplified and monitored, 
he may point out that it is carried by telephone lines to the transmitter, and 
if the program is to go over the networks, how it is carried by wire to trans- 
mitters in various cities and states. When possible, the teacher should have 
his class visit the transmitting station where it can be shown the various 
kinds of equipment that amplify and regulate the carrier wave and its accompany- 
ing speech or musical elements. 

2. Radio reception. 

It is not difficult to give a demonstration of radio reception. The aerial 
of a receiving set picks up the carrier frequency. The impulses which were de- 
veloped in the microphone at the radio studio are extracted from the carrier • 
wave." These impulses are then amplified and sent through the loud speaker. 

3. Public address system. 

A central control unit of a school sound system should be well known by the 
speech teacher. This amplified sound operation is a real necessity today in a 
school in that it can be used to train students and to aid the efficient admin- 
istration of the school itself. The control of the system is located in the 
principal's office. Inasmuch as many administrators assign the work of broad- 
casting to the radio teacher, he must be aware of the fundamental units of such 
a central control system. The working unit is composed of a microphone, the 
amplifier, and the classroom loud speaker. At the control box are. switches which 
serve to cut in any loudspeaker. 


A speaker may balk to any or all classrooms. Over the central control sys- 
tem may "be transmitted radio programs or recordings. The flexibility of the 
system insures selection of programs for particular classrooms or for the entire 
school. In case of fire or accident, the system "becomes an invaluable agency of 
safety. Mien large gatherings of people are present in the auditorium or gymna- 
sium, sound amplificators are efficient means of giving directions or information. 
For individual class instruction, many text books are available which give infor- 
mation on audio-visual education. The radio teacher should study the techniques 
of amplified sound and how best to transmit over the air such programs as choral 
work or band concerts as well as the regular educational programs. 

k. Weed of good equipment and skill on part of an operator. 

Sometimes high school programs are inferior because of the use of inferior 
equipment, but often the fault lies not in the equipment, but in the person who 
operates it without skill. Not everyone, for example, can cut a record. Record- 
ing requires more skill than placing a record on a machine. The operator must 
learn to give a pupil a proper position before the microphone, test his voice to 
be sure that proper pitch, intensity and quality will be recorded, and under- 
stand interpretation and radio acting in order to give him adequate directions 
of how to secure the best vocal results in front of a microphone. 

5. Sources of .technical supplies. 

The one in charge of recording should also be aware of the organized ef- ■ 
forts of educational companies engaged in selling records. These firms have 
catalogues which give lists of educational records dealing with music, history, 
literature, voice, speech, and the like. They have wall charts picturing vari- 
ous types of technical instruments, and instructional aids. They frequently 
are willing to give demonstrations of their equipment, and the types of records 
which they, are selling. They will suggest to the teacher records needed for 
supplementing radio instruction in the classroom, for sound effects during 
broadcasts over the radio, or central systems, or for specific purposes such as 
training students in better speech or voice. 

6. Broadcasting studio. 

Not every type of room is satisfactory for a recording or broadcasting 
studio. The speech teacher should consider that the sound reaching the micro- 
phone comes not only from the announcer or the actor, but from the surfaces of 
the room. Some rooms set up a reverberation or echo that persists. A type of 
sound wave often out of harmony with voice or the vibrations from the musical 
instruments may enter the microphone. . 

The room set aside for broadcasting or recording should be checked for its 
acoustical properties by some engineer who understands the problem of production. 
Some rooms may require sound absorbing material; yet others are too hollow or 
dead. Sometimes the shape of a room must be materially changed in order that' 
better radio quality may be secured. In any case, the teacher should realize 
that the acoustic condition of a studio when empty is not that of one containing 
an audience. A live studio may be deadened when clothing of the audience ab- 
sorbs sound. The problem then of securing the right type of room for radio 
purposes is important. When technical problems regarding acoustics arise, the 
teacher would do well to consult experts acquainted with the production diffi- 


7- Microphones, 

The older types of microphones - crystal, velocity , dynamic, might he ex- 
plained to the radio class. Each microphone has its own special advantage and 
disadvantage. The radio teacher should explain the construction of the present- 
day microphones and demonstrate them efficiently in broadcasts. It is impossible 
to arrange people properly around the microphone without knowing its character- 
istics and the extent of its directional sensitivity. In a radio play, particu- 
larly, the positions before the microphone are important. When two or three 
microphones are necessary for production, the director should place them to gain 
efficient production and also the transmission values. Musical broadcasts de- 
pend greatly for good effects upon good microphone placement. An orchestra or 
a band, for example, unless properly seated in front of the microphone, may be 
heard at a disadvantage over the air. Teachers of radio consequently must know 
(a) the construction of modern microphones; (b) their transmission capacities; 
(c) their proper placement; and (d) the effect of the room, the audience or 
other circumstances on reception. 

f . Radio law. 

The radio teacher will have a better background in radio if he reads the devel- 
opment of radio law. He should bring into his radio classes proper information re- 
garding the legal aspects of programs. Among the points that must be stressed in a 
radio class are the types of programs barred from the air by federal interdict, the 
law of libel, the rights of political candidates, and the procedures required by 
law for the announcer, the music director, program manager, and the chief technical 

Standards And Criteria To Judge The Educational Effectiveness O f Programs 

D esigned For Schools . 

■ For the last twenty years most information has been secured on the value of 
classroom instruction or auditorium programs from experiments conducted by educa- 
tional stations like the Ohio School of the Air or the University of Wisconsin or 
by cities like Detroit, Pittsburg, Chicago, and Los Angeles. These evaluations may 
now be briefly presented. 

a. Problems presented by educational broadcast. 

Educators now realize that the distinction between radio education concerned 
with classroom instruction and education dealing with a broadcast to adults in a 
home environment is real, and It must be considered before any educational program 
can be planned or organized. Some radio programs, while educational in nature, do 
not treat the content in close relation with a school subject and are not synchron- 
ized with the classroom schedule. A reason, then, is presented for programs that, 
by the nature of their purpose and administration, can be expected to interest a 
class, establish a unified course of instruction, maintain a single theme for each 
class period, and use the necessary psychological techniques for establishing ideas 
in the mind of the student. 

1. Classroom instruction. 

Not every teacher is capable of broadcasting programs, and not every tea- 
cher can write educational scripts. Radio instruction to the classroom requires 
the direction of experts who understand radio techniques as well as classroom 
requirements.' It presents information free from the domination of pressure 
groups or commercial radio stations. A radio teacher needs educational means 


to teach a subject and not merely to create interest in content. Some education- 
al programs admittedly create interest, encourage listening, and supplement class- 
room training, but true teaching can stimulate participation. Mere listening may 
be a harmful educational procedure. 

The speech teacher who is generally assigned to handle the central broad- 
casting or receiving systems or who has charge of transmitting educational pro- 
grams, must understand the best teaching procedure by means of radio. He may, 
for example, find it necessary to arrange quiz periods after a broadcast in 
co-operation with members of the teaching staff. Sometimes lesson sheets are 
required in connection with an educational program. A lesson plan may be impor- 
tant before a broadcast* Drills or follow-up procedures must be organized. 

Instruction by radio is a great help in developing the imagination of the 
student who during the broadcast is relatively free from controls and distrac- 
tions. He is free to enjoy his emotional reactions. However, to overcome any 
tendency to develop a habit of day dreaming the student must come under the in- 
fluence of activities which precede or follow a broadcast. These procedures 
must build up the student's reasoning, memory and volition. They are devised 
so as to provide for individual differences among pupils and to evaluate achieve- 
ment . ■_: • \ :..■: 

In preparing any educational script for a classroom, attention must be paid 
to such detail as locating an event and making a situation clear. What are 
people doing? Sitting down? Standing? In what mood are the characters? In 
the commercial script reiteration and amplification are used to sell products. 
These and other tools of rhetoric must be employed in classroom teaching to im- 
press upon students facts, ideas, and relationships. Su'nmarizing ideas, for 
Instance.^ is an important technique to be used in radio education. 

In fact, the more a. teacher studies, successful commercial broadcasting, the 
more he will learn means of malting classroom instruction by radio more effective. 
He should not, however, abandon the successful teaching methods of the classroom 
in search of novel untried ones. Admittedly, radio education can employ some of 
the techniques of the show business in selling itself to the people, yet an edu- 
cative process is not entirely similar to that used In arousing the affective 
states of man, a procedure common to radio advertising or radio dramatic produc- 

The radio teacher should be acquainted with the work of educational sta- 
tions and should write for available material as to programs, management and 
technical direction. If he is to be in charge of radio education in the class- 
room, transcriptions and the central receiving system, he must furnish superior 
programs; otherwise, taking the time of a class from its regular schedule of 
instruction cannot be justified. 

b. Norms for judging radio effectiveness in the classroom. 

Programs should be selected that not only contribute to the information of the 
student, his recreation or entertainment, but create within him a desire to initi- ' 
ate new activities. Educational values may be judged by a consideration of the 
following points: (1) what is the social significance of the theme, particularly 
its appreciation of democratic values, and how is it applied to social problems 
of the day? (2) what is the historical value of the program in clarifying the 
relation of the present- with the past? (3) what is the contribution of the .pro- 
gram to accurate knowledge and to a correlation and deeper appreciation of the 
present understanding of the student? (k) how does the program relate to the im- 


mediate work of a given class, for example, its possibilities for good drill mater- 
ial? (5) what is its technical advantage? (6) what is its cultural worth - acting 
values, characterizations, settings, vocabulary, types of information, emotional 
appeal? (7) what is its main motivation and what are the means used to secure it? 
(8) what does the program give to the class that other means of instruction could 
not so present or could do so imperfectly? 

The Radio Workshop 

The prospective teacher of radio can build a laboratory for the development 
and improvement of radio talent. He can encourage interest in community education, 
and recreation. He can render direct or indirect service to civic, industrial and 
farm organizations. In some areas the radio teacher can train community leaders 
in the techniques of broadcasting, particularly in the technical use of the micro- 
phone and the loud speaking systems. He, likewise, can work with local groups in 
furnishing radio programs for special occasions. 


1. What are some of the chief interests of a teacher of radio in high school in 

the present development of the radio industry? 

2. How does a radio program for adult education differ from one designed for the 


3. What should be a program policy for a high school radio class? 

k. What should be the educational content of the following programs: drama, news, 
sports, contests, public service, and children's plays? 

5. What is the chief problem in teaching a course in secondary education by radio? 

6. What technical information is important to the speech teacher? 

7. What is the purpose of a radio workshop in a high school? 

8. What problems arise regarding diction in radio speech? 

9. Discuss briefly the social aspect of radio. 

10. Give examples of radio plays that you believe are of interest to high school 


11. List five words which describe the 'listener's ability to detect sounds. 

12. Explain the formation of each vowel and consonant sound. 

13. How would you organize a Radio Committee in high school which would report on 

the suitability of radio programs? 
1^4-. Listen and distinguish the properties of sound: pitch, intensity, and quality. 

15. Write and present a series of room announcements to be given over the public 

address system. 

16. Demonstrate your ability to ; analyze and compare sounds made by two musical 


17. Where would you secure sound effects to be used in a radio play? 

18. Give an object talk based on a home economics, manual training, physics, or 

chemistry project. 
19- Observe in a radio address the transitional words and phrases used by the 
speaker. Discuss their types and values. 

20. List the persuasive words used in a radio talk of your own choice. Notice 

particularly the selection of verbs. 

21. Report on a comparison of the following three textbooks on radio script 

writing: Barnouw, E., Handbook of Radio Writing ; Crew, A„, Professional 
Radio Writing ; and Wylie, M., Radio Writing . 

22. Discuss: Radio in the Classroom . Cf. Radio Committee of Dep't. of Elementary 

School Principals or N.E.A., - Washington, Dep't. of Elem. School Principals, 
N.E.A., p. 198, 19^0. ■ • 


23. Analyze and describe effective radio voices. 

2k. Compare the content on any particular phase of radio from two texts listed in 

the references. 
25. Consult: Radio C ourse - Suggested Outline For One Semester, (Q.J.S., v. 2k, 

April, 1938 ) . 


Abbot, W,, Handbo ok of Broa dcast ing R ev. Ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 1949). 

Baker, -D. T., A P ronouncing Pocket Manu a l of Musical T erms (New York: G. Schirmer), 

Baldwin,- B., Broa dcasting as a High School Ac tivity Bull. Dep't. of Second. School 
Principals,' Nov. 19 37. 

Barnouw, E., Handbook of Radio Production (Boston: Heath, 19^9 )• 

British Broadcasting Corporation •- B roadcast English: Recommendat i ons t o Announ c- 
ers , London, 1932-1937. 

Brocker, R. J., Plann ing bhe Sc hool Rad io and Pub li c Addre ss System, (American 
School Board Journal v. 97:39, Sept. 193>8). 

Brooks, W. F., Radio News Writi ng (New York: McGraw Hill, 1949). 

Bulletin: Ha ndbook of Sound Effects, U.S. Office of Educ . , Washington, D. C, 1958. 

Callahan, J. W„, Radio Workshop For Chi ldren (New York: McGraw Hill, 19^9)- 

Cantril; H., and Allport, G., The Psychology of Radio (New York: Harper, 1935). 

Carlile, J. S., P roduction and Direction o f Radio Prog rams (New York: Prentice 
Hall, 1939). 

Chicago Radio Council Handbook - Th e Teacher and the Radi o Program, (Chicago: 
Board of Education, 1940 ). 

Crews, A. R., Professional Radio Writing (New York: Houghton, 1945 ) • 

Crews, A. R., Radio Production Direction (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1944), 

Eddy, W. C, Television, (New York:™ Prentice Hall, 194-5). 

Elson, L. C, Elson's Music Dictiona ry, (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1945 ) . 

Ewbank, H. L., and Lawton, S. P., Projec ts For Radio Speec h (New York: Harper, 

Farjeon. H., Musical Words Explaine d (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1933). 

Gibson, P., Handbook for Amateur B roadcasters (Pittsburgh: Scholastic Publica- 
tions, 1937). 

Gilmartin, J. G., E veryday Errors in P ronunci ation (New York: Black, 1936). 

Glasgow, R. S., Principles of Radio E ngineering (New York: McGraw Hill, 1936). 

Harrison, M., Radio in the Classroom "(New York": Prentice Hall, 1937). 

Herzberg, M., Radi o and the English T eacher (Bull. Nat'l. Council of Teachers of 
English, 1937). 

Hoffman, W. G., and Rogers, R., Effecti ve Radio Speaking (New York: McGraw Hill. 

Holt, A. H., American Place Names (New York: Crowe 11, I938). 

Hubbell, R., Television: Pro gramming and Production (New York: Murray -Hi 11 
Books, I9457T - 

Hutchinson, L., Standard Handbook For Secretaries (New York: McGraw Hill, I936). 

Keith, A., How To Speak and Write F or Radio (New York: Harper, 1944). 

Kercheville, F. M., Practical H andbook of Pronunciat io n, English a nd Spanish 
(Albuquerque, N. M. : The Univ. Press, 19 36). 

Lawton, S. P., Radio Continuity Types (Boston: Expression, I938). 

Leat herwo od , D . , Journal i sm on the Air ( Mi nne apol i s : Burge s s , 19 39 ) . 

Levenson, W., Teaching Thro ug h Radio fNew York: Rinehart, 1946). 

Krapp, G. P., T he Pronunciation of Standard English in A merica (New York: Oxford 
Univ. Press) . 

Lloyd, J. A., T he Broadcast Wor d (London: Trench, Trubner, 1935). 


Mackey, M. S., and Mackey, M. G., Pronunciatio n of 10,000 Pro pe r Nam es (New York: 

Dodd, Mead, 1922). ~ 

Mawson, International Book of Names (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 193^-). 

McGill, E., Eadio Directing (New York: McGraw Hill, 19^+). 

McGill , E., How Schools Use Radio (Dep't. of Information, National Broadcasting 

Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York), 
Midgley, N., The Advertising and Business S i de of Radio (New York: Prentice Hall, 

Opdycke, J. B., Don't Say It : a Cyclope dia of En glish Use and A buse (New York: 

Funk and Wagnalls, 1939) • 
Phyfe, W. H., P utnam's 20,000 Words Often Mis -Pr onounced, Rev. Ed., (Putnam's Sons: 

New York, 1937). -—-■•- - ; 

Riley, D., Handbook of Radio Drama Techniques (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards, 1939) • 
Vi z et elly , ' F . H . , Desk Bo ok of 2^,000 Words Frequently Mis -Pron ounced (■ New York : 

Funk and Wagnallsy 1929). 
Waller, J., Radio,' The Fifth Estat e (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, I9V7). 
Weaver, L., The Technique of Radio Writing (New York: Prentice -Hall, 19^9) • 
Willey and Young, Radio in Elementar y Edu cation (New York: Heath, 19^8). 
Wylie, M. , Best Broadcasts (Different Years) (New York: McGraw Hill). 




The person with confidence is likely to have better 
control of his voice. Responsive co- 
ordination implies self-control , - - GURRY 



Province of the Field 

a. Determination of the Scope 

Classificat i ons o f Spe ech De fects and Spe ech Dis ord ers 

a. Distinction of Terms 

b. The Broad Classifications 

1. Loss of voice 

2. Loss of speech 

3. Faults of voice 
k. Faults of speech 

The _ Problem of Pi a gnos is, Prognosis, and Meth ods of Cure 

a. Physical 

b. Functional 

c. Psychological 

1. Depression 

2. Anxiety 

3. Defense Mechanisms 
h. Compensation 

5. Sublimation 

6. Rational behavior 

d. Environmental 

e. Securing Data 

1. Interviews 

2. Other means 
Respo nsibilit y fo r Co rrection 

a. A Speech Specialist Required 

1. Training 

2 . Adrai ni s t r at i o n 

b. Relation of the Classroom Teacher to Speech Correction 
-'•' 1. Cases to be retained in the classroom 

2. Cases' to be referred to specialists 
T he Obligations Toward the Su bnormal 

a. In Relation to the Child 

b. In Relation to the Parent 

c. In Relation to the State 
V isual Aids in Speech Correction 
Mechanical Aids in Speech Correction 

Speech deviations have been of interest to teachers over a period of many 



References to stammering, lisping, and stuttering were made "by Aristotle, 
Cicero, Hippocrates, Galen, Calallus, and- others. Roman historians have spoken of 
stutterers and even of the treatment recommended for them. In the eighteenth cent- 
ury much medical literature was presented particularly, on,, the ..problems of aphasia, 
lisping, and stuttering. Much research _ into the former. works of men like De 
Chauliac (Italian surgeon I336) was „ undertaken... . In the nineteenth century, Itard, 
Arnott, Wyllie, Bastian, Miiller, and others explained the nature of stuttering. 
Methods were suggested that varied from surgery .to medical treatment, and from hyp- 
notism to psycho-analysis. 

The twentieth century, principally "because of improvements in the methods of 
research and in equipment, saw a great change in diagnostic methods and in the use 
of mechanical devices for the purposes of tests and measurements. Advances in ab- 
normal psychology were reflected in the applied field of speech correction. Since 
1920 it has become more' and more a separate field of study with its own particular- 
ized content, teaching methods, and research techniques. 

Various aspects of the speech problems associated with kinds of defects and 
disorders have in the past forty years been studied by men like Walter B. Swift who 
recommended in 1916 that speech clinics be established in the country, like Elmer 
Kenyon of Chicago who undertook research into the psycho -muscular mechanisms in- 
volved in speaking, and like Blanton who became interested in the psychological 
aspects of speech defects. Some correct ionists became vitally interested in the 
physical aspect of speech disorders, while others became engrossed with their psy- 
chological import . 

Not only did the twentieth century bring new theories into the field, but it 
saw the establishment of new administrative and teaching units in state and city 
organizations, as well as departments for the training of correction! sts in colleges 
and universities. Modern interest in speech deviations has aroused a broad social 
view under the influence of the recent findings of social psychology. This growth 
of the sociological conception of speech has been co-incident with the plea for 
educational advantages for all in this country. 

Province of the Field 

Some teachers, as well as parents, have confused ideas as to what constitutes 
the province of speech correction. Although in purpose and in method the two fields 
°f s peech improvemen t and speech correction may overlap, a distinguishing differ- 
ence - which must be noted in order to set the boundaries of the field of speech 
correction, and to establish the purpose of the correct ionist, as well as his meth- 
ods in both diagnosis and cures - exists. The aim of speech correction is the phys- 
ical, mental, emotional, and social rehabilitation of students whose speech is below 
the standards established for the normal child insofar as such rehabilitation can 
be effected by proper speech training. Speech correction, then, seeks to train a 
child whose defective speech will prevent him from enjoying social, educational, 
and economic opportunities, and whose speech may be a contributing cause to a train 
of psychological maladjustments and disorders. 

a. Determination of the scope. 

Speech correction deals with the deviations in speech; yet obviously there are 
types and degrees of speech abnormalities in persons. The retarded child is not 
normal, because he" cannot function in the classroom like his fellows in meeting the 
requirements of this or that grade; however, he may be normal in many of his mental 
and physical functions. His speech problem is symptomatic of his retardation. The 
average speech teacher without special training can be of little assistance to him. 


The pupil securing an excellent grade in history may be unable to meet the nor- 
mal requirements of his course in grammar. Lacking attainment in grammatical usage , 
he will suffer in his speaking. His speech problem is symptomatic of a certain 
mental condition, habit, or environmental influence. The average speech teacher can 
be of great assistance to him. 

1. Province excludes speech improvement. 

The province of speech correction, therefore, does not include speech im- 
provement, if this term is understood to embrace improvement in diction - the 
effective and correct use of words; improvement in voice - the more elegant and 
cultured use of the vocal mechanisms; improvement in body - the more graceful 
and purposeful use of bodily expression. That province belongs to the speech 
teacher. But if some defect or disorder relating to voice or speech requires a 
skill in diagnosis, a skill in determining a method of cure, and a skill in the 
matter of determining the type of specialist who is qualified to handle the prob- 
lem beyond the skill usually attributed to the speech teacher, then it falls 
within the province of the correct ioni st . The scope of speech correction is then 
greatly determined by (a) the seriousness of the impairment; (b) the type of 
impairment; and (c) the skill involved in the educational procedures required 
to assure some student of his best social and personal efficiency. 

Classifications of Speech De fect s a nd Speech Disorders 

There are many classifications of speech impairments, but for the purpose of 
this chapter they may be divided into their broader outlines. The term defect must, 
first of all, be distinguished from the term disorde r. 

a. Distinction of terms. 

A defect relates to some physical insufficiency or malformation of structure. 
A cleft palate, for example, is a defect in the oral channel which interferes with 
the proper formation of speech sounds. A disorder, on the other hand, is primarily 
associated with some fault of function. The machinery involved in speech is ade- 
quate, but because of physical or mental conditions, it does not properly function. 
This distinction between a defect and a disorder is important, not only in realiz- 
ing the possibilities of a successful diagnosis, but in determining the probabil- 
ities of a cure. 

Defects sometimes are removed by surgical means or medicinal care but fre- 
quently cannot be remedied. The patient, , therefore, must depend upon compensatory 
means or accept his difficulty with fortitude and patience. Some people are born 
lacking in palatal structure; consequently, unable to close off the nasal pharynx, they 
develop an objectionable type of nasality. .-By educating the tongue to a more re-' 
laxed position in the formation of certain back vowels and by proper action of the 
velum, a less distasteful type of nasality may be secured. Sometimes the teeth are 
formed in such positions that, even with skilled dental care, they are unable to be 
brought into a proper occlusion; however, a more exact and skillful use of the 
tongue - let us say in the formation of an s - compensates for the difficulty so 
that a person might be able to give a certain normal element to this consonant. 

A disorder in contrast to a defect is functional. Stuttering, for example, 
seldom involves any physical defects, but it is a functional disorder that may have 
its cause arising in a physical, a mental, or an emotional state. 


b. The broad classifications. i ■ 

Before a more accurate determi nation can "be made of persons who should benefit 
by speech correction, the defects and disorders may well be classified. Broadly 
presented, they may be listed as (l) loss of voice; (2) loss of speech; (3) faults 
of voice; and (k) faults of speech. 

1. Loss of voice. 

Problems arising from loss of voice (aphonia) are seldom presented to the 
high school teacher. While this disaster is common enough to speech clinics in 
its serious implications, it seldom comes to the attention of the average speech 
teacher, except insofar as it may arise. from hysterical conditions. Aphonia, 
related to a psychic disorder, is frequently used to attract attention and to 
create sympathy for the patient. It is often an escape mechanism set up for a 
plausible withdrawal from some unsatisfactory environmental situation. Its 
causes, then, can be both physical and psychological. When it arises from phys- 
ical causes, it is generally pathological in its nature. For example, it may be 
the consequence of acute laryngitis, a paralysis of the vocal folds, tuberculo-' 
sis, cancer, or syphilis. Broadly speaking, any vocal condition persisting for 
more than two weeks should be called to the attention of a doctor. A hoarseness 
that improves for a time only to return with greater intensity is particularly a 
bad symptom, inasmuch as such a condition may be followed by loss of voice. 
Sometimes this is associated with excessive fatigue, but more often it results 
from a continued abuse of the vocal mechanism. 

Usually a loss of voice related to an hysterical condition disappears with 
the cessation of the emotional disturbance. This is particularly true of emo- 
tional upsets not strongly incited and of a slight duration. In these cases, a 
kindly attitude on the part of a speech teacher towards the emotional individ- 
ual may help restore the normal vocal responses. However, not all loss of voice 
due to hysteria can be so quickly remedied. Often such a condition requires the 
service of a psychiatrist. Sometimes a patient may gain his voice only to sub- 
stitute for loss of voice some other difficulty that secures for him greater 
sympathy or a like satisfaction, or he may become stubborn, resisting all at- 
tempts to remove what has become his valuable asset in furthering his purpose. 
Sometimes the use of more drastic forms of persuasion is necessary. In most 
instances, some face-saving device may furnish the needed incentive for a return 
to normal vocal action. 

In any case where loss of voice •continues more than a few days, the problem 
should be referred to a trained correctionist . He is competent to detect phys- 
ical symptoms determining whether they have an organic or mental basis. 'If they 
indicate organic origin, the patient may "be referred to a capable doctor; if 
functional, they are subject to the treatment of the correctionist, or if neces- 
sary, to the guidance of a specialist in psychotherapy. 

2. Loss of speech. 

This disorder, like the previous one, may arise from physical impairments 
or emotional upsets. Aphasia, for example, involves a disturbance in the sens- 
ory or motor areas of the brain. Being a serious disorder it does not belong 
to the province of the speech teacher but to the correctionist and often to the 
teacher of remedial reading who most frequently, must work out the problem in 
conjunction with the medical specialist. It is important that aphasias including 
alexias and agraphias should be discovered early and subjected to training. 


The deaf mute is unable to speak, not because of any deficiencies in the 
speech mechanism itself or in the brain, but because in not hearing speech 
sounds, he lacks auditory images. When he succeeds in obtaining visual or kines- 
thetic images, his speech education begins. Broadly speaking, practically' all 
cases of loss of speech belong to the province of the correct ionist. Occasion- 
ally, some transient emotional condition may, for the time being, make a person 
speechless, but this condition seldom remains for any length of time. 

J. Faults of voice. 

Those faults may be subdivided into those relating to pitch, quality, and 
intensity. Many of these disorders respond to the treatment employed by the 
average speech teacher in his daily class work in speech improvements. In fact, 
remarks about them comprise the substance of much advice in voice classes. 
These disorders, however, may be related to serious physical impairments or 
psychic involvements. When faults of voice do not respond to the usual treatment 
as given by a competent speech teacher, they should be referred to the correction- 
ist who, after a careful diagnosis, may find it necessary to refer certain cases 
to medical specialists. 

Pitch faults are related to wrong methods of vocal production, but they may 
also be caused by a hearing impairment. Frequently, the cause of a pitch fault 
can be found in a lack of physical health and vitality or in a certain, inadequacy 
in meeting the daily conflicts of life. The average speech teacher can assist a 
student to remedy mono -pitch, or help him acquire changes in pitches or show him 
the significance of the various forms of inflections, yet not be able, in other 
instances, to establish causal factors for these faults. This latter situation 
is particularly true when pitch faults have become associated with strong emo- 
tional reactions or with functional maladjustments. 

Faults of quality may arise from a defect or from some wrong function. It 
may have its cause in adenoids, nasal obstructions, a paralyzed velum, or a wrong 
or sluggish use of the soft palate, or in a tension created within the larynx it- 
self. Nasality may be a product of imitation, a result, perhaps of some inferior 
environment, or be in itself a symptom of an attitude or a specific state, or de- 
gree of hypertension. As a general rule, the procedure in diagnosing faults of 
quality is as follows: (a) a check upon the speech mechanisms, and, if necessary, 
a complete physical examination; (b) tests for functional disorders; (c) tests 
for hearing deficiencies. Remedial work consists in establishing correct breath- 
ing habits, specific functions for the soft palate, and proper vocal production. 

Faults of intensity are associated with mis -use or improper functions of the 
extrinsic musculature of the larynx or by wrong breathing methods. Voice fatigue, 
for example, common to professional users of voice, and even to students, is fre- 
quently brought about by an effort to speak loudly and distinctly. Like many 
other faults of voice, it may have its cause in physical conditions, functional 
use, or psychic attitudes. Faults of intensity, for instance, may arise as a 
consequence of specific personality behavior - timidity, or arrogance. 

Although much work may be done by the speech teacher in training the voice 
for better use of ,its intensity and resonance, he should not disregard condi- 
tions that call for a general physical examination, or an audi ometric test, if 
hearing deficiencies are suspected, or the application of the principles of 
mental hygiene. When he is sure that the subjective norm of the student is 
faulty, he can substitute an objective determination for it. This procedure is 
often beyond the capabilities of the average speech student particularly in an 
involved case of defective vocal production or with its consequent resonation. 


Generally speaking, three conditions call for reference to a correct ioni st : 
namely, the lack of response on the part of the student to the average exercises 
given by a speech teacher; the continuation of the condition; and the seriousness 
and type of the impairment. No case of a serious vocal disorder should be sub- 
jected to treatment without a proper laryngological study being undertaken. 

k. Faults of speech. 

This group of speech disorders comprises the larger: part of speech improve- 
ment as well as speech correction. Since speech has communication as its pur- 
pose, any disturbance which prevents language and expression from being under- 
stood, or any factor which destroys its effectiveness, calls for a remedy. Baby 
talk, for example, although generally cured in the grades, may be found in some 
measure even in high school students. It may have many social implications, 
principally because the student may feel that it establishes certain social ad- 
vantages. Although a student with infantile speech might find it necessary to 
relearn certain vowels and consonant positions, he generally must be persuaded to 
change his social outlook; he must realize that his speech manner does not bring 
him good social returns. 

Foreign dialects, difficulties of enunciation, sluggish or pedantic utter- 
ance, and stuttering may all be classified under faults of speech. Few speech 
teachers are adequately trained to handle all the problems that arise in rela- 
tion to this class of disorders. They may be able, and generally do, help a 
student with this or that fault of enunciation; but in the speech class with its 
normal complement of students, the speech teacher in high school seldom can af- 
ford the time required to give proper treatment to dialectic defects. On the 
other hand, the correctionist should not be given cases which concern that pro- 
nunciation considered by some teacher as unsatisfactory English. 

The speech teacher may find that the average high school student will re- 
spond to methods of training that improve his pronunciation and enunciation, 
but sometimes the instructor may feel that the causes of the speech faults lie 
deep in some physical or even mental conditions. He may find, for example, 
that hard of hearing may be a contributing cause to faults of enunciation. The 
patient may have a loss of hearing within the frequencies related to the letter 
_S. Inasmuch as his aural discrimination is impaired by this hearing loss, the 
patient cannot make the finer distinctions in consonants bordering on this fre- 
quency range, and he devises a speech pattern consistant with his own hearing. 
If physical defects, caused by structural anomalies or serious functional dis- 
turbances or defects caused by paralysis are indicated as causal or contributory 
factors in relation to faults of speech, students with such faults should be 
referred to the speech correctionist. 

Stuttering, or stammering, as some people prefer to call it, is a disorder 
of such serious consequence to the patient that its cure should not be attempted 
by any other than the speech specialist. Although some symptoms of stuttering, 
the discernable phenomena, respond to the kindness and interest of the general 
teacher, many false ideas regarding stuttering have come to the general run of 
stutterers from kind but ill-informed persons interested in guidance. Few phys- 
icians feel themselves competent to give opinions regarding stammering. Usually, 
however, pediatricians and child psychologists understand the nature of the dis- 
order, and they are competent to explain the problem to the patient or to par- 
ents. They are generally the first to refer these patients to the speech special- 
ist. When stuttering is discovered in a high school pupil, he should not be 
treated by the speech teacher as this work is not in his province. 


The stutterer himself, nevertheless, Is a problem to the teacher who is at a 
loss to determine whether or not the stutterer should engage in speech activities 
of the class according to the standards set for the average pupil. Although each 
individual case must be settled on its own merits, a general principle may be en- 
unciated; namely, no stutterer should be allowed to escape from his obligations 
when he is using stuttering as a means of evading his duties. If a stutterer has 
been shown some of the basic steps which bring about cures, and if he is faith- 
fully following directions, he should attempt speech work that is not beyond his 
present capacities. It is unnecessarily cruel, however, to compel a stutterer to 
recite or give a speech when he himself is at a loss to understand what he is do- 
ing wrong, or what he should do to speak normally. If he really wishes to be 
cured, he will undergo a course of treatment, and he will follow procedures out- 
lined for him. He will be told how much speaking to engage in and what situa- 
tions to avoid.. It is well, then, for teachers to follow the directions given to 
them by the correctionists which relate to their part in the rehabilitation of 
the stutterer. 

The stutterer who persists in taking up the time of the class by his futile 
attempts to talk, or who desires to continue some anti -social conduct should be 
made to realize that he deserves no sympathy. He is suffering in some way from 
a psycho -physical complex which generally can be discovered by a competent cor- 
rectionist, assuming of course that the patient is willing to co-operate with 
his instructor in performing the tasks assigned to him. The stutterer needs to 
understand his own problem, his faulty way of speaking, his erroneous way of 
judging people, his selfish way of responding to social situations, and his fail- 
ure to evaluate environmental circumstances. 

Lisping may be matter of wrong function, a consequence of some structural 
condition, or even a psychological disturbance. As a simple speech fault, it can 
be cured by simply showing the student the proper position of the tongue and lips 
in the formation of the _S sound and by contrast the formation of the TH sound. 
But lisping is seldom only a speech fault. Like baby talk it has a social sig- 
nificance. Some people lisp simply because they think it is the thing to do. 

For every student who may suffer from gland disturbance which may induce 
some sluggish activity of the tongue, or for every student who has a mal-forma- 
tion of the palate, ten students will lisp because lisping is acceptable to them. 
Some students tense the jaw and tongue in articulating the _S_ sound because basic- 
ally their attitude towards speech is pedantic; others assume lisping begets 
favorable comment or even attracts agreeable actions to them. 

If stuttering is difficult to correct, lisping is doubly so. For unlike the 
stutterer who sooner or later comes to believe that his difficulty is undesirable, 
the lisper frequently finds some social advantage in his behavior. If lisping is 
not associated with a physical defect or tongue function, not completely under- 
stood by the student, it is embedded in an attitude of mind that prevents the 
cure of lisping until such time as it can be changed. If lisping Immediately 
responds to the treatment of the speech teacher, he should continue with the case; 
but, for the most part, he should refer students with this fault to the correc- 
tionist . 

The Proble m of Diagnos is, Prognosis, and Methods of Cure . 

A successful diagnosis often indicates the method, of a cure. As a matter of 
convenience the factors 'of diagnosis may be divided into the physical, the func- 
tional, the psychological, and the environmental. The prognosis relates to fore- 
casting the progress of the disorder, its usual termination, and the possibilities 


of Its cure. The method of cure of treatment is to he judged entirely by its ef- 
fectiveness in establishing a cure. 

a. Physical. 

Many speech defects arise from physical causes or may he symptomatic of more 
basic pathological conditions or structural defects. Nasality, for example, may he 
a condition arising from a defective structure of the septum and the turbinate 
bones. Perseveration, or the repetition of words, may be a consequence of a tumor 
in the temporal lobe of the brain. Generally speaking, although the symptoms of 
certain speech disorders may be apparent, the speech teacher should not assume that 
his diagnosis of physical causes is always correct. 

A case in point relates to difficulties associated with hard of hearing. A 
speech teacher may be certain that a student has difficulty with certain sounds, 
because of his hearing deficiencies, and his judgment is affirmed by an audiometric 
test; nevertheless the data presented by the audiogram must be carefully analyzed 
to determine the correct therapy. Often more than one test will be necessary before 
a teacher can be sure that he is not dealing with some temporary pathological con- 
dition, or with some deeper problem of speech perception. A well -trained correc- 
tionist is able to suggest to a patient means by which he can utilize fully the 
remnants of his hearing, or suggest techniques by which he can develop other senses 
to assist him with speech functions. 

When physical defects are suspected, reference to reputable physicians is the 
ordinary procedure for the classroom students. Frequently, a speech teacher has 
access to health records which indicate whether or not a certain disorder has been 
treated by the physician. In many cases the type and length of treatment may be 
indicated, or the reference suggested. 

b. Functional. 

Since many speech defects are functional in their nature, symptoms may indicate 
the extent of the disorder. In remedial work, many of the ordinary faults of the 
voice or speech might well be listed under speech improvement. Often, however, the 
average speech teacher will be unable to discover the distinguishing symptoms of 
the defect or disorder. To illustrate, a stutterer will go through a very definite 
pattern of speech and bodily movements involving the extrinsic muscles of the lar- 
ynx. The trained correctionist, knowing the functions of muscles involved in speak- 
ing, will be able to indicate definite types of relaxation exercises or like remed- 
ial procedures; whereas, the regular speech teacher might prescribe remedies either 
too general or unsuitable to the particular case. When a speech correctionist 
doubts his ability to diagnose a functional or a pathological disturbance, he does 
not hesitate to refer his patient to a qualified physician. A general rule that may 
well be followed by the high school speech teacher is to determine early whether 
technical exercises are producing satisfactory results; if he has any doubts about 
the success of his procedures, he should refer his problem to the correctionist. 

c. Psychological. 

The psychological aspect of most speech disorders, though often centered in 
certain physical conditions, requires a careful analysis. Inasmuch as a speech 
difficulty may be only a sign of a more basic condition, the high school teacher 
may fail to recognize the' symptom in relation to some of the psychological factors 
associated with abnormalities. A speech symptom may indicate a behavior sought by 
a patient attempting to solve some particular conflict. There are some six general 
ways employed by people who, when face to face with some barrier, must find the 
solution to their problems. 


1. Depression. 

When some people are not able to solve their immediate problems, they seek 
an escape into a dream world or into a meditation upon things pleasing to them. 
They may show various symptoms of depression and may go so far as to develop cer- 
tain manias. Depression, as a means of meeting a problem, does not solve it. 
The problem remains and the various forms of escape often are multiplied with or 
without satisfaction until such time as the problem can be removed effectively 
from the mind. 

2 . Anx:i ety . 

This state, arising from an attempt by an individual to remain in a state 
of doubt, is a common symptom in patients with speech disorders. Like depres- 
sion, anxiety offers no solution in the settlement of any problem. It may, by 
the bye, become a state of worry in which there is some satisfaction in simply 
remaining in it. 

3- Defense mechanisms. 

These are commonly met by a correctionist attempting a diagnosis of some 
disorder. Unlike anxiety and depression, they do offer, at least for the time 
being, some solution to a problem. Invariably, however, the patient himself 
becomes dissatisfied with his own excuses, and he seeks other means to bolster 
the position that he has taken. In the long run, he must look for more rational 
solutions than the irrational defenses which he has established. 

k. Compensation. 

This is another means that people use to avoid some pressing difficulty. 
They are willing to give up anything provided they get the equivalent in satis- 
faction. After recognizing that compensatory means are more partial, or at 
least temporary solutions, they either look forward to more rational procedures 
or choose one of the other illogical means of meeting a problem. 

5. Sublimation. 

This procedure gives rise to a technique of applying some higher motive as 
a reason for certain conduct, but because a higher motive is employed, the person 
need not assume that he is acting rationally. A man may be willing to sacrifice 
himself for some higher religious or patriotic ideal, but, in reality, he may 
have obligations to continue with his present duties. The martyr complex is 
sometimes associated with types of sublimation, and it often suggests a sacrifice, 
frequently needless, if the problem were analyzed more rationally. 

6. Rational behavior. 

The sixth, or last method, employed by people who must solve some conflict 
is a rational process. The problem is faced squarely, and the solutions are 
evaluated. Decisions are reached on the basis of values. The .intellect arrives 
at an understanding of a problem, and it presents to the will certain values 
that move it to action. The concrete, the pleasurable, and the satisfactory 
values secure the greatest motivation, but pain, sorrow, or affliction may be 
accepted when it has values. 

These six procedures indicate to the prospective speech teacher the advant- 
ages to be derived from a background of rational and abnormal .psychology, Their 
study also suggests to him the tvpe of training necessary for his work. 


d. Environmental. 

The social aspect of a diagnosis has in modern times assumed much emphasis in 
educational psychology, even though : some educators may feel that it has been greatly 
exaggerated. In the preparation of a case history, the environmental factors are of 
great significance to the speech teacher. The problems concerned with the immediate 
family, the financial and social obligations of the parents, the neighborhood, the 
schools, the playgrounds and similar social influences have a proper place in any 
diagnosis. A successful understanding of such disorders as infantile speech, for- 
eign dialects, and stuttering requires much knowledge of the environment in which 
the patient has been nurtured, particularly in which the onset of the disaster oc- 

1. Securing data. 

If a correctionist prepares the physical, functional, psychological, and 
environmental aspects of a case history and has a notion of how a disorder, or 
defect usually proceeds, he can generally arrive at a method of cure. Building 
a case history is not any hit and miss excursion into these four classifications 
previously explained. There must be a method in securing facts. One means of 
gaining information is by means of an interview. An interview may be related 
to two distinct procedures: 

2. Interviews. 

Under the DIRECT method a patient is asked specific questions the answers 
to which would affirm or destroy the hypothesis being established in the clini- 
cian's mind. Routine questions which have in the past produced satisfactory 
explanation of behavior can be made a part of any interview. Once a certain 
line of questions points to solutions satisfactory to the investigator, he can 
by association of ideas or images lead the patient to certain disclosures. No 
investigator should use this method to justify any pet theory which he assumes 
is an explanation of certain causes for the disorder. The patient may disclose 
only what , the investigator requires him to reveal. 

Under the PASSIVE interview, the investigator reflects in his questions, 
only what is in the patient's mind. No leading questions are asked; the inter- 
viewer merely presents certain comments that are affirmations of what the patient 
has already stated. The patient, in other words, solves his own problem merely 
by stating his own case. He stimulates a series of associations concerning it 
and arrives at a conclusion which is satisfactory to him. 

Besides these two methods of interviewing are certain tests concerned with 
intelligence, adjustments, and behavior. Some clinicians depend entirely upon 
tests for facts which they use to base a method of cure, but interviews or per- 
haps more informal conferences have a right place in diagnostic procedures. If 
tests are used by the speech correctionist in his professional capacity, his 
main interest is not the patient's I.Q. or his adjustment capacities, but rather 
his chief concern is how many of the patient's social difficulties, and personal 
inadequacies are due to mental retardation or to disordered affective states and 
how many to the speech deficiency itself, and to the relationship between the 
conditions. > ■ . ' 

Responsibil i ty For Corrections 

From what has been said regarding the classification of speech defects, the 
problem of diagnosis, and the search for a method of cure, the prospective speech 


teacher has a "better idea of the responsibility for the correction of speech disor- 

a. A speech specialist required. 

In order to prepare the correctionist for his obligations, a special course of 
study has been designed for speech teachers or others who wish to undertake the cor- 
rection and rehabilitation of students with speech defects or disorders. 

1. Training. 

This may be roughly divided into three parts: specific courses in speech 
correction, concerned with speech pathology, speech psychology, scientific as- 
pects of voice, phonetics, and general linguistics; particular courses in speech 
methods including lip reading, remedial reading, functional tests of hearing, 
and general education procedures; and courses in the allied fields such as so- 
ciology - case histories, social work, and general problems of the social worker; 
psychology, - rational and abnormal; physiology and the biological sciences; and 
education- -its principles and methods. Credit hours for a major in speech cor- 
rection range from forty to fifty hours in speech therapy and allied fields. 

2. Administration. 

Speech correction, under the direction of the state, is generally placed in 
the field of special education or in the division of the handicapped. Many 
states require special licenses in speech therapy and have a definite program 
of training. Bulletins such as those prepared by the State Department of Educa- 
tion of Wisconsin which explain the requirements in correction to prospective 
teachers are available. Some cities have special departments with trained tea- 
chers who handle the problems of speech in the elementary schools. Many of these 
teachers are expected, also, to be able to give educational tests, teach classes 
in lip reading, and give functional test of hearing. The duties of the speech 
correctionist generally include the supervision on an elementary level of those 
students whose speech is of such a nature as to require special assistance. 
Often the correctionist can give directions to the classroom teacher or the 
parent who then can be of help to the child. 

b. Relation of the classroom teacher to speech correction. 

The nature and the extent the speech difficulties determine what cases should 
be retained in the classroom and what should be referred to the correctionist. 

1. Cases to be retained in the classroom. 

If speech is not developing normally, and there is a danger that the social 
attitudes of the pupil are suffering as a consequence of some speech disorder, 
the speech correctionist should be called upon to suggest means of preventing the 
spread of the disorder. The correctionist, therefore, is frequently engaged in 
speech hygiene. If the pupil is not being endangered by his defect, and partic- 
ularly by a condition which does not prevent his social adjustment, he can secure 
much aid from the high school teacher, parents, and for that matter, from other 
children. Not every child who substitutes one sound from another, or who has a 
carrying over of certain sounds from foreign influence should be sent to a speech 
correctionist. The key to any difficulty lies in the fact that a child who is 
not suffering from serious disorders, who is progressing nicely in the school 
environment, and who is not in any way endangering his own social success should 
not be sent out of the classroom for special work. 


2. Cases to be referred to specialists. 

No case "belongs in the classroom when it deals with stuttering, paralysis, 
and serious mental and physical envolvements. When it can be assumed that with- 
out speech training a speech condition will continue to grow worse or will "be 
affected adversely "by changing circumstances, speech therapy is indicated and 
ought to "be under the direction of a speech specialist. The average speech 
teacher devotes so much' of his time within the classroom to the normal pupil 
that he cannot afford to waste his energies with problem cases. When new skills 
in speech are to be developed, particularly where a student has employed a cer- 
tain skill imperfectly, only a specialist in correction should handle the case. 
A speech teacher without training in phonetics does not have the proper back- 
ground to be efficient in speech re-education. Cases to be handled by the speech 
correct ionist are those that call for speech hygiene, when such hygiene serves 
as a preventive to speech disorders; those that require speech therapy; and 
those that demand a type of speech re-education. 

The Obligations Toward The Subnormal 

These obligations towards the child who in some manner can be considered sub- 
normal or perhaps abnormal may be summarized under three heads: (a) in relation 
to the child; (b) in relation to the parent; and (c) in relation to the state. 

a. In relation to the child. 

The high school adolescent is subject to many physical and mental conditions 
that affect him adversely. The first obligation of the speech teacher is the mat- 
ter of preventing speech disorders. Inasmuch as he frequently has no control over 
a child's environment, or over the conduct that is producing some abnormal habit, 
he may ; be at a loss to determine the problem at hand. Nevertheless, as his obliga- 
tion is primarily with the normal child, he should not attempt to solve the prob- 
lems belonging, to the specialists. In order to be sure that a certain case requires 
special treatment, it is generally advisable for teachers to refer indications of 
abnormality to the principal who usually has available for consultation the school 
doctor or school nurse and often a school psychologist or psychiatrist. Where 
there are indications that some speech disorder is associated with an ear or eye 
disorder, a specialist should be called upon for special diagnosis. Under some 
school administrations, speech teachers are expected to give audiometric tests 
while under others the school nurse or special teachers handle all problems asso- 
ciated with the impairment of auditory or visual perception. 

b. In relation to the parent. 

The question frequently arises as to how much information should be given by 
either the correctionist or the speech teacher to parents regarding the speech de- 
fects arising in their children. Under some circumstances parents may be called 
in for consultation and their presence may do much to make the solution of speech 
problems easier for the correctionist. How much should be told to parents depends 
primarily upon their education and their emotional reactions. If parents can fol- 
low directions, they may be helpful to the child. But if they encourage the child 
to follow his own directions, which may be at variance with those proposed by the 
teacher, only confusion can follow. The correctionist should avoid creating any 
antagonism between the parent and student. Sometimes the pupil is thrown into 
emotional difficulties trying to satisfy his own teacher, the correctionist, and 
the parent. Co-operation between all parties involved in the correction of any 
speech defect is a necessary factor in establishing a satisfactory cure. 

c. In relation to the state. 

If one out of ten children requires a type of speech correction and some of 
these children need the aid of teachers specially trained in the fields of speech 
therapy and speech re-education, there is obviously a social problem of interest 
not only to the student himself, but to the state. The barriers that prevent people 
from reaching the culture of the educated class have social consequences to the 
state. Inasmuch, however, as speech faults are often symptomatic of more basic 
emotional and mental disturbances, the correction of these faults often prevents 
the onset of the more dangerous neurotic and psychic conditions. The well adjusted 
person can be a social asset to the state; whereas the unadjusted individual is not 
only a problem to a particular place like a home or school, but he is a potential 
danger to the social good of all people. The state is therefore interested in 
speech correction, first from the viewpoint of prevention and mental hygiene, and 
second from the advantages that may be gained by the defectives in a course of nec- 
essary re-education. The teacher has an obligation to the state to assist the 
handicapped with their problems and by so doing insure greater social benefits for 
all concerned. He can do this task better when he follows the procedures which 
experience has taught bring greater values to the child, the parent, and the state 

Visual Aids in Speech Correct i on 

The prospective teacher of speech correction has doubtlessly become acquainted 
with the many visual aids that he may use in demonstrating abnormal speech condi- 
tions and remedial techniques. Today, particularly, education is visual minded and 
the manufacturer has produced many implements of value in improving diagnoses and 
in illustrating functions involved in the speech skills. The cadet -teacher would 
find it to his advantage to keep a card index of sources for maps, diagrams, charts, 
manikins, and other illustrative materials, and to be alert for new instruments and 
devices which may improve remedial teaching. 

Mechanical Ai ds in Speech Correction 

The speech correctionist has learned in his course of study the need of learn- 
ing the operation of an audiometer and other mechanical devices essential to the 
practice of speech therapy. He should be prepared not only to operate an audio- 
meter, recording machine, a camera, and the like, but also to plan when necessary 
for the construction of a sound proof room, installation of motion picture equip- 
ment, and facilities to demonstrate equipment, such as hearing aids, and wire 
recorders. There are some mechanical aids of value in the diagnosis of speech and 
vocal faults which are in common use among medical specialists of the ear, eye, 
nose, and throat. These may be of service to the speech correctionist who has be- 
come skilled in their use. Because some equipment on the market may not have the 
approval of some of the correctionist s or the medical men, the prospective teacher 
of correction should be certain that his use of equipment has the approval of educa- 
tion authorities as well as the medical men. 



1. Report on one of the following subjects: (a) stumbling "blocks in speaking; 

(b) "baby talk; (c) a foreign dialect; (&) the relation of general health 
and speech; (e) the relation of speech and hearing; (f ) stammering- -a common 
fault in speaking; (g) defense mechanisms in speech correction; (h) compen- 
sation in speech; (i) speech hygiene. 

2. Define speech correction. Distinguish speech improvement from it. 

3. Distinguish speech defects from speech disorders. 

■k. Discuss contribution of one well known speech correct ionist to the field. 

5. Discuss the diagnosis and methods of cure of one speech defect. 

6. Discuss. one speech disorder. 

7. What is the present organization of speech correction in your state? 

8.. Compare advantages of lip reading with those methods using manual signs. 

9- What surveys have been conducted in your town or city for speech defectives? 

10. Distinguish the province of the speech correctionist from that of the 

psychologist. ■; 

11. Discuss "the chewing therapy" for treating voice disorders after reading 
' Hygie ne of the Voice, . Dental Dige st, v. 5^:380, Sept., 19^8. 

12. Compile an Entrance Examination Blank to be used in assigning students in 

speech for remedial work. 

13. Contrast the methods of teaching a Cerebral Palsy Group in two different 

cities: Cincinnati, Ohio, recorded by Stoelting, F., in A Classroo m 
Teache r of a, Cerebral Palsy G roup Teaches Sp eech, Q.J.S. Feb., 19*+9; and 
• Minneapolis, by Rutherford, B. R., in Give Them a Chance To Talk , a 
handbook on speech correction for cerebral palsy, Burgess, Minneapolis, 

14. Compose a set of jingles to be used to teach vowels to children. 

15. Discuss and illustrate the part played by environment in speech difficulties. 

16. Discuss - Speech Disorders in Relation to Intelligence. 

17. How would you treat a child who is afraid to open his mouth? 

18. What facts are commonly sought in a diagnosis of difficulties in speaking? 

19. What devices to improve ear training were you taught? 

20. Evaluate the following procedures in treatment of a cleft palate condition: 

playing harmonica or toy flute, blowing a candle, drinking liquids through 
a play straw, whistling, initiation of sound devices. 

21. Plan an exercise to demonstrate the difference between the voiced and unvoiced 

sounds. . ' ' 

22. Explain the "phoneme theory". 

23. Write a paper on the problems presented by the spastic child. 

2h. Devise a series of exercises suitable for the correction of lisping. 

25. Report on one of these Diagnostic Materials: Stoddard, C. B., Detroit Articu - 

lation Test s. Detroit Board of Education Publication, 1929; Bryngelson and 
Glaspey, Speech Improvement Car ds, Chicago, Scott, Foresman, 19^-0; Arnold 
Articula tion Test, Boston, Expression, 1939; Fairbanks, G., Articulation 
Drill Book, New York, Harper, 1938; and Barnes, H. G., Diagnosis of Speech 
Needs and Abilities , New York, Prentice -Hall, 19^1. 

26. Evaluate the methods in Speech Correction in Il linois Q.J.S. v. $k, April, 

19^8. Compare with the speech work being done in your state. 

27. Write an outline on One Physical Speech Defect. 

28. Contrast the speech improvement in two different states such as: Speech 

Improvement in New York State , Bair, F. H., and Norvell, G. W., Q.J.S. 
Feb., 19^9, with The Status of Speech Correction in Alabama , Compton, M. E., 
in the same issue. 

29. Consult the Illino i s Plan For Special Education of Exception a l Chil dren - 

The Speech Def ectiv e Circular, Series "E" no. 12, Sup't. of Public Instruc- 
tion^ Nickell, V~. L. 


30. What problems are encountered in teaching visible speech to the deaf? 
51. Compile a list showing order in which sounds are learned by a child. 

32. Prepare a report for the class on one of the following: Units of Work as a 

Form of Instruction, or Gifted Speech Students. 

33. Is this procedure advisable? "Observe children with speech difficulties to 

see if they also have other difficulties as in reading and hearing." 
3^. Report to the class the content of L earning to Speak Effe ctively, Bull, of 
Assoc, for Childhood Educ, 2nd printing, Washington, D. C, l^kk. 

35. Give an oral report on one of the tests, Articulation, Voice, Stutte r ing, or 

Aphasia, listed by Van Riper, C, in Speech Correctio n, p. 181, 1939» 

36. From textbook or supplementary reading, compile a set of exercises to be used 

in correcting faults of intensity. 

37. Hand in an outline of Pupil's Guide Fo r Speech Corre ction , Bull., Detroit 

Board -of Education. 

38. Prepare a book report on Lip Reading: Methods and Techniques. 


Abts, I., Pedi at rics (Philadelphia: Saunders, 1925). 

Ainsworth, S. E., Speech Correction Me thods (New York: Prentice -Hall, 19^8). 

Alford, L., A Si mple Version of Aphasia (Jour, of Nervous Mental Diseases v. 91: 

190, 191*0. 
Appelt, A., Stammerin g and Its Pe rmanent Cure (London: Metheun, 1920 ). 
Avery, E., Dorsey, J., and Sickels, V. A., First Principles of Speech Training 

(New York: Applet on-Century, 1931). 
Backus. 0., and Dunn, H. M., Intensive Group T herap y, etc. Jour, of Sp. Dis." 

v. 12:39, 19^7). 
Baker, H., and Leland, B., In Behalf of Poor R eader s (Bloomington, Illinois: 

Public School Pub. Co., 19^+0). 
Barrows, S. T., and Pierce, A. E., The Voice: How to Use It (Boston: Expression, 

Barrows, S. T., and Cordts, A. D 9 , The Teac h ers B ook of Phon etics (Boston: Ginn, 

Bender, J. F., and Kleinfeld, V. M., Principles and P r actices of Speech Correction 

(New York: Pitman, 1938). 
Berry, M. F., and Eisenson, J., Th e Defec tive in Speech (New York: Crofts, 19^2). 
Betts, E. A., Prevention and Correcti on of Readin g Difficu lties (Chicago: Row, 

Peterson, I936). 
Blair, G. M., Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching in Secondary Schools (New York: 

Macmillan, 19^6 ) . 
Blanton, S., and Blanton, M. G., For Stutterers (New York: Appleton-Century, 

Bleumel, C. S., Stamme ring and All ied Disorders (New York: Macmillan, 1935). 
Boome, E. J., and Richardson, M. A., The Nature and Treatment of Stutte ring 

(New York: E. P. Dutton, 1932). 
Borden, R. C, and Busse, A. C, Speech Correction (New York: Crofts, 1929). 
Brigance, W. N., and Henderson, F. M., Drill Manual For Improving Speech , Rev. 

Ed. (New York: Lippincott, 19^5). 

Bryngelson, B. and others, Know Yourself (Minneapolis: Burgess, lgkk) . 

Carhart, R., Hearing Deficlences and Speec h Problems (Jour, of Sp. Dis., v. 8:2V7, 
19 U 3 ) t - 

Center and Persons, Teaching High School Students t o Read (New York: Appleton- 
Century, 1937). 
Cole, L., The Improv ement of Reading; (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1937). 
Cobb, S., Border lands of Psychia try (Cambridge: Harvard univ., 19^3). 


Cook, C, and Gibbons, H., We Read, Write. Speak,- and Spell - Remedial Aids, 

Grades l-5> (Philadelphia: Educational Pub., 19^-9) • 

Dahl, L., Public School Audiometry (Danville, Illinois: Interstate Pub. Co., 19^8). 

Dolch, E. W., A Manual for Berne dial Reading (Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Press, 

Dolch, E. W., Problems in Reading (Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Press, 19^8). 
Drummond, A. M., Course of Study in Speech Training and Public Speaking for 

S econdary Schoo ls (New York: Appleton-Century, 1925). 
Eckelmann, D., and Baldridge, P., Speech Training for the Child With a Clef t P alate 

(Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Univ., American Speech Correction Ass'n.). 
Eisenson, J., The Defective in Speech (New York: Crofts, 19^2). 
Ewing, A., Aphasia in Children (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1930). 
Eisenson, J., Psychology of Speech (New York: Crofts, 1938). 
Fagan, E. R., Methods of Treatment For Spastic Speech (Jour, of Sp. Dis., v. ^:25, 

Fields, V. A., and Bender, J. F., Voice and Dictio n (New York: Macmillan, 19^9). 
Fletcher, H., Speech and Hearing (New York: Van Nostrand, 1929). 
Fletcher, J. M., Problem of Stuttering (New York: Longmans, 1928). 
Fogerty, E., Stammering (New York: .Dutton, 1930). 
Froeschels, E., Speech Therapy (Boston: Expression, 1930). 
Gates, A. I., The Improvement of Reading : A Program of Diagnostic and Remedial 

Methods, New York: Macmillan, 19^7). 
Gifford, M. F., Correcting Nervous .S p eech Disorders (New York: Prentice -Hall, 1939). 
Gillingham, A., and Stillman, B. W., Remedial Work For Children With Special 

Disabilities in Reading; Spelling, Penm a nship Rev. Ed., (New York: . Sackett 

and.Wilhelm's Corp., 19^6). 
Goldstein, K. , T he After-Effects of Brain Injuries in War, Their Evaluation and 

Treatment (New York: Greene and Stratton, 19^2). 
Granich, L., and Prangle, G., Aphasia: a guide to retraining (New York: Grune 

and Stratton, I9V7). 
Gray, W. S., and others, Remedial Case s in Reading: Their Diagnosis and Tre atment, 

Supplementary Educational Monographs, no..' 22, 1922. 
Gray, W, S . , Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conferences held at the Univ. of 

Chicago (Univ. of Chicago Press, 19^3-1949). 
Hahn, E. F., Stuttering, et c. (Palo Alto, California: Stanford Univ. Press, 

19^5). - :■ '• 

Harkins, C. S., Rehabilitation of the Cleft Palate Child (Jour, of Except. Child. 

v 9:98, •19^3). "" ' ""' ■.' " " 

Harris, : A. J., How to. Increase Reading Ability (Longmans, Green, 19^7) • • 

Hard of Hearing in Your Classroom (Bull. Special Education Clinics, Terre Haute, 

.Indiana: Indiana State Teachers College). 
Hathaway, H., What Your Voice Reveals (New York: Dutton, 1931). 
Head, H., Aphasia and Kindred Disorders of Speech (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1926). 
Heltman, H. J., First Aid For Stutt erers (Magnolia, Massachusetts: Expression, 

19^3). ■ i... 
Herman, L., and Herman, M. S., Manual of Foreign Dialects (Chicago: >Ziff Davis, 

Hildreth, G., and Wright, J.L., Helping Children to Read (New York: Teachers 

College, Columbia Univ., I9I+0).. 
Huber, M., and Kopp, A. E., The Practice of Speech Correction in the Medical Clinic 

(Magnolia, Massachusetts: Expression, 19^-2). 
Hutcheson, R. R., and Tilley, K. .M.,- Student Manual of Speech Correction (Grand 

Rapids, Michigan: W. B. Eerdmans, 19^5). 
Jackson, J., . Selected Writings of J. Hughlings Jackson , v. 2. (London: Hodder 

and St ought on, 1932). 
Jacobson, E., Progressive Relaxation (New York: McGraw Hill, 1938). 
Jerome, E.K., Change of Voice in.'Male Adolescents (Q»J.S. v. 23:6^-8, 1937). 


Johnson, W. . Because I Stutter (New York: Appleton, Century, 1930). 

Johnson, W., and others, Speech Handicapped School Children (New York: Harper, 


Johnson, W., Peopl e in Quand aries (New York: Harper, 1946). 

Kanner, L., Ch ild Psychiatr y (Springfield: C. C. Thomas, 1937) • 

Karlan, S. C. , Failure in Second ary School as a Men tal Hygiene Problem (Mental 

Hygiene, v. 18:611, 193*0 • 
Knudson, T. A., Wha t the Classroom Teacher Can Do For Stutterers (Q.J.S. v. 26: 

207, 19^0). 
Keys, J., A Pro gram of Speech Correction (Illinois Education, v. 29:59, 

Oct., 19^0 )". 
Koepp-Baker, H., Handbook of C linical Speech (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards, 1937) • 
Lassers, L., H ow Parents and Teach ers Can Prevent Stuttering (Oregon: State 

Dep't. of BcLuc., 1945). 
Louttit, C. M., Clinical Psychology (New York: Harper, 1936). 
Manser, P. B., Speec h Corr ection on the Contract Plan Rev. Ed. (New York: 

Prentice -Hall, ' 1949) • 
Mase, D. J., Etiolo gy of A rticulatory S pee ch, Defect s (New York: Bureau of Pub., 

Teachers College, Columbia Univ., 19"46"J. 
Mase , D . J . , A Speech Corrective Program for the Teachers College ( Q . J . S . , Dec . , 

McCullough, G. A., ' Work and Practice Book F or Speech I mprov e ment (Magnolia, 

Massachusetts-.: Expression, 194o). 
McCullough, CM., Strang, R. M., and Traxler, A. E., Problems in the Im prove ment 

of R e ading ( New York:: McGraw Hill 9 1946 ) . 
McCullough, G. A. , and Birmingham, A. V., Correcting S peec h Defects and Foreign 

Accen t (New York: Scribner, 1925).' 
McDowell, E. V., E ducational and 'Emot i onal Adjustments of St utt ering Children 

(New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1928)". 
Morgan,' J. J. B., The P sych olog y of th e Unad ju sted Sc hoo l Chil d (New York: 

Macmillan, I929). ' 7" !" 

Mosher, J. A.,. The Pr oduc tion. of- C orrect Speech Sou nds (Boston: Expression, 1929). 
Monroe, M., and Backus, B., Remedial Rea ding (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1937). 
Mulgrave, D. I., Speech For the Classr oom Teacher (New York: Trent ice -Hall, 1937). 
Nance, L, A., D ifferential Diagno si s of Apha sia in Chi ldren (Jour. Sp. Dis., v. 11: 

219, 19*16), - .,- ■ v '■;;.';•:• 

Neilsen, J. M., Aphasia, . Oxford Loose rL eaf Medicine (New York: Oxford, 1945 ) . 
Nemoy, E. M., and Davis •, S. F., Correction of Defe ctive Con s onant Sounds (Boston: 

Expression, 1937). 
Negus, V. E., The Mechanism of P honation (St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1930). 
Ogilvie, M., Term inology and Definitions of S pe ech Defect s (New York: : Bureau of 

Pub., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., 1942]. 
Oldfield, M. C, Speech Training For Cases of Cleft Palate (London: H. K. Lewis, 

1938 ) . ; : ; 

Orton, S. T., Reading, Writing, and Speec h Pr oblems in Ch ildren (New York: Norton, 

Osborn, '■ W. J., Remedial and Follo w-up Wor k in S ilent Read ing (Bloomington, 111., 
Public- School Pub. Co.'). 

Parsons, B. S., Left -Handedne ss, A New Interpretation (New York: Macmillan, 1924). 

Pennington, L. A.-, and' Berg, I, A.; The Field" of clinical Psychology (New York: " 
Ronald, 1943). 

Peppard, H., The Correction of Speech Defects (New York: Macmillan, 1925). 

P hysically Hand icapp ed, The Education of, Bull. California State Dep't. of Educa- 
tion, v. 1:12, Dec.,. 1941"). ".''■.■■'■ 

Perlstein, M., and Shere, M., Sp eech Therapy for Children with Cerebral Palsy 
American Jour, of Diseases of Children, v. 72:389, Oct., 1946). 

Raubi check, L., Improving Your Spe ech (New York: Noble and Noble, 1939). 


Raubicheck, L., Davis, E., and Carll, A*., Voice and Speech Problems , Rev. Ed. 

New York: Prentice -Hall, 1939). 
Richardson, M. A., Speech Th erapy, Go od Speech , v. 5^28, July, 1935)* 
Robbins, S. D., and Rose, S., Corre ction of Speech Defects of Early Childhood . 

(Boston: Expression, 1937) • 
Robinson, H. M., Why Pupils Fail in Reading (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 

1946 ) . 
Russell, G. 0., Speech and Voice (New York: Macmillan, 1931). 
Sanderson, V. S., What Should I Know About Speech Defects ? (Columbus, Ohio: 

Bureau of Special and Adult Education, Ohio State Univ., 1946). 
Schoolfield, L. D., Better Speech and Better Read ing (Boston: Expression, 1937). 
Scripture, E. W., Stuttering, Lisping, and Corr ection of Speech o f the Deaf 

(New York: Macmillan, 1923). 
Seth, G., and Guthrie, D., Speech in Childhood (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 

1935). :. 

Speech Training for Spastics , Curriculum Bull., Series 5 (New York: Board of 

Educ, 1946). 
Stasney, K. , S peech Correction a nd the Classroo m Teacher (The Elementary English 

Review, v. 21:142 April, 1944). ~ 
Stewell, A.., and others, Lip Reading for the De afened Child (New York: Macmillan, 

Stinchfield, S. M., Speech Pathology (Boston: Expression, 1928). 
Stinchfield, S. M., Children With Delayed or Defective Spe ech (Palo Alto, Calif or- 
. nia: Stanford Univ. Press, 1940). 

Swift, E. B., Speech Defects in School Children (Boston; Expression, 1928). 
Travis, L.. E., Speech Pathology (New York: Apple ton- Century, 1931). 
Traxler, A. E., T he Use of Test Results in Diagnosis and Instruction in Tool 

Subjects (Educational Records Bureau, 437 W. 59th Street, New York, 1942). 
Triggs, F. 0., Remedial Reading (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota, 1943) . 
Thorndike, W. Z., A Teacher's Word Book (New York: Teacher's College, Columbia 

Univ., 1932). 
Twitmeyer, E. B.; and Nathanson, Y. S., Correction of Defective Speech (Philadel- 
phia: Blakiston, 1932). 
U. S. War Dep't., Aphasic Language Disorders U. S. War Dep't. Tech. Bull., 19^5> 

T.B. Med. 155, 3. 
Van Riper, C, Speech Correct ion, Rev. Ed. (New York: Prentice -Hall, 1947). 
Ward, I. C. , Defects of Speech ~Ufew York:- Dutton, 1923). 
Weiseriburg, T. H. and McBride, K., Aphasia (Brattleboro, Vt . : Commonwealth Fund, 

E. H. Hildreth, 1935). 
West, R., Diagnosis of Disorders of Speech (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern 

Univ., 1932). 
West, R., Kennedy, L., and Carr, A., The Rehabilitation of Speech , Rev. Ed. 

New York: : Harper, 1947). 

White, W., Psychology in Living- (New York: Macmillan, 1944). 

Wile, -I. S., Handedness: Right and Left (Boston: Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard, 1934). 
Witty, P., and Kopel, D., Reading and the Educative Process , (New York: Ginn, 1939). 
Wood, A., The Jingle Book for Speech Correc tion (New York: ' Dutton, 1934). 
Yacorzynski, G. K., Modern Approach to the Study of Aphasi a (Jour. Sp. Disorders, 

v. 8:349, 1943). 
Young, E. H., Overcoming Cleft Palate Speech (Minneapolis: Hill-Young School, 1928). 

Special articles of interest to 'the speech correctionist appear in the following: 
The Crippled Child , The Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders , Quarterly Journal 
of Speech , Journal of Exceptional Children, P roceedings of American Speech Correc - 
tion Ass'n . , and various psychological journals. . 



1. Application for Membership Blank 

2. Daily Lesson Plan 
3- Proxy Vote Blank 
k. Sample Resolution 
p. Judging Debate 

6. Debate Tournament Schedule 

7. Judging Interpretation 

8. Judging Oratory 

9. Judging a Play 

10. Tournament Schedule 



Application For Membership 
in the 

I, , of the City (or Town) of 

Street, County of 


, State of - ' : '■• , hereby apply for 

membership in the and do declare 

1. That I am an American citizen , 

2. That I am a resident of 

3. That I have been a resident for 

k. That I will abide by the Constitution, By-Laws, Rules, and Regulations of 
said organization , 

5. That I will endeavor to contribute to the welfare of the organization. 

6. That I am married (or unmarried) , 

7. That I am over eighteen years of age _.__ 

8. That my occupation is . . 

I hereby affix my signature this day of 

19 . 

Witness Signature 



let' teacher 

pervising teacher 

ne of school 

be - 


ar in high school 
It of activity 

rticular lesson 

"pose of class _ 

/elopment of lesson 

Lding questions . 

ivating means 

3 of illustrations 

^gestions for repetition of the class 



Know all Men By These Presents: That I, the undersigned member of the 

corporation known as do hereby nominate, constitute 

and appoint my true and lawful attorney and 

proxy, to represent me at the Annual Meeting of the members of said corpo- 
ration to be held at , in the city of 

on Thursday, April 12, 19^5, and at all adjournments of 

said meeting, hereby granting to my said proxy all of the powers that I 
would possess if personally present at said meeting, hereby confirming 
all that he may do hereunder. 

Dated this , day of , , 19^9 . 


In the Presence of 

NOTE: Any member's name may be designated above. For your convenience 

the name of Miss , Secretary, is suggested. This may be 

sent to her attention, to , , 515 No. Street, City, 

Wisconsin. If you are present at the meeting the PROXY WILL NOT BE USED. 




. Regarding death of 



in the service of deep oblig- 

gation to his county has made the Supreme Sacrifice, and 

WHEREAS, has benefited "by his services 

as Assista.nt District Attorney, and as a fine citizen, and 

WHEREAS, he and others have given their lives that this 

Nation might live, 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that the County Board of 

Supervisors of County herewith extend to Mrs. 

, his wife, and to his family, its heartfelt sympathy in 

this, their loss, and that a copy of this Resolution be forwarded to 

Mrs. , and .-.': 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that this Resolution be passed by a 
rising vote and a one minute pause out of respect for this hero. 

State of Wisconsin ) 


Resolutions Committee 

County of 



, County Clerk of _. 

County, hereby certify that the above is a correct copy of Resolution 

No. 2, which was passed by the County Board of Supervisors of 

County, at their annual session on November 18, 19^T>. 
Dated this 20th day of November, 19^5. 

County Clerk 



In awarding the decision on the debate the judge shall base 
his vote on the debating ability revealed by the two teams: 

(1) As revealed in their grasp of the vital issues of the 

question including research, analysis, and use of 

(2) as revealed in refutation of arguments of opponents; 

(3) as revealed in effective presentation. 



Name of School 

Aff . 




































1st Roun d 9; 3 A. M . 
Judge Aff . 





2nd Round 10:1+5 A. M. 















3rd Round 1:30 P. M. 


Aff . 






































































The. aff irmative remains in the same room; the negative moves. 
The debaters should report promptly to the room indicated so that 

all debates can start on time. 


I . Interpretation ; , 50% 

A. Was the selection well interpreted? 

B. Did speaker think of meaning of words? 

C. Did his words convey meaning? 

II . Delivery 35$ 

A. Voice .;; 

1. Pronunciation? 2. Enunciation? 3. Emphasis? h. Quality? 
5. Pitch? 6, Rate? 

B. Ease on platform? ■: 
1. Poise? 2. Gestures? 

III. General effect upon the audience iCffo 

A. Feeling aroused? 

B. Interest created? 
G . Imagery created? 

IV. Memory? '. % 

All markings shall he on a scale of 100, and the judges are asked to use no 
fractions in ranking the contestants. Each judge is to rank the contestants be- 
tween 70 and 100 percent and he is to rank no two contestants alike. Each judge 
shall rank the contests first, second, third, etc. The contestant ranked "first" 
"by the majority of the judges shall be awarded first honor. If no contestant is 
thus ranked first, the contestant the sum of whose ranks is least, shall be awarded 
first place. In case of tie, the contestant receiving the highest grand average 
shall receive the first honor. The first honor having been awarded, the grades of 
the one receiving first honor shall be thrown out and the grades of the remaining 
contestants shall again rank first, second, third, etc. and the highest honor shall 

be determined in the same manner as the first. The remaining honors shall be de- 
termined in like manner. 



A typical judging scale for original oratory generally rates compo- 
sition 50% and delivery" 50$ distributed somewhat as follows: 

I. Composition 50% 

A. Content . . 

1. Choice of subjects.., 5 

2. Purpose 5 

3. Originality , 5 

'-. h. Interest 5 

5, Variety ,. , 5 

B. Style 

1. Unity 5 

2. Coherence ...5 

3. Emphasis -..• 5 

h. Clearness 5 

5. Diction 5 

II . Delivery l.:.,. ; .; 50% 

A. Platform manner 

1. Variety of modulations 10 

2. Force •. : - ;, .10 

3. Bearing 10 

h. Voice 10 

5,. Effect upon audience 10 




a) Selection 

1. Whose play was it? (2) Was it well written? (3) What was the pur- 
pose? (k) Was the main theme clearly "brought out? (5) Was it appro- 
priate? Did it fit the participants, location, audience, and purpose? 
(6) By whom selected? (7) Was it worth the time to produce? Did it 
have educational value? (8) What was mood of play as a whole? Did it 
challenge the actors? Could it "be described in one word? (9) Tempo 
as a whole? (10) Was variety adequate so that interest was held through- 
out? Did it contain variety of different kinds? 

"b) Construction 

1. Wa3 it a play? (2) Was the play well constructed? (3) Could the 
theme be stated in one sentence? (k) Were the essential parts well 

a. How did the play open? (b) Was the struggle of opposing 
forces clear? (c) Was the ' climax well developed? (d) Was the 
conclusion effective? (e) Were the transitions adequate? 

5. Was the entire play unified? (6) Was it coherent? (7) Was the 
play well cut for high school production? Cutting a play for high 
school use is often difficult. 

c) The Production 

1. Stage settings 

a. Did whole effect produced seem natural? (b) Harmonious? (c) 
Was type of background adequate? Appropriate? (d) Authentic? 
(e) Was originality displayed? (f ) Was stage arranged to best ad- 
vantage? Were exits and entrances satisfactorily arranged? (g) 
Was stage balanced? (h) Did stage assist actions and character 
development? (i) Were primary colors utilized on the stage? (j) 
Did -physical stage assist in producing the mood of the play? (k) 
Was focus on central character? (l) Were all stage adjustments made 
before the play began? Sight lines? Could all in the audience see? 

2. Lighting 

a. Harmonious effect of the whole? (b) Amount? (c) Kind? (d) 
Mood created? (e) Effectively used to secure variety? Contrasts? 
(f) Beauty? 

3. Properties 

a. Number of properties? Too few' or too many? (b) Kind? (c) Ar- 
rangement? Did arrangement help to give atmosphere to the produc- 
tion? (d) Effect desired? Effect' produced? 


k. Costumes 

a. Kind? Appropriate to the age depicted? Character? (b) Harmony? 

(c) Variety? (d) Was costume to "be worn by a tall or short person? 
Stout? (e) Light complexioned? What was the disposition of the 
wearer, quiet, sedate, vivacious or animated? Costume was to be worn 
against what background? With what other costumes? 

5. Make-up 

a. Did it seem natural? (b) Did it destroy intimate relationship of 
audience and character? (c) Were expressive features improved by it? 

(d) Were lines and features as well as color and shadows effective? 

(e) Was backstage work effectively handled? (f) Were details taken 
care of "before the play "began? 

6. Interpretation of the lines 

a. Did the actors read on or between the lines? Did actors think 
. what they were saying instead of how? (b) Were words or ideas spoken? 
Were words merely .statements or suggestions? (c) Did actors under- 
stand character and plot? Were plot lines emphasized? (d) Was orig- 
inality displayed which showed result. of an active imagination? (e) 
Was variety of speech modulations effectively portrayed? Were con- 
trasts utilized? Were silences used to advantage? (f ) Were voice 
and diction satisfactory? (g) Was connotation as well as denotation 
adequate? (h) Were cues picked up quickly and correctly? Was humor 
appreciated and expressed? (i) Was paraphrasing of lines in own words 
used in rehearsals? This is an effective way of understanding lines, 
(j) Did dialogue drag? This is one of the worst faults of amateurs. 
(k) Were lines memorized correctly and quickly? Were lines conversa- 
tional instead of stilted and memorized? Were lines of play such that 
they would be better read silently than orally? 

7- Characterization 

a. Did audience see, hear and feel the parts? (b) Did the actors 
interpret the characters both emotionally and intellectually? (c) 
Did they feel the part which they wished to portray? (d) Did the 
actors know the parts they took? (e) Was variety within the emo- 
tional parts secured or was one emotional tone struck which was held 
throughout because the adolescent actor thinks in terms of a type 
character? Was the play all climax or no climax? (f) Was variety 
within as well as between characters secured? (g) Did student -actor 
represent character well in posture, action, speaking, and silence? 
(h) Did actors remain in character, especially when others were talk- 
ing? (i) What was the reaction of one character to another? (j) 
Were details of characterization perfected? (k) Was dialect used 
correctly or was it merely the transposition of sounds? (l) Did 
characterization help to develop the plot? Was relationship of char- 
acters clear to audience as well as players? Was entrance of major 
characters well built up? Was the center of interest on the char- 
acter who should have it at the time? Were entrances and exits ef- 
fectively used for characterization? Did characters portray climax? 
Were minor characters as well developed as major? 


8. Pantomime and action 

a. Did each movement during the play mean something? ("b) Were 
movements spontaneous? Natural? (c) Consistent with theme and 
character? (d) Were relationships with other characters sensed 
and portrayed? (e) Were movements on stage motivated? (f) Ap- 
propriateness of action? (g) Was action overdone or underdone? 
Was stage "business effective? This addition to the script, often 
pantomime only, distinguishes a professional from an amateur type 
of production. Was author's stage "business followed closely? 
(h) Were there any useless movements? 

9. Grouping 

a. Did group as well as individual acting develop character and 
plot? ("b) Was grouping "balanced effectively "both ways on the 
stage? (c) Was there a reason for grouping as well as individual 
movement on the stage? (d) Did grouping help to convey the inter- 
pretation to the audience? (e) Were characters in convenient 
place' for stage "business? (f ) Could audience see all grouping? 
"Did grouping form a picture on the stage framed "by the proscenium 
arch? (g) Could the same art principles of harmony, color, ."bal- 
ance, proportion, and beauty be applied to this enlarged picture? 
(h) Was grouping varied to avoid monotony? (i) Was beauty con- 
sidered at all in grouping? ;i 



9:00 - Extemporaneous speaking 

9:00 - Oratory - room 25 (draw places in auditorium) 
9:00 - No n- humorous declamation - room 28 

10:15 - Extemporaneous reading (draw places in library) 

10:50 - Extemporaneous speaking - room 29 

10:^0 - Humorous declamation - room 50 

11:15 " Extemporaneous reading 

(Lunch - School Cafeteria) 


1:^5 - Extemporaneous speaking (drawing in library) 

1:15 - Non-humorous declamation - room 31 

1:15 - Oratory final - room 35 

2:00 - Extemporaneous reading (drawing in library) 

2:15 - Extemporaneous speaking finals ■• room ko 

2:30 - Humorous declamation finals - room k2 

2:^5 - Extemporaneous reading finals - room ^1 

3:00 - Auditorium meeting 




Abnormal psychology, 262 
Acting, 58, 215 
Activities, 76f 
Adjustment, 71 
Advanced courses, 15^ 
Agraphias, 258 

division of, kf 

of N.E.A., h 

of speech training, 3 

working classification, 
Alphabet, 20 
American literature, 33f 
Announcers, 231 
Anxiety conflicts, 262 
Aphasia, 258 
Aphonia, 258 
Application Blank, 185 

for membership, I85 

for position, jkf 
Aquinas, 28 

Aristotle, 2;f., 23, kl, kQ, 51 
Arts, 58, 192 
Assembly, 93 
Assignments, 91f 
Audience contact, 198 
Audience evaluation, 122 
Audience reading, 204 
Austin, 50 
Authoritative method, k.Q. ■■_ 

Baby talk, 260 

Bacon, k-Q 


see debate, oratory, etc.,. 

Behaviorism, k r ), k9 } 55 

Bell, A. M., 50 

Bell, Chas., 53 


contribution to speech, 52 

Bodily expression 
see physical 

Breath control, l$6f 

see voice 

Bulwer, 50 

Calender, weekly, 87 
Cardinal aims of N.E.A., k 
Case history, 69f 
Casting plays, 192 

Casting plays, 192 

see dramatic art 

contribution to speech, 52f 
Children's radio plays, 239 
China, 22 
Choice, 7 

Choral reading, 191, 20^, 207 
Christian influences, 26, k-k 
Cicero, 2^+f., lf.If., 193 

instruction, 110 

problems, 1V7 

record, Q6 

room, Q6 

of speech aims, 5 

of students, 66f 

advantages of, 17^, 175 
Community -teacher relation, 75 
Compensation, 262 
Conferences, 68, 17^, 175 
Conflicts, 72, 262 
Constitution, 127, I85 
Contestants, 127, 159, 
Contests, lbk, 200f 
Control of class,- 117 
Conversation, lkk 
Conversational mode, 
Co-ordinations, 9 
Corax, 22 
Correction, 120 

principles of, 
Criticism, ll^f 
Curriculum, of., 
Curry, Dr. S. S., . 35f 
Cutting, 197 

200, 203, 238 



h2, 59 

Dante, 31 
Darwin, 17f., hj 
Debate, 167, 170, 175f 
Decimal classification, 
Declamation, 193 
De Doctrina C hristians , 
Defence mechanisms, 2o2 
Delsarte, 50 
Democracy, 11, ^+7f 
Democritus, 22 
Denmark, 32 
Depression, 262 
Descartes, hk 




Developmental method, 40 

Dewey, 47 

Diagnosis, 70f., 26l, 264 

Diction, 134, I38, 162, 199, 242 

Diet! o nary , Ik 1 

Discipline, 4l, 117f 

Discussion, l67f«, Yfkf 

Do dart theory, 52 

Dramatic art, 58, 191f., 209, 21 3f., 247 

Dramatic club, 222f 

Drills, 96 ■,: 

Duchenne, 44 

Economics, 57 
Education, 39-48 

physical, 49 .0 
Emerson, 4-9 
Emotions, 10, Ml, 66, 120 

see speech correction 

contribution to speech, 57 -■■ 
English literature, 32f 
Environment, 46, 192, 264 
Epic, 172 
Epicurus, 17 

Evaluation, 75, 88, 96f., 114 
Examinations, 98 
Extempore speech, lp4f., 237 
Extracurricular activities 

advantages, 121 

in choral reading, 207 

in debate, l80f 

in dramatic art, 216 

in extempore speech, 159, 200 

in interpretation, 200 

in oratory, 163 

in parliamentary lav, I87 

in the fundamental course,- 149 

organization, 122f., 125 • ' 

planning, 12 5f 

problems, 120 

Fathers -f the Church, 26 

Eerrein, 5 2 

Forum, 174 

France, 30, 44 

Freidrich, E., 51 

Froebel, 44, 47 

Fulton, 48, 49 

Fundamental course in speech, 133, 209 


see physical expression 
Gorgias, 22 
Grading, 96 f. , 99 
Grammar, 20, l4o 

Greek culture, 17, 22, 46, 48f., 50 
Gutenberg, 29 

Hebrew, 22 

Helmhcltz, 48f., 51 
Herbart , 55 

contribution to speech, 55 
Huxley, 47 
Huyghens, 51 

Ideals, 9 
Ideas, 6f 
Imagination, 7, 95, 162, 174, 205 

see chapter, speech correction 
Imitation, 40 
Impromptu speaking, 155 
Impulsive school of speech, 43 
India, 22, 50 

Industrial Revolution, 46, 48 
Informal discussion, 167 
Inhibitions, 43 
Instruction, 110 
Interpretation, 190, 196, 209 

in radio art, 230 
Interviews, 70, 74, 264 
Italy, 51, 44 

Judge's Debate Blank, 278 


a play, 223, 282 
debate, 182, 183 
directions for, 129 
extempore contests, 160 
interpretation, 203, 280 
oratory, 164, 28l 
qualification, 128 
standards, 128 
types, 128 

Judgment, 7 

Kant, 56 

General methods, 3f 
Germany, 3lf., 46 
Gestalt, 55 

Language, 17f 
Latin, 2of., 31 
Law, 56 
Leadership, 11 


Lesson plan, 27/3 
Library , 142 
Li ngui sties, l"ff 
Lisping, 2ol 

history, 29 

use in speech training, 192, 19*+ 
Loss of speech, 258 
Loss of voice. 258 
Louis XI?, 30 
Lucretius, 1'7 
Lyric, 19 3 

Make-up, 21. • 
Manner i sms , 14 2 

contribution t 
Mechanical aids, 

contribution t 
Memory, 8, 144' 
Mersenne, 51 

determination of, -Q-"Jf 

general, jf 

speech, 56 


speech, 57 

in choral reading, .190 

in language, 19 :■".:. 

in planning, 87, 159 

in speech correction, 255, 26 1 ; 

kinds, 40 

objectives, 3f 

of presentation, 144, 147, 155,- 162, 
Microphones, 24lf 
Middle Ages, 28f., 45 
Montaigne, 47 
Motions, 164 
Muller, M., 10, 17 
Murdoch, 48, 49 
Music ..: .•■ 

contribution to speech, 58 

Narrative, 192 
Nationalism, 29 
Naturalism, kj 
Norway , 32 
Note -taking, 173 
Novel, 52f 

Obedience, lo4f., 117 


in choral reading, 204 

in dramatics, 215 

in discussion, 168 

in extempore speech, 155 

in oratory, 160 

in parliamentary law, I85 

in platform art, 191 

in speech training, 1 

in the fundamental course, I36 
Observation, 5f 
Officers, 184 
O'Neill, ^9 
Open forum, 173 
Oratory, 15*1, 160 
Order of business, 184 
Organization of meeting, 184 
Origin of language, 17f 
Outlines, 156 


contribution to speech, 58 
Panel, 174 

see physical action 
Parliamentary law, 147, 167, 18 3, 209 
■ Personality problems, Jl 
Petrarch, 51 
Phillips, 47 

contribution, to speech, 55 
Phonetics, 19f 
: • see speech correction. 

Physical action, 10f., l4lf .,. 199, .214, 

Physical education, 49 . 
199 Physics 

contribution to speech, 51 
Physiology , . 

contribution to speech, 5.3 
Pius the second, 47 
Planning . ., -. 

for dramatic production, 220 • 

for extracurricular, 125f 

for lessons, 84f 

for semester, 85 

for tournaments, 126, 170 

instruction, 84 
Platform art, 191, 201 
Plato, 17, 23f., 41 

casting, 192 

radio, 250 

selection of, 215 
\ Play spirit in education, 44 
Point system, 127 
Portugal, 31 

application for, 74 

holding of, 75 
Posture, l4l 


also see physical action 
Practice, 4f 

methods in, 144 
Prognosis, 26 1 
Progress curve, 101 
Projects, 92 

see diction 
Proportion in speeches 

see oratory 
Protagoras, 23 
Proxy vote, 18 4, 276 

contribution to speech, 42, 44 , 55 
Public address systems, 259 
Public service programs, 230 

characterization, 66f., 118 

difficulties with, 69f., 118 

Questioning, 96, 99?., Ill, 174 
Questionnaire, 75 
Quintilian, 25f., 50 
Quiz, 97 

Radio, 228 
Eating blanks, 6l 
Reading, I38, 155 
Reed, 17 
Rehearsals, 220 
Renan, 17 

set of, I83, 277 
Review, 96 
Rhetoric, 21f., 28, 35, 124, 140, 180, 

Roman education, 21f., 27, 45, 50 
Round table, I74f 
Rousseau, 43 
Rush, 48 
Russia, 32f 

St. Ambrose, 26f 
St. Augustine, 26f 
St. Basil, 47 
St. Benedict, 47 
St. Jerome, 26, 27 
St. Thomas, 28 
Scandinavia, 32 

for debate tournament, 285 
Scholasticism, 28f 
Schoolmen, 26f 

Schools, 27 

Scientific influence, 48 


contribution to speech, 58 
Seating, 86 
Secondary education 

principles, 3f 
Semantics, 183, 208, 209 
Senses, 6, 49, 95 
Shurter, E. D., kjf . , 1+9 
Skoda, Josef, 51 
Slang, 134 

adjustment, 11 

aims, 11 

norms , 44f 

sciences, 54, 57 

traits, 11, 60, 64 
Sociology, 54 
Socrates, 23f 

method of, 4l 
Sophists, 22 

see physics 
Spain, 31 
Spartans, 50 
Special education, 256 

aims, 3?'t 5 

a social tool, 11 

correction, 255 

curriculum, 84 

improvement , 255 

of the teacher, 64 

scope, l6f., 14-3 
Spencer, 16, 48 
Spinoza, 44 
Stagecrafts, 58, 215 
Standards of speech, 148 
Standards of grading, 93? 
Student types, 66, 118 
Stuttering, 260 
Subject matter 

collection of, 149 

emphasis on, 5 
Sublimation, 262 
Sweden, 32 
Symposium, 175 


characteristics of, 6lf 
community relation, 75^ 
in a democracy, 76 
in extra class work, 124f 
school relation, 74f., 124 
student relation, 64f., 68 


Tests; 69, 97 

Textbook, 88f., Ill 

Thales, 22 

Thinking, 6 

Tisias, 22 

Tournament schedule, 279, 285 

Trends in education, 40 

Trueblood, 48 

Types of contests, 160, l6k, 202 

United States .,'..' 

rhetorical traditions, 32f 
Unit plan, 92f ;..'' . 

Universities . 

rhetorical traditions, 28 f 
Utilitarian aspects of education, k&f. 

Victorian age, 32 

Visual aids, 83, 90, 150, 171, 224'f.., 

236 .:...,'' 

Vocational education, kj, 2^2 

aims in training, lOf 

in fundamental classes, 1^2 

in radio, 233 

modulations of, IU3, 15^, 198, 259 

problems, 257 

production, 52, 2^3 

by proxy, l&k 

Woolbert, 1+9 

Workshop in radio, 2^0 

World literature, j6f 

Young, Thomas, 51 

Zend avesta, 22 


Date Due 

.• ..! 1 9 '61 

Pi M N 1 


myio ^ 

^ Wii_ 

"•a**, lf 


M 3 


JUL 21 -57 1* 


1 >)»»• "" 






•VJ* '11 

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